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.Feudalism is a decentralized sociopolitical structure in which a weak monarchy attempts to control the lands of the realm through reciprocal agreements with regional leaders.^ Central control of the country through the feudal principal of delegation of authority gave way, in many areas, to total local control of the courts.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Through fire and sword, the Norman rulers slowly established control over the kingdom and implanted feudalism as the economic, social and political framework of the lowlands.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The peasants feudal connection with the land (through his lord) was almost wholly one of security: protection and subsistence.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .In its most classic sense, feudalism refers to the Medieval European political system composed of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.^ Again his stress is mainly on the military, political and legal .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever the fief might be, the services owed by the vassal were practically the same: they consisted of military, judicial, civil, and pecuniary obligations.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although derived from the Latin word feodum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Medieval Period.^ According to a narrower and more technical definition that is, nonetheless, more widely used, feudalism involves the exchange of allegiance for a grant of land (fief) between two people, usually men, of noble status.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither of these things is complete in their accounts, but I think that it is possible for the average person to pull up a reasonable vision of what is being talked about when the term "feudal fascism" is mentioned - words have popular meanings as well as formal ones, and I think here, the terms are not being used as much for their snarl value as for their value in describing something specific and imaginable - a system in which large corporate owners manage agriculture labor repressively with the support of the government.

.There is no broadly accepted modern definition of feudalism.^ As a result, there still is no penalty for accepting titles or emoluments from foreign rulers today, just the prohibition.
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is no conspiracy that helped bring the collapse down, in my opinion, we'll be left with a pseudo-feudal, wild west type of existence.

^ For the other 99% of the time there was no class society, that is, no enforced inequalities, no state, and no family in the modern sense.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term, which was coined in the early modern period (17th century), was originally used in a political context, but other definitions of feudalism exist.^ Although other classes existed in this feudal society, the basic contending classes were landlords and peasants, and in particular lords and serfs.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I think, though, that "feudal" is subject to the same sort of epithet-logic as "fascist," since both have seen so much use in these terms in a Marxist context.

^ The Crichtons dominated the local Sanquhar politics for well over two hundred years until the removal of Lord Crichton to Cumnock in the early seventeenth century.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since at least the 1960s,[2] many medieval historians have included a broader social aspect, adding the peasantry bonds of manorialism, sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Still others since the 1970s have re-examined the evidence and concluded that feudalism is an unworkable term and should be removed entirely from scholarly and educational discussion, or at least used only with severe qualification and warning.^ The instincts that demand survival at any cost are as old as life itself, and still motivate many within our society.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The frame of reference accepted without reservation by Western historians for so many centuries has been "the Greek East and the Latin West."
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor did many of the other features of modern society we so much take for granted exist.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is normally used only by analogy (called semi-feudal), most often in discussions of Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia.^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of all the psychological techniques used, the most seductive but the least obvious, is that of giving repeated media exposure to concepts that subconsciously program the public to be pro-elite.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under so-called democracy, as under Feudalism, the wealthy elite have maintained the power to control the distribution of wealth.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, some have taken the feudalism analogy further, seeing it in places as diverse as ancient Egypt, the Parthian empire, the Indian subcontinent, and the antebellum American South.^ However, by doing so, Americans are constantly reminded that some fellow human beings are "Royalty".
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American blacks have definitely made progress over their counterparts in South Africa, whose lot seems to have remained on a par with that of English feudal serfs.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following statistics bear mute witness to the feudal realities that have taken place during the 80's.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.The term feudal has also been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail.^ It also has been applied, often inappropriately, to non-Western societies where institutions similar to those of medieval Europe are thought to have existed.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe another way to inform people would be to point out non-feudal agricultural societies.

^ One of the most fruitful analogies with early Medieval Europe was that it was a cashless society, in which one could enrich oneself only by taking resources from another.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Ultimately, the many ways the term feudalism has been used has deprived it of specific meaning, leading many historians and political theorists to reject it as a useful concept for understanding society.^ The many ways feudalism has been used have drained it of specific meaning, however, and caused some scholars to reject it as a useful concept for understanding medieval society.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, however, layoffs and terminations have no parallel in feudal societies as I understand them.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In reality many are using entrepreneurial skills that society could well benefit from, but without legitimate opportunity, they resort to illegitimate opportunity.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Contents

Characteristics

Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste

Lords, vassals and fiefs

.Three primary elements characterized feudalism: lords, vassals, and fiefs; the group of feudalism can be seen in how these five elements fit together.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The " three chief aids " in Normandy or England were due when the lord's oldest son was knighted, when the lord's oldest daughter was married, and when the lord himself was taken prisoner; in these three cases the vassal had to help pay the expenses, the dowry, or the ransom.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The solution of these differences depended mainly upon the relative power of the vassals and of the lords.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A lord granted land (a fief) to his vassals.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While a fief usually was a tract of land, it might be anything which would bring in an income, and es pecially any grant in the nature of a monopoly: e.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the usual custom in Normandy and Eng land; the theory was that the fief owed to the lord the services of a knight, and when the heir could not perform these the lord had a right to the income of the fief.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In exchange for the fief, the vassal would provide military service to the lord.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With the King at the apex and the nameless peasants at the bottom of the pyramid, the system was intended to operate on the basis of service to the lord by the vassal and protection of the vassal by the lord.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, the lords would insist upon their customary rights; and, if one villein died or defaulted in his payment of services, the others might be called upon to make the default good.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The obligations and relations between lord, vassal and fief form the basis of feudalism.^ The principal form of advice (consilium) tendered to the lord by his men consists in their obligation to attend his court.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The principles of feudalized-kinship had molded the values of the lowland lower classes: the vassals willingly participated in war in defence of their lord's political wants.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before a lord could grant land (a fief) to someone, he had to make that person a vassal.^ While a fief usually was a tract of land, it might be anything which would bring in an income, and es pecially any grant in the nature of a monopoly: e.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the usual custom in Normandy and Eng land; the theory was that the fief owed to the lord the services of a knight, and when the heir could not perform these the lord had a right to the income of the fief.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the period of the crusades vassals in France were frequently obliged to pay an " aid " towards the lord's equipment when he went on an expedition to the Holy Land.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was done at a formal and symbolic ceremony called a commendation ceremony composed of the two-part act of homage and oath of fealty.^ The duties which he enumerates are derived more especially from the oath of fealty, which accompanied the homage ceremony and was distinct from the fealty of the base and non-privileged population to be mentioned later on.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism as a legal and political system ended, formally (in a sense symbolically), in 1688 in Britain, and even later in most other parts of Western Europe.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This act of homage was usually followed by the oath of fidelity to the lord, sworn upon the Gospel or some other sacred object.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During homage, the lord and vassal entered a contract in which the vassal promised to fight for the lord at his command.^ To this act of homage corresponded the "investiture" by the lord, who delivered to his vassal a flag, a staff, a charter or some other symbol of the property conceded.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For without the land, neither could the vassal eat and fight for the lord nor could the lord collect rent and impress the more influential.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fealty comes from the Latin fidelitas and denotes the fidelity owed by a vassal to his feudal lord.^ The principles of feudalized-kinship had molded the values of the lowland lower classes: the vassals willingly participated in war in defence of their lord's political wants.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While a certain sanctity was associated with the kingship, the French monarch owed his actual power to his feudal vassals and his feudal holdings.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

."Fealty" also refers to an oath that more explicitly reinforces the commitments of the vassal made during homage.^ Many references will be made throughout the book to the bottom 90%, so it is appropriate that we try to define the group a little more precisely.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The duties which he enumerates are derived more especially from the oath of fealty, which accompanied the homage ceremony and was distinct from the fealty of the base and non-privileged population to be mentioned later on.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such an oath follows homage.^ This act of homage was usually followed by the oath of fidelity to the lord, sworn upon the Gospel or some other sacred object.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Once the commendation was complete, the lord and vassal were now in a feudal relationship with agreed-upon mutual obligations to one another.^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The solution of these differences depended mainly upon the relative power of the vassals and of the lords.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What it really means is that you'll be on our knees to your lords and masters in this new feudal system unless you do something about it now, now.
  • Alan Watt "Cutting Through The Matrix" LIVE on RBN:"While Inflicting Torture and Pain, Our Masters Make Hay for Financial Gain - The End of Morality in the New Corporate Feudal System" - April 14,2008 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.cuttingthroughthematrix.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vassal's principal obligation to the lord was to provide "aid", or military service.^ The principal form of advice (consilium) tendered to the lord by his men consists in their obligation to attend his court.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the King at the apex and the nameless peasants at the bottom of the pyramid, the system was intended to operate on the basis of service to the lord by the vassal and protection of the vassal by the lord.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the positive side the vassal is bound to give his lord advice and aid (consilium, auxilium).
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.Using whatever equipment the vassal could obtain by virtue of the revenues from the fief, the vassal was responsible to answer to calls to military service on behalf of the lord.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To forge an alliance or settle a dispute, a fief was granted to the lesser noble in exchange for a vow of homage and service, often military.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.This security of military help was the primary reason the lord entered into the feudal relationship.^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The feudal lord and his men-at-arms were police, judge, and executioners all rolled into one.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraq, for instance, seems to have been entered into for no better reason than to enrich such as these, with their connections to the odious Darth Cheney.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the vassal sometimes had to fulfill other obligations to the lord.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The other side of the medal is presented by the duties of vassals in regard to the lord.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To this act of homage corresponded the "investiture" by the lord, who delivered to his vassal a flag, a staff, a charter or some other symbol of the property conceded.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of those obligations was to provide the lord with "counsel", so that if the lord faced a major decision, such as whether or not to go to war, he would summon all his vassals and hold a council.^ The lord had the right to summon his vassals and ask their counsel on any question.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Find and interpret one poem written by a bard about early activities in southwest Scotland such as during the Wars of Independence.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vassal may have been required to yield a certain amount of his farm's output to his lord.^ They were required to give unpaid labor service on the lords' demesne, a large and organizationally unified farm.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The ploughing for the lord, for instance, was not only imposed in the shape of a certain number of days in the week, but also took the shape of a certain number of acres which the village had to plough and to sow for the lord irrespective of the amount of time it took to do so.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some manors the dues are arranged to form a complete outfit for the consumption of the lord's household, a farm of one night, of a week, of a fortnight, as the case may be.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vassal was also sometimes required to grind his own wheat and bake his own bread in the mills and ovens owned and taxed by his lord.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The vassal, or holder of a fief, had private jurisdiction over the land which he did not actually own, but of which he had the usufruct and for which he paid services to the lord from whom he held it.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They were not merely taxed by their lords and through their lords, but also had to pay hidage and geld from their own land and fifteenths and twentieths from their own chattels.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The land-holding relationships of feudalism revolved around the fief.^ The conjunction of the vassal-relationship, of the land-tenure, and of the private jurisdiction, marks the character of feudalism in the west of Europe.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Normans brought feudalism to most of southern Scotland , thereby eventually eliminating most of the old Celtic tribal land-holding arrangements.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This chapter of our investigation looks briefly at the land-holding relationships that were established in southern Scotland after the arrival of the Normans 900 or so years ago.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Depending on the power of the granting lord, grants could range in size from a small farm to a much larger area of land.^ Thus he is not entirely dependent on powerful lords for .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The solution of these differences depended mainly upon the relative power of the vassals and of the lords.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the king had the power to grant both land and local authority, it was vitally important to the feudal aristocrat to maintain a close connection with the crown.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The size of fiefs was described in irregular terms quite different from modern area terms (see medieval land terms).^ Discuss this issue in terms of land-holding, politics and one other area of your own interest.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.The lord-vassal relationship was not restricted to members of the laity; bishops and abbots, for example, were also capable of acting as lords.^ For example, in 1543, Lord Crichton and some four dozen other earls, lords, bishops and masters signed a: .
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Luchaire has stated for France that " every feudatory was at strife with his different suzerains, with the bishops and abbots with whom he was in contact, with his fellow-vassals, and with his own vassals."
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely the land was still a very major factor in the relationship between lord and vassal.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were thus different 'levels' of lordship and vassalage.^ Thus, in vast areas of the globe, there arose a form of society completely different from anything seen in Western Europe.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The King was a lord who loaned fiefs to aristocrats, who were his vassals.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus a man who fights for his lord against the king is not doing his .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The man who was to receive a fief or benefice knelt before the lord bareheaded and without his sword, and placing his hands within the hands of the lord made a formal promise.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The aristocrats, through subinfeudation, were lords to their own vassals, Knights who were in turn lords of the manor to the peasants who worked on the land.^ It would seem that the lords felt that the bonds might minimize political undermining of their own local authority -- the authority that had come with their land through feudalism.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole structure relied on the unpaid labour of the peasants working on the lords' land.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way slave production could take society forward was through the conquest of enormous numbers of slaves who could be worked to death in a few years and replaced.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ultimately, the Emperor was a lord who loaned fiefs to Kings, who were his vassals.^ Sometimes, especially in the thirteenth century and later, a fief might consist of a sum of money which the vassal received each year from his lord, i.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus a man who fights for his lord against the king is not doing his .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The man who was to receive a fief or benefice knelt before the lord bareheaded and without his sword, and placing his hands within the hands of the lord made a formal promise.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This traditionally formed the basis of a 'universal monarchy' as an imperial alliance and a world order.

Historiography

Invention

.The word feudalism was not a medieval term but an invention of 16th century French and English lawyers to describe certain traditional obligations between members of the warrior aristocracy.^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These men bore a remarkable resemblance to the later absolutist monarchs who balanced between the feudal aristocracy and the rising class of merchant capitalists.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .The earliest known use of the term feudal was in the 17th century (1614),[6] when the system it purported to describe was rapidly vanishing or gone entirely.^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The old Feudal system based on economic and social class discrimination, which was supposedly left behind centuries ago, has in fact not gone away.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.No writers in the period in which feudalism was supposed to have flourished are known to have used the word itself.^ As for "feudalism", I would guess that most people use that word to describe an oppressive government with lots of agricultural workers.

^ I think most people who use the terms Fascist and Feudal have no idea what they mean.

^ Clearly the words “fascism” and “feudalism” are not being here used to mean what they actually mean.

.It was often used as a pejorative by later commentators to describe any law or custom that they perceived as unfair or out-dated.^ The President would lead the executive branch, which would carry out laws and ensure that they were just.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, rather than let it lie idle, they often granted the request ( precarious ) of a poor man for the use of some land.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This may provide incentive to reduce the number of long drawn out investigations and court trials which often increase the use of failure of memory defenses.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Most of these laws and customs were related in some way to the medieval institution of the fief (Latin: feodum, a word which first appears on a Frankish charter dated 884), and thus lumped together under this single term.^ Their representatives on the National Assembly denied the nobles some of their traditional privileges by eliminating manorialism, thus making all French citizens equal in the law.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The various component companies which formerly worked together smoothly may now be convulsing under new inexperienced managers.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Will it be necessary to have these moguls unite under one corporation name before the term "Big Brother" gets seriously discussed?
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] "Feudalism" comes from the French féodalisme, a word coined during the French Revolution.[citation needed]
."Every peculiarity of policy, custom and even temperament is traced to this Feudal origin...^ Even in feudal Europe, village communities in some areas carried on the traditions of primitive communism in a transmuted form by redivision of the original peasant land.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In German feudal custom the ministeriales correspond to the servientes of England and France, but there is a peculiar trait about their condition, namely, that they are distinctly unfree in origin.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

I expect to see the use of trunk-hose and buttered ale ascribed to the influence of the feudal system."

Humphry Clinker, 1771

Evolution of the term

.Feudalism became a popular and widely used term in 1748, thanks to Montesquieu's De L'Esprit des Lois (The Spirit of the Laws).^ I think most people who use the terms Fascist and Feudal have no idea what they mean.

^ American laws cater to the special interests of the feudal elite, not because the existing popular system of voting is at fault, but because America has, not just one, ...but two voting systems!!
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 18th century, writers of the Enlightenment wrote about feudalism to denigrate the antiquated system of the Ancien Régime, or French monarchy.^ Many would agree that the process was a long and slow transition from 14th-century feudalism to 18th-century capitalism.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The intermediate goal must be to replace social & economic Feudalism with a system capable of bringing about an equitable prosperity for all.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "History clearly reveals that the old Tibet was not the Shangri-La that many imagine", he wrote "but a society under a system of feudal serfdom."
  • Sorrel Neuss: While the world moralises over China's occupation, feudalism and abuse in Tibetan culture has been conveniently forgotten | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

This was the Age of Enlightenment when writers valued Reason and the Middle Ages were viewed as the "Dark Ages." Enlightenment authors generally mocked and ridiculed anything from the "Dark Ages" including feudalism, projecting its negative characteristics on the current French monarchy as a means of political gain.[7]
.In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, John Horace Round and Frederic William Maitland, both historians of medieval Britain, arrived at different conclusions as to the character of English society before the Norman Conquest in 1066. Round argued that the Normans had imported feudalism, while Maitland contended that its fundamentals were already in place in Britain.^ As Norman Cantor has said, a good modern second-year history student knows as many facts about the period as a late 19th century “expert” medievalist.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The negro in the New World, and the German peasant in the Old World, were the most typical victims of modern capitalism, and they both had to wait until the 19th century for their enfranchisement.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galloway had held its ground against the early Norman Kings: The Normans finally seized part of Nithsdale (the valley of the River Nith) from Galloway at the end of the twelfth century.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

The debate continues today.
.In the 20th century, the historian François-Louis Ganshof was very influential on the topic of feudalism.^ As noted in the previous section, the McGachans had married into the very influential Dunbar family of Cumnock by the early sixteenth century.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ganshof defined feudalism from a narrow legal and military perspective, arguing that feudal relationships existed only within the medieval nobility itself.^ Nowhere in the three long essays does he so much as mention medieval Africa and Asia.6 So, before we consider the theory itself we should place it in its geographical perspective.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During this so-called feudal anarchy, private relationships were established among the nobility in which weaker nobles attached themselves to stronger ones.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within this larger European context, the military success of the Ottomans over Hungary should be understood as a symptom of the rise of second serfdom and not an end in itself.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

Ganshof articulated this concept in Feudalism (1944). .His classic definition of feudalism is the most widely known today[8] and also the easiest to understand, simply put, when a lord granted a fief to a vassal, the vassal provided military service in return.^ According to a narrower and more technical definition that is, nonetheless, more widely used, feudalism involves the exchange of allegiance for a grant of land (fief) between two people, usually men, of noble status.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The principles of feudalized-kinship had molded the values of the lowland lower classes: the vassals willingly participated in war in defence of their lord's political wants.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Feudal society, the most successful of the feudal merchants went outside of their lord's territory to secretly hide a portion of their profits in foreign lands, mainly to avoid taxation.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

Bloch and sociological views

.One of Ganshof's contemporaries, the French historian Marc Bloch, was arguably the most influential 20th century medieval historian.^ One of the reasons that the 18th 19th and 20th centuries were so full of Empire building, is that they were so full of democratic and republican government.

^ Being from Houston, he is also a staunch defender of BIG OIL interests, and has proven to be one of their most influential and hard working lobbyists.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that most voters haven't even heard of this extremely powerful group of international social strategists constitutes one of the most treasonous cover-ups of the century.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Bloch approached feudalism not so much from a legal and military point of view but from a sociological one.^ With only one point of view to publish, the elite don't require more than one newspaper per city.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The point being that the legal wrangling between towns and nobles at the end of the sixteenth century was not a struggle of progressive burghers versus backward feudal lords.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He developed his ideas in Feudal Society (1939–40; English 1960).^ At the time Francis Carsten was formulating his ideas on medieval urban development, civil society had deteriorated even further in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like previous forms of class society, feudalism in its development produced the germs of a new society in the towns.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bloch conceived of feudalism as a type of society that was not limited solely to the nobility.^ This type of economic system surfaced in earlier Western societies as Feudalism.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like Ganshof, he recognized that there was a hierarchical relationship between lords and vassals, but Bloch saw as well a similar relationship obtaining between lords and peasants.^ And the relationship between vassal and land was as varied as the relationship between vassal and lord.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between lords and the king was hierarchical.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In any event, the migration of the McCowans from the Kirkconnel side of the county border into Cumnock is, to be sure, the story of an evolving relationship between father and son, vassal and land and vassal and lord.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

It is this radical notion that peasants were part of the feudal relationship that sets Bloch apart from his peers. .While the vassal performed military service in exchange for the fief, the peasant performed physical labour in return for protection.^ Instead of a society based on the inalienable rights of free individuals, which was envisioned by the founders, focusing on the Leader’s “obligation” to protect the people is analogous to feudal social structures, leading to hierarchal relationships between lords and vassals and peasants, with the vassal performing military service for the sovereign and the peasant performing physical labour in return for “protection”, which tends to work out more for the protection of the assets of the nobility than the actual protection of the poor serfs and churls and peasants.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Serfs were non-landholding peasants who were obligated to farm a specific piece of land in exchange for protection.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The land was farmed by peasants who were descended from small landowners who had given their property to lords in exchange for protection.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Both are a form of feudal relationship.^ Tradition and custom governed the relationship of knights and lords and these formed a feudal contract.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 50s, the planet has in effect, been enduring an era of social regression caused by the widespread proliferation of the new and more subtle forms of both Feudalism and Colonialism.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Bloch, other elements of society can be seen in feudal terms; all the aspects of life were centered on "lordship", and so we can speak usefully of a feudal church structure, a feudal courtly (and anti-courtly) literature, and a feudal economy.^ Although other classes existed in this feudal society, the basic contending classes were landlords and peasants, and in particular lords and serfs.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this view, feudalism came to encompass all aspects of social organization and was characterized as a system that was both oppressive and hierarchical.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All other centers which had such a maritime orientation -- principally those of East Africa and Asia -- were much farther from the western hemisphere than were the Iberian centers.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

Marx

.Karl Marx also used the term in political analysis.^ Such terms are tools… of political analysis, of historical understanding, or economic comparison.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 19th century, Marx described feudalism as the economic situation coming before the inevitable rise of capitalism.^ The negro in the New World, and the German peasant in the Old World, were the most typical victims of modern capitalism, and they both had to wait until the 19th century for their enfranchisement.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many would agree that the process was a long and slow transition from 14th-century feudalism to 18th-century capitalism.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How, then, does Brenner explain the transformation -- the fall of feudalism and the rise of capitalism?
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For Marx, what defined feudalism was that the power of the ruling class (the aristocracy) rested on their control of arable land, leading to a class society based upon the exploitation of the peasants who farm these lands, typically under serfdom.^ The class which owns and controls the means of production rules society.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peasants were freed from serfdom and the power of the aristocracy diminished as a result.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A major difficulty for Marxists is posed by the fact that the very serious crisis of the 14th century effectively led to the end of classical serfdom (quickly in some areas, slowly in others), but not to the end of feudalism as a general system: the lords remained the ruling class, the peasants were still to some extent under their legal control (for instance, they could not, typically, leave the manor without the lord's permission), and the class struggle between peasants and landlords continued for some time thereafter.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8] ."The hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steam-mill, society with the industrial capitalist."^ Would you call it feudalism unless each county had an hereditary lord ?

^ In Feudal society, the most successful of the feudal merchants went outside of their lord's territory to secretly hide a portion of their profits in foreign lands, mainly to avoid taxation.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Imagine you are holding in your hand a steaming hot cup of your favorite elixir.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Marx thus considered feudalism within a purely economic model.^ The administration of church wealth has played a detrimental role in the growth within the churches of an economically privileged elite who have been running their churches as Feudal empires, with economics playing an inordinate and inappropriate role.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

Revolt against the term

.In 1974, U.S. historian Elizabeth A. R. Brown[10] rejected the label feudalism as an anachronism that imparts a false sense of uniformity to the concept.^ The many ways feudalism has been used have drained it of specific meaning, however, and caused some scholars to reject it as a useful concept for understanding medieval society.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.Having noted the current use of many—often contradictory—definitions of feudalism, she argued that the word is only a construct with no basis in medieval reality, an invention of modern historians read back "tyrannically" into the historical record.^ In other words, you can no longer say every place belongs to just one and only one state.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clearly the words “fascism” and “feudalism” are not being here used to mean what they actually mean.

^ In other words, they used them in much the same way as their other beasts of burden.  After taxes, many subjects like the peasant farmers, were left with only a minimum of food and provisions to carry on their lives of servitude.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.Supporters of Brown have suggested that the term should be expunged from history textbooks and lectures on medieval history entirely.^ James Brown, in his History of Sanquhar , suggests a different ethnic origin for the Nithsdale clan McGowan: .
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As described by Karl Marx and subsequent Marxist scholars, it is the stage in history that preceded capitalism and, as such, involved the entire social and economic structure of medieval Europe.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
In Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (1994), Susan Reynolds expanded upon Brown's original thesis. .Although some contemporaries questioned Reynolds's methodology, other historians have supported it and her argument.^ Reply emptywheel December 16th, 2009 at 5:21 am 26 In response to kisfiu @ 13 Your argument is that some bankruptcies are worse than others.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brenner shows how (some) conventional economic historians use Malthusian arguments to explain the decline of feudalism in roughly the following way.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (The arguments which support my view are given in other works, principally Blaut 1976, 1989, and 1993.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8] Note that Reynolds does not object to the Marxist use of feudalism.
.The term feudal has also been applied to non-Western societies in which institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to have prevailed (See Other feudal-like systems).^ This type of economic system surfaced in earlier Western societies as Feudalism.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also has been applied, often inappropriately, to non-Western societies where institutions similar to those of medieval Europe are thought to have existed.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism is not limited to western Europe.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Ultimately, critics say, the many ways the term feudalism has been used have deprived it of specific meaning, leading many historians and political theorists to reject it as a useful concept for understanding society.^ It is important to understand that feudal society was not static.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The many ways feudalism has been used have drained it of specific meaning, however, and caused some scholars to reject it as a useful concept for understanding medieval society.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe another way to inform people would be to point out non-feudal agricultural societies.

[8]

Questioning feudalism

Use and definition of the term

Cleric, knight and peasant
The following are historical examples given by Susan Reynolds that call into question the traditional use of the term feudalism:
.Extant sources reveal that the early Carolingians had vassals, as did other leading men in the kingdom.^ The murderers of Patrick Dunbar of Corsincon were other leading men in central Ayrshire, principally members of the Campbell and Crawford families.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.This relationship did become more and more standardized over the next two centuries, but there were differences in function and practice in different locations.^ Serfdom basically ended in the 14th century, but capitalist agriculture -- the model we have just looked at -- was almost unknown prior to about 1520 and did not really become widespread for the next hundred years or more.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the study of the relationship between people and land in Scotland , it is important to note that, after the Black Death plagues of the late fourteenth century, there were no serfs on the land.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Homes were beginning to sprout two car garages, and practically everyone's standard of living was on the rise.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, in the German kingdoms that replaced the kingdom of Eastern Francia, as well as in some Slavic kingdoms, the feudal relationship was arguably more closely tied to the rise of Serfdom, a system that tied peasants to the land.^ Feudalism is a political system based on the rule of local lords bound to a king by ties of loyalty.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The second stage of second serfdom was a more complex order and resembled late occidental feudalism in its social organization: towns, lords, and princes shared power.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This legal freedom probably gave the Scottish agricultural peasant some opportunity to develop a value system different from such value systems in states where slavery was practised.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the evolution of the Holy Roman Empire greatly affected the history of the feudal relationship in central Europe.^ The symbiotic relationship of towns and feudalism was, of course, a central point in the 1950s debates within English Marxism.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following these stages, the feudal land tenure system survived and became the dominant feature of the socio-political system of East-Central Europe.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Long-accepted feudalism models could imply that there was a clear hierarchy from Emperor to lesser rulers, be they kings, dukes, princes, or margraves.^ There was no point in enslaving someone else, since they could only provide for their own needs.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Knights, and princes, feudal revenue could not keep up with the new luxuries available to them.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism, in theory, required reciprocal obligations, almost exclusively at the top, and only so long they could be enforced.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.These models are patently untrue: the Holy Roman Emperor was elected by a group of seven magnates, three of whom were princes of the church, who in theory could not swear allegiance to any secular lord.^ Congress is supposed to be composed of people who represent the needs and interests of the group who elect them.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the town gates might stand the mercenary troops of the Holy Roman Emperor, the Ottoman sultan, or rebellious Magyar nobles.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On different occasions, they appeared as loyal subjects of the sultan, or the Holy Roman Emperor, or Magyar noble rebels.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French kingdoms also seem to provide clear proof that the models are accurate, until it is considered that, when Rollo of Normandy knelt to pay homage to Charles the Simple in return for the Duchy of Normandy, accounts tell that he knocked the king down as he rose, demonstrating his view that the bond was only as strong as the lord—in this case, not strong at all.^ It would seem that the lords felt that the bonds might minimize political undermining of their own local authority -- the authority that had come with their land through feudalism.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only that, the man who provided the insider connection between all these entities was none other than Michael Milken the junk bond king.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one man and his media holdings need be mentioned to provide some tip of the iceberg proof to substantiate that perspective.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.This reveals that it was possible for 'vassals' to openly disparage feudal relationships.^ The feudal relationships between vassal and lord cover a huge expanse of social, political and economic interaction: there was no such thing as the singular feudal relationship.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The autonomy with which the Normans ruled their duchy supports the view that, despite any legal "feudal" relationship, the Normans did as they pleased.^ Roman towns had been much bigger and more impressive than the towns of the feudal middle ages, but they did not have the same possibilities for development.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascists did not support the formation of political parties since this disrupted the unity of the state, and they did not support democracy because the concerns of the people were secondary to the good of the nation.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ From Feudal times onward, the law society has carried on a relationship with the ruling class that can best be described as a state of symbiotic collusion .
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

In the case of their own leadership, however, the Normans utilized the feudal relationship to bind their followers to them. .It was the influence of the Norman invaders which strengthened and to some extent institutionalized the feudal relationship in England after the Norman Conquest.^ Various Celtic peoples populated much of Scotland when the Norman Kings began to extend their feudalism north from England over 900 years ago.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.In modern times, controversy has existed over the use of the term feudalism.^ I think most people who use the terms Fascist and Feudal have no idea what they mean.

^ Feudalism– term that emerged in the 17th century and has been used to describe European economic, legal, political, and social relationships that existed in the Middle Ages.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think, though, that "feudal" is subject to the same sort of epithet-logic as "fascist," since both have seen so much use in these terms in a Marxist context.

.Though it is sometimes used indiscriminately to encompass all reciprocal obligations of support and loyalty in the place of unconditional tenure of position, jurisdiction or land, the term is restricted by most historians to the exchange of specifically voluntary and personal undertakings, to the exclusion of involuntary obligations attached to tenure of "unfree" land: the latter are considered to be rather an aspect of Manorialism, an element of feudal society but not of feudalism proper.^ All tenures were feudal.
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, the most useful aspect of their property had been their homes.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, in terms of tenure, England was the most feudal of societies .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

Cautions on use of feudalism

.Owing to the range of meanings they have, feudalism and related terms should be approached and used with considerable care.^ The vast majority of people are cut off from the means of life unless they work on terms dictated by the capitalist class.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs is termed secularism.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Derived from the Latin word feudum (fief) but unknown to people of the Middle Ages, the term feudalism has been used most broadly to refer to medieval society as a whole and most narrowly to describe relations between lords and vassals.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.A circumspect historian like Fernand Braudel puts feudalism in quotes when applying it in wider social and economic contexts, such as "the seventeenth century, when much of America was being 'feudalized' as the great haciendas appeared" (The Perspective of the World, 1984, p. 403).^ As A. B. Hibbert bluntly put it in his 1953 article in Past and Present : "There is the simple fact that whatever area and whatever century we may choose to take as being most typically 'feudal' there is still trade and there are still merchants.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Jeff Kaye points out, “feudalism” is an intellectual framework devised centuries later by analysts, however imperfectly, trying to understand the economic and political relationships that held sway in a much earlier period.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Britain, France, and Germany which can point to their Feudal pasts to explain their existing wealth distribution inequities, America can point to no such excuse!
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.Medieval societies never described themselves as feudal.[citation needed] Popular parlance generally uses the term either for all voluntary or customary bonds in medieval society or for a social order in which civil and military power is exercised under private contractual arrangements.^ Those who use the term for that reason probably don't know the more accurate meaning, that of the social system which you described.

^ While the elite regularly use their military power to enforce and maintain Feudalism, they are working very diligently in the boardrooms to install a global Feudal government instead of running as they currently do with each country forming a separate Feudal empire.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I used the comparison with Fascism for precisely the points you make about private corporate dominance over public power and lawmaking.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, feudal is best used only to denote the voluntary, personal undertakings binding lords and free men to protection in return for support which characterized the administrative and military order.^ Privatizing our military supports using feudalism .
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The peasants feudal connection with the land (through his lord) was almost wholly one of security: protection and subsistence.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ {B135} The electorate don't choose their representatives, they only get to choose between candidates who are pre-selected by the elite using the campaign support process.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

Other feudal-like systems

.Other feudal-like land tenure systems have existed, and continue to exist, in different parts of the world, including Medieval Japan.^ Class differences were an integral part of this new Feudal system.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But government exists in a fictional world, and can only deal directly with other fictional or virtual persons, agencies, states, etc.
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ditto for the quadrant above it, “Politics is not Local.” The situation we see in Iran, for example, is directly shaped by U.S. interventions, as are politics in other parts of the world.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Lanny B. Fields, Russell J. Barber, Cheryl A. Riggs, The Global Past: Prehistory to 1500 (St. Martin's Press, 1998).
  2. ^ Concurrent with when Marc Bloch's Feudal Society (1939) was first translated into English in 1960.
  3. ^ "Reader's Companion to Military Historyhi". http://web.archive.org/web/20041112062036/http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/mil/html/mh_017900_feudalism.htm. 
  4. ^ Cf. for example: McDonald, Hamish (2007-10-17). "Feudal Government Alive and Well in Tonga". Sydney Morning Herald. ISSN 0312-6315. http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/feudal-government-alive-and-well-in-tonga/2007/10/16/1192300767418.html. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  5. ^ Cantor, Norman F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages. Harper Perennial, 1994.
  6. ^ feudal. (n.d.).Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved September 16, 2007, from Dictionary.com website:[1]
  7. ^ Robert Bartlett. "Perspectives on the Medieval World" in Medieval Panorama, 2001, ISBN 0892366427
  8. ^ a b c d e f Philip Daileader, "Feudalism", The Hight Middle Ages
  9. ^ Quote from The Poverty of Philosophy (1847), chapter 2.
  10. ^ Brown, Elizabeth A. R. (1974-10). "The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and Historians of Medieval Europe". The American Historical Review 79 (4): 1063. doi:10.2307/1869563. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.2307/1869563. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 

References

.
  • Bloch, Marc, Feudal Society. Tr.^ Bloch, M. 1965: Feudal Society, 2nd edn, 2 vols (trans.
    • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ England was the most perfectly feudalized of societies, as Bloch .
    • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

    L.A. Manyon. Two volumes. .Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961 ISBN 0-226-05979-0
  • Brown, Elizabeth, 'The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and Historians of Medieval Europe', American Historical Review, 79 (1974), pp. 1063–8.
  • Cantor, Norman F., Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works, and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth century. Quill, 1991.
  • Ganshof, François Louis (1952).^ As Norman Cantor has said, a good modern second-year history student knows as many facts about the period as a late 19th century “expert” medievalist.
    • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every American will be forced to register or suffer being unable to work and earn a living.
    • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roman towns had been much bigger and more impressive than the towns of the feudal middle ages, but they did not have the same possibilities for development.
    • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    Feudalism. .London; New York: Longmans, Green. 
  • Guerreau, Alain, L'avenir d'un passé incertain. Paris: Le Seuil, 2001. (complete history of the meaning of the term).
  • Poly, Jean-Pierre and Bournazel, Eric, The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200., Tr.^ I think most people who use the terms Fascist and Feudal have no idea what they mean.

    ^ New York and London: Guilford Publications.
    • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Caroline Higgitt. New York and London: Holmes and Meier, 1991.
  • Reynolds, Susan, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-19-820648-8

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ Not only am I learning of it's contents, I'm learning about you.

^ If you next read "High-Rolling Texas: The State That Ate FSLIC", you probably won't need to read much more about how Congress operates.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Says: May 31st, 2008 at 4:17 am Click on my name and see how I can help you raise money for Alex like I did.
  • Libs in Denial: NAU, NAFTA Superhighway, and the Coming Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ Please close other tabs and windows where you are logged in, then hit the 'reconnect' button below.
  • Play Feudalism II, a free online game on Kongregate 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.kongregate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As often as you discuss the issues with others, you will have helped not just yourself, your children, and their children, but all the abused peoples of the world, and ultimately their children.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Feudalism" as an educational resource.^ Editors in charge of mass media information sources like newspapers and TV news shows very rarely devote any attention at all to this type of material.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can find more information about Michael Parenti at michaelparenti.org .
  • Swans Commentary: Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth, by Michael Parenti - mparen01 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What I used to observe was that in every village there is a proper government school and hospital or dispensary but the feudal lord of that area is against such developments.
  • Feudalism in Pakistan - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects.^ Stephen, the supposed moral relativism of the Sixties was simply a way of insisting that others didn't have the right to paste moral labels -- that right was reserved exclusively for the radical left.

.You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ You can try refreshing the page in a couple minutes - or contact our support team for more help if the problem continues.
  • Play Feudalism II, a free online game on Kongregate 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.kongregate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your status as a subject is based upon a presumption that if you did not wish to be so encumbered you would use the law to do something about it.
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

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.This is a govermental system in which is focused of the relations from Lords to Vassals.^ With the King at the apex and the nameless peasants at the bottom of the pyramid, the system was intended to operate on the basis of service to the lord by the vassal and protection of the vassal by the lord.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we turn to consider the relations between the lord and his vassals, we shall naturally find that they differ greatly from the relations established at the present time between the sovereign and his subjects.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Personal relations, generally based upon land-holding between lords and vassals, supplanted the duties and rights incident to citizenship or to membership in the tribe or state.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

There are a few classes in Feudalism:
  1. The King
  2. The Lord
  3. The Knight
  4. The Serfs

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.FEUDALISM (from Late Lat.^ FEUDALISM (from Late Lat.

feodum or feudum, a fee or feel; see FEE). .In every case of institutional growth in history two things are to be clearly distinguished from the beginning for a correct understanding of the process and its results.^ In every case of institutional growth in history two things are to be clearly distinguished from the beginning for a correct understanding of the process and its results.

^ It is this process that we must understand, if society is to acquire the capability to promote the successful adoption of democratic institutions in different social and cultural contexts.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustine did not understand generation and procession in this manner since he clearly identifies them with energies.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of these is the change of conditions in the political or social environment which made growth necessary.^ One of these is the change of conditions in the political or social environment which made growth necessary.

^ May 01, 1997; Lordship must always be a central concept to medieval political and social history; indeed the power of the nobility is one of...
  • Feudalism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: General]

^ Relatively free from the constraints of local lords, when compared to the rural agricultural workers, guild members were often active in promoting social and political changes.
  • Medieval World - Medieval Britain and the Feudal System 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC medieval.etrusia.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The other is the already existing institutions which began to be transformed to meet the new needs.^ The other is the already existing institutions which began to be transformed to meet the new needs.

^ The institutions which the need of protection seized upon when it first began to turn away from the state were twofold.

^ In the meantime another institution had grown up in this Franco-Roman society, which probably began and certainly assisted in another transformation of the same kind.

.In studying the origin and growth of political feudalism, the distinction is easy to make.^ In studying the origin and growth of political feudalism, the distinction is easy to make.

^ We can make progress on both questions by recognizing that virtual politics and property are inextricably linked, in the same way that feudal politics and property were.
  • Virtual World Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC works.bepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FEUDAL LAW - By this phrase is understood a political system which placed men and estates under hierarchical and multiplied distinctions of lords and vassals.
  • "Feudal Law / Feudalism" Defined & Explained 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.^ The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.

^ The government has revolted against the people.
  • Libs in Denial: NAU, NAFTA Superhighway, and the Coming Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The towns, growing in economic power and even forming their own militias, was able to a large extent to impose their own concepts about society against those of the knights.
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the days of the decaying empire and of the chaotic German settlement, the weak freeman, the small landowner, was exposed to attack in almost every relation of life and on every side.^ In the days of the decaying empire and of the chaotic German settlement, the weak freeman , the small landowner, was exposed to attack in almost every relation of life and on every side.

^ Where new games are added almost every day!
  • Feudalism 2 the game at LetsGetGaming.com - An adventure/strategy game online! 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.letsgetgaming.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the eleventh-century, the free landowners, a class that had no exact counterpart in France or England, attacked the German monarchy.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.The protection which normally it is the business of government to furnish he could no longer obtain.^ The protection which normally it is the business of government to furnish he could no longer obtain.

^ Since land was limited, there came a point when lords could no longer provide more territory to elicit unflinching cooperation from vassals.
  • Nepal: Let's Talk About Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]

^ Since there was no longer an imperial authority with the power to protect the citizens of the cities, the urban population declined sharply during this period of history.
  • What were the Dark Ages? 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.gotquestions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He must seek protection elsewhere wherever he could get it, and pay the price demanded for it.^ He must seek protection elsewhere wherever he could get it, and pay the price demanded for it.

^ Then tell the P easants that they must pay for the protection that they receive from their L ords with their crops.
  • Feudalism in Medieval Europe 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC gcuonline.georgian.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the great social fact - the failure of government to perform one of its most primary duties, the necessity of finding some substitute in private life - extending in greater or less degree through the whole formative period of feudalism, which explains the transformation of institutions that brought it into existence.^ Medieval Period Life in the Medieval Period was governed by the pyramid-shaped Feudal System.
  • Feudal System Pyramid - Web - WebCrawler 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.webcrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This social institution was ancient, extending into Rome’s earliest society.
  • tb » American Warlordism & Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.timboucher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was one of the most important feudal ceremonies.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Similar conditions have produced an organization which may be called feudal, in various countries, and in widely separated periods of history.^ Ultimately, these separate feudalism systems were similar in overall organization.
  • Feudalism Systems of Japan and England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar conditions have produced an organization which may be called feudal, in various countries, and in widely separated periods of history.

^ The voluntary organizations that they call together may be humble, it's you by yourself, you and a pal, or they might be among the mightiest corporations and companies on the face of the earth.
  • Feudalism with Color TV 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

^ Starting around A.D. 800 a system called feudalism developed in Europe.
  • Middle Ages 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.warrennet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the difference between feudalism and the manorial system ?
  • Internet Hunt: Understanding European Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newbedford.k12.ma.us [Source type: General]

.The feudal system with which history most concerns itself is that of medieval western Europe, and it is that which will be here described.^ Feudalism is system of government favored in medieval Europe.
  • Questions about Feudalism - Ask.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Feudalism is not limited to western Europe.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most important concepts of the medieval history has traditionally been the feudalism .
  • Concept of Feudalism and 20th Century Historical Writing, English Summary 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.helsinki.fi [Source type: Reference]

.The institutions which the need of protection seized upon when it first began to turn away from the state were twofold.^ The institutions which the need of protection seized upon when it first began to turn away from the state were twofold.

^ Once the rich and powerful gain control of the government, they turn it upon itself, usually first eliminating its taxation process as it applies to themselves.
  • Nobles Need Not Pay Taxes 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They first took control of the lands on which they were resident, then gained whatever lands they could from the imperial estates, and finally, began to seize nearby church lands.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.They had both long existed in the private, not public, relations of the Romans, and they had up to this time shown no tendency to grow.^ The second time they beat me up.
  • Swans Commentary: Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth, by Michael Parenti - mparen01 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had both long existed in the private, not public, relations of the Romans , and they had up to this time shown no tendency to grow.

^ In both instances, the solutions represented the rediscovery and reapplication of ancient, long-forgotten techniques used by Alexander, the Romans, and the Persians for defeating heavy cavalry.
  • The Middle Ages. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.One of them related to the person, to the man himself, without reference to property, the other related to land.^ One of them related to the person, to the man himself, without reference to property, the other related to land.

^ British attornment is the feudal ceremony or process of attorning or turning a property or land over from one lord to another lord while moving the serfs or tenants or slaves along with the land.
  • What Free Men Want 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC users.navi.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic idea of the feudal system' is that one person dedicated himself to another; they promised unconditional loyalty and service to this person, who in exchange provided protection.
  • Feudalism: Life on a medieval manor - Middle Ages - Helium 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are thus distinguished at the beginning those two great sides of feudalism which remained to the end of its history more or less distinct, the personal relation and the land relation.^ That was the beginning of the end of the feudal system.

^ Thus, there has been history, but there is no longer any.
  • The Poverty of Philosophy— Abstracts (Chpt. 2) 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are thus distinguished at the beginning those two great sides of feudalism which remained to the end of its history more or less distinct, the personal relation and the land relation.

.The personal institution needs little description.^ The personal institution needs little description.

^ That is, there is little in the way of institutional structure--personal oaths sanctified by the church.
  • Charlemagne and Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC klio.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Faceless institutional businesses are in control, and personalities matter little, except for rulers at the top like Hitler and Mussolini.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was the Roman patron and client relationship which had remained in existence into the days of the empire, in later times less important perhaps legally than socially, and which had been reinforced in Gaul by very similar practices in use among the Celts before their conquest.^ It was the Roman patron and client relationship which had remained in existence into the days of the empire, in later times less important perhaps legally than socially, and which had been reinforced in Gaul by very similar practices in use among the Celts before their conquest.

^ The Roman tradition of patron/client relationship, and practice of land donation (precarium).
  • The new post 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.iun.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ William divided up England into very large plots of land - similar to our counties today.

.The description of this institution which has come down to us from Roman sources of the days when feudalism was beginning is not so detailed as we could wish, but we can see plainly enough that it met a frequent need, that it was called by a new name, the patrocinium, and that it was firmly enough entrenched in usage to survive the German conquest, and to be taken up and continued by the conquerors.^ Conquest; it received a new name as the shire also .
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The description of this institution which has come down to us from Roman sources of the days when feudalism was beginning is not so detailed as we could wish, but we can see plainly enough that it met a frequent need, that it was called by a new name, the patrocinium, and that it was firmly enough entrenched in usage to survive the German conquest, and to be taken up and continued by the conquerors.

^ The personal institution needs little description.

.In its new use, alike in the later Roman and the early German state, the landless freeman who could not support himself went to some powerful man, stated his need, and offered his services, those proper to a freeman, in return for shelter and support.^ In its new use, alike in the later Roman and the early German state, the landless freeman who could not support himself went to some powerful man, stated his need, and offered his services, those proper to a freeman, in return for shelter and support.

^ Who commends himself in the power of another: .
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They could be told who to marry, but they did have some rights - their kids couldn't be taken away.
  • Clovis, Charlemagne, Magyars. Feudalism - Life of a Serf 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.This transaction, which was called commendation, gave rise in the German state to a written contract which related the facts and provided a penalty for its violation.^ This transaction, which was called commendation , gave rise in the German state to a written contract which related the facts and provided a penalty for its violation.

^ The term "feudalism" came from the German vieh , or "cow," the measure of wealth among the early Germans, a term that gave rise to the medieval word fief .
  • The Rise of Feudalism, 850-1000 AD | Lectures in Medieval History | Dr. Lynn H. Nelson, Emeritus Professor of Medieval History, KU 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vlib.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Clearly this confusion of small states provided an almost impenetrable barrier to the development of large scale, all-German industry and trade.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.It created a relationship of protection and support on one side, and of free service on the other.^ It created a relationship of protection and support on one side, and of free service on the other.

^ In this second sense of the word, ‘feudalism’ may be regarded as a body of institutions creating and regulating the obligations of obedience and service -- mainly military service -- on the part of a free man (the vassal) towards another free man (the lord), and the obligations of protection and maintenance on the part of the lord with regard to his vassal.

^ It normally consisted of land to which a number of un-free peasants were attached; the land was supposed to be sufficient to support the vassal and to secure his knight service for the lord.
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.The other institution, relating to land, was that known to the Roman law as the precarium, a name derived from one of its essential features through all its history, the prayer of the suppliant by which the relationship was begun.^ The other institution, relating to land, was that known to the Roman law as the precarium, a name derived from one of its essential features through all its history, the prayer of the suppliant by which the relationship was begun.

^ The rise and fall of the feudal system, the changing attitudes towards women and religion and the documentation of these changes through artistic mediums are all part of what defines this time in history as one of the most dynamic and interesting periods to study.
  • Feudalism in the middle ages 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only the working class can accomplish this job through an unbreakable alliance with the peasantry and by taking along all other patriotic forces with them.

.The precarium was a form of renting land not intended primarily for income, but for use when the lease was made from friendship for example, or as a reward, or to secure a debt.^ The precarium was a form of renting land not intended primarily for income, but for use when the lease was made from friendship for example, or as a reward, or to secure a debt.

^ The level of rents and dues, it is held, were set more by lords\' income requirements than by market forces, although lords gained from the latter, as population growth made land scarce relative to labour.
  • feudalism - Geography & Geology Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.geodz.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Important in an economic sense was the Roman villa, with the peculiar form of rental, the precarium, a temporary grant of land that the grantor could revoke at any time.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/history/A0858102.html 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Legally its characteristic feature was that the lessee had no right of any kind against the grantor.^ Legally its characteristic feature was that the lessee had no right of any kind against the grantor.

^ No one had really run for office with Civil Rights as a significant issue, except the Southerners who were against the whole thing.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The charter asserted the right of citizens to a trial by a jury of one's peers, no imprisonment without a trial, and no taxation except by legal means.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossaries - World History 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.The owner could call in his land and terminate the relation at any time, for any reason, or for none at all.^ The owner could call in his land and terminate the relation at any time, for any reason, or for none at all.

^ He, in theory, was the actual "owner" of all the land within his loosely designated region The entire territory of kingdom was broken up into smaller territories.
  • WikiAnswers - History of Feudalism in Germany and Who were the national leaders during the Feudalism era 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An individual manor could possibly be owned by a lord (seignior), who also owned the villages and all buildings on the land within the boundaries of the manor.
  • Eras and Their Highlights - What Is Feudalism?: History Fact Finder 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even a definite understanding at the outset that the lease might be enjoyed to a specified date was no protection.'^ Even a definite understanding at the outset that the lease might be enjoyed to a specified date was no protection.'

^ To complicate matters even further, there is absolutely no simple definition for it.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even he had no protection and no safety; for any new excursion of less fortunate barbarians would desolate his possessions and decimate his laborers.

.It followed of course that the heir had no right in the land which his father held in this way, nor was the heir of the donor bound by his father's act.^ It followed of course that the heir had no right in the land which his father held in this way, nor was the heir of the donor bound by his father's act.

^ This conclusion in no way follows.
  • "Galbraith's Neo-Feudalism" 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Toxicity of Environmentalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.capitalism.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These counts still held pretty large amounts of land, so they would divide their fiefs into farms, and give the farms out to their own followers.

.The legal character of this transaction is summed up in a well-known passage in the Digest: - Interdictum de precariis merito introductum est, quia nulla eo nomine juris civilis actio esset, magis enim ad donationes et beneficii causam, quam ad negotii contracts spectat precarii conditio.^ The legal character of this transaction is summed up in a well-known passage in the Digest : - Interdictum de precariis merito introductum est, quia nulla eo nomine juris civilis actio esset, magis enim ad donationes et beneficii causam, quam ad negotii contracts spectat precarii conditio.

^ A body of legal tradition and of conceptions of equity grew up in the lower social stratum as well as in the upper.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because neither their fortunes nor their business transactions would stand up well to public scrutiny.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.2
This may be paraphrased as follows:The precarium tenant may employ the interdict against a third party, because he cannot use the ordinary civil action, his holding being not a matter of business but rather of favour and kindness.^ Whether or not the assigned textbook mentions ‘feudalism’, most Western civilization instructors probably continue to use the term because it is familiar to them and to their students.
  • The Historiography of a Construct: “Feudalism” and the Medieval Historian : History Compass 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.blackwell-compass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If either party violated the contract, such as a vassal not following the lord in a battle or rebelling against him, the lord would take his land away.
  • The new post 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.iun.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Courts may still decide that certain rights, created by two parties and not to be found in the existing categories, bind certain or even all third parties.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

.It should be noted that from its very beginning the land relationship of feudalism was not created primarily for the grantor's income, but that it emphasized in the most striking way his continued ownership.^ In brief: a feudal title is a territorial dignity which passes with the ownership of the lands to which it is attached; a peerage title is a personal dignity which will pass, if it is not a life peerage, according to the "remainder" or "destination" specified at the time of its creation.
  • Feudal Titles 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.baronage.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A system based primarily on land, feudalism involved a hierarchy of authority, rights, and power that extended from the monarchy downwards.
  • feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact the British most skilfully used land grants to create landlords that would see to it that protests and rebellion among the people in their areas of influence were effectively crushed.
  • Untitled Document 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.statsvet.su.se [Source type: Original source]

.As used for protection in later Roman days the precarium gave rise to what was called the commendation of lands, patrocinium fundorum. The poor landowner, likely to lose all that he had from one kind of oppression or another, went to the great landowner, his neighbour, whose position gave him immunity from attack or the power to prevent official abuses, and begged to be protected.^ Secondly, it gave another reason for commendation, i.e.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As used for protection in later Roman days the precarium gave rise to what was called the commendation of lands, patrocinium fundorum.

^ The poor landowner, likely to lose all that he had from one kind of oppression or another, went to the great landowner, his neighbour , whose position gave him immunity from attack or the power to prevent official abuses, and begged to be protected.

.The rich man answered, I can only protect my own.^ The rich man answered, I can only protect my own.

^ My answer is simple: Don't offer any protection of ideas, because doing so inhibits the "progress" that copyright law was designed to stimulate.
  • Greenspan on Intellectual Property Rights | Kairosnews 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC kairosnews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one owns them; Bill Gates enjoys their productive efforts only because he's fun to work for and makes his bright employees rich.
  • The End of Religious Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC drgagne.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of necessity the poor man must surrender to his powerful neighbour the ownership of his lands, which he then received back as a precarium - gaining protection during his lifetime.^ The more land he gives, the more power he gains.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Of necessity the poor man must surrender to his powerful neighbour the ownership of his lands, which he then received back as a precarium - gaining protection during his lifetime.

^ Land was considered power during that time.
  • The Effectiveness of Feudalism | Socyberty 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

1 Digest, xliii. Ibid. xliii. 26.14, and cf. 17.
.X. 10 a at the cost of his children, who were left without legal claim and compelled to make the best terms they could.'^ X. 10 a at the cost of his children, who were left without legal claim and compelled to make the best terms they could.'

^ They could be told who to marry, but they did have some rights - their kids couldn't be taken away.
  • Clovis, Charlemagne, Magyars. Feudalism - Life of a Serf 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They could not be sold as if they were slaves, but they could not leave the estate to live or work elsewhere without permission.
  • feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Applied to this use the precarium found extensive employment in the last age of the empire.^ Applied to this use the precarium found extensive employment in the last age of the empire.

^ During Middle Age, the King of France was sometimes elected by a reunion of the great lords (until Hugues Capet, who founded the last french dynasty).

^ Timeline The Middle Ages or medieval time is believed to have started with the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 and to have lasted about 1,000 years until about 1450.

.The government looked on the practice with great disfavour, because it transferred large areas from the easy access of the state to an ownership beyond its reach.^ The government looked on the practice with great disfavour, because it transferred large areas from the easy access of the state to an ownership beyond its reach.

^ After the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D. it had become increasingly difficult for any government to rule effectively over a large area.

^ In the beginning the large plantations, following the practice of aboriginals, exhausted the soil in one area by growing tobacco, and then moved to new land.
  • Feudalism and Capitalism come to America 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The laws repeatedly forbade it under increasing penalties, but clearly it could not be stopped.^ The laws repeatedly forbade it under increasing penalties, but clearly it could not be stopped.

^ However, he could not use his army to stop his vassals from fighting with each other, or to enforce laws in his vassals lands.
  • Feudalism 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In some areas of Europe , women under feudal law and tradition could inherit property, giving them a prominent economic role.

.The motive was too strong on both sides - the need of protection on one side, the natural desire to increase large possessions and means of self-defence on the other.^ The motive was too strong on both sides - the need of protection on one side, the natural desire to increase large possessions and means of self-defence on the other.

^ What capitalism cannot out-compete, it need to overcome through other means, whether by manipulation, coercion, or war.
  • Feudalism Then and Now 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.metaphoria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He begins by citing the law of diminishing marginal utility, according to which the importance an individual attaches to the possession of any given quantity of means of provision diminishes as the total quantity of means of provision at his disposal increases.
  • "Galbraith's Neo-Feudalism" 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Toxicity of Environmentalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.capitalism.net [Source type: Original source]

.These practices the Frankish conquerors of Gaul found in full possession of society when they entered into that province.^ These practices the Frankish conquerors of Gaul found in full possession of society when they entered into that province.

^ After each day they will reflect upon that day’s role, how it made them feel, and how did they fit into feudal society.
  • Mrs. Selikoff's 7th Grade World Geography 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.nathanselikoff.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the weaker landowners then found themselves obliged to enter into vassalage and to concede their lands to the lordship of the more powerful, receiving them back as benefices.

.They seem to have understood them at once, and, like much else Roman, to have made them their own with out material change.^ They seem to have understood them at once, and, like much else Roman, to have made them their own with out material change.

^ Overwhelming the Romans, they made for Bourges."
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were only a few towns, and they were far smaller than the busy communities that had once filled the territories of the Roman Empire.
  • Feudalism Reading 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC kevin.lps.org [Source type: Original source]

.The patrocinium they were made ready to understand by the existence of a somewhat similar institution among themselves, the comitatus, described by Tacitus.^ The patrocinium they were made ready to understand by the existence of a somewhat similar institution among themselves, the comitatus, described by Tacitus.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

^ The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.

.In this institution the chief of the tribe, or of some plainly marked division of the tribe, gathered about himself a band of chosen warriors, who formed a kind of private military force and body-guard.^ In this institution the chief of the tribe, or of some plainly marked division of the tribe, gathered about himself a band of chosen warriors, who formed a kind of private military force and body-guard.

^ This military service was the mainstay of medieval forces until the middle of the 14th century, consisting generally of 40 days military service in the field or as a castle guard.
  • Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournament Glossary of Terms 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.chronique.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certain vassals who held their fiefs directly from the crown were tenants in chief and formed the most important feudal group, the barons.
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.The special features of the institution were the strong tie of faith and service which bound the man, the support and rewards given by the lord, and the pride of both in the relationship.^ The special features of the institution were the strong tie of faith and service which bound the man, the support and rewards given by the lord, and the pride of both in the relationship.

^ It normally consisted of land to which a number of un-free peasants were attached; the land was supposed to be sufficient to support the vassal and to secure his knight service for the lord.
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

.The patrocinium might well seem to the German only a form of the comitatus, but it was a form which presented certain advantages in his actual situation.^ The patrocinium might well seem to the German only a form of the comitatus, but it was a form which presented certain advantages in his actual situation.

^ Certain values may seem inherent, and even as one realizes the absurdity of their current situation, many things remain logical until viewed in retrospect.
  • Song of Roland Essay | The Effect of Feudalism on its Contemporary Texts | GradeSaver 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.gradesaver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be noted that the commendation differs from the patrocinium ; the latter carried with it an idea of degradation for the weaker man, the commendation seems to maintain more of the dignity of the comitatus relationship.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The chief of these was perhaps the fact that it was not confined to king or tribal chief, but that every noble was able in the Roman practice to surround himself with his organized private army.^ The chief of these was perhaps the fact that it was not confined to king or tribal chief, but that every noble was able in the Roman practice to surround himself with his organized private army.

^ Later the nobles of the Holy Roman Empire adopted the practice, though the royalty never did.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But for Romans, he was the head of the Frankish army of occupation, and the pope who introduced the feudal system of suppression into Papal Romania and enslaved the Romans to the Frankish nobility.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.Probably this fact, together with the more general fact of the absorption in most things of the German in the Roman, accounts for the substitution of the patrocinium for the comitatus which took place under the Merovingians.^ Probably this fact, together with the more general fact of the absorption in most things of the German in the Roman, accounts for the substitution of the patrocinium for the comitatus which took place under the Merovingians .

^ Few rulers had any standing forces at this time, and most campaigns in pre-modern times took place in times when people could be spared from harvest (Contamine 1984) .

^ Bush spent eight years avoiding that, as he’s probably avoided most things in his life, such as the need to pay for what he breaks.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs.^ This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs.

^ Without going into this vexed question, it may be noted that a manor had many points of likeness to the Roman villa, already described, but also that some German customs had been introduced.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.^ The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.

^ The towns, growing in economic power and even forming their own militias, was able to a large extent to impose their own concepts about society against those of the knights.
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is, however, so much variation and so many exceptions from the "rule," that some researchers are now recommending that we abandon feudal terminology altogether.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.clas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Probably the ceremony which grew into feudal homage, and the oath of fealty, certainly the honourable position of the vassal and his pride in the relationship, the strong tie which bound lord and man together, and the idea that faith and service were due on both sides in equal measure, we may trace to German sources.^ Feudalism is not simply the relationship between the lord, the vassal, the serf, and the fief.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Fealty Oath Oath by which a vassal swore loyalty to his lord.
  • Medieval Glossary 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.medievality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord-vassal relationship 5.
  • The Japan Project - Japanese Culture 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.globaled.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But we must not forget that the origin of the vassal relationship, as an institution, is to be found on Roman and not on German soil.^ But we must not forget that the origin of the vassal relationship, as an institution, is to be found on Roman and not on German soil.

^ Roman, partly of German origin; in the Roman system .
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism had its origin in Roman and early Germanic practices.

.The comitatus developed and modified, it did not originate.^ The comitatus developed and modified, it did not originate.

.Nor was the feudal system established in any sense by the settlement of the comitatus group on the conquered land.^ Nor was the feudal system established in any sense by the settlement of the comitatus group on the conquered land.

^ Feudalism is historically the medieval European system based on the relation of vassals and lords, arising from the holding of land in feud.

^ In a broad definition, feudalism is "a system by which the holding of estates in land is made dependent upon an obligation to render military service to the king or feudal superior."
  • Feudalism Systems of Japan and England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.The uniting of the personal and the land sides of feudalism came long after the conquest, and in a different way.^ The uniting of the personal and the land sides of feudalism came long after the conquest, and in a different way.

^ The structure first came about, and remained for so long, because of the great size of the land the kings had under their control.
  • THE MIDDLE AGES: THE FEUDAL SYSTEM 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

.To the precarium German institutions offered no close parallel.^ To the precarium German institutions offered no close parallel.

.The advantages, however, which it afforded were obvious, and this side of feudalism developed as rapidly after the conquest as the personal.^ The advantages, however, which it afforded were obvious, and this side of feudalism developed as rapidly after the conquest as the personal.

^ The feudal castle, however, was not dull, although it was isolated, and afforded few novelties.

^ There are thus distinguished at the beginning those two great sides of feudalism which remained to the end of its history more or less distinct, the personal relation and the land relation.

.The new German noble was as eager to extend the size of his lands and to increase the numbers of his dependants as the Roman had been.^ The new German noble was as eager to extend the size of his lands and to increase the numbers of his dependants as the Roman had been.

^ It was extended eastward into Slavic lands to the marches (frontier provinces), which were continually battered by new invasions, and it was adopted partially in Scandinavian countries.
  • Feudalism - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each successive defeat forced nobles to migrate in ever-increasing numbers north and west into the Independent Hungarian Kingdom or east into the principality of Transylvania.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.The new German government furnished no better protection from local violence, nor was it able any more effectively to check the practices which were creating feudalism; indeed for a long time it made no attempt to do so.^ The more stars are white - the better protection.

^ At no time, indeed, was she better equipped for the work.
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: Seigneurs of Old Canada : A Chronicle of New World Feudalism, The 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

^ The more stars are white – the better protection.
  • Play Feudalism II, a free online game on Kongregate 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.kongregate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Precarium and patrocinium easily passed from the Roman empire to the Frankish kingdom, and became as firmly rooted in the new society as they had ever been in the old.^ The British empire had tried to destroy the old system by giving property rights to revenue collectors and they too became the masters of the landless peasants.

^ They began developing theories and church policy which would put this Roman institution to good use for the fostering of Frankish control over territories formerly under the control of the Romans, and of aiding in new conquests.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The remains of the Roman Empire in western Europe were broken up into barbarian kingdoms, until the Frankish king, Charlemagne, was crowned emperor of the West by the pope on Christmas Day, 800.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages, Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC umfa.dev.verite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Up to this point we have seen only the small landowner and the landless man entering into these relations.^ Up to this point we have seen only the small landowner and the landless man entering into these relations.

^ Some of the weaker landowners then found themselves obliged to enter into vassalage and to concede their lands to the lordship of the more powerful, receiving them back as benefices.

^ This in turn forced the troops that were up until that point semi professional with other responsibilities into truly professional troops.
  • Regia Anglorum - Norman Social Organisation and Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.regia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Feudalism could not be established, however, until the great of the land had adopted them for themselves, and had begun to enter the clientage of others and to hold lands by the precarium tenure.^ (This method of holding another's land is called feudal tenure.

^ Feudalism could not be established, however, until the great of the land had adopted them for themselves, and had begun to enter the clientage of others and to hold lands by the precarium tenure .

^ Feudalism is historically the medieval European system based on the relation of vassals and lords, arising from the holding of land in feud.

.The first step towards this result was easily and quickly taken.^ The first step towards this result was easily and quickly taken.

^ The FIRST STEP toward all three goals is to acknowledge the problem , that social and economic Feudalism stands in the way of social progress, and even world peace.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.The same class continued to furnish the king's men, and to form his household and body-guard whether the relation was that of the patrocinium or the comitatus, and to be made noble by entering into it.^ It often included the same classes of men.

^ The same class continued to furnish the king's men, and to form his household and body-guard whether the relation was that of the patrocinium or the comitatus, and to be made noble by entering into it.

^ Syracuse...that this class interaction is a form of feudalism that continues to operate to this day...righteous heroes whose variant system of feudalism placed the `amma in the foreground...
  • feudalism – Dictionary definition of feudalism | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was later that they became clients of one another, and in part at Salvian, De gub.^ One week later, they did.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was later that they became clients of one another, and in part at Salvian , De gub.

^ In turning from the origin of feudalism to a description of the completed system one is inevitably reminded of the words with which de Quincey opens the second part of his essay on style .

Dei,
v. 8, ed. Halm, p. 62.
least as a result of their adoption of the precarium tenure. .In this latter step the influence of the Church rather than of the king seems to have been effective.^ In this latter step the influence of the Church rather than of the king seems to have been effective.

^ Rather than enslaved, I become freer and more effective.
  • The End of Religious Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC drgagne.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a final strange, non-intuitive historical observation: Queens seem to work better than kings.

.The large estates which pious intentions had bestowed on the Church it was not allowed to alienate.^ The large estates which pious intentions had bestowed on the Church it was not allowed to alienate.

.It could most easily make them useful to gain the influence and support which it needed, and to provide for the public functions which fell to its share, by employing the precarium tenure.^ It could most easily make them useful to gain the influence and support which it needed, and to provide for the public functions which fell to its share, by employing the precarium tenure.

^ The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.

^ Democratic country works like an living organism, where all vital organs gains enough share of common resources to make organism work as effective as possible.
  • Political systems 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot, and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.^ On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot , and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.

^ He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor , and other portions of the duke of Burgundy , of two archbishops, of four bishops , and of the abbot of St Denis .

^ Otto the Great granted large and wealthy fiefs to bishops and abbots.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.The employment of the precarium by the Church seems to have been one of the surest means by which this form of landholding was carried over from the Romans to the Frankish period and developed into new forms.^ The employment of the precarium by the Church seems to have been one of the surest means by which this form of landholding was carried over from the Romans to the Frankish period and developed into new forms.

^ In Europe , feudalism developed in the Holy Roman Empire coincidently around the same time period as it was developing in Japan .
  • Japanese Feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They began developing theories and church policy which would put this Roman institution to good use for the fostering of Frankish control over territories formerly under the control of the Romans, and of aiding in new conquests.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.It came to be made by degrees the subject of written contract, by which the rights of the holder were more definitely defined and protected than had been the case in Roman law.^ It came to be made by degrees the subject of written contract, by which the rights of the holder were more definitely defined and protected than had been the case in Roman law.

^ About the office of king more of this earlier conception gathered than elsewhere in the state, and gradually grew, aided not merely by traditional ideas, but by the active influence of the Bible , and soon of the Roman law.

^ Furthermore, Roman law was rational because it was believed to be in accordance with natural laws applicable to all, and it was systematic in that it offered a framework of standards that applied to individual cases.
  • Lecture 21: Feudalism and the Feudal Relationship 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

.The length of time for which the holding should last came to be specified, at first for a term of years and then for life, and some payment to the grantor was provided for, not pretending to represent the economic value of the land, but only to serve as a mark of his continued ownership.^ The length of time for which the holding should last came to be specified, at first for a term of years and then for life, and some payment to the grantor was provided for, not pretending to represent the economic value of the land, but only to serve as a mark of his continued ownership.

^ In the late twelfth century, a clan leader named Minamoto Yoritomo founded the first Japanese shogunate, a feudal government that lasted for seven hundred years.
  • Feudalism Systems of Japan and England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The structure first came about, and remained for so long, because of the great size of the land the kings had under their control.
  • THE MIDDLE AGES: THE FEUDAL SYSTEM 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.These changes characterize the Merovingian age of Frankish history.^ These changes characterize the Merovingian age of Frankish history.

.That period had practically ended, however, before these two institutions showed any tendency to join together as they were joined in later feudalism.^ That period had practically ended, however, before these two institutions showed any tendency to join together as they were joined in later feudalism.

^ They supported Feudalism because it was a very practical and necessary institution.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of Mankind by books 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To each place they took their feudal institutions.

.Nor had the king up to that time exerted any apparent influence on the processes that were going forward.^ Nor had the king up to that time exerted any apparent influence on the processes that were going forward.

^ If they are going to stay away , maybe this is a good time to ask them to divide up their land holding among the people.
  • Feudalism in Pakistan - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The father of Tori held it in the time of King Edward, and was able to go whither he wished, but for his protection he committed himself to bishop Herman, and Tori similarly to bishop Osmund.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Grants of land of the Merovingian kings had carried with them ownership and not a limited right, and the king's patrocinium had not widened in extent in the direction of the later vassal relation.^ Rights to land were granted in return for services.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king also granted land to the Church.
  • chronology of medieval boys' clothing -- feudal system 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grants of land of the Merovingian kings had carried with them ownership and not a limited right, and the king's patrocinium had not widened in extent in the direction of the later vassal relation.

.It was the advent of the Carolingian princes and the difficulties which they had to overcome that carried these institutions a stage further forward.^ It was the advent of the Carolingian princes and the difficulties which they had to overcome that carried these institutions a stage further forward.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

^ The Carolingian Empire collapsed because it was based on the rule of one man, who did not have institutions sufficiently well developed to carry out his will.

.Making their way up from a position among the nobility to be the rulers of the land, and finally to supplant the kings, the Carolingians had especial need of resources from which to purchase and reward faithful support.^ Making their way up from a position among the nobility to be the rulers of the land, and finally to supplant the kings, the Carolingians had especial need of resources from which to purchase and reward faithful support.

^ It promises to be a very lively discussion in which Tapscott will use his Wikinomics/Grown Up Digital argument as a way of making sense of the current economic situation.
  • The Great Seduction: Digital feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC andrewkeen.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Nobles held land, titles, and supplied the king with soldiers, produce, crops, livestock, and services in exchange alliance sworn to the king.

.This need was greatly increased when the Arab attack on southern Gaul forced them to transform a large part of the old Frankish foot army into cavalry.'^ This need was greatly increased when the Arab attack on southern Gaul forced them to transform a large part of the old Frankish foot army into cavalry .'

^ He learned from the Arabs the benefits of the stirrup (lateral support that allows horseman to deliver shock blow from horseback without knocking himself off horse) and began to remodel his forces into cavalry.

^ But for Romans, he was the head of the Frankish army of occupation, and the pope who introduced the feudal system of suppression into Papal Romania and enslaved the Romans to the Frankish nobility.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The fundamental principle of the Frankish military system, that the man served at his own expense, was still unchanged.^ The fundamental principle of the Frankish military system, that the man served at his own expense, was still unchanged.

^ They each had their own fundamental spirit or principle.
  • Huang Minlan 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was obliged to equip himself and to pay his own expenses during this timeif he served longer, the lord was usually expected to pay his expenses.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It had indeed begun to break down under the strain of frequent and distant campaigns, but it was long before it was changed as the recognized rule of medieval service.^ It had indeed begun to break down under the strain of frequent and distant campaigns, but it was long before it was changed as the recognized rule of medieval service.

^ Nowhere in the three long essays does he so much as mention medieval Africa and Asia.6 So, before we consider the theory itself we should place it in its geographical perspective.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When they change the rules, they figure out new ways to break the rules."
  • ALL IN THE FAMILY: Nepotism in American politics. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC prorev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If now, in addition to his own expenses, the soldier must provide a horse and its keeping, the system was likely to break down altogether.^ If now, in addition to his own expenses, the soldier must provide a horse and its keeping, the system was likely to break down altogether.

^ Over time, these caste systems began breaking down, but they severely limited the opportunities of the masses for hundreds of years.
  • The Similarities and Differences Between Japanese and European Feudalism | Socyberty 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in both systems of feudalism, land held the primary focus in determining social order; the aristocracy owned the land, soldiers protected the land and its owners, while farming peasants tilled the land.
  • Feudalism Systems of Japan and England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.It was this problem which led to the next step.^ It was this problem which led to the next step.

.To solve it the early Carolingian princes, especially Charles Martel, who found the royal domains exhausted and their own inadequate, grasped at the land of the Church.^ A lord was a noble who owned land.

^ Although manorialism varied from region to region and from century to century, it was essentially a system whereby the land, or manor, was owned by the lord and was parceled out to individual peasants who farmed it.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages, Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC umfa.dev.verite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the eighth and ninth centuries there was a temporary revival, especially under the rule of the Carolingian King Charlemagne, who conquered vast territories, centralized his own authority, and encouraged cultural activities.

.Here was enough to endow an army, if some means could be devised to permit its use.^ Here was enough to endow an army, if some means could be devised to permit its use.

^ Because groups of political interests could be very variable, and sometimes are only temporary alliances, I don’t use here a term social class .
  • Political systems 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, a vassal could become more powerful than the king he serve d if he had enough land and soldiers.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.This means was found in the precarium tenure.^ This means was found in the precarium tenure.

.Keeping alive, as it did, the fact of the grantor's ownership, it did not in form deprive the Church of the land.^ Keeping alive, as it did, the fact of the grantor's ownership, it did not in form deprive the Church of the land.

^ The state's claim to ownership really meant only that the state did not recognize ownership unless the titles were registered and the land therefore taxable."
  • Bareness and oppression of Palestine due to feudal system of taxes by absentee Arab Landowners 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.eretzyisroel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a form of heritable leasebold ownership in which the state leases land to the individual.
  • Bareness and oppression of Palestine due to feudal system of taxes by absentee Arab Landowners 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.eretzyisroel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Recognizing that ownership by a small payment only, not corresponding to the value of the land, it left the larger part of the income to meet the need which had arisen.^ Recognizing that ownership by a small payment only, not corresponding to the value of the land, it left the larger part of the income to meet the need which had arisen.

^ Wainable meant the land capable of being cultivated or ploughed by a properly equipped villein or serf, a tillable wain being in part a definition of tenancy as the amount of land that a man could maintain which would meet his and his family's needs.
  • Swans' Past Commentaries - mgc031 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This tribute is exacted through state ownership of the land: "...the integrating entity which stands above all these small communities may appear as the superior or sole proprietor, and the real communities therefore only as hereditary possessors.''
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time undoubtedly the new holder of the land, if not already the vassal of the prince, was obliged to become so and to assume an obligation of service with a mounted force when called upon.'^ At the same time undoubtedly the new holder of the land, if not already the vassal of the prince, was obliged to become so and to assume an obligation of service with a mounted force when called upon.'

^ Feudalism is the exchange of land for military service, thus everything was based on what was called the knight's fee, which was the amount of money and/or military service a fief was required to pay to support one knight.

^ In a broad definition, feudalism is "a system by which the holding of estates in land is made dependent upon an obligation to render military service to the king or feudal superior."
  • Feudalism Systems of Japan and England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.This expedient seems to have solved the problem.^ This expedient seems to have solved the problem.

.It gave rise to the numerous precariae verbo regis, of the Church records, and to the condemnation of Charles Martel in the visions of the clergy to worse difficulties in the future life than he had overcome in this.^ It gave rise to the numerous precariae verbo regis, of the Church records, and to the condemnation of Charles Martel in the visions of the clergy to worse difficulties in the future life than he had overcome in this.

^ To solve it the early Carolingian princes, especially Charles Martel , who found the royal domains exhausted and their own inadequate, grasped at the land of the Church.

^ Taxpayers must come to appreciate that their standard of living will progressively worsen as unemployment rises, and corporations contribute less tax in future than they have in the past.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most important consequences of the expedient, however, were not intended or perceived at the time.^ The most important consequences of the expedient, however, were not intended or perceived at the time.

^ In the Middle Ages, however, it was considered normal and sensible for the German emperor, for example, to confer the most important dukedoms and bishoprics on his brothers and cousins.
  • Scientia Scholae - Dealing with the F-Word (Feudalism) 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.teamsmedieval.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important consequences of the disruption of sovereignty lay in the alienation of rights of jurisdiction by the central government.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.It brought together the two sides of feudalism, vassalage and benefice, as they were now commonly called, and from this age their union into what is really a single H. Brunner, Zeitschr.^ It brought together the two sides of feudalism, vassalage and benefice , as they were now commonly called, and from this age their union into what is really a single H. Brunner, Zeitschr.

^ The voluntary organizations that they call together may be humble, it's you by yourself, you and a pal, or they might be among the mightiest corporations and companies on the face of the earth.
  • Feudalism with Color TV 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The usefulness of feudalism as a term is at present under intense discussion among historians of the middle ages, with the majority of experts now rejecting the term.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Crisis, Recovery, Feudalism? 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

der sa y. Stift. fit?' .Rechtsgeschichte,
Germ, Abth.^ Rechtsgeschichte, Germ, Abth.

viii. 1-38 (1887). .Also in his Forschungen, 39-74 (1$94).^ Also in his Forschungen, 39-74 (1$94).

.3 See F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.^ See F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.

^ The plaintiff , even if he were under another lord, was obliged to sue in the court of the defendant's lord, and the portion of the fine ' F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.

2, 90 ff.
institution was rapid; it emphasized military service as an essential obligation of the vassal; and it spread the vassal relation between individual proprietors and the sovereign widely over the state.
.In the period that followed, the reign of Charlemagne and the later Carolingian age, continued necessities, military and civil, forced the kings to recognize these new institutions more fully, even when standing in a position between the government and the subject, intercepting the public duties of the latter.^ In consequence a new military force was organized, a professional standing army.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Compare Alfred and Charlemagne as civilizing kings.

^ These were the hard necessities which the age demanded.

.The incipient feudal baron had not been slow to take advantage of the break-down of the old German military system.^ The incipient feudal baron had not been slow to take advantage of the break-down of the old German military system.

^ It’s as if the barons have arisen from the grave and brought the old feudal system back with them.
  • Farming's New Feudalism | Worldwatch Institute 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, what you have here is a feudal pyramid, staring with the king at the top and descending down to increasingly numerous dukes, counts, viscounts, barons, earls or margraves.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As in the last days of the Roman empire the poor landowner had found his only refuge from the exactions of the government in the protection of the senator, who could in some way obtain exemptions, so the poor Frank could escape the ruinous demands of military service only by submitting himself and his lands to the count, who did not hesitate on his side to force such submission.^ Precariumwas a land grant by a landowner to someone who offered service in return for protection.

^ A vassal could also by his way out of military service.
  • Lecture 21: Feudalism and the Feudal Relationship 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As in the last days of the Roman empire the poor landowner had found his only refuge from the exactions of the government in the protection of the senator, who could in some way obtain exemptions, so the poor Frank could escape the ruinous demands of military service only by submitting himself and his lands to the count, who did not hesitate on his side to force such submission.

.Charlemagne legislated with vigour against this tendency, trying to make it easier for the poor freeman to fulfil his military duties directly to the state, and to forbid the misuse of power by the rich, but he was not more successful than the Roman government had been in a like attempt.^ Charlemagne legislated with vigour against this tendency, trying to make it easier for the poor freeman to fulfil his military duties directly to the state, and to forbid the misuse of power by the rich, but he was not more successful than the Roman government had been in a like attempt.

^ Charlemagne was a stronger and more powerful ruler.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ About the office of king more of this earlier conception gathered than elsewhere in the state, and gradually grew, aided not merely by traditional ideas, but by the active influence of the Bible , and soon of the Roman law.

.Finally the king found himself compelled to recognize existing facts, to lay upon the lord the duty of producing his men in the field and to allow him to appear as their commander.^ Finally the king found himself compelled to recognize existing facts, to lay upon the lord the duty of producing his men in the field and to allow him to appear as their commander.

^ John de Rouvraye, knight, lord of Yneto, appeared for himself acknowledging that he owed one knight by reason of his land of Rouvraye, whom he brought with him, that is to say, John de Caim.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Arms are not, as in the rest of Germany, allowed to all and sundry, but are kept in charge of a custodian who in fact is a slave...idle crowds of armed men easily get into mischief."
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.This solved the difficulty of military service apparently, but with decisive consequences.^ This solved the difficulty of military service apparently, but with decisive consequences.

.Itcompleted the transformation of the army into a vassal army; it completed the recognition of feudalism by the state, as a legitimate relation between different ranks of the people; and it recognized the transformation in a great number of cases of a public duty into a private obligation.^ Itcompleted the transformation of the army into a vassal army; it completed the recognition of feudalism by the state, as a legitimate relation between different ranks of the people; and it recognized the transformation in a great number of cases of a public duty into a private obligation.

^ Public duty had become private obligation.

^ What is the difference between feudalism and manorialism?
  • Feudalism & Medieval Life 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime another institution had grown up in this Franco-Roman society, which probably began and certainly assisted in another transformation of the same kind.^ In the meantime another institution had grown up in this Franco-Roman society, which probably began and certainly assisted in another transformation of the same kind.

^ This should give you another ranged weapon of the same kind, keep using it until you want to stop and sell them to shop.
  • Feudalism cheats and cheat codes for PC 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC cheats.freeola.com [Source type: General]

^ The Franks reacted with determination to avoid the occurrence of the same in Francia (Land of the Franks) by abolishing Roman urban society.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

This is the immunity. .Suggested probably by Roman practices, possibly developed directly from them, it received a great extension in the Merovingian period, at first and especially in the interest of the Church, but soon of lay land-holders.^ Suggested probably by Roman practices, possibly developed directly from them, it received a great extension in the Merovingian period, at first and especially in the interest of the Church, but soon of lay land-holders.

^ In Europe , feudalism developed in the Holy Roman Empire coincidently around the same time period as it was developing in Japan .
  • Japanese Feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And that tradition of the industry is directly in the face of all the teachings of medical science, as to the necessity for the especial care and protection of young girls at that period of life.
  • McKelway, Alexander Jeffrey, 1866-1918. Child Wages in the Cotton Mills: Our Modern Feudalism. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By the grant of an immunity to a proprietor the royal officers, the count and his representatives, were forbidden to enter his lands to exercise any public function there.^ By the grant of an immunity to a proprietor the royal officers, the count and his representatives, were forbidden to enter his lands to exercise any public function there.

^ To hold land in regality was a major status symbol (and a source of significant additional revenue) and grants of regality were normally restricted to members of the royal family and leading magnates.
  • Scottish Genealogy Society - Farewell to feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.scotsgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.

.The duties which the count should perform passed to the proprietor, who now represented the government for all his tenants free and unfree.^ The duties which the count should perform passed to the proprietor, who now represented the government for all his tenants free and unfree.

^ This War Powers Act was re-enforced and the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 was passed to define, regulate, and punish those who were trading with enemies, who were then required by that act to be licensed by the government to do business.
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The serfs and other unfree or semi-free peasants performed three classes of service from which the ruling class obtained its income.
  • This article was published in ANTIPODE 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Apparently no modification of the royal rights was intended by this arrangement, but the beginning of a great change had really been made.^ Apparently no modification of the royal rights was intended by this arrangement, but the beginning of a great change had really been made.

^ Several Ordinances modifying the usage in the course of the ancienne regime in Quebec made no substantial changes.
  • Feudalism and Capitalism come to America 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ To explain this reference must be made to a change that passed over the Roman Empire at the beginning of the fourth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The king might still receive the same revenues and the same services from the district held by the lord as formerly, but for their payment a private person in his capacity as overlord was now responsible.^ The king might still receive the same revenues and the same services from the district held by the lord as formerly, but for their payment a private person in his capacity as overlord was now responsible.

^ For the same lord king has released our person from the service of the army so long as we live.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It might owe suit and service to a lord.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the course of a long period characterized by a weak central government, it was not difficult to enlarge the rights which the lord thus obtained, to exclude even the king's personal authority from the immunity, and to translate the duties and payments which the tenant had once owed to the state into obligations which he owed to his lord, even finally into incidents of his tenure.^ In the course of a long period characterized by a weak central government, it was not difficult to enlarge the rights which the lord thus obtained, to exclude even the king's personal authority from the immunity, and to translate the duties and payments which the tenant had once owed to the state into obligations which he owed to his lord, even finally into incidents of his tenure.

^ When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.

^ Once again you start a long journey as a weak chieftain with the goal of becoming the most powerful warrior and ruler of the whole world.

.The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.^ The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.

^ For Ganshof "feudal society" was characterized by the fragmentation of political authority and the passage of public power into private hands (PRIVATE JURISDICTION).

^ Its earliest stage of growth was that of the private possession only.

.This process had probably already begun in a small way in the growth of institutions which belong to the economic side of feudalism, the organization of agriculture on the great estates.^ This process had probably already begun in a small way in the growth of institutions which belong to the economic side of feudalism, the organization of agriculture on the great estates.

^ Feudal great councils eventually evolved into general representative assemblies, known as Parliaments, Cortes, Estates, Diets, etc.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

.Even in Roman days the proprietor had exercised a jurisdiction over the disputes of his unfree tenants.^ Even in Roman days the proprietor had exercised a jurisdiction over the disputes of his unfree tenants.

^ Each manor, thus, would have a manorial court in which the lord or his agent exercised jurisdiction over crimes and civil disputes.

^ The duties which the count should perform passed to the proprietor, who now represented the government for all his tenants free and unfree.

.Whether this could by its own growth have been extended over his free tenants and carried so far as to absorb a local court, like that of the hundred, into private possession, is not certain.^ Whether this could by its own growth have been extended over his free tenants and carried so far as to absorb a local court, like that of the hundred, into private possession, is not certain.

^ It is estimated that 40% of the $311 billion value of deals carried out in 1988 alone went into private hands.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They distributed many thousands of acres to tenant farmers and landless peasants, reorganizing them into hundreds of communes..
  • Friendly Fuedalism - The Tibet Myth 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.michaelparenti.org [Source type: Original source]

.It seems probable that it could.^ It seems probable that it could.

.But in any case, the immunity easily carried the development of private jurisdiction through these stages.^ But in any case, the immunity easily carried the development of private jurisdiction through these stages.

^ The prevalence of the private jurisdictions may have been an outgrowth of the Roman customs or it may have been due to the grants of immunity on the part of the German kings.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the advent of the Carolingian princes and the difficulties which they had to overcome that carried these institutions a stage further forward.

.The lord's court took the place of the public court in civil, and even by degrees in criminal cases.^ The lord's court took the place of the public court in civil, and even by degrees in criminal cases.

^ After losing at the trial and appeals court levels, Schmeiser, who has always maintained his innocence, took his case to the Supreme Court of Canada.
  • Farming's New Feudalism | Worldwatch Institute 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.worldwatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as these royal courts were judicial bodies for dealing with questions relating to the tenants-in-chief, so these tenants-in-chief, and in a descending gradation ever y lord and master, had their private courts in which to try the cases of their tenants.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The plaintiff, even if he were under another lord, was obliged to sue in the court of the defendant's lord, and the portion of the fine ' F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.^ The plaintiff , even if he were under another lord, was obliged to sue in the court of the defendant's lord, and the portion of the fine ' F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.

^ See F. Dahn, Konige der Germanen, viii.

^ The lord's court took the place of the public court in civil, and even by degrees in criminal cases.

2, 197.
for a breach of the peace which should have gone to the state went in the end to the lord.
.The transfer of the judicial process, and of the financial and administrative sides of the government as well, into private possession, was not, however, accomplished entirely by the road of the immunity.^ The transfer of the judicial process, and of the financial and administrative sides of the government as well, into private possession, was not, however, accomplished entirely by the road of the immunity.

^ The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.

^ However, for the purpose of effective administration it is imperative that the localities have some governance.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

.As government weakened after the strong days of Charlemagne, and disorder, invasion, and the difficulty of intercommunication tended to throw the locality more and more upon its own resources, the officer who had once been the means of centralization, the count, found success in the effort for independence which even Charlemagne had scarcely overcome.^ Who will government leaders listen to more?
  • The globalists' new feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As government weakened after the strong days of Charlemagne, and disorder, invasion, and the difficulty of intercommunication tended to throw the locality more and more upon its own resources, the officer who had once been the means of centralization, the count, found success in the effort for independence which even Charlemagne had scarcely overcome.

^ During the eighth and ninth centuries there was a temporary revival, especially under the rule of the Carolingian King Charlemagne, who conquered vast territories, centralized his own authority, and encouraged cultural activities.

.He was able to throw off responsibility to any central authority, and to exercise the powers which had been committed to him as an agent of the king, as if they were his own private possession.^ They are: Privatization of nationally owned industries.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was able to throw off responsibility to any central authority, and to exercise the powers which had been committed to him as an agent of the king, as if they were his own private possession.

^ Nevertheless, they usually had to work for part of each week without pay on the lord's land, and also pay him a percentage of their own crops as well.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nor was the king's aid lacking to this method of dividing up the royal authority, any more than to the immunity, for it became a frequent practice to make the administrative office into a fief, and to grant it to be held in that form of property by the count.^ She too was granted territorial fiefs, became a vassal, possessed immunities .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lords and the Commons were more hostile to the papal authority than the king.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor was the king's aid lacking to this method of dividing up the royal authority, any more than to the immunity, for it became a frequent practice to make the administrative office into a fief , and to grant it to be held in that form of property by the count.

.In this way the feudal county, or duchy, formed itself, corresponding in most cases only roughly to the old administrative divisions of the state, for within the bounds of the county there had often formed private feudal possessions too powerful to be forced into dependence upon the count, sometimes the vice-comes had followed the count's example, and often, on the other hand, the count had attached to his county like private possessions of his own lying outside its boundaries.^ In this way the feudal county, or duchy, formed itself, corresponding in most cases only roughly to the old administrative divisions of the state, for within the bounds of the county there had often formed private feudal possessions too powerful to be forced into dependence upon the count, sometimes the vice-comes had followed the count's example, and often, on the other hand, the count had attached to his county like private possessions of his own lying outside its boundaries.

^ In this example we can see how the institutions of feudalism corresponded to the then existing state of the productive forces.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are bound to be others.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.In time the private lord, who had never been an officer of the state, assumed the old administrative titles and called himself count or viscount, and perhaps with some sort of right, for his position in his territories, through the development of the immunity, did not differ from that now held by the man who had been originally a count.^ In time the private lord, who had never been an officer of the state, assumed the old administrative titles and called himself count or viscount, and perhaps with some sort of right, for his position in his territories, through the development of the immunity, did not differ from that now held by the man who had been originally a count.

^ As time went by greater and greater differences developed.
  • chronology of medieval boys' clothing -- feudal system 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The comitatus developed and modified, it did not originate.

.In these two ways then the feudal system was formed, and took possession of the state territorially, and of its functions in government.^ Feudalism was, in all shapes and forms, a system of government .
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor was feudalism a state system.
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these factors led to the end of feudalism as a system of government.

.Its earliest stage of growth was that of the private possession only.^ Its earliest stage of growth was that of the private possession only.

^ The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.

^ Whether this could by its own growth have been extended over his free tenants and carried so far as to absorb a local court, like that of the hundred, into private possession, is not certain.

.Under a government too weak to preserve order, the great landowner formed his estate into a little territory which could defend itself.^ Under a government too weak to preserve order, the great landowner formed his estate into a little territory which could defend itself.

^ Feudal great councils eventually evolved into general representative assemblies, known as Parliaments, Cortes, Estates, Diets, etc.

^ Citizens could exchange a dollar bill into coins which supposedly contained real wealth in  the form of actual silver, nickel, and copper.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.His smaller neighbours who needed protection came to him for it.^ His smaller neighbours who needed protection came to him for it.

^ But there were many others who were not blood-relatives who needed the protection of a strong and influential lord in this era of regional lawlessness.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What American who believes in democracy could declare one candidate the winner and protect him from "irreparable harm" if a vote count showed him not to be the winner, after all?
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

.He forced them to become his dependants in return under a great variety of forms, but especially developing thereby the precarium land tenure and the patrocinium personal service, and organizing a private jurisdiction over his tenants, and a private army for defence.^ He forced them to become his dependants in return under a great variety of forms, but especially developing thereby the precarium land tenure and the patrocinium personal service, and organizing a private jurisdiction over his tenants, and a private army for defence.

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If it is in manhattan, its value is 99.999% created by forces other than economic scarcity, or rather, that what is really scarce is the developed value, not the raw land itself.

.Finally he secured from the king an immunity which excluded the royal officers from his lands and made him a quasi-representative of the state.^ Finally he secured from the king an immunity which excluded the royal officers from his lands and made him a quasi-representative of the state.

^ In order to deal with this problem, the king would give a piece of land to a person who, in exchange pledge d to defend it and its inhabitants and to be loyal to him.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1380, Kežmarok was granted royal free standing and regularly sent representatives to the king's court.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime his neighbour the count had been following a similar process, and in addition he had enjoyed considerable advantages of his own.^ In the meantime his neighbour the count had been following a similar process, and in addition he had enjoyed considerable advantages of his own.

.His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.^ His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.

^ In a rough way the really important distinction was this: on one side stood people who were bound to feed the rest and were therefore bound to the glebe, on the other those who were free to go wherever they pleased, provided they performed their military or ecclesiastical duties, and paid their rents.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in 1853, England used the most favored nation clause to demand a treaty amendment in the aftermath of the Wangxia Treaty between China and the United States concerning the trade and seaway rights after 12 years.
  • EastSouthWestNorth: Anti-Imperialism and Anti-Feudalism in Modern ChineseHistory 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

.In ignorance of their danger, and later in despair of getting public services adequately performed in any other way, the kings first adopted for themselves some of the forms and practices which had thus grown up, and by degrees recognized them as legally proper for all classes.^ In ignorance of their danger, and later in despair of getting public services adequately performed in any other way, the kings first adopted for themselves some of the forms and practices which had thus grown up, and by degrees recognized them as legally proper for all classes.

^ Please remember that permission for electronic access does not diminish the author's rights to the intellectual content of the work, nor does it preclude its later publication in paper form.
  • The Stirrup Thesis 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was actually in fact and practice a larger uniformity than this short list implies, because these principles tended to express themselves in similar forms, and because historical derivation from a common source in Frankish feudalism tended to preserve some degree of uniformity in the more important usages.

.It proved to be easier to hold the lord responsible for the public duties of all his dependants because he was the king's vassal and by attaching them as conditions to the benefices which he held, than to enforce them directly upon every subject.^ Every family had a lord to protect or subject it.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It proved to be easier to hold the lord responsible for the public duties of all his dependants because he was the king's vassal and by attaching them as conditions to the benefices which he held, than to enforce them directly upon every subject.

^ Relationship summed up in the oath of the nobles at Aragon to the feudal kingWe who are as good as you swear to you, who are no better than we, to accept you as our king and sovereign lord, provided you obverse all our statues and laws; and if not no.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

.When this stage was reached the formative age of feudalism may be considered at an end.^ When this stage was reached the formative age of feudalism may be considered at an end.

^ However, once these contracts have been standardised and in this form are traded in an exchange, they may also be considered to be commodities and, hence, goods.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Brown concludes: "The tyrant feudalism must be declared once and for all deposed and its influence over students of the Middle Ages finally ended.

.When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.^ The feudal system was based on a bond of loyalty between the king and his vassal s.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.

^ In the ancient feudal system, the differential rights in the legal system were class-based.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Not that the age of growth was really over.^ Not that the age of growth was really over.

.Feudal history was always a becoming, always a gradual passing from one stage to another, so long as feudalism continued to form the main organization of society.^ Feudal history was always a becoming, always a gradual passing from one stage to another, so long as feudalism continued to form the main organization of society.

^ Based on the history of feudal Europe, the program covers the obligations of lords and vassals, the role of feudal oaths and promises, and the social hierarchy of medieval society.
  • Decisions, Decisions Feudalism | Tom Snyder 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.learningservicesus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But we may say that the formative age was over when these features of the system had combined to be its characteristic marks.^ These are the essential features of the social system which, from its .
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But we may say that the formative age was over when these features of the system had combined to be its characteristic marks.

^ Delphi Says: May 30th, 2008 at 8:30 pm We need to be digging these articles on Digg.com to help get the word out.
  • Libs in Denial: NAU, NAFTA Superhighway, and the Coming Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

.What follows is rather a perfection of details in the direction of logical completeness.^ What follows is rather a perfection of details in the direction of logical completeness.

.To assign any specific date to the end of this formative age is of course impossible, but meaning by the end what has just been stated, we shall not be far wrong if we place it somewhere near the beginning of the 10th century.^ To assign any specific date to the end of this formative age is of course impossible, but meaning by the end what has just been stated, we shall not be far wrong if we place it somewhere near the beginning of the 10th century.

^ Mindsmasher Veteran Join Date: Aug 2007 Location: Poland (deeper in woods somewhere near the Pig that doesn't know the meaning of life :P) Posts: 1,553 .
  • Feudalism 2 - GamersHood Forums 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC gamershood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, you can no longer say every place belongs to just one and only one state.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before we leave the history of feudal origins another word is necessary.^ Before we leave the history of feudal origins another word is necessary.

^ In turning from the origin of feudalism to a description of the completed system one is inevitably reminded of the words with which de Quincey opens the second part of his essay on style .

^ The temptation to use the larger part of any space allotted to the history of feudalism for a discussion of origins does not arise alone from greater interest in that phase of the subject.

.We have traced a definite line of descent for feudal institutions from Roman days through the Merovingian and Carolingian ages to the 10th century.^ We have traced a definite line of descent for feudal institutions from Roman days through the Merovingian and Carolingian ages to the 10th century.

^ A variety of Roman, barbarian, and Carolingian institutions were considered antecedents of feudal practices: Roman lordship and clientage, barbarian war chiefdoms and bands, grants of lands to soldiers and to officeholders, and oaths of loyalty and fidelity.
  • feudalism (social system) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Roman towns had been much bigger and more impressive than the towns of the feudal middle ages, but they did not have the same possibilities for development.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.^ That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.

^ All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'

^ What Augustine means by such language is made very clear by what he says elsewhere, "I will not be slow to search out the substance of God, whether through His scripture or through the creature."
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the definiteness of this line should not cause us to overlook the fact that there was during these centuries much confusion of custom and practice.^ But the definiteness of this line should not cause us to overlook the fact that there was during these centuries much confusion of custom and practice.

^ This relationship did become more and more standardized over the next two centuries, but there were differences in function and practice in different locations.

^ For the thirteenth and following centuries there is much material, especially in England, for the life of the peasants and the methods of agriculture.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'^ As long as there's hope there, we can do something about it.
  • Alan Watt "Cutting Through The Matrix" LIVE on RBN:"While Inflicting Torture and Pain, Our Masters Make Hay for Financial Gain - The End of Morality in the New Corporate Feudal System" - April 14,2008 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.cuttingthroughthematrix.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That says “feudalism” to me, all day long.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'

.The variety and seeming confusion which reign in feudal society, under uniform controlling principles, rule also in the ages of beginning.^ The variety and seeming confusion which reign in feudal society, under uniform controlling principles, rule also in the ages of beginning.

^ War was beginning to be fought differently and the majority of the country had been brought under a singular rule.
  • Samurai, Knights and Feudalism | The Daily Davis 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC hpkomics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A rigid structure of governance, economic activity controlled by feudal lords and thought defined by religion ruled society.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is easy to lose one's bearings by over-emphasizing the importance of variation and exception.^ It is easy to lose one's bearings by over-emphasizing the importance of variation and exception.

.It is indeed true that what was the exception, the temporary offshoot, might have become the main line.^ It is indeed true that what was the exception, the temporary offshoot, might have become the main line.

.It would then have produced a system which would have been feudal, in the wide sense of the term, but it would have been marked by different characteristics, it would have operated in a somewhat different way.^ It would then have produced a system which would have been feudal, in the wide sense of the term, but it would have been marked by different characteristics, it would have operated in a somewhat different way.

^ In this way, libertini were somewhat similar to the Villeins of the later feudal system.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The terms feudalism and feudal system enabled historians to deal summarily with a long span of European history whose complexities were—and remain—confusing.
  • feudalism (social system) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The crowd of varying forms should not prevent us from seeing that we can trace through their confusion the line along which the characteristic traits and institutions of European feudalism, as it actually was, were growing constantly more distinct.^ The terms feudalism and feudal system enabled historians to deal summarily with a long span of European history whose complexities were—and remain—confusing.
  • feudalism (social system) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But it should be noted that as Europe got richer and its economy more monetized, "feudal" forms of military organization as classically understood actually declined: paid service increasingly replaced unpaid service in exchange for land, and formal financial contracts replaced (or at least supplemented) customary ties of vassalage.
  • Stephen Morillo | A "Feudal Mutation"? Conceptual Tools and Historical Patterns in World History | Journal of World History, 14.4 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not convinced, though, that feudalism implies either that our ability to hypothesize should be limited, or that our actual social mobility should be any less than what it is now.
  • Glorfindel of Gondolin: Feudalism: why not? 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.cuivienen.org [Source type: Original source]

.2 That is the line of the origin of the feudal system.^ That is the line of the origin of the feudal system.

^ In turning from the origin of feudalism to a description of the completed system one is inevitably reminded of the words with which de Quincey opens the second part of his essay on style .

^ Undoubtedly, it was a step towards it, forming a system of land ownership that would eventually develop into Feudalism; but at the time it was not Feudalism, and so we can not attribute its origins to Charlemagne.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.(See also France: Law and Institutions.^ (See also France : Law and Institutions.

^ For more detailed information the reader is referred to the articles English Law ; France : French Law and Institutions, Villenage ; Manor ; Scutage ; Knight Service ; Hide .

)
.The growth which we have traced took place within the Frankish empire.^ The growth which we have traced took place within the Frankish empire.

^ Within the Roman Empire doctrinal conflicts took place usually among Roman citizens in a atmosphere of religious and philosophical pluralism.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the rise of capitalism took place within the shell of landlord property and thus, in the long run, not in contradiction with and to the detriment of, but rather to the benefit of the landed aristocracy.
  • The English Revolution and the transition from feudalism to capitalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When we turn to Anglo-Saxon England we find a different situation and a different result.^ When we turn to Anglo-Saxon England we find a different situation and a different result.

^ The word most often used to denote dependent tenures in Merovingian and Carolingian Francia was beneficium , while in Anglo-Saxon England such holdings were termed lnland .

^ If we turn to consider the relations between the lord and his vassals, we shall naturally find that they differ greatly from the relations established at the present time between the sovereign and his subjects.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

.There forms of personal commendation did develop, certain forms of dependent land tenure came into use.^ The second source was ALLODIAL LAND transformed into dependent tenures.

^ There forms of personal commendation did develop, certain forms of dependent land tenure came into use.

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These do not show, however, the characteristic marks of the actual line of feudal descent.^ These do not show, however, the characteristic marks of the actual line of feudal descent.

^ That period had practically ended, however, before these two institutions showed any tendency to join together as they were joined in later feudalism.

^ But we may say that the formative age was over when these features of the system had combined to be its characteristic marks.

.They belong rather in the varying forms around that line.^ They belong rather in the varying forms around that line.

^ At present, they operate independently in various states around the nation.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.Scholars are not yet agreed as to what would have been their result if their natural development had not been cut off by the violent introduction of Frankish feudalism with the Norman conquest, whether the historical feudal system, or a feudal system in the general sense.^ The legal result is the introduction of an elaborate system of .
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Scholars are not yet agreed as to what would have been their result if their natural development had not been cut off by the violent introduction of Frankish feudalism with the Norman conquest, whether the historical feudal system, or a feudal system in the general sense.

^ They began developing theories and church policy which would put this Roman institution to good use for the fostering of Frankish control over territories formerly under the control of the Romans, and of aiding in new conquests.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

.To the writer it seems clear that the latter is the most that can be asserted.^ To the writer it seems clear that the latter is the most that can be asserted.

.They were forms which may rightly be called feudal, but only in the wider meaning in which we speak of the feudalism of Japan, or of Central Africa, not in the sense of 12th-century European feudalism; Saxon commendation may rightly be called vassalage, but only as looking back to the early Frankish use of the term for many varying forms of practice, not as looking forward to the later and more definite usage of completed feudalism; and such use of the terms feudal and vassalage is sure to be misleading.^ They were forms which may rightly be called feudal, but only in the wider meaning in which we speak of the feudalism of Japan , or of Central Africa, not in the sense of 12th-century European feudalism; Saxon commendation may rightly be called vassalage, but only as looking back to the early Frankish use of the term for many varying forms of practice, not as looking forward to the later and more definite usage of completed feudalism; and such use of the terms feudal and vassalage is sure to be misleading.

^ While there may be many different definitions of feudalism, we will use this one: .
  • ZNet - Mainstream Revolution 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism in many variations .
  • ZNet - Mainstream Revolution 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is better to say that European feudalism is not to be found in England before the Conquest, not even in its beginnings.^ It is better to say that European feudalism is not to be found in England before the Conquest, not even in its beginnings.

^ The era of its greatest power was from the Norman conquest of England to the reign of Edward III. But there was a long and gloomy period before Feudalism ripened into an institution,--from the dissolution of the Roman Empire to the eighth and ninth centuries.

^ It is telling that the most “feudalized” societies of the twelfth century were Norman England, Norman Sicily, and the Crusader principalities, all polities established through conquest.

.If G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, vi.^ For Germany see G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte (Kiel and Berlin , 1844 foil.

^ If G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, vi.

112 ff. (1896). .Most fully described in G. Seeliger, Die soziale u.^ Most fully described in G. Seeliger, Die soziale u.

politische Bedeutung d. .Grundherrschaft im friiheren Mittelalter
(1903).^ Grundherrschaft im friiheren Mittelalter (1903).

.2 F. Dahn, Keinige, viii.^ F. Dahn, Keinige, viii.

2, 8 9-9 o; 95.
these had really been in existence it would require no argument to show the fact. .There is no trace of the distinctive marks of Frankish feudalism in Saxon England, not where military service may be thought to rest upon the land, nor even in the rare cases where the tenant seems to some to be made responsible for it, for between these cases as they are described in the original accounts, legally interpreted, and the feudal conception of the vassal's military service, there is a great gulf.^ There is no trace of the distinctive marks of Frankish feudalism in Saxon England, not where military service may be thought to rest upon the land, nor even in the rare cases where the tenant seems to some to be made responsible for it, for between these cases as they are described in the original accounts, legally interpreted, and the feudal conception of the vassal's military service, there is a great gulf.

^ In antiquity , feudalism is a very rare concept.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no clear distinction between the executive and legislative branches.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

.In turning from the origin of feudalism to a description of the completed system one is inevitably reminded of the words with which de Quincey opens the second part of his essay on style.^ That is the line of the origin of the feudal system.

^ In turning from the origin of feudalism to a description of the completed system one is inevitably reminded of the words with which de Quincey opens the second part of his essay on style .

^ Complete the second part of Gustave's adventure .
  • Play Feudalism II, a free online game on Kongregate 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.kongregate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He says: "It is a natural resource that whatsoever we find it difficult to investigate as a g result, we endeavour to follow as a growth.^ He says: "It is a natural resource that whatsoever we find it difficult to investigate as a g result, we endeavour to follow as a growth.

^ The polluter-pays principal says that corporations should be taxed for consuming too much of the world's natural oil resources.
  • The globalists' new feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A stingy lord would find it difficult to attract followers.
  • tb » American Warlordism & Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.timboucher.com [Source type: Original source]

Failing analytically to probe its nature, historically we seek relief to our perplexities by tracing its origin.. .. Thus for instance when any feudal institution (be it Gothic, Norman, or Anglo-Saxon) eludes our deciphering faculty from the imperfect records of its use and operation, then we endeavour conjecturally to amend our knowledge by watching the circumstances in which that institution arose." The temptation to use the larger part of any space allotted to the history of feudalism for a discussion of origins does not arise alone from greater interest in that phase of the subject. .It is almost impossible even with the most discriminating care to give a brief account of completed feudalism and convey no wrong impression.^ It is almost impossible even with the most discriminating care to give a brief account of completed feudalism and convey no wrong impression.

^ But too great emphasis upon variation conveys also a wrong impression.

^ I think most people who use the terms Fascist and Feudal have no idea what they mean.

.We use the term "feudal system" for convenience sake, but with a degree of impropriety if it conveys the meaning "systematic."^ We use the term "feudal system" for convenience sake, but with a degree of impropriety if it conveys the meaning "systematic."

^ Is there anything in our present system to prevent the same degree of wealth distribution inequities that occurred under early Feudalism, from occurring again under Capitalism?
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What it really means is that you'll be on our knees to your lords and masters in this new feudal system unless you do something about it now, now.
  • Alan Watt "Cutting Through The Matrix" LIVE on RBN:"While Inflicting Torture and Pain, Our Masters Make Hay for Financial Gain - The End of Morality in the New Corporate Feudal System" - April 14,2008 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.cuttingthroughthematrix.com [Source type: Original source]

.Feudalism in its most flourishing age was anything but systematic.^ Feudalism in its most flourishing age was anything but systematic.

.It was confusion roughly organized.^ It was confusion roughly organized.

.Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship.^ Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship.

^ Great, then get elected and change the hearts and minds, or else find some place unincorporated to move to.

^ But the definiteness of this line should not cause us to overlook the fact that there was during these centuries much confusion of custom and practice.

.Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.^ Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.

^ Another more serious, less beneficent, result was that, while feudalism centrally converted the sovereign into a landowner, it locally converted the landowner into a sovereign.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most towns were dominated by a tiny oligarchy, until a series of revolts by poor craftsmen to gain some say in the running of the council took place at the end of the middle ages.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.But too great emphasis upon variation conveys also a wrong impression.^ But too great emphasis upon variation conveys also a wrong impression.

^ It is almost impossible even with the most discriminating care to give a brief account of completed feudalism and convey no wrong impression.

.Underlying all the apparent confusion of fact and practice were certain fundamental principles and relationships, which were alike everywhere, and which really gave shape to everything that was feudal, no matter what its form might be.^ Feudalism was, in all shapes and forms, a system of government .
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Underlying all the apparent confusion of fact and practice were certain fundamental principles and relationships, which were alike everywhere, and which really gave shape to everything that was feudal, no matter what its form might be.

^ Relationship summed up in the oath of the nobles at Aragon to the feudal kingWe who are as good as you swear to you, who are no better than we, to accept you as our king and sovereign lord, provided you obverse all our statues and laws; and if not no.
  • British Government 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.aasd.k12.wi.us [Source type: Original source]

.The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.^ In the feudal model, the relationship between Lord and serf was one of mutual obligation.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lord also ought to act toward his faithful vassal reciprocally in all these things.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The liege lord was a vassal’s primary lord, to whom he owed loyalty and service above all others.

.There was actually in fact and practice a larger uniformity than this short list implies, because these principles tended to express themselves in similar forms, and because historical derivation from a common source in Frankish feudalism tended to preserve some degree of uniformity in the more important usages.^ However, underlying these different forms is a common principle.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was actually in fact and practice a larger uniformity than this short list implies, because these principles tended to express themselves in similar forms, and because historical derivation from a common source in Frankish feudalism tended to preserve some degree of uniformity in the more important usages.

^ This relationship did become more and more standardized over the next two centuries, but there were differences in function and practice in different locations.

.The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.^ The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll , or operate a mill .

^ Feudalism is the exchange of land for military service, thus everything was based on what was called the knight's fee, which was the amount of money and/or military service a fief was required to pay to support one knight.

^ According to a narrower and more technical definition that is, nonetheless, more widely used, feudalism involves the exchange of allegiance for a grant of land (fief) between two people, usually men, of noble status.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.^ In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

^ In exchange for the fief, the vassal would provide military service to the lord.

^ In return for the fief, a vassal owed service to his lord.
  • feudalism@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.^ The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.

^ In return for a fief, the vassal pledged to perform certain duties.
  • Feudalism & Medieval Life 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

.So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.^ So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.

^ That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.

^ Precarium and patrocinium easily passed from the Roman empire to the Frankish kingdom, and became as firmly rooted in the new society as they had ever been in the old.

Certain g' he were the owner. .In the ceremony of homage and investiture, which is the creative contract of feudalism, the obligations assumed by the two parties were, as a rule, not specified in exact terms.^ In the ceremony of homage and investiture, which is the creative contract of feudalism, the obligations assumed by the two parties were, as a rule, not specified in exact terms.

^ In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

^ When Adam Smith coined the term “feudal system” he meant by it a social and economic system defined by inherited social ranks, each of which possessed inherent social and economic privileges and obligations.

.They were determined by local custom.^ They were determined by local custom.

.What they were, however, was as well known, as capable of proof, and as adequate a check on innovation by either party, as if committed to writing.^ What they were, however, was as well known, as capable of proof, and as adequate a check on innovation by either party, as if committed to writing.

^ However, the letter fits in quite snugly with the conditions of Papal Romania at this time and could not have been known by either the Franks or East Romans in the fourteenth century.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are not the elite, but they are rewarded so well either overtly or covertly that it is rare, if ever, that a person in that position goes against the will of the elite.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.In many points of detail the vassal's services differed widely in different parts of the feudal world.^ In many points of detail the vassal's services differed widely in different parts of the feudal world.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

^ Second, in a global context there have been many forms of "soldiers' lands" in different times and places, in combination with paid service and not.
  • Stephen Morillo | A "Feudal Mutation"? Conceptual Tools and Historical Patterns in World History | Journal of World History, 14.4 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We may say, however, that they fall into two classes, general and specific.^ We may say, however, that they fall into two classes, general and specific.

^ But middle class citizens may be required to pay more to these private corporations than they pay in federal and state taxes.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, once these contracts have been standardised and in this form are traded in an exchange, they may also be considered to be commodities and, hence, goods.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

.The general included all that might come under the idea of loyalty, seeking the lord's interests, keeping his secrets, betraying the plans of his enemies, protecting his family, &c.^ The general included all that might come under the idea of loyalty, seeking the lord's interests, keeping his secrets, betraying the plans of his enemies, protecting his family, &c.

^ Every family had a lord to protect or subject it.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He who keeps this let him be filled with all benediction; he, however, who infringes it let him be cursed by the Lord and all saints, Amen.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The specific services are capable of more definite statement, and they usually received exact definition in custom and sometimes in written documents.^ The specific services are capable of more definite statement, and they usually received exact definition in custom and sometimes in written documents.

^ It came to be made by degrees the subject of written contract, by which the rights of the holder were more definitely defined and protected than had been the case in Roman law.

^ But more importantly, they still owed service to the tsar.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most characteristic of these was the military service, which included appearance in the field on summons with a certain force, often armed in a specified way, and remaining a specified length of time.^ The most characteristic of these was the military service, which included appearance in the field on summons with a certain force, often armed in a specified way, and remaining a specified length of time.

^ The uprising received extensive material support from the CIA, including arms, supplies, and military training for Tibetan commando units.
  • Swans Commentary: Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth, by Michael Parenti - mparen01 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though its a bit of an exaggeration, feudal incidents displaced military service as the most important render owed by a feudal tenant to his lord.

.It often included also the duty of guarding the lord's castle, and of holding one's own castle subject to the plans of the lord for the defence of his fief.^ It often included also the duty of guarding the lord's castle , and of holding one's own castle subject to the plans of the lord for the defence of his fief.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

^ If a man holds from several lords and honors, however much he holds from others, he owes most and will be subject for justice to him of whom he is the liege man.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hardly less characteristic was court service, which included the duty of helping to form the court on summons, of taking one's own cases to that court instead of to some other, and of submitting to its judgments.^ Hardly less characteristic was court service, which included the duty of helping to form the court on summons, of taking one's own cases to that court instead of to some other, and of submitting to its judgments.

^ In some cases he was bound to a corvee , that is, a specified labour service, both to the seigneur and to the King, usually for communal (public) works such as the building of roads and bridges.
  • Feudalism and Capitalism come to America 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead they choose to take as much of the nation's wealth as they can possibly get away with, even though other peoples' basic needs are not being met.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.^ Feudalism - Lords vassals and fiefs.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

^ Knight service in war was far less common than 1) castle-guard (the obligation of a vassal to serve in a castle garrison of the lord), 2) suit in court (the vassal's obligation to attend the lord's court, to give him counsel, and to help him judge disputes, 3) attendance in the lord's entourage (accompanying the lord when he travelled or attended the court of his lord--meant to increase the social status of the lord), 4) hospitality to the lord or to his servants .

.Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e. failure to pay them did not lead to confiscation, but they were collected by suit and distraint like any debt.^ They were planned under quasi feudal tenure.
  • The Demise and Legacy of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e.

^ Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.

.They did not have their origin in economic considerations, but were either intended to mark the vassal's tenant relation, like the relief, or to be a part of his service, like the aid, that is, he was held to come to the aid of his lord in a case of financial as of military necessity.^ They did not have their origin in economic considerations, but were either intended to mark the vassal's tenant relation, like the relief, or to be a part of his service, like the aid, that is, he was held to come to the aid of his lord in a case of financial as of military necessity.

^ In exchange for the fief, the vassal would provide military service to the lord.

^ Where did the wealth of the feudal lords come from?
  • Feudalism & Medieval Life 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

.The relief was a sum paid by the heir for the lord's recognition of his succession.^ The relief was a sum paid by the heir for the lord's recognition of his succession.

^ On the death of a villein his heir could not enter his inheritance without surrendering a valuable horse or ox in recognition of the claims of the lord to the agricultural outfit of the holding.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the lord may take the revenues and the products of the year, if the relief is not paid to him, and also money rents.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The aids were paid on a few occasions, determined by custom, where the lord was put to unusual expense, as for his ransom when captured by the enemy, or for the knighting of his eldest son.^ The aids were paid on a few occasions, determined by custom, where the lord was put to unusual expense, as for his ransom when captured by the enemy, or for the knighting of his eldest son.

^ The " three chief aids " in Normandy or England were due when the lord's oldest son was knighted, when the lord's oldest daughter was married, and when the lord himself was taken prisoner; in these three cases the vassal had to help pay the expenses, the dowry, or the ransom.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the usual custom in Normandy and Eng land; the theory was that the fief owed to the lord the services of a knight, and when the heir could not perform these the lord had a right to the income of the fief.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There was great variety regarding the occasion and amount of these payments, and in some parts of the feudal world they did not exist at all.^ There was great variety regarding the occasion and amount of these payments, and in some parts of the feudal world they did not exist at all.

^ Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.

^ There is no trace of the distinctive marks of Frankish feudalism in Saxon England, not where military service may be thought to rest upon the land, nor even in the rare cases where the tenant seems to some to be made responsible for it, for between these cases as they are described in the original accounts, legally interpreted, and the feudal conception of the vassal's military service, there is a great gulf.

.The most lucrative of the lord's rights were wardship and marriage, but the feudal theory of these also was non-economic.^ The most lucrative of the lord's rights were wardship and marriage, but the feudal theory of these also was non-economic.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

^ The people’s existence was made subordinate to the rights and arbitrary rule of monarchs, feudal lords and priests.
  • Democracy 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.The fief fell into the hands of the lord, and he enjoyed its revenues during the minority of the heir, because the minor could not perform the duties by which it was held.^ The fief fell into the hands of the lord, and he enjoyed its revenues during the minority of the heir, because the minor could not perform the duties by which it was held.

^ The king might still receive the same revenues and the same services from the district held by the lord as formerly, but for their payment a private person in his capacity as overlord was now responsible.

^ The superior in this relationship was termed a lord, and the subordinate, who pledged loyalty and military service to his lord, was his “vassal.” A “fief” (Latin feudum ) was a grant of land tenure or of revenues held by a vassal from a lord, whose property, in theory, the tenements remained, in return for specified services, which were usually a combination of military and social duties (e.g.

.The heiress must marry as the lord wished, because he had a right to know that the holder of the fief could meet the obligations resting upon it.^ The heiress must marry as the lord wished, because he had a right to know that the holder of the fief could meet the obligations resting upon it.

^ Barendse's emphasis on bundles of rights, that many of the holders of military tenures under Baldwin "only held money fiefs, which conferred no jurisdiction."
  • Stephen Morillo | A "Feudal Mutation"? Conceptual Tools and Historical Patterns in World History | Journal of World History, 14.4 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Debtors who could not meet their obligations risked being cast into slavery.
  • Friendly Fuedalism - The Tibet Myth 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.michaelparenti.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both wardship and marriage were, however, valuable rights which the lord could exercise himself or sell to others.^ In such a case he was exercising the right of wardship.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Both wardship and marriage were, however, valuable rights which the lord could exercise himself or sell to others.

^ If a man holds from several lords and honors, however much he holds from others, he owes most and will be subject for justice to him of whom he is the liege man.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These were by no means the only rights and duties which could be described as existing in feudalism, but they are the most characteristic, and on them, or some of them, as a foundation, the whole structure of feudal obligation was built, however detailed.^ These were by no means the only rights and duties which could be described as existing in feudalism, but they are the most characteristic, and on them, or some of them, as a foundation, the whole structure of feudal obligation was built, however detailed.

^ Peasants had no rights, only duties,--and duties to hard and unsympathetic masters.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

.Ideally regarded, feudalism covered Europe with a network of these fiefs, rising in graded ranks one above the other from the smallest, the knight's fee, at the bottom, to the king at the top, who was the supreme landowner, or who held the kingdom from God.^ Ideally regarded, feudalism covered Europe with a network of these fiefs, rising in graded ranks one above the other from the smallest, the knight's fee, at the bottom, to the king at the top, who was the supreme landowner, or who held the kingdom from God.

^ The monasteries and the king were at the top of the feudal pyramid.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these fiefs were held directly from the king.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Actually not even in the most regular of feudal countries, like England or Germany, was there any fixed gradation of rank, titles or size.^ Actually not even in the most regular of feudal countries, like England or Germany , was there any fixed gradation of rank, titles or size.

^ Baronet (not a feudal rank) King James the first of England wanted to raise some easy money.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Salisbury Oath, even on the supposition that it was actually taken by "all the land owning men of account there were all over England " (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ann.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.^ A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.

^ When the king was weak, or even the Dukes and Counts were weak or in dispute with one another the Baron might have latitude.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

.The case of the count of Champagne, one of the peers of France, is a famous example.^ The case of the count of Champagne , one of the peers of France , is a famous example.

^ Perhaps the best example of the process is the one supplied by Marx—the case of the hand-loom weavers.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.His great territory was held only in small part of the king of France.^ His great territory was held only in small part of the king of France.

^ Galloway had held its ground against the early Norman Kings: The Normans finally seized part of Nithsdale (the valley of the River Nith) from Galloway at the end of the twelfth century.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Burgundy at one time had larger territories and more power than the King of France himself.

.He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor, and other portions of the duke of Burgundy, of two archbishops, of four bishops, and of the abbot of St Denis.^ He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor , and other portions of the duke of Burgundy , of two archbishops, of four bishops , and of the abbot of St Denis .

^ On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot , and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.

^ In the thirteenth century, Emperor Kublai Khan created the first Grand Lama, who was to preside over all the other lamas as might a pope over his bishops.
  • Swans Commentary: Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth, by Michael Parenti - mparen01 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

.Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.^ Where did the wealth of the feudal lords come from?
  • Feudalism & Medieval Life 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.

^ The feudal lords were generally identified by the lands that they held.
  • Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC beamccowan.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is now possible perhaps to get some idea of the way in which the government of a feudal country was operated.^ It is now possible perhaps to get some idea of the way in which the government of a feudal country was operated.

^ If the spiral of catabolic collapse now beginning to pull at industrial civilization succeeds in dragging it all the way down to complete social disintegration, some form of feudalism is pretty much a given.

^ The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.

.The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.^ (So how can they be nationally governed?
  • Feudalism in Pakistan - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.

^ The governors' functions were mainly military, but they did represent the interest of the king against the disruptive feudal nobility.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.New forms of organization had arisen in which indeed these conceptions had not entirely disappeared, but in which the vast majority of cases a wholly different idea of the ground of service and obligation prevailed.^ Massachusetts was not an entirely different case.
  • Feudalism and Capitalism come to America 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ With different obligations of service and different bargaining power.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New forms of organization had arisen in which indeed these conceptions had not entirely disappeared, but in which the vast majority of cases a wholly different idea of the ground of service and obligation prevailed.

.Superficially, for example, the feudal court differed but little from its Teutonic predecessor.^ Superficially, for example, the feudal court differed but little from its Teutonic predecessor.

.It was still an assembly court.^ It was still an assembly court.

.Its procedure was almost the same as the earlier.^ Its procedure was almost the same as the earlier.

.It often included the same classes of men.^ It often included the same classes of men.

^ Exactly the same balancing between classes and groups while building up personal power characterised both men.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same class continued to furnish the king's men, and to form his household and body-guard whether the relation was that of the patrocinium or the comitatus, and to be made noble by entering into it.

.Saxon Witenagemot and Norman Curia regis seem very much alike.^ Saxon Witenagemot and Norman Curia regis seem very much alike.

.But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.^ But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.

^ Public duty had become private obligation.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

.The feudal state was one in which, as it has been said, private law had usurped the place of public law.^ The feudal state was one in which, as it has been said, private law had usurped the place of public law.

^ Is it a public law or a private law right?
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, you can no longer say every place belongs to just one and only one state.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.Public duty had become private obligation.^ Public duty had become private obligation.

^ Here we touch the immensely complicated borderline both between public law and private law and between the law of obligations and the law of property.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her main point (I believe, this is my take) is that our nation has become ungovernable due to the privatization of public authority.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.To understand the feudal state it is essential to make clear to one's mind that all sorts of services, which men ordinarily owe to the public or to one another, were translated into a form of rent paid for the use of land, and defined and enforced by a private contract.^ This is one quarter of all privately held forest land.

^ The feudal state was one in which, as it has been said, private law had usurped the place of public law.

^ To understand the feudal state it is essential to make clear to one's mind that all sorts of services, which men ordinarily owe to the public or to one another, were translated into a form of rent paid for the use of land, and defined and enforced by a private contract.

.In every feudal country, however, something of the earlier conception survived.^ In every feudal country, however, something of the earlier conception survived.

^ English feudal concepts are, however, still the roots of American property law.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the feudal system still is the basis for property law in England and countries with property law systems which are historically based on English law such as the United States.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

.A general military levy was occasionally made.^ A general military levy was occasionally made.

.Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.^ Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.

^ Indeed, for purposes of justice, taxation, supervision of vagabonds, catching and watching thieves, keeping in order roads, and the like, the government did not recognise as the direct local unit the manor, but the vill, the village community or town, as the old English term went.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was great variety regarding the occasion and amount of these payments, and in some parts of the feudal world they did not exist at all.

.About the office of king more of this earlier conception gathered than elsewhere in the state, and gradually grew, aided not merely by traditional ideas, but by the active influence of the Bible, and soon of the Roman law.^ It may be about more than that, but it’s always about who can “influence” whom to Do what.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About the office of king more of this earlier conception gathered than elsewhere in the state, and gradually grew, aided not merely by traditional ideas, but by the active influence of the Bible , and soon of the Roman law.

^ It was the religious Order of Knights Templar which owned land in every state, had a centralised management and soon became richer than the kings because it bought in one place and sold in another at a higher price.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.^ The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In New France it was governed by contemporary French feudal arrangements as set out in the Coutume de Paris , that is, the seigneurial system.
  • Feudalism and Capitalism come to America 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Actual government in the feudal age was primitive and undifferentiated.^ Actual government in the feudal age was primitive and undifferentiated.

^ Feudalism had performed a great service, during an age of disintegration, by maintaining a general framework of government, while allowing the locality to protect and care for itself.

^ When the function of protection and local supervision could be resumed by the general government the feudal age ended.

.Its chief and almost only organ, for kingdom and barony alike, was the curia - a court formed of the vassals.^ Its chief and almost only organ, for kingdom and barony alike, was the curia - a court formed of the vassals.

^ Almost the only service which was uniformly demanded of all vassals was the military.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.^ This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

^ The resultant feudalism, however, was very decentralized, as the nobles acted as if there were no monarchy.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.Almost all the institutions of modern states go back to the curia regis, branching off from it at different dates as the growing complexity of business forced differentiation of function and personnel.^ Almost all the institutions of modern states go back to the curia regis, branching off from it at different dates as the growing complexity of business forced differentiation of function and personnel.

^ Clearly this confusion of small states provided an almost impenetrable barrier to the development of large scale, all-German industry and trade.
  • Historical Materialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was the state of society during the existence of feudal institutions,--a period of about five hundred years,--dating from the dismemberment of Charlemagne's empire to the fifteenth century.

.In action it was an assembly court, deciding all questions by discussion and the weight of opinion, though its decisions obtained their legal validity by the formal pronunciation of the presiding member, i.e. of the lord whose court it was.^ In action it was an assembly court, deciding all questions by discussion and the weight of opinion, though its decisions obtained their legal validity by the formal pronunciation of the presiding member, i.e.

^ Courts may still decide that certain rights, created by two parties and not to be found in the existing categories, bind certain or even all third parties.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Guilty parties should pay ALL legal and court costs.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

It can readily be seen that in a government of this kind the essential operative element was the baron. .So long as the government remained dependent on the baron, it remained feudal in its character.^ So long as the government remained dependent on the baron, it remained feudal in its character.

^ In France the fossilised remains of feudalism were abolished by the Revolution of 1789; in England they faded away in a long gradual process.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.^ So long as the government remained dependent on the baron, it remained feudal in its character.

^ When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.

^ Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.

.Feudalism had performed a great service, during an age of disintegration, by maintaining a general framework of government, while allowing the locality to protect and care for itself.^ Feudalism had performed a great service, during an age of disintegration, by maintaining a general framework of government, while allowing the locality to protect and care for itself.

^ When the function of protection and local supervision could be resumed by the general government the feudal age ended.

^ While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

.When the function of protection and local supervision could be resumed by the general government the feudal age ended.^ So do references to the government functions of protection and empowerment.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the function of protection and local supervision could be resumed by the general government the feudal age ended.

^ As the authority and power of the central government declined in Japan, various groups of local leaders in the provinces banded together for mutual protection.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

.In nearly all the states of Europe this end was reached during, or by the close of, the r3th century.^ In nearly all the states of Europe this end was reached during, or by the close of, the r3th century.

^ Such was the state of society during the existence of feudal institutions,--a period of about five hundred years,--dating from the dismemberment of Charlemagne's empire to the fifteenth century.

^ These were the general conditions during all the time from the fifth to the tenth century, and it was in this framework that the kings were obliged to carry on their functions.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the moment, however, when feudalism was disappearing as the organization of society, it gave rise to results which in a sense continued it into after ages and even to our own day.^ A feudal society in this sense is a .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the moment, however, when feudalism was disappearing as the organization of society, it gave rise to results which in a sense continued it into after ages and even to our own day.

^ The conduct of our society's latest religious offspring, the TV evangelist, has brought the problem sharply into focus.
  • Feudalism aka American Capitalism by David F. 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.mindmined.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of these results was the system of law which it created.^ One of these results was the system of law which it created.

^ Insofar as civil law, customs, and attitudes have been affected by these different systems, their nationally disintegrating force has been accentuated.
  • The Demise and Legacy of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.upei.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking, these rights can also be found in other civil law systems.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

or judges, who wrote down for their own and others' g use the feudal usages with which they were familiar. .The great age of these codes was the 13th century, and especially the second half of it.^ The great age of these codes was the 13th century, and especially the second half of it.

^ [Economy and society during the second half of the seventeenth century], in Pach, Magyarország története 1526–1686 , 2: 1273–1424, see 1290.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The codes in their turn tended still further to harden these usages into fixed forms, and we may date from the end of the 13th century an age of feudal law regulating especially the holding and transfer of land, and much more uniform in character than the law of the feudal age proper.

.The codes in their turn tended still further to harden these usages into fixed forms, and we may date from the end of the 13th century an age of feudal law regulating especially the holding and transfer of land, and much more uniform in character than the law of the feudal age proper.^ The hierarchy of land holding gradually ended.
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When this stage was reached the formative age of feudalism may be considered at an end.

^ The codes in their turn tended still further to harden these usages into fixed forms, and we may date from the end of the 13th century an age of feudal law regulating especially the holding and transfer of land, and much more uniform in character than the law of the feudal age proper.

.This was particularly the case in parts of France and Germany where feudalism continued to regulate the property relations of lords and vassals longer than elsewhere, and where the underlying economic feudalism remained in large part unchanged.^ This was especially the case in France, Germany and Italy.
  • Feudalism by Paul Vinogradoff 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.yuricareport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was particularly the case in parts of France and Germany where feudalism continued to regulate the property relations of lords and vassals longer than elsewhere, and where the underlying economic feudalism remained in large part unchanged.

^ France.  One part of it - the feudal tenure .
  • Feudal System, An Overview of Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this later pseudo-feudalism, however, the political had given way to the economic, and customs which had once had no economic significance came to have that only.^ In this later pseudo-feudalism, however, the political had given way to the economic, and customs which had once had no economic significance came to have that only.

^ But the only way out is throughthrough understanding how we came to this predicament and following a precise formula to obtain your sovereignty.
  • Historical Development of Modern Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, however, layoffs and terminations have no parallel in feudal societies as I understand them.
  • Emptywheel » Brainstorming Future American Neo-Feudalism Today 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

.Feudalism formed the starting-point also of the later social nobilities of Europe.^ Feudalism formed the starting-point also of the later social nobilities of Europe.

^ Feudalism is a specific form of social organization that springs up in the aftermath of sociopolitical collapse.

^ The very problem Barendse started with is "a case of mistaken identity" concerning what feudalism in Europe was.
  • Stephen Morillo | A "Feudal Mutation"? Conceptual Tools and Historical Patterns in World History | Journal of World History, 14.4 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.^ They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.

^ They were forms which may rightly be called feudal, but only in the wider meaning in which we speak of the feudalism of Japan , or of Central Africa, not in the sense of 12th-century European feudalism; Saxon commendation may rightly be called vassalage, but only as looking back to the early Frankish use of the term for many varying forms of practice, not as looking forward to the later and more definite usage of completed feudalism; and such use of the terms feudal and vassalage is sure to be misleading.

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.^ I found between all these .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.

^ The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.

.It is only in certain backward parts of Europe that the terms feudal and baronage in any technical sense can be used of the nobility of the 15th century.^ It is only in certain backward parts of Europe that the terms feudal and baronage in any technical sense can be used of the nobility of the 15th century.

^ They were forms which may rightly be called feudal, but only in the wider meaning in which we speak of the feudalism of Japan , or of Central Africa, not in the sense of 12th-century European feudalism; Saxon commendation may rightly be called vassalage, but only as looking back to the early Frankish use of the term for many varying forms of practice, not as looking forward to the later and more definite usage of completed feudalism; and such use of the terms feudal and vassalage is sure to be misleading.

^ According to a narrower and more technical definition that is, nonetheless, more widely used, feudalism involves the exchange of allegiance for a grant of land (fief) between two people, usually men, of noble status.
  • Emptywheel » Health Care on the Road to Neo-Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: Original source]

(G. B. A.) Bibliography. - .For more detailed information the reader is referred to the articles English Law; France: French Law and Institutions, Villenage; Manor; Scutage; Knight Service; Hide.^ It would be very difficult to imagine an English or French knight living thus familiarly with the villeins or finding similar conditions in his own country.
  • Feudalism and Manorialism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the French monarchy became more and more absolute, France itself remained divided.
  • Renaissance Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.vernonjohns.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under English law this system of landholding became even more complex and intricate because of the development of a duplex ordo : common law and equity.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

For a general sketch of Feudalism the chapters in tome ii. of the .Histoire generale of Lavisse and Rambaud should be consulted.^ Histoire generale of Lavisse and Rambaud should be consulted.

.Other general works are T. Abdy, Feudalism (1890); Paul Roth, Feudalitat and Unterthanverband (Weimar, 1863) .,; and Geschichte des Beneficialwesens (1850); M. M. Kovalevsky, Okonomische Entwickelung Europas (1902); E. de Laveleye, De la propriete et de ses formes primitives (1891); and The Origin of Property in Land, a translation by M. Ashley from the works of N. D. Fustel de Coulanges, with an introductory chapter by Professor W. Ashley.^ 'Feudal landed property is already .
  • The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.alanmacfarlane.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism is the name given to that form and degree of organization and system in European society which existed at a period when there were no strong central governments, when there was no civil equality of persons, and no conception of absolute property in land.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Geschichte Europas von der Völkerwanderung bis zur Reformation Histoire de l'europe: des invasions au XVI siecle la formation de la civilisation occidentale et son expansion le l'empire français a la premiere guerre ...
  • Feudal System page 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Two other works of value are Sir H. S. Maine, Village Communities in the East and West (1876); and Leon Gautier, La Chevalerie (Paris, 1884; Eng.^ However, the other West Roman Fathers each have their parallels in the developing East Roman tradition.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek Christendom consists of supposedly, the East Romans, and Latin Christendom, of the Franks and other Germanic peoples using Latin plus, supposedly, the West Romans, especially Papal Romania, i.e.
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 3 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In textbooks on European civilization and macro-historical comparative narratives, prominent voices stress the division of Europe into two parts: East and West.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

trans. by .Henry Frith, Chivalry, London, 1891).^ Henry Frith , Chivalry , London , 1891).

.For feudalism in England see the various constitutional histories, especially W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, vol.^ For feudalism in England see the various constitutional histories, especially W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, vol.

^ Similar conditions have produced an organization which may be called feudal, in various countries, and in widely separated periods of history.

^ When contemporary people look back in history, they can see that the capitalist foreign powers were stronger and the feudal China was weaker.
  • EastSouthWestNorth: Anti-Imperialism and Anti-Feudalism in Modern ChineseHistory 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.zonaeuropa.com [Source type: Original source]

i. (ed. 1897). .Very valuable also are the writings of Mr J. H. Round, of Professor F. W. Maitland and of Professor P. Vinogradoff.^ Very valuable also are the writings of Mr J. H. Round, of Professor F. W. Maitland and of Professor P. Vinogradoff.

.Among Round's works may be mentioned Feudal England (1895); Geoffrey de Mandeville (1892); and Studies on the Red Book of the Exchequer (1898).^ Among Round's works may be mentioned Feudal England (1895); Geoffrey de Mandeville (1892); and Studies on the Red Book of the Exchequer (1898).

^ The returns to this summons, which give exceedingly valuable information for the military side of feudalism, are preserved in the "Red Book of the Exchequer," lately published in the Rolls Series, and interpreted by Mr. J. H. Round in his work entitled " Feudal England," especially pp.
  • Primary Sources: DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF FEUDALISM 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When studying whether or not Hungarian towns attempted to undermine feudalism, the work of Jenő Szűcs provides an important alternative perspective to that of Zsigmond Pál Pach.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Maitland's Domesday Book and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897) is indispensarle; and the same remark applies to his History of English Law before the time of Edward I. (Cambridge, 1895), written in conjunction with Sir Frederick Pollock.^ Finally, Professor Maitland (Domesday Book and Beyond, Cambridge, 1897, 244) clearly explains what happened by distinguishing two sorts of ownership, economic and political.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It took a long time but unfortunately the right eventually learned to apply the same tactics.

^ It is often said that comparative law and legal history are two sides of the same coin: comparison.
  • Article: A NUMERUS QUASI-CLAUSUS OF PROPERTY RIGHTS AS A CONSTITUTIVEELEMENT OF A FUTURE EUROPEAN PROPERTY LAW?, vol. 7.2 12 September 2009 8:38 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

.Vinogradoff has illuminated the subject in his Villainage inEngland (1892) and his English Society in the rith century (1908).^ Hence the medieval legal maxim: nulle terre sans seigneur (Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century, Oxford, 1908, ii, 39-89).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By him, as representing the nation, baronies, manors, knight's fees, fiefs were distributed to the tenants-in-chief, and they, in turn, divided their land to be held in trust by the lower vassals (Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century, 42).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.See also F. Baldwin, The Scutage and Knight Service in England (Chicago, 1897); Rudolf Gneist, Adel and Ritterschaft in England (1853); and F. Seebohm, The English Village Community (1883).^ Stubbs, Constitutional history (Oxford, 1897); Seebohm, English Village Community (London, 1883); Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law (Cambridge, 1898); Maitland, Constitutional History, (Cambridge, 1908), 141-164; Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century, (Oxford, 1908); Round, Feudal England, (London, 1895), 225-314; Baldwin, Scutage and Knight Service (Chicago, 1897); Roth, Geschichte des Beneficialwesens (Erlangen, 1850); Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte (Berlin, 1880); Lippert, Die deutchen Lehnbuecher (Leipzig, 1903); Rhamen, Die Grosshufen der Nordgermanen (Brunswick, 1905); Luchaire, Histoire des Institutions (Paris, 1883-85); Petit-Deutaillis, Histoire Constitutionelle (1907) tr.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.For feudalism in France see N. D. Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (Les Origines du systeme feodal, 1890; Les Transformations de la royaute pendant l'epoque carolingienne, 1892); A. Luchaire, Histoire des institutions monarchiques de la France sous les premiers Capetiens, 987-1180 (2nd ed., 1890); and Manuel des institutions frangaises: periode des Capetiens directs (1892); J. Flach, Les Origines de l'ancienne France (1886-1893); Paul Viollet, Drat public: Histoires des institutions politiques et administratives de la France (1890-1898); and Henri See, Les classes rurales et le regime domanial (1901).^ This was attacked by Fustel de Coulanges (Histoire des institutions politiques et de l'ancienne France , Paris, 1901) and by Seebohm (The English Village Community, London, 1883, viii, 252-316, who insisted on a Latin ancestry from the Roman villa, contending for a development not from freedom to serfdom, but from slavery, through serfdom, to freedom.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Feudalism 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudalism, diametrically opposed to the values of the occidental city, was a rural-based regime—closed, hierarchical, paternalistic, and oppressive.
  • Balázs A. Szelényi | The Dynamics of Urban Development: Towns in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Hungary | The American Historical Review, 109.2 | The History Cooperative 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the origins of European feudalism, see my books Romanism, Romania, Roumeli (in Greek) (Thessaloniki, 1975).
  • FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE Part 1 12 January 2010 3:10 UTC www.romanity.org [Source type: Original source]

For Germany see G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte (Kiel and Berlin, 1844 foil.); H. Brunner, Grundziige der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte (Leipzig, 1901); V. Menzel, Die Entstehung des Lebenswesens (Berlin, 1890); and G. L. von Maurer's works on the early institutions of the Germans.

<< Feud

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste.]]

Feudalism is a system of land ownership and duties used in the Middle Ages. All the land in the kingdom was the king's.[1] However, he gave some of the land to the lords or nobles who fought for him. These presents of land were called manors.[1] Then the nobles gave some of their land to vassals.[1] The vassals then had to do duties for the nobles. The lands of vassals were called fiefs.[1]

Outside of a European context, the concept of feudalism is normally only used by analogy (called semi-feudal), most often in discussions of Japan under the shoguns, and, sometimes, medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia. Some have seen something like feudalism in places as different as Ancient Egypt, Parthian empire, India, to the American South of the nineteenth century. [2]

Contents

Characteristics

During feudalism, taxes were not paid in money. They were paid in products and services. Presents and taxes had to be given to the lords by their vassals.[1] At harvest time, the vassals gave shares of their crops to the lords. The vassals would grind their grain at the noble's grainaries. They would give part of the grain to their lord. When animals were killed for food, part of the meat was given to the lords. To the vassals, the lords promised to give protection, peace, and safety.

Manors were completely owned by the nobles. They were given from one generation to another. The noble's firstborn son took it all when his father died.[1] Each manor had its own pasture lands, mill, wine press, church, and village.[1] A manor had to let many people live there. Lords gave their servants food and a place to sleep, but they did not pay their servants money.[1]

The villein was in a poorer class. He had to serve the lords, but free in other things.[1] He had work to do for the lord or the town. Then he went back to his little house with floors made of earth and a thatched roof. On the walls of his house, the villein hung meats, tools, and dried vegetables.[1]

A villein was freer than the slaves or serfs, but he could still want to be completely free. He could not move or marry if the lord did not say yes. He could not even leave the manor lands if the lord said no. If he escaped, he could run away to a town where he would try to live quietly without being known for a year and a day. If he could do this, he became a free man.[1] If he wanted to help the Catholic Church, he needed special permission. As a member of the church, his position could get higher. However, if this did not work, he could join a band of outlaws.[1]

The serf was in the lowest class. He was only a little better than slaves. He could not be sold away from the land, but was always sold with the land.[1]

Notes and references

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Hofflund, Ethel; Elizabeth Loeks Bouman, Howard Stitt, Alan Christopherson. [www.aop.com "The Feudal System"]. In Rirchard W. Wheeler, M.A.Ed. (in English). History & Geography 604 Life in the Middle Ages. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, IA 51246-1759: Alpha Omega Publications, Inc.. pp. 6-7. ISBN 978-0-86717-554-7. www.aop.com. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  2. "Reader's Companion to Military History - - Feudalism". Web.archive.org. 2004-11-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20041112062036/http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/mil/html/mh_017900_feudalism.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  • Philip Daileader (2001). "Feudalism". The High Middle Ages. The Teaching Company. ISBN 1-56585-827-1

Other websites

Bibliography

  • Marc Bloch, Feudal Society. Tr. L.A. Manyon. Two volumes. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1961 ISBN 0-226-05979-0
  • Francois-Lois Ganshof, Feudalism. Tr Philip Grierson. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.
  • Jean-Pierre Poly and Eric Bournazel, The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200., Tr. Caroline Higgitt. New York and London: Holmes and Meier, 1991.
  • Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-19-820648-8
  • Normon E. Cantor. Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works, and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth century. Quill, 1991.
  • Alain Guerreau, L'avenir d'un passé incertain. Paris: Le Seuil, 2001. (complete history of the meaning of the term).

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Feudalism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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