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Fidel Castro

Castro in July of 1977. During his early years in power he was commonly seen in public with a cigar, which became a symbol of his persona.

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba
Incumbent
Assumed office 
October 3, 1965
President Osvaldo Torrado (1965-1976)
Himself (1976-2008)
Raúl Castro (2008-present)
Preceded by None (Office Created)

In office
December 2, 1976 – February 24, 2008[1]
Vice President First Vice President:
Raúl Castro
(Acting President after 31 July 2006)
Other Vice Presidents:
Juan Almeida Bosque
Abelardo Colome Ibarra
Carlos Lage Davila
Esteban Lazo Hernández
José Machado Ventura
Preceded by Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado
Succeeded by Raúl Castro

In office
February 16, 1959 – December 2, 1976
Preceded by José Miró Cardona
Succeeded by Merged with office of President of the Council of Ministers

In office
September 10, 1979 – March 6, 1983
Preceded by Junius Richard Jayawardene
Succeeded by N. Sanjiva Reddy
In office
Sepetember 16, 2006 – February 24, 2008[2]
Preceded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Succeeded by Raúl Castro

Born August 13, 1926 (1926-08-13) (age 83)
Birán, Holguín Province, Cuba
Nationality Cuban
Political party Communist Party of Cuba
Spouse(s) Mirta Díaz-Balart Gutierrez (1948-1955)
Dalia Soto del Valle (1980-present)
Relations Natalia Revuelta y Clews
Children Fidel Ángel Castro Diaz-Balart
Alina Fernandez-Revuelta
Alexis Castro-Soto
Alejandro Castro-Soto
Antonio Castro-Soto
Angel Castro-Soto
Alain Castro-Soto
Jorge Angel Castro[3]
Francisca Pupo[3]
Alma mater Colegio de Belen
University of Havana
Profession Lawyer
Religion Self-defined as secular, formerly Roman Catholic
Signature
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is a Cuban politician, one of the primary leaders of the Cuban Revolution, the Prime Minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976, and then the President of the Council of State of Cuba until his resignation from the office in February 2008. He currently serves as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, a position he has held since its inception in 1965.
.Castro was born into a wealthy family and acquired a law degree.^ In English: “Sources close to children and families in Cuba say that Fidel Castro fell into a coma and is in serious condition with an artificial respirator.” .
  • More chatter that Fidel Castro is dead - UPDATED 1/23 with Fidel Castro photo - Cuba Politics News - Havana Journal 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC havanajournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Their son, Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart, or Fidelito, was born in 1949, but Castro had no job and could barely support his family.
  • http://www.westirondequoit.org/ihs/library/castro.html 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.westirondequoit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926, on his family's successful sugar plantation near Bir á n, Oriente Province, Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While studying at the University of Havana, he began his political career and became a recognized figure in Cuban politics.^ Castro returned to Havana and his university studies.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro became immediately fascinated by the politics on campus at the University of Havana.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conclusion This study began with the premise that an examination of the circumstances surrounding the Cuban Revolution could broaden our professional understanding of the problems associated with countering insurgencies.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .His political career continued with nationalist critiques of Fulgencio Batista, and of the United States' political and corporate influence in Cuba.^ After consultations with the United States government, Batista decided to flee Cuba.

^ Cuba for culture; the United States for ignorance.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro first attracted attention in Cuban political life through nationalist critiques of Batista and United States corporate and political influence in Cuba.

.He gained an ardent, but limited, following and also drew the attention of the authorities.^ He gained an ardent, but limited, following and also drew the attention of the authorities.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .He eventually led the failed 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks, after which he was captured, tried, incarcerated, and later released.^ On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He eventually led the failed 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks, after which he was captured, tried, incarcerated and later released.

^ He eventually led the failed 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks , after which he was captured, tried, incarcerated and later released.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He then traveled to Mexico[6][7] to organize and train for an assault on Batista's Cuba.^ This very important alliance, which became known as the Mexico Pact, succeeded in uniting for common purpose two of the most highly organized factions opposing Batista.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He then travelled to Mexico [3] [4] to organize and train for the guerrilla invasion of Cuba that took place in December 1956.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mexico City, Fidel began to organize what eventually became the greatest political adventure of his generation–a guerrilla expedition to Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro's Women 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC cuban-exile.com [Source type: Original source]

He and his fellow revolutionaries left Mexico for the East of Cuba in December 1956.
.Castro came to power as a result of the Cuban revolution that overthrew the U.S.-backed[8] dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista,[9] and shortly thereafter became Prime Minister of Cuba.^ As a result, Castro became somewhat of a martyr among the anti-Batista forces.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He came to power in 1959 after leading a revolution against dictator Fulgencio Batista.
  • Fidel Castro Steps Down - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ What did the Revolution find when it came to power in Cuba?
  • Fidel Castro's 1960 Address to the U.N. General Assembly, Part 1 of 4 - Succeed by Studying Great Speeches: School for Champions 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.school-for-champions.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .In 1965 he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic.^ Castro became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965, and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965, and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic.

^ In 1965 it became the Communist Party of Cuba — the island's only ruling party.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1976 he became President of the Council of State as well as of the Council of Ministers.^ He kept his title of premier until 1976 when he became the President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers as chief of state and head of the Cuban government and ruling Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) that was formed in October, 1965.

^ I neither will aspire to nor will I accept — I repeat — I neither will aspire to nor will I accept, the position of president of the council of state and commander in chief,” wrote the Cuban leader, who had been in power for almost 50 years.
  • Fidel Castro Steps Down... 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I neither will aspire to, nor will I accept, the position of president of the council of state and commander in chief," he wrote in the letter.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also held the supreme military rank of Comandante en Jefe ("Commander in Chief") of the Cuban armed forces.^ Comandante en Jefe no mas .
  • Fidel Castro Steps Down - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ El jefe supremo [The supreme chief] .
  • Consejo de Latinos Unidos 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.consejohelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reflexiones del Comandante en Jefe.
  • Discursos e Intervenciones del Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.cuba.cu [Source type: General]
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following intestinal surgery from an undisclosed digestive illness believed to have been diverticulitis,[11] Castro transferred his responsibilities to the First Vice-President, his younger brother Raúl Castro, on July 31, 2006. On February 19, 2008, five days before his mandate was to expire, he announced he would neither seek nor accept a new term as either president or commander-in-chief.^ The Cuban president underwent intestinal surgery in July 2006, and handed over power temporarily to his brother, Raul.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns As Cuba's President 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC nazret.com [Source type: General]

^ Fidel Castro handed provisional power to Raúl Castro, his younger brother, in July 2006.
  • Fidel Castro | NewsBusters.org 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: News]

^ Posted by: Claudia at July 31, 2006 11:04 PM .
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

[12][13] .On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly elected Raúl Castro to succeed him as the President of Cuba.^ Fidel Castro is president of Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro: In Spite of Everything 19 November 2009 19:43 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Raúl Castro officially took over the presidency in February 2008 after Fidel Castro fell ill.
  • Fidel Castro | NewsBusters.org 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: News]

^ Fidel Castro 's seat in the National Assembly...
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Contents

Childhood and education

.
A letter written by the 14-year-old Castro to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, expressing admiration and asking for a $10 bill.
^ The end of Castro's rule - the longest in the world for a head of government - frees his 76-year-old brother Raul to implement reforms he has hinted at since taking over as acting president when Fidel Castro fell ill in July 2006.
  • Fidel Castro resigns Cuban presidency after nearly half-century in power / LJWorld.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www2.ljworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I think it might be Luis Inacio "Lula" da Silva, the president of Brazil, who has known Castro for some 20 years.
  • Fidel Castro dead? - snopes.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC message.snopes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A former Prime Minister of Spain has written that the embargo is Castro's greatest ally, as it perpetuates the government; he asserts that if it were lifted, Castro would lose his presidency in three months.

.In the letter Castro claims to be "twelve years old" and writes, "If you like, give me a ten dollar bill green American, because never, I have not seen a ten dollar bill," signing the letter, "Thank you very much.^ I thank you very much for being here tonight.
  • Nieman Foundation | Awards | Awards at a Glance | Joe Alex Morris Jr. Lecture | Lecturers | 1999 Joe Alex Morris Jr. Memorial Lecture 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.nieman.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

^ In Harlem he is seen as a icon because of his historic visit with Malcolm X in 1960 at the Hotel Theresa .#redirect Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By THE NEW YORK TIMES Fidel Castro stepped aside as president of Cuba in February and has not been seen much since undergoing surgery in July 2006, but he is still very much a presence in the island nation he has turned over to his brother Raúl.

Good by [sic]. Your friend, Fidel Castro."
.Fidel Alejandro Vittore Castro Ruz was born on a sugar plantation in Birán, near Mayarí, in the modern-day province of Holguín – then a part of the now-defunct Oriente province.^ Fidel Castro Ruz was born on August 13, 1926, on his family's successful sugar plantation near Bir á n, Oriente Province, Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on a sugar plantation in Birán, near Mayarí, in the modern-day province of Holguín – then a part of the now-defunct Oriente province.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born August 13, 1926, on his family's sugar cane plantation at Mayari , Oriente province.
  • Fidel Castro@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was the third child born to Ángel Castro y Argiz, a Galician immigrant from the impoverished northwest of Spain who became relatively prosperous through work in the sugar industry and successful investing.^ He was the third child born to Ángel Castro y Argiz, a Galician immigrant who became relatively prosperous through hard work in the sugar industry and shrewd investments.

^ He was the third child born to Ángel Castro y Argiz , a Spanish immigrant who became relatively prosperous through hard work in the sugar industry and shrewd investments.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on a sugar plantation in Birán, near Mayarí, in the modern-day province of Holguín – then a part of the now-defunct Oriente province.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.His mother, Lina Ruz González, was a household servant.^ His mother, Lina Ruz González, was a household servant.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Angel Castro was married to another woman, Maria Luisa Argota,[15] until Fidel was 15, and thus Fidel as a child had to deal both with his illegitimacy and the challenge of being raised in various foster homes away from his father's house.^ From: Amazon Posted: Jun-15-2000 Fidel Castro's speeches in English, elected and edited Fidel Castro is known for public speeches that last 6, 7, 8 hours or longer.
  • History Of Fidel Castro - Shop Smarter.com 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ She then gave a short summary of the custody dispute over the child eight years ago, during which she stated that "Fidel Castro himself led the ideological battle to bring Gonzalez back to Cuba and his father."
  • Fidel Castro | NewsBusters.org 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: News]

^ February 23rd, 2008 at 8:31 pm Fidel Castro’s father, Angel Castro, was a wealthy landowner originally from Galicia, Spain; his mother, Lina Ruz, was a maid to Angel’s first wife, and was from Galicia, too.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

.Castro has two brothers, Ramón and Raúl, and four sisters, Angelita, Juanita, Enma, and Agustina, all of whom were born out of wedlock.^ Castro has two brothers: Ramón and Raúl , and three sisters: Angela, Juanita and Emma.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of them were born out of wedlock.

^ Castro has two brothers: Ramón and Raúl and three sisters: Angela, Juanita and Emma.
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.He also has two half siblings, Lidia and Pedro Emilio who were raised by Ángel Castro's first wife.^ He also has two half siblings, Lidia and Pedro Emilio who were raised by Ángel Castro's first wife.

^ By his first marriage, Angel had two children, Lidia and Pedro Emilio.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
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.Fidel was not baptized until he was 8, also very uncommon, bringing embarrassment and ridicule from other children.^ Fidel was not baptized until he was eight, also very uncommon, bringing embarrassment and ridicule from other children.

^ Fidel Castro has three other children with other women as well.
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[16][17] Ángel .Castro finally dissolved his first marriage when Fidel was 15 and married Fidel’s mother.^ What was the first attack that Fidel Castro?
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISBN 9707490012 Ángel Castro finally dissolved his first marriage when Fidel was 15 and married Fidel's mother.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro finally dissolved his first marriage when Fidel was 15 and married Fidel’s mother.

.Castro was formally recognized by his father when he was 17, when his surname was legally changed to Castro from Ruz, his mother’s name.^ Castro was formally recognized by his father when he was 17, when his last name was legally changed to Castro from Ruz, his mother's maiden name.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro was formally recognized by his father when he was 17, when his last name was legally changed to Castro from Ruiz, his mother’s maiden name.

^ Fidel Castro Ruz Diciembre 19 de 2009 8 y 17 p.m.
  • ARGENPRESS.info - Prensa argentina para todo el mundo: Fidel Castro 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.argenpress.info [Source type: General]

[16][17]
.Although accounts of his education differ, most sources agree that he was an intellectually gifted student, more interested in sports than in academics, and spent many years in private Catholic boarding schools, finishing high school at El Colegio de Belén, a Jesuit school in Havana in 1945.[18] While at Belén, Castro pitched on the school's baseball team.^ Although accounts of his education differ, most sources agree that he was an intellectually-gifted student, more interested in sports than in academics, and spent many years in private Catholic boarding schools, finishing high school at Belen, a Jesuit school in Havana in 1945.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ And we are many more than los blancos ."

^ Castro studied in Jesuit schools in Oriente and in Havana, Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are persistent rumors that Castro was scouted for various U.S. baseball teams,[19] but there is no evidence that this ever actually happened.^ There's no sign that Castro ever favored it.
  • Wasserman on 'Libertarian' Fidel Castro - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, much of these events occurred during the early 1960s, and there is no evidence suggesting that the U.S. is currently engaged in a subversion campaign against Cuba.

^ There is evidence that Castro discovered the plot from its very beginning, early in 1962, but he let it go on for a while, playing a cat and mouse game with the Russians.

[20]

Political beginnings

.In late 1945, Castro entered law school at the University of Havana.^ In 1945, he went to the University of Havana to study law, from where he graduated in 1950.

^ Castro returned to Havana and his university studies.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1945 Castro entered law school at the University of Havana, where student activism, violence, and gang fights were common.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He became immediately embroiled in the political culture at the University, which was a reflection of the volatile politics in Cuba during that era.^ Castro became immediately fascinated by the politics on campus at the University of Havana.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mexico City, Fidel began to organize what eventually became the greatest political adventure of his generation–a guerrilla expedition to Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro's Women 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC cuban-exile.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The controversial Platt Amendment became the political solution to America's duel economic and strategic concerns in Cuba.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since the fall of president Gerardo Machado in the 1930s, student politics had degenerated into a form of gangsterismo dominated by fractious action groups, and Castro, believing that the gangs posed a physical threat to his university aspirations, experienced what he later described as "a great moment of decision."[21]
.He returned to the university from a brief hiatus to involve himself fully in the various violent battles and disputes which surrounded university elections, and was to be implicated in a number of shootings linked to Rolando Masferrer's MSR action group.^ While at the University he repeatedly was involved in gangs in order to assure himself political power.

^ His assassination enraged liberal student groups who quickly began to take violent actions against Gaitan's enemies.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."To not return", said Castro later, "would be to give in to bullies, to abandon my beliefs".[21] Rivalries were so intense that Castro apparently collaborated in an attempt on Masferrer's life during this period,[21] while Masferrer, whose paramilitary group Les Tigres later became an instrument of state violence under Batista,[22] perennially hunted the younger student seeking violent retribution.^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón , the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nikolai Sergevich Leonov, who would become a General in the KGB Intelligence Directorate and the Soviet KGB deputy station chief in Warsaw, was the translator Castro used for contact with the Russians during this period.

^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.

[23]
.In 1947, Castro joined the Partido Ortodoxo which had been newly formed by Eduardo Chibás.^ Once he left Beln and entered the university, Castro fell under the spell of Eduardo Chibs, a charismatic, highly nationalistic leader of the Ortodoxo Party.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1947, growing increasingly passionate about social justice lacking under Cuba's current system, Castro joined the Partido Ortodoxos which had been newly formed by Eduardo Chibás .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1947, growing increasingly passionate about social justice lacking under Cuba's current system, Castro joined the Partido Ortodoxo s which had been newly formed by Eduardo Chibás .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A charismatic figure, Chibás attracted many Cubans with his message of social justice, honest government, and political freedom.^ Political prisoners crowded Cuban jails, while homosexuals, intellectuals, and others were constant victims of government-sponsored violence.
  • Fidel Castro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It aimed to instill a strong sense of national identity among Cubans, establish Cuban economic independence and freedom from the United States, and dismantle the power of the elite over Cuban politics.
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Cubans still feared him, recalling his ruthless handling of political enemies and dissidents during the 1930's.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Chibás was running for president against the incumbent Ramón Grau San Martín who had allowed rampant corruption to flourish during his term.^ A charismatic and emotional figure, Chibás was running for president against the incumbent Ramón Grau San Martín who had allowed rampant corruption to flourish during his term.
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main opposition candidate was former president Ramon Grau San Martin.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact the Cuban people had elected one President in 1945, Ramon Grau San Martin.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.November 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Partido Ortodoxo publicly exposed corruption and demanded government and social reform.^ The Partido Ortodoxo publicly exposed corruption and demanded government and social reform.

^ The Partido Ortodoxos publicly exposed corruption and demanded government and social reform.
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It stipulated that the government would provide social services to those needing them.

.It aimed to instill a strong sense of national identity among Cubans, establish Cuban economic independence and freedom from the United States, and dismantle the power of the elite over Cuban politics.^ It aimed to instill a strong sense of national identity among Cubans, establish Cuban economic independence and freedom from the United States, and dismantle the power of the elite over Cuban politics.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ After the Cuban revolution he fled to the United States.

^ The United States has military power, a vigorous economy and an enormous amount of hard currency which it can mint in unlimited quantities, but the geopolitical level of the country is extremely low.
  • Fidel Castro: Hard and Obvious Realities 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Though Chibás lost the election, Castro, considering Chibás his mentor, remained committed to his cause, working fervently on his behalf.^ Though Chibás lost the election, Castro, considering Chibás his mentor, remained committed to his cause, working fervently on his behalf.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March of 2005, CBS 60 Minutes profiled the Consejos work on behalf of uninsured patients.
  • Consejo de Latinos Unidos 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.consejohelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some argue that Kennedy's last-minute decision to withdraw air support caused the invasion to fail [ citations needed ] .

.In 1951, while running for president again, Chibás shot himself in the stomach during a radio broadcast.^ In 1951, while running for president again, Chibás shot himself in the stomach during a radio broadcast.
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^ A charismatic and emotional figure, Chibás was running for president against the incumbent Ramón Grau San Martín who had allowed rampant corruption to flourish during his term.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Castro was present and accompanied him to the hospital where he died.^ Castro was present and accompanied him to the hospital where he died.
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[18]
.During 1948, Castro was twice linked to political assassinations.^ During his trial Castro delivered his famous defense speech History Will Absolve Me , upholding his rebellious actions and boldly declaring his political views: .

^ During his days in the Sierra, Castro was linked romantically with fellow rebel Celia Sánchez , though support for this theory isn't as common as it was.
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^ Thousands of political opponents to the Castro regime have been killed, primarily during the first decade of his leadership; however exact numbers are not known.

[4] .He was suspected of Manolo Castro's assassination that took place on February 22.[4] University policeman Oscar Fernandez was killed in front of his own home on June 6. Dying Oscar Fernandez and other witnesses identified Castro as the assassin.^ Did Fidel Castro Kill JFK? Did the Soviets/Castro organize the assassination?

^ Throughout the underdeveloped world, they will try to persuade local nationalists to identify Castro's cause with their own struggles.
  • FRUS 1961-63, Vol. XI Cuba: 76-90 documents and memos 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before Castro took over most of Cuba was owned by foreigners.
  • Change of Subject: Top 10 questions about Fidel Castro's newspaper column 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

[4] The incident passed.[4] .In 1948, Castro joined an anti-American demonstration trip to Bogotá, Colombia, paid by Argentinean army colonel and President Juan Perón.^ Fidel Castro has stepped down after forty-nine years and ten American presidents.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Castro and a group of students had been organizing a Latin American Union of Students, financed by the Argentinean dictator Juan D. Pern.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The assault against Castro will add fuel to the fires of anti-Americanism throughout Europe.
  • FRUS 1961-63, Vol. XI Cuba: 76-90 documents and memos 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Castro joined mob violence and property destruction, and later sought refuge in the Argentinean embassy.^ When Castro was pursued by the Colombian authorities for his role in the riots, he took refuge in the Cuban Embassy and was flown back to Havana.
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^ A marked man, he took refuge in Mexico; a few months later, he met Fidel Castro and decided to join his movement.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convinced by Pais to join M-26-7, he later became one of Castro's most trusted lieutenants.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Decision for revolution

.In 1948, Castro married Mirta Díaz Balart, a student from a wealthy Cuban family through which he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.^ Castro returned to Cuba and married Mirta Díaz Balart , a student from a wealthy Cuban family where he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.
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^ Castro returned to Cuba and married Mirta Díaz Balart, a student from a wealthy Cuban family where he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.

^ After his return to the University, Castro married fellow-student, Mirtha Diaz Balart.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mirta's father gave tens of thousands to spend in a three-month honeymoon in New York.^ Posada, too, was frank in at least one interview he gave to the New York Times.

^ Three Cuban airplanes are seized by the U.S. government in New York.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Castro also received a $1,000 wedding gift from Fulgencio Batista, the ex-President who was a friend of both families.^ Talked to a friend who talked to family in Cuba.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ The younger Castro, a physicist who studied in the ex-Soviet Union, did not comment further on his father's health.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N14360456.htm 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Communist youth newspaper Juventud Rebelde quotes Elian Gonzalez as saying he will never let down ex-President Fidel Castro and his brother Raul Castro , who succeeded Fidel earlier this year.
  • Fidel Castro | NewsBusters.org 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: News]

[4][25] .Although Castro considered enrolling at Columbia University, a private university in Manhattan, he returned to Cuba to complete his degree.^ Castro returned to Havana and his university studies.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro returned to the University.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After his return to the University, Castro married fellow-student, Mirtha Diaz Balart.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
Castro started to have money problems. .He refused to find work and others had to pay the family's bills.^ Sugar workers, unable to find other work during the off- season, were reduced to living on credit or asking for handouts to survive.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][25] The relationship with his wife was also strained. .In 1950 he graduated from law school with a Doctor of Laws degree and began practicing law in a small partnership in Havana.^ In 1950, after his graduation from law school, Castro opened a small law practice in Havana.

^ In 1950 he graduated from law school with a Doctor of Laws degree and began practicing law in a small partnership in Havana, mostly representing the poor and underprivileged.
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also began a law practice in a small partnership after receiving his degree in 1950 devoting most of his time to representing the poor.

[25] .By now he had become well known for his passionately nationalist views and his intense opposition to the United States.^ By now he had become well known for his passionately nationalist ic views and his intense opposition to the influence of the United States on Cuban internal affairs.
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^ By now he had become well known for his passionately nationalistic views and his intense opposition to the influence of the United States on Cuban internal affairs.

^ Cuba's absolutely legitimate and defensive action gave the United States a pretext to promulgate the well-known Helms-Burton Act, which encroaches upon the sovereignty of other nations besides Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castro spoke publicly against the United States involvement in defending South Korea in the Korean War.^ Castro’s state visit to South Africa .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am going to wage against them [the United States].
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Europe was humiliated by its ridiculous role in the war against Yugoslavia since 100% of the bombs were made in the United States and 90% of the operations were made by US aviation and missiles.
  • Fidel Castro on the 50th Anniversary of the Chinese Revolution (1999) 19 November 2009 19:43 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.In 1951, Fidel Castro said to Batista "I don't see an important book here". When Batista asked which, Castro replied "Curzio Malaparte's The Technique of the Coup d'état".[25] According to Rafael Diaz-Ballart, Fidel Castro realized that Batista was not a "revolutionary" leader anymore, even though both looked at each other with admiration.^ Cuba's leader Fidel Castro resigns .
  • Fidel Castro Steps Down - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Q: This book is not a history of the Cuban revolution or even a biography of Fidel Castro.
  • 'The Secret Fidel Castro' 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fidel Castro, 20th century revolutionary .
  • Fidel Castro Steps Down - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

[25]
.Increasingly interested in a career in politics, Castro had become a candidate for a seat in the Cuban parliament in the 1952 elections when former president, General Fulgencio Batista, ousted President Carlos Prío Socarrás in a coup d'état, cancelled the elections and assumed government as "provisional president". Batista was supported by establishment elements of Cuban society, powerful Cuban agencies, and labor unions.^ Increasingly interested in a career in politics, Castro had become a candidate for a seat in the Cuban parliament when General Fulgencio Batista led a coup d'état in 1952, successfully overthrowing the government of President Carlos Prío Socarrás and canceling the election.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Free elections within one year of the establishment of the provisional government.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Batista established himself as dictator with the support of establishment elements of Cuban society and powerful Cuban agencies.
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Cuban Revolution

Attack on Moncada Barracks

.As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raúl, and Mario Chanes de Armas.^ As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raul, and actively plotted to overthrow Batista.
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^ As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raúl , and actively plotted to overthrow Batista.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raúl, and actively plotted to overthrow Batista.

.Together they actively plotted to overthrow Batista.^ As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raul, and actively plotted to overthrow Batista.
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^ The plan to overthrow Batista ended in disaster and although only eight were killed in the fighting, another eighty were murdered by the army after they were captured.

^ As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raúl , and actively plotted to overthrow Batista.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They collected guns and ammunition and finalized their plans for an armed attack on Moncada Barracks, Batista's largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba.^ Batista's men murdered seventy in Santiago de Cuba.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They collected guns and ammunition and finalized their plans for an armed attack on Moncada Barracks , Batista’s largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They collected guns and ammunition and finalized their plans for an armed attack on Moncada Barracks, Batista's largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba.

.On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks.^ On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks .
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^ On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks.

^ JULY 26TH: 55TH MONCADA ANNIVERSARY (1953-2008) .
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Céspedes garrison in Bayamo was also attacked as a diversion.^ The Céspedes garrison in Bayamo was also attacked as a diversion.
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After months of preparation, Castro and Santamaria decided to attack the military garrisons of Santiago and Bayamo in Oriente province.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moncada Fortress in Santiago was to be the main target, with the attack on the army post in Bayamo a diversion.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The attack proved disastrous and more than sixty of the one-hundred and thirty-five militants involved were killed.^ The attack proved disastrous and more than sixty of the one-hundred and thirty-five militants involved were killed.

^ The attack proved disastrous and more than sixty of the one-hundred and thirty-five militant s involved were killed.
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^ The people who really managed the whole event were no more than Khrushchev and five or six very close people.
  • 'The Secret Fidel Castro' 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.geoffmetcalf.com [Source type: Original source]

.Castro and other surviving members of his group managed to escape to a part of the rugged Sierra Maestra[26] mountains east of Santiago where they were eventually discovered and captured.^ Castro and other surviving members of his group managed to escape to a part of the rugged Sierra Maestra mountains east of Santiago where they were eventually discovered and captured.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel, his brother Raul, and a few others managed to escape to the Sierra Maestra Mountains.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro and other surviving members of his group managed to escape to a part of the rugged Sierra Maestra [14] mountains east of Santiago where they were eventually discovered and captured.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although there is disagreement over why Castro and his brother, Raúl, were not executed on capture as many of their fellow militants were, there is evidence that an officer recognized Castro from his university days and treated the captured rebels compassionately, despite the 'illegal' unofficial order to have the leader executed.^ Although there is disagreement over why Castro and his brother, Raul, were not executed on capture as many of their fellow militants were, there is evidence that an officer recognized Castro from his university days and treated the captured rebels compassionately, despite the unofficial order to have the leader executed.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is disagreement over why Castro and his brother, Raúl, were not executed on capture as many of their fellow militants were, there is evidence that an officer recognized Castro from his university days and treated the captured rebels compassionately, despite the unofficial order to have the leader executed.

^ Although there is disagreement over why Castro and his brother, Raúl , were not executed on capture as many of their fellow militants were, there is evidence that an officer recognized Castro from his university days and treated the captured rebels compassionately, despite the unofficial order to have the leader executed.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Others, such as Angel Prado, military commander of the 26th of July Movement, say that on the morning of the attack Castro's driver got lost and he never reached the barracks.^ On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks .
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  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: 26th of July Movement .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others say for example military commander of the 26th of July Movement Angel Prado that Castro said on his defense that on the night of the attack his driver got lost and he never reached the barracks.

.In his spoken autobiography [27] Castro maintains that his car, which was second in the convoy of 'ten or twelve' cars, encountered a foot patrol near to the Moncada Barracks.^ In 1953, Castro, with an armed group of 123 men and women, attacked the Moncada Army Barracks .

^ Once in Mexico, Castro reunited with other Cuban exiles and founded the 26th of July Movement, named after the date of the failed attack on the Moncada Barracks.

^ And since you’re such a wonderful book reviewer, why not review “Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography” for Dissident Voice?
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

When he stopped the car to deal with them, the rest of the convoy also stopped and so the momentum of the operation was lost. He gives this as the sole reason for the failure of the operation.
.Castro was tried in the fall of 1953 and sentenced to up to fifteen years in prison.^ Castro was tried in the fall of 1953 and sentenced up to fifteen years in prison.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro was tried in the fall of 1953 and sentenced to up to fifteen years in prison.

^ Castro was found guilty and sentenced to fifteen years in prison.

During his trial Castro delivered his famous defense speech History Will Absolve Me,[28] upholding his rebellious actions and boldly declaring his political views:
.I warn you, I am just beginning!^ I warn you, I am just beginning!
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When I tell her that I have just seen Fidel, she scowls and warns, "You better wash yourself with white flour and honey."

.If there is in your hearts a vestige of love for your country, love for humanity, love for justice, listen carefully...^ If there is in your hearts a vestige of love for your country, love for humanity, love for justice, listen carefully… I know that the regime will try to suppress the truth by all possible means; I know that there will be a conspiracy to bury me in oblivion.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If there is in your hearts a vestige of love for your country, love for humanity, love for justice, listen carefully.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Id like to ask you all out there to collect your thoughts about the death of the tyrant and what it means to you, to your loved ones and to Cuba.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

.I know that the regime will try to suppress the truth by all possible means; I know that there will be a conspiracy to bury me in oblivion.^ I know that I will be silenced for many years; I know that the regime will try to suppress the truth by all possible means; I know that there will be a conspiracy to bury me in oblivion.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is in your hearts a vestige of love for your country, love for humanity, love for justice, listen carefully… I know that the regime will try to suppress the truth by all possible means; I know that there will be a conspiracy to bury me in oblivion.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You managed to allude to Fidel as a dead person, a murderer, a rambling idiot and inconsequential all while trying to actually say as little as possible.
  • Change of Subject: Top 10 questions about Fidel Castro's newspaper column 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC blogs.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

.But my voice will not be stifled – it will rise from my breast even when I feel most alone, and my heart will give it all the fire that callous cowards deny it...^ But my voice will not be stifled - it will rise from my breast even when I feel most alone, and my heart will give it all the fire that callous cowards deny it.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But my voice will not be stifled – it will rise from my breast even when I feel most alone, and my heart will give it all the fire that callous cowards deny it… Condemn me.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My dear and darling mom has outlived most of the British royals, several US presidents, and as she says, even Superman ....
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

Condemn me. It does not matter. History will absolve me.
.While he was being held at the prison for political activists on Isla de Pinos, he continued to plot Batista's overthrow, planning upon release to reorganize and train in Mexico.^ The Moncada group resolved to continue their revolutionary plotting while incarcerated, and reorganize and train in Mexico upon their release.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his trial Castro delivered his famous defense speech History Will Absolve Me , upholding his rebellious actions and boldly declaring his political views: While he was being held at the prison for political activists on Isla de Pinos , he continued to plot Batista's overthrow, planning upon release to reorganize and train in Mexico.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While he was being held at the prison for political activists on Isla de Pinos, he continued to plot Batista's overthrow, planning upon release to reorganize and train in Mexico.

[6] .After having served less than two years, he was released in May 1955 due to a general amnesty from Batista who was under political pressure, and went as planned to Mexico.^ After having served less than two years, he was released in May 1955 due to a general amnesty from Batista who was under political pressure, and went as planned to Mexico .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As his reputation as a M-26-7 organizer grew, Pais came under increasing pressure from Batista's forces in Santiago, his base of operations.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks to a tax loophole, these characters pay income tax at a rate less than half of what a dentist making $200,000 a year pays.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[7]

26th of July Movement

.Once in Mexico, Castro reunited with other Cuban exiles and founded the 26th of July Movement, named after the date of the failed attack on the Moncada Barracks.^ On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: 26th of July Movement .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group became known as the July 26 Movement (the date that Castro had attacked the Moncada barracks).

.The goal remained the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista.^ The goal remained the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal remained the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista.

.Castro had learned from the Moncada experience that new tactics were needed if Batista's forces were to be defeated.^ Castro had learned from the Moncada experience that new tactics were needed if Batista’s forces were to be defeated.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro had learned from the Moncada experience that new tactics were needed if Batista's forces were to be defeated.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now the Castro regime, needing new pretext for mass-jailings and the cowing of the population, turned its police loose on "anti-social elements," on "deviants" and on "delinquents."
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This time, the plan was to use underground guerrilla tactics, which were used by the Cubans the last time they attempted a populist overthrow of what they considered an imperialistic regime.^ This time, the plan was to use underground guerrilla tactics, at that time a form of combat unknown in Latin America.

^ This time the plan was to use underground guerrilla tactics, at that time a form of combat unknown in Latin America.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first, he planned to use his free time to train as an attorney, but discovered that he had to have a high school diploma.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Cuban war of Independence against the Spanish was Cuba's introduction to guerrilla warfare, about which they read once the Cuban campaign ended but was taken up by Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philippines.^ On the plains Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that were taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895 - 1898 Cuban War of Independence .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the plains Castro’s forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that were taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895-1898 Cuban War of Independence.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the plains, Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that had been taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895-1898 Cuban War of Independence.

Once again, it would be guerrilla warfare to bring down a government.
.In Mexico Castro met Ernesto "Che" Guevara, a proponent of guerrilla warfare.^ In Mexico Castro met Ernesto "Che" Guevara , a theoretician of guerrilla warfare.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mexico Castro met Ernesto "Che" Guevara , theoretician and tactician of guerrilla warfare.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mexico Castro met Ernesto "Che" Guevara , a proponent of guerrilla warfare.

.Guevara joined the group of rebels and became an important force in shaping Castro's evolving political beliefs.^ Guevara joined the group of rebels and became an important force in shaping Castro’s evolving political beliefs.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guevara joined the group of rebels and became an important force in shaping Castro's evolving political beliefs.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After building up a stock of guns and ammunition, Castro, Che Guevara , Juan Almeida , and eighty other rebels arrived in Cuba in 1956.

.Guevara's observations of the misery of the poor in Latin America had already convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution.^ Guevara's observations of the misery of the poor in Latin America had already convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guevara’s observations of the misery of the poor in Latin America had already convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This condition was understandable considering the historical nature of revolutions in Latin America, and certainly not confined to Cuba.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since regular contacts with a KGB agent named Nikolai Sergeevich Leonov in Mexico City had not resulted in the hoped for weapon supply,[29] they decided to go to the United States to gather personnel and funds from Cubans living there, including Carlos Prío Socarrás, the elected Cuban president deposed by Batista in 1952. Back in Mexico, the group trained under a Spanish Civil War Veteran, Cuban-born Alberto Bayo[28] who had fled to Mexico after Francisco Franco's victory in Spain.^ Back in Mexico, the group trained under a Spanish Civil War Veteran, Cuban-born Alberto Bayo who had fled to Mexico after Francisco Franco's victory in Spain .

^ After consultations with the United States government, Batista decided to flee Cuba.

^ Since regular contacts with a KGB agent named Nikolai Sergeevich Leonov in Mexico City had not resulted in the hoped for weapon supply, they decided to go to the United States to gather personnel and funds from Cubans living there, including Carlos Prío Socarrás, the elected Cuban president deposed by Batista in 1952.

.On November 26, 1956, Castro and his group of 81 followers, mostly Cuban exiles, set out from Tuxpan, Veracruz, aboard the yacht Granma for the purpose of starting a rebellion in Cuba.^ On November 26, 1956, Castro and his group of 81 followers, mostly Cuban exiles, set out from Tuxpan Mexico aboard the yacht Granma.

^ On November 26 1956 , Castro and his group of 82 exiles returned to Cuba for the purpose of starting a rebellion, sailing from Tuxpan on the now famous yacht Granma .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón , the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.The rebels landed at Playa Las Coloradas close to Los Cayuelos near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2, 1956. In short order, most of Castro's men were killed, dispersed, or taken prisoner by Batista's forces.^ The rebels landed at Playa Las Coloradas close to Los Cayuelos near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2, 1956.

^ The rebels landed in Los Cayuelos near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2 , 1956 .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short order most of Castro's men were killed, dispersed, or taken prisoner by Batista's men.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .While the exact number is in dispute, it is agreed that no more than twenty of the original eighty-two men survived the bloody encounters with the Cuban army and succeeded in fleeing to the Sierra Maestra mountains.^ While the exact number is in dispute, it is agreed that no more than twenty of the original eighty-two men survived the bloody encounters with the Cuban army and succeeded in fleeing to the Sierra Maestra mountains.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite this, no one is more dedicated than the Cuban teacher.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is no secret that worthy comrades from our guerrilla struggle in the Sierra Maestra died with Che in Bolivia.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .The group of survivors included Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Raúl Castro, and Camilo Cienfuegos.^ The survivors, who were undoubtedly aided by people in the countryside, included Che Guevara , Raúl Castro , and Camilo Cienfuegos .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro will eventually pass on but his memory will still be around, and this is even more true with Ernesto "Che" Guevara who died (physically) in 1967.
  • Fidel Castro to Obama: not so fast - World Blog - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC worldblog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ The Egyptian president, Abdel Nasser, quickly provided us with the air cover we lacked, and Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Raul Castro, and the other Cuban leaders sent us a battalion of 22 tanks and several hundred troops.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro, Consummate Internationalist 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those who survived were aided by people in the countryside.^ It will be a very rude awakening for all of those who one believed in Castro, whose main purpose has been to keep his control over Cuba with a completed disregard of the people.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ None support those who oppress the people, revile them, and rob them heartlessly.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The survivors, who were undoubtedly aided by people in the countryside, included Che Guevara , Raúl Castro , and Camilo Cienfuegos .
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They regrouped in the Sierra Maestra in Oriente province and organized a column under Fidel Castro's command.^ They regrouped in the Sierra Maestra in Oriente province and organized a column under Castro's command.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sierra Maestra 23/ Fidel Returns.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They regrouped in the Sierra Maestra in Oriente province and organized a column under Castro’s command.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From their encampment in the Sierra Maestra mountains, the 26th of July Movement waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government.^ Main article: 26th of July Movement .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From their retreat in the Sierra Maestra mountains, the 26th of July Movement waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he was in the Sierra Maestra fighting Batista's troops.

.In the cities and major towns also, resistance groups were organizing until underground groups were everywhere.^ In the cities and major towns also, resistance groups were organizing until underground groups were everywhere.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strongest was in Santiago formed by Frank País.^ The strongest was in Santiago formed by Frank País.

^ The strongest was in Santiago formed by Frank País .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33]
.In the summer of 1957, País’s organization merged with the 26th of July Movement of Castro.^ Main article: 26th of July Movement .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer of 1955, País' organization merged with the July 26 Movement of Fidel.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer of 1955, País’s organization merged with the 26th of July Movement of Castro.

.As Castro's movement gained popular support in the cities and countryside, it grew to over eight hundred men.^ As Castro's movement gained popular support in the cities and countryside, it grew to over eight hundred men.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.

.In mid-1957 Castro gave Che Guevara command of a second column.^ In mid-1957 Castro gave Che Guevara command of a second column.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After building up a stock of guns and ammunition, Castro, Che Guevara , Juan Almeida , and eighty other rebels arrived in Cuba in 1956.

^ In Mexico Castro met Ernesto “Che” Guevara , theoretician and tactician of guerrilla warfare.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A journalist, Herbert Matthews from the New York Times, came to interview him in the Sierra Maestra, attracting interest to Castro's cause in the United States.^ I came for the news about Castro.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ The New York Times got the story right.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ A journalist , Herbert Matthews from the New York Times , came to interview him in the Sierra Maestra, attracting interest to Castro’s cause in the United States.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The New York Times front page stories by Matthews presented Castro as a romantic and appealing revolutionary, bearded and dressed in rumpled fatigues.^ The statement is published in the New York Times .
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New York Times got the story right.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ The New York Times front page stories by Matthews presented Castro as a romantic and appealing revolutionary, bearded and dressed in rumpled fatigues.

[34][35] .Castro and Matthews were followed by the TV crew of Andrew Saint George, said to be a CIA contact person.^ Castro and Matthews were followed by the TV crew of Andrew Saint George, said to be a CIA contact person.
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^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón , the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
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^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
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[36] .Through television, Castro's rudimentary command of the English language and charismatic presence enabled him to appeal directly to a U.S. audience.^ Through television, Castro’s rudimentary command of the English language and charismatic presence enabled him to appeal directly to a US audience.
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^ Through television, Castro's rudimentary command of the English language and charismatic presence enabled him to appeal directly to a US audience.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through television, Castro's rudimentary command of the English language and charismatic presence enabled him to appeal directly to a U.S. audience.

.In 1957, Castro also signed the Manifesto of the Sierra Maestra [37] in which he agreed to call elections under the Electoral Code of 1943 within the first 18 months of his time in power and to restore all of the provisions of the Constitution of 1940 that had been suspended under Batista.^ In addition to rejecting Batista's election plan, the Manifesto called for: 1.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two months after his fall, Castro walked for the first time in public.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Batista was the first president elected under the new constitution.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While he took steps to implement some of the measures in the Manifesto upon coming into power, Cuba failed to have elections, the most important part of the program, within the allotted time.^ A major portion of the banking business, of the importing business and the oil refineries, the greater part of the sugar production, the best land in Cuba, and the most important industries in all fields belonged to American companies.
  • Fidel Castro's 1960 Address to the U.N. General Assembly, Part 1 of 4 - Succeed by Studying Great Speeches: School for Champions 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.school-for-champions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those explanations, some people would call them excuses, fail to take into account some very important points.
  • Nieman Foundation | Awards | Awards at a Glance | Joe Alex Morris Jr. Lecture | Lecturers | 1999 Joe Alex Morris Jr. Memorial Lecture 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.nieman.harvard.edu [Source type: News]

^ When Castro took ill, Cuba should have been bombarded with propaganda loaded with slogans such as "The time is near", "Freedom is coming", "rise up and be free".
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.In February 1958, Castro published in Coronet Magazine a famous statement of the goals of the movement.^ On February 4, 1958, Look published an extensive interview with Castro.

^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
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^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island’s crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
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[38] .He stated that "we are fighting to do away with dictatorship in Cuba and to establish the foundations of genuine representative government" and promised to "prepare and conduct truly honest general elections within twelve months" after success.^ Free elections within one year of the establishment of the provisional government.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few remained behind to establish underground activities in Cuba and prepare for Castro's return.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elections were to take place for the United States Congress in two month's time.

.He also stated, "we have no plans for the expropriation or nationalization of foreign investments here". He also justified his attacks on Cuba's economy as the only way to bring down the Batista dictatorship.^ Slash the number of doctors by 80% to catch up with the pro-western, pro-freedom neighborhood, that's to only way Cuba will maintain the competitive edge in the Free world...
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^ Nikita Khrushchev never undestood why Kennedy had acted in such an irrational and foolish way, by not attacking Cuba and, thereby, allowing Castro to stay in power.

^ "The Castro family's substantial wealth was in no way spared from the expropriations of the immediate post-revolutionary period."

.Despite his denouncement of dictatorships, Castro himself has been described as a dictator.^ Castro is frequently described by opponents as a dictator and accused of gross human rights violations, including the execution of thousands of political opponents .

^ Castro is frequently described by opponents as a dictator and accused of gross human rights violations, including the murder of thousands of political opponents, but has also been widely hailed as a charismatic liberator.
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[39][40][41]

Operation Verano

.In May 1958, Batista launched Operation Verano aiming to crush Castro and other anti-government groups.^ Fidel Castro in his days as a guerrilla In May 1958, Batista launched Operation Verano aiming to crush Castro and other anti-government groups.

^ In May of 1958 Batista launched Operation Verano aiming to crush Castro and other anti-government groups.
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^ Fidel Castro in his days as a guerrilla In May of 1958 Batista launched Operation Verano aiming to crush Castro and other anti-government groups.
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.It was called La Ofensiva ("The Offensive") by the rebels (Alarcón Ramírez,1997).^ It was called “la Ofensiva” by the rebels (Alarcón Ramírez,1997).
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^ It was called "la Ofensiva" by the rebels (Alarcón Ramírez,1997).
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^ Alarcón Ramírez, Dariel (”Benigno”)1997 Memorias de un Soldado Cubano: Vida y Muerte de la Revolución.
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.Although on paper heavily outnumbered, Castro's guerrilla forces scored a series of victories, largely aided by mass desertions from Batista's army of poorly trained and uncommitted young conscripts.^ Although on paper heavily outnumbered, Castro’s guerrilla forces scored a series of victories, largely aided by mass desertions from Batista’s army of poorly trained and uncommitted young conscripts.
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^ Although outnumbered, Castro's guerrillas were able to inflict defeat after defeat on the government's troops.

^ Although on paper heavily outnumbered, Castro's guerrilla forces scored a series of victories, largely aided by mass desertions from Batista's army of poorly trained and uncommitted young conscripts.
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.During the Battle of La Plata, Castro's forces defeated an entire battalion.^ During the Battle of La Plata , Castro’s forces defeated an entire battalion.
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^ During the Battle of La Plata, Castro's forces defeated an entire battalion.

^ In the summer of 1958, while his lieutenants kept the guardia at bay among the foothills, Castro set up a small headquarters on a remote, inaccessible peak called La Plata.
  • Fidel Castro's Women 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC cuban-exile.com [Source type: Original source]

.While pro-Castro Cuban sources later emphasized the role of Castro's guerrilla forces in these battles, other groups and leaders were also involved, such as escopeteros (poorly armed irregulars).^ While pro-Castro Cuban sources later emphasized the role of Castro's guerrilla forces in these battles, other groups and leaders were also involved, such as escopeteros (poorly-armed irregulars).

^ While pro-Castro Cuban sources later emphasized the role of Castro's guerrilla forces in these battles, other groups and leaders were involved, such as escopeteros (poorly-armed irregulars).
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^ Castro promoted a theory of ‘guerrilla focos’ between 1963-1980, in which small groups of intellectuals would organize an armed nucleus in the countryside, engage in combat and attract mass peasant support.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the Battle of Las Mercedes, Castro's small army came close to defeat but he managed to pull his troops out by opening up negotiations with General Cantillo while secretly slipping his soldiers out of a trap.^ During the Battle of Las Mercedes , Castro's small army came close to defeat but he managed to pull his troops out by opening up negotiations with General Cantillo while secretly slipping his soldiers out of a trap.
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^ Castro also came close to death in prison.

^ During the Battle of Las Mercedes , Castro’s small army came close to defeat but he managed to pull his troops out by opening up negotiations with General Cantillo while secretly slipping his soldiers out of a trap.
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.When Operation Verano ended, Castro ordered three columns commanded by Guevara, Jaime Vega and Camilo Cienfuegos to invade central Cuba where they were strongly supported by rebellious elements who had long been operating in the area.^ When Operation Verano ended, Castro ordered three columns commanded by Guevara, Jaime Vega and Camilo Cienfuegos to invade central Cuba where they were strongly supported by rebellious elements who had long been operating in the area.
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^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
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^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island’s crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
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.One of Castro's columns moved out onto the Cauto Plains.^ One of Castro's columns moved out onto the Cauto Plains.
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^ One of Castro’s columns moved out onto the Cauto Plains.
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^ General Cantillo's plan to force Castro's rebels onto the western plains was not working.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here, they were supported by Huber Matos, Raúl Castro and others who were operating in the eastern-most part of the province.^ Here they were supported by Huber Matos , Raul Castro and others to the eastern most part of the province.
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^ Here they were supported by Huber Matos , Raúl Castro and others to the eastern most part of the province.
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^ Here, they were supported by Huber Matos, Raúl Castro and others who were operating in the eastern-most part of the province.

.On the plains, Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that had been taken by Calixto García in the 1895-1898 Cuban War of Independence.^ On the plains Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that were taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895 - 1898 Cuban War of Independence .
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^ On the plains Castro’s forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that were taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895-1898 Cuban War of Independence.
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^ On the plains, Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that had been taken by Calixto Garcia in the 1895-1898 Cuban War of Independence.

Battle of Yaguajay

.In December 1958, the columns of Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos continued their advance through Las Villas province.^ In December 1958, the columns of Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos continued their advance through Las Villas province.

^ Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos lead the rebels into Havana.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 1958, the columns of Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos joined with other anti-Batista forces already in the guerrilla stronghold in the Sierra Maestra mountains.
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.They succeeded in occupying several towns, and then began preparations for an attack on Santa Clara, the provincial capital.^ They succeeded in occupying several towns, then began preparations for an attack on Santa Clara, Cuba the provincial capital of Las Villas.
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^ They succeeded in occupying several towns, and then began preparations for an attack on Santa Clara, Cuba the provincial capital of Las Villas.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They succeeded in occupying several towns, and then began preparations for an attack on Santa Clara, the provincial capital.

.Guevara's fighters launched a fierce assault on the Cuban army surrounding Santa Clara, and a vicious house-to-house battle ensued.^ Guevara's fighters launched a fierce assault on the Cuban army surrounding Santa Clara, and a vicious house-to-house battle ensued.

^ The rebel guerrillas, led by Fidel Castro, launched a fierce attack on the Cuban army surrounding Santa Clara, and a vicious house-to-house battle ensued.
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^ Ernesto Che Guevara Square, Santa Clara, July 26, 2004.
  • Fidel Castro: The Pathology of George Bush 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.They also derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay.^ Guevara's column derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay .
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^ Guevara’s column derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay .
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^ They also derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay.

.Defeated on all sides, Batista's forces crumbled.^ Defeated on all sides, Batista's forces crumbled.
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^ Defeated on all sides, Batista’s forces crumbled.
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^ Castro had learned from the Moncada experience that new tactics were needed if Batista's forces were to be defeated.
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The provincial capital was captured after less than a day of fighting on December 31, 1958.

Collapse of the Batista regime

After the loss at the Battle of Santa Clara, expecting betrayal by his own army and having lost all backup from the previously supportive US government, Batista (accompanied by president-elect Andrés Rivero Agüero) boarded a plane and fled to the Dominican Republic in the early hours of January 1, 1959. Accompanying Batista into exile was an amassed fortune of more than $ 300,000,000 that he acquired through "graft and payoffs."[42]
.Batista left behind a junta headed by Gen.^ They left behind a junta headed by Gen.

^ He left behind a junta headed by Gen.
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.Eulogio Cantillo, recently the commander in Oriente province, the center of the Castro revolt.^ Eulogio Cantillo, recently the commander in Oriente province, the center of the Castro revolt.
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^ Eulogio Cantillo , recently the commander in Oriente province, the center of the Castro revolt.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eulogio Cantillo, recently the commander in Oriente province, the centre of the Castro revolt.

The junta immediately selected Dr. Carlos Piedra, the oldest judge of the Supreme Court, as provisional President of Cuba as specified in the Constitution of 1940. Castro refused to accept the selection of Justice Piedra as provisional President and the Supreme Court refused to administer the oath of office to the Justice.[43]
.The rebel forces of Fidel Castro moved swiftly to seize power throughout the island.^ The rebel forces of Fidel Castro moved swiftly to seize power throughout the island.
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^ While Castro was busy conducting rural guerrilla warfare from the mountains, Frank Pais was active in establishing urban organizations throughout the island.
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^ Consequently, during most of the late 1950's, America's power, which might have proved decisive to the fate of Fidel Castro, was neutralized.
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[43] .At the age of 32, Castro had successfully masterminded a classic guerrilla campaign from his headquarters in the Sierra Maestra and ousted Batista.^ At the age of 32, Castro had successfully masterminded a classic guerrilla campaign from his headquarters in the Sierra Maestra and ousted Batista.

^ At the age of 32, Castro had successfully masterminded a classic guerrilla campaign from his headquarters in the Sierra Maestra and ousted the dictator of Cuba.
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^ When he was in the Sierra Maestra fighting Batista's troops.

New government

Power does not interest me, and I will not take it
— Fidel Castro in Cuba, January 1959[44]
Castro arrives in Washington, D.C. on April 15, 1959.
.On January 8, 1959, Castro's army rolled victoriously into Havana.^ The city fell into Castro's hands on January 2, 1959.
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^ On January 1 , 1959 , Castro’s army, having defeated the American-backed Batista government, rolled victoriously into Havana .
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^ Castro marched into Havana on January 9,1959, and became Cuba's new leader.

[45] .As news of the fall of Batista's government spread through Havana, The New York Times described the scene as one of jubilant crowds pouring into the streets and automobile horns honking.^ The New York Times got the story right.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ As news of the fall of Batista's government spread through Havana, The New York Times described the scene as one of jubilant crowds pouring into the streets and automobile horns honking.

^ The statement is published in the New York Times .
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.The black and red flag of the 26th of July Movement waved on automobiles and buildings.^ Main article: 26th of July Movement .
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^ The black and red flag of the 26th of July Movement waved on automobiles and buildings.

^ The black and red flag of the 26th of July Movement waved on automobiles and buildings.The atmosphere was chaotic.
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The atmosphere was chaotic.[43] .Castro called a general strike in protest of the Piedra government.^ Castro's reaction was to call for a general strike.

^ Castro called a general strike in protest of the Piedra regime.
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^ As a result, the guarantees provided a stabilizing force in the Cuban society; urban workers generally supported the incumbent government, as evidenced by their refusal to join the called general strikes against Batista in the mid-1950's.
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He demanded that Dr. Urrutia, former judge of the Urgency Court of Santiago de Cuba, be installed as the provisional President instead. .The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
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^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.

^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinista s in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.
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[citation needed]
.Law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president on January 5. The United States officially recognized the new government two days later.^ The law that created the CIA prevented it from spying inside the United States.

^ On January 5 the liberal law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president.
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^ On January 7 the United States officially recognized the new government.
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[46] Castro himself arrived in Havana to cheering crowds and assumed the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on January 8.

Castro consolidates power

."Until Castro, the U.S. was so overwhelmingly influential in Cuba that the American ambassador was the second most important man, sometimes even more important than the Cuban president."^ Brain Latell, who handled the CIA’s Cuba Desk for long years, rates the Cuban armed forces under Castro as even more impressive than the Israeli Defence Forces, because the Israelis never fought and won battles against a foe as sophisticated as the South African conventional forces at a distance across an ocean and on another continent, as did the Cubans.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The year crawled to a particularly sour finish when more than 40 of Cuba's 900 champion athletes defected in Puerto Rico at the Central American and Caribbean Games in November, having been greeted by Cuban exiles chanting from the stands, "Quedate aqui!"

^ I could not stop reading it until the very end, though I confess than now I am more confused than...
  • History Of Fidel Castro - Shop Smarter.com 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

Earl T. Smith, former American Ambassador to Cuba, during 1960 testimony to the U.S. Senate [47]

.Fidel Castro sought to oust liberals and democrats, such as José Miró Cardona and Manuel Urrutia Lleó.^ On January 5 the liberal law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president.
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^ Fidel Castro, "There Is Only One Road to Liberation," speech delivered in Ciego de Avila, Cuba, on July 26, 1980.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Communist State Fidel Castro finally reached Havana on January 6th, the day after the United States extended formal diplomatic recognition to President Urrutia's government.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .In February professor José Miró Cardona had to resign because of Castro's attacks.^ In February Miró unexpectedly resigned and on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Mininster of Cuba.
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^ In February Miró suddenly resigned and on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba.

^ Cardona finally became so frustrated with the dichotomy between what the government ordered and what Castro did, that on February 13th, he resigned, suggesting that Castro take over as Prime Minister.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba.^ Fidel Castro , Communist dictator of Cuba since February 16 , 1959 .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 13 | Left-Handers Day Nemoralia goddess Diana Annie Oakley famous left-handers Alfred Hitchcock Olmec calendar Australian UFOs 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ In February Miró unexpectedly resigned and on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Mininster of Cuba.
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^ In February Miró suddenly resigned and on February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba.

[10] .Professor Miró soon went into exile in the United States, and would later participate in the Bay of Pigs Invasion against Castro's form of government.^ A day later, he defeated the CIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion.
  • Fidel Castro resigns Cuban presidency after nearly half-century in power / LJWorld.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www2.ljworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bay of Pigs was a serious setback for the United States...

^ Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion .
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.President Manuel Urrutia Lleó wanted to restore elections, but Castro opposed free elections.^ On January 5 the liberal law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president.
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^ "Eventually, this transition ought to lead to free and fair elections - and I mean free, and I mean fair - not these kind of staged elections that the Castro brothers try to foist off as true democracy."
  • Fidel Castro resigns Cuban presidency after nearly half-century in power / LJWorld.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www2.ljworld.com [Source type: General]

^ In contrast, Castro never permitted free and open debate and elections, even among communist candidates in any legislative process — at least until he was replaced by Raul Castro.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

[48] Castro's slogan was "Revolution first, elections later".[49]
.The new government began expropriating property and announced plans to base the compensation on the artificially low property valuations that the companies themselves had kept to a fraction of their true value so that their taxes would be negligible.^ Soon friction with the US developed as the new government began expropriating property owned by major U.S. corporations (United Fruit in particular) and planned to base the compensation on the artificially low property valuations that the companies themselves had kept low so their taxes would be negligible.
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^ Soon friction with the U.S. developed as the new government began expropriating property owned by major U.S. corporations (United Fruit in particular) and announced plans to base the compensation on the artificially low property valuations that the companies themselves had kept to a fraction of their true value so that their taxes would be negligible.

^ Batista also promised elections but when it became clear that they would not take place, Castro left for Mexico where he began to plan another attempt to overthrow the Cuban government.

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] During this period Castro repeatedly denied being a communist.^ She ran vitally needed supplies and intelligence to Castro's guerrillas in the Sierra Maestra during the Revolution.

^ Journalists were notoriously pro-Castro during this period.
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^ In great oratorical style, Castro exhorted Cubans not to fear his revolution; denying Batista's charges that he was a communist and that M-26-7 was a communist movement.
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[50][51][52][53][54] .For example in New York on April 25 he said, "...[communist] influence is nothing.^ Kennedy's press conference in The New York Times, January 25, 1962.

^ Castro visits New York April 1959 ** wrongly dated as 1950 in ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Invasion prisoners' report of false intelligence in The New York Times, April 1, 1962, 40.

I don't agree with communism. We are democracy. .We are against all kinds of dictators...^ The United States brazenly turns a deaf ear to world public opinion, which is against all kinds of nuclear weapons.
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That is why we oppose communism."[55]
.Between April 15 and April 26, Castro and a delegation of industrial and international representatives visited the U.S. as guests of the Press Club.^ Between April 15th and 26th, Castro and a delegation of industrial and international representatives visited the U.S. as guests of the Press Club.

^ April 15-26.
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^ Between April 15th and 26th, Castro visited the U.S. as a guest of the Press Club where he was greeted with thunderous applause.
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.Castro hired one of the best public relations firms in the United States for a charm offensive visit by Castro and his recently initiated government.^ Castro’s state visit to South Africa .
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^ This visit was perceived by many as a charm offensive on the part of Castro and his recently initiated government; the fact that Castro hired one of the best public relations firms in the United States supports that conclusion.

^ Castro's supporters admired his ability to provide a high level of health care and education for citizens while remaining fully independent of the United States.
  • Fidel Castro resigns Cuban presidency after nearly half-century in power / LJWorld.com 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www2.ljworld.com [Source type: General]

.Castro answered impertinent questions jokingly and ate hot dogs and hamburgers.^ Castro answered impertinent questions jokingly and ate hotdogs and hamburgers.

^ During his visit he was charming and answered impertinent questions jokingly, ate hotdogs and hamburgers and made a media splash.
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^ Afterward, Castro - flanked by Cuba's top brass - answers questions.

.His rumpled fatigues and scruffy beard cut a popular figure easily promoted as an authentic hero.^ His rumpled fatigues and scruffy beard made him seem an authentic hero.

^ His rumpled fatiques and scruffy beard made him seem an authentic hero.
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^ The New York Times front page stories by Matthews presented Castro as a romantic and appealing revolutionary, bearded and dressed in rumpled fatigues.

[56] .He was refused a meeting with President Eisenhower.^ He was refused a meeting with President Eisenhower.
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.After his visit to the United States, he would go on to join forces with the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev.^ I am going to wage against them [the United States].
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^ Rebuffed, he soon joined forces with the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev.
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^ A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from them.

[45]
.On May 17, 1959, Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, which limited landholdings to 993 acres (4 km²) per owner and forbade foreign land ownership.^ On May 17 1959, Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, which limited landholdings to 993 acres (4 km²) per owner and forbade foreign land ownership.

^ Castro signed the First Agrarian Reform Law , which expropriated over 1,000 acres of farmlands and forbade foreign land ownership.
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^ Castro signs Agrarian Reform Act , which expropriates over 1,000 acres of farmlands and forbids foreign land ownership.
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[57][58]
.Castro started to organize attacks on President Manuel Urrutia Lleó.^ On January 5 the liberal law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president on January 5 .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president on January 5.

.Castro himself resigned as Prime Minister of Cuba and later that day appeared on television to deliver a lengthy denouncement of Urrutia, claiming that Urrutia "complicated" government, and that his "fevered anti-Communism" was having a detrimental effect.^ Cuba's leader Fidel Castro resigns .
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Castro resigns as Cuba’s leader .
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ In Harlem he is seen as a icon because of his historic visit with Malcolm X in 1960 at the Hotel Theresa .#redirect Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau .
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.Castro's sentiments received widespread support as organized crowds surrounded the presidential palace demanding Urrutia's resignation, which was duly received.^ Castro stopped at the Presidential Palace to pay his respects to Urrutia.
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^ Gutierrez Menoyo reminded Castro that one of his brothers had died fighting Franco and that another was killed during the 1957 storming of Batista's Presidential Palace.

^ The badly rattled Urrutia watched Castro's TV tirade from his very Presidential office that night in July of 1959 while convulsed in sobs.
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.On July 23, Castro resumed his position as premier and appointed Osvaldo Dorticós as the new president.^ New York Times : "Fidel Castro stepped down Tuesday morning as the president of Cuba after a long illness.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Breaking News: Fidel Castro announces retirement Cuba's ailing leader Fidel Castro has announced he will not return to the presidency, in a letter published by official Communist Party paper, Granma.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Castro speaks to press about Elian Gonzalez 23.4.2000 CUBA: Havana: Fidel Castro (President of Cuba) speaking to press (untranslated) (very faint audio) .
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[59]

Years in power

.As early as July 1959, Castro's intelligence chief Ramiro Valdés contacted the KGB in Mexico City.^ According to Andrew and Gordievsky (1990) as early as July 1959 Castro’s intelligence chief Ramiro Valdés contacted the KGB in Mexico City.
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^ According to Andrew and Gordievsky (1990) as early as July 1959 Castro's intelligence chief Ramiro Valdés contacted the KGB in Mexico City.
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^ Nikolai Sergeevich Leonov , who would become General in KGB Intelligence Directorate, [51] and Soviet KGB deputy station chief in Warsaw, was the translator Castro used for contact with the Russians.
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[29] .Subsequently, the USSR sent over one hundred mostly Spanish speaking advisors, including Enrique Líster Forján, to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution.^ The USSR sent over one hundred mostly Spanish speaking advisors, including Enrique Lister Farjan, to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution .
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^ Subsequently, the USSR sent over one hundred mostly Spanish speaking advisors, including Enrique Líster Forján , to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution .
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^ Communist Party rallies were organized daily in neighborhoods and workplaces to whip up support for the Revolution, including one Wednesday outside Miguel Enriquez University Hospital.
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.In February 1960, Cuba signed an agreement to buy oil from the USSR. When the U.S.-owned refineries in Cuba refused to process the oil, they were expropriated, and the United States broke off diplomatic relations with the Castro government soon afterward.^ Cuba nationalizes the Texaco oil refinery.
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^ After consultations with the United States government, Batista decided to flee Cuba.

^ Cuba and the U.S. sign an antihijacking agreement.
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.To the concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union.^ Cuba and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations.
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^ To the concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union.
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^ Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a 5-year agreement that reschedules payment of Cuban debt (about $500 million).
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.A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from the USSR. The mould was set.^ A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev , allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from them.
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^ Tensions between Castro and US heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR to direct confrontation.
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^ When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba in 1989, the close relationship between Moscow and Havana was strained by Gorbachev’s implementation of economic and political reforms in the USSR. “We are witnessing sad things in other socialist countries, very sad things,” lamented Castro in November 1989, in reference to the reforms that were sweeping such communist allies as the Soviet Union, East Germany , Hungary , and Poland .
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.U.S. disappointment with their lack of power in Cuban decision making fueled Castro's fears leading to increasing Cuban dependence on USSR support.^ Tensions between Castro and US heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR to direct confrontation.
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^ Consequently, during most of the late 1950's, America's power, which might have proved decisive to the fate of Fidel Castro, was neutralized.
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^ (A15) Mario Lazo, a Cuban lawyer was a supporter of the Batista regime that was overthrown by Castro.

[citation needed]
.In June 1960, Eisenhower reduced Cuba's sugar import quota by 7,000,000 tons, and in response, Cuba nationalized some $850 million worth of U.S. property and businesses.^ Cuba retaliates by nationalizing all U.S. businesses and commercial property.
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^ President Eisenhower cancels the 700,000 tons of sugar remaining in Cuba’s quota for 1960.
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^ In the summer of 1960 Castro nationalized United States property worth $850 million.

.Health care[60] and education[citation needed] were socialized.^ Education, health care, and athletics.

^ The nation leads Latin America in education and health care and has virtually eradicated illiteracy.

^ The expansion of publicly funded health care and education has been a cornerstone of Castro’s domestic social agenda.
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.The new government took control of the country by nationalizing industry, redistributing property, collectivizing agriculture and creating policies that would benefit the poor.^ The revolutionary government grabbed control of the nation by nationalizing industry, expropriating property owned by Cubans and non-Cubans alike, collectivizing agriculture , and enacting policies which it claimed would benefit the population.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestically, Fidel Castro has overseen the implementation of various economic policies which saw the rapid centralization of Cuba’s economy - land reform , collectivization of agriculture, and the nationalization of leading Cuban industries .
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^ U.S. government cables all Latin American governments and NATO countries new measures to tighten the economic embargo against Cuba.
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.While popular among the poor, these policies alienated many former supporters of the revolution among the Cuban middle and upper-classes.^ The policy of the Cuban revolution is well established; it .
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While popular among the poor, these policies alienated many former supporters of the revolution among the Cuban middle and upper-classes.
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^ Neither was the middle-class nature of the Cuban Revolution unique.
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.Over one million Cubans later migrated to the U.S., forming a vocal anti-Castro community in Miami, Florida, actively supported and funded by successive U.S. administrations.^ Over one million Cubans later migrated to the US, forming a vocal anti-Castro community in Miami, Florida .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Communists criticizing the Moncada attack in A. Surez, Cuba: Castroism and Communism, 1959-1966, 40.

^ When questioned about the droves of Cubans seeking escape to the U.S., Castro dexterously spins: "A large part of the Cuban migration to the United States is an economic migration, like the Mexican migration," he says.

[citation needed]
Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in 1972.
.By the early autumn of 1960, the U.S. government was engaged in a semi-secret campaign to remove Castro from power.^ By 1961 the Americans were engaged in a full-on campaign to remove Castro from power.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Castro's road to power was conveniently paved by the American government and media.

^ As early as October 1960 Kennedy had discussed with his conservative friend Senator George Smathers of Florida the likely reaction of the American public to an attempt to assassinate Castro.

[61]
.In September 1960, Castro created Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, which implemented neighbhorhood spying in an effort to weed out "counter-revolutionary" activities.^ We, therefore, felt that we had the right to help fighting revolutionaries who were trying to carry out a revolution in their countries...
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was quite significant, because the Soviets had devoted considerable effort to instructing their civilian population in civil defense and had invested considerably in fall out shelters.

^ Fidel Castro, "Address to the United Nations General Assembly," New York, September 26, 1960 in Martin Kenner and James Petras, eds., Fidel Castro .
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

[62]
.By the end of 1960, all opposition newspapers had been closed down and all radio and television stations were in state control, run under the Leninist principle of Democratic Centralism.^ Under the title of The American Model is an Idea whose Time has Come, Amy Goodman, host of Democracy Now!, an international daily news show broadcast by 650 radio and television stations in the U.S. and the world, wrote: .
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And most of Cuba's newspapers and TV stations (Cuba had more TVs per capita at the time than Germany, Canada or France) were under government control, to better serve "the people."
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Didn’t, under the “right-wing, anti-Communist” Reagen administration, almost all the military regimes in Latin America get replaced by democratic, civilian regimes?
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] Moderates, teachers and professors were purged.[62] .He was accused of keeping about 20,000 dissents held captive and tortured under inhuman prison conditions every year.^ In its first year, the airlift brings more than 45,000 refugees – only about 5% require federal assistance, and only for a short time.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1959, Huber Matos, a Rebel Army major in charge of Camagey province, was accused of treason and condemned to 20 years hard labor.

^ Lacking even the most elementary revolutionary content, Batista's regime represents in every respect a 20 year regression for Cuba.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

[62]
Groups such as homosexuals were locked up in concentration camps in the 1960s, where they were subject to medical-political "re-education".[63] Castro's admiring description of rural life in Cuba ("in the country, there are no homosexuals"[64]) reflected the idea of homosexuality as bourgeois decadence, and he denounced "maricones" (faggots) as "agents of imperialism".[65] Castro stated that "homosexuals should not be allowed in positions where they are able to exert influence upon young people".[66]
Loyalty to Castro became the primary criteria for all appointments in the island.[67] .The Communist Party strengthened its one-party rule, with Castro as the Prime Minister.^ Castro returns to his post of Prime Minister.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1979 a book of Valladares's poems titled, Prisonnier de Castro appeared in Paris, translated by Pierre Golendorf, a former member of the French Communist Party.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the University of Havana , 3 men are discoveed by security police preparing to shoot Prime Minister Fidel Castro with a sniper's rifle.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62]
.In the 1961 New Year's Day parade, Castro exhibited Soviet tanks and other weapons.^ Two days after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring , Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their early days, years before Castro's conversion, Guevara, a prominent student leader, was already an avowed Marxist.

^ Suspects, including children, were publicly executed and then left hanging in the streets for several days as a warning to others who were considering joining Castro.

[67] .The Soviet Union award him with the Lenin Peace Prize later that year.^ Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a 5-year agreement that reschedules payment of Cuban debt (about $500 million).
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The balance of more than thirty years of Soviet-Cuban relations was, on the long term, highly negative for the Soviet Union.

^ I [Nikita Khrushchev] talked with him [years] later too, after he had already been to the Soviet Union twice and was in a different frame of mind...We discussed the past from hindsight and conducted an analysis of the events in a calm atmosphere.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

Bay of Pigs Invasion

.The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a US-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.^ Las Guerras Secretas de Fidel Castro .
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Las Guerras Secretas de Fidel Castro.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Premio Fidel de la Paz .
  • ARGENPRESS.info - Prensa argentina para todo el mundo: Fidel Castro 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.argenpress.info [Source type: General]

.The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States.^ He had approved the plan just three months into his presidency.
  • Fidel Castro - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961 , page 259) 80.
  • FRUS 1961-63, Vol. XI Cuba: 76-90 documents and memos 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sooner rather than later, he assures us, the arrogance of the United States will result in its downfall.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days.^ After three days of fighting the invading force is defeated by the Cuban army.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bombings of the Cuban United Nations Mission, the Cuban Interests Section, and the Soviet Mission by anti-Castro exile groups follow throughout the fall.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I struck part of the airplane, breaking my left arm, my right arm in three places, and my right knee, and I was briefly knocked unconscious by the force of the ejection.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

Reaction: the socialist state

.On May 1, 1961, Castro declared Cuba a socialist state and officially abolished multiparty elections.^ Castro formally declares that the revolution is "socialist."
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 1, 1961, as hundreds of thousands celebrating May Day roared their approval, Castro announced that Cuba was a socialist nation and abolished elections.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official Biography Cuban Communist Party ‘The Real Cuba’ , a site critical of Castro’s policies.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Critics noted that Castro feared elections would eject him from power.^ One side or the other would ultimately win total victory, and sea power would prove critical to the outcome.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro's experience as a lawyer made him extremely critical of the great inequalities in wealth that existed in Cuba.

^ Kennedy's advisers convinced him that Castro was an unpopular leader and that once the invasion started the Cuban people would support the ClA-trained forces.

[4] On the same day Castro announced to the hundreds of thousands in his audience that:
The revolution has no time for elections. .There is no more democratic government in Latin America than the revolutionary government.^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinista s in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor will Soviet agitational operations be confined to Asia, Africa and Latin America (though they will probably be most profitable there).
  • FRUS 1961-63, Vol. XI Cuba: 76-90 documents and memos 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

... If Mr. Kennedy does not like Socialism, we do not like imperialism. We do not like capitalism.[68]
.In a nationally broadcast speech on December 2, 1961, Castro declared that he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was adopting Communism.^ In a nationally broadcast speech on December 2 , 1961 , Castro declared that he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was adopting Communism .
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 2, 1961, Fidel Castro delivered a televised speech in which he declared to his amazed audience that he had always been a Marxist-Leninist by heart and would remain so until the last day of his life.

^ Cuban Communists criticizing the Moncada attack in A. Surez, Cuba: Castroism and Communism, 1959-1966, 40.

.On February 7, 1962, the US imposed an embargo against Cuba.^ On February 7 , 1962 , the US imposed an embargo against Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I heard the news this morning of Fidel's resignation I was somewhat dismayed by the thought that the US might lift the embargo and allow its citizens to visit Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. government cables all Latin American governments and NATO countries new measures to tighten the economic embargo against Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This embargo was broadened during 1962 and 1963, including a general travel ban for American tourists.^ This embargo was broadened during 1962 and 1963, including a general travel ban for American tourists.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As restrictions on travel to Cuba were eased during the 1990s, the study found an influx of American and Canadian tourists contributed to a sharp increase in child prostitution in Cuba."
  • Fidel Castro: The Pathology of George Bush 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

[69]

Cuban Missile Crisis

.Tensions between Cuba and the U.S. heightened during the 1962 missile crisis, which nearly brought the U.S. and the USSR into nuclear conflict.^ Tensions between Castro and US heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR to direct confrontation.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when U.S. reconnaissance aircraft photograph Soviet construction of intermediate-range missile sites in Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a possible U.S. invasion and justified the move in response to U.S. missile deployment in Turkey.^ Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a US invasion and justified the move in response to US missile deployment in Turkey.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a US invasion.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a US commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the US would remove American MRBMs targeting the Soviet Union from Turkey and Italy , a measure that the US implented a few months later.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After consultations with his military advisors, he met with a Cuban delegation led by Raúl Castro in July in order to work out the specifics.^ After consultations with his military advisors, he met with a Cuban delegation led by Raúl Castro in July in order to work out the specifics.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CNN reports that the ailing dictator and mass murderer has resigned as Cuban president and head of its military:Fidel Castro announced his resignation as president of Cuba and commander-in-chief of Cuba's military on Tuesday...
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Castro stands to acknowledge the applause, and with security men dressed in pale guayabera shirts hovering on all sides, he and his fellow politburo members are led out.

.It was agreed to deploy Soviet R-12 MRBMs on Cuban soil; however, American Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance discovered the construction of the missile installations on October 15, 1962 before the weapons had actually been deployed.^ It was agreed to deploy Soviet R-12 MRBMs on Cuban soil; however, American Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance discovered the construction of the missile installations on 15 October , 1962 before the weapons had actually been deployed.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a US commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the US would remove American MRBMs targeting the Soviet Union from Turkey and Italy , a measure that the US implented a few months later.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban American National Foundation (1997): 12,000 political executions ( http://www.canfnet.org/english/faqfutur.htm ) 11 Dec.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 13 | Left-Handers Day Nemoralia goddess Diana Annie Oakley famous left-handers Alfred Hitchcock Olmec calendar Australian UFOs 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.The U.S. government viewed the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons 90 miles (145 km) south of Key West as an aggressive act and a threat to U.S. security.^ The US government viewed the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons 90 miles south of Key West as an aggressive act and a threat to US security.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also an increase in the number of Soviet ships arriving in Cuba which the United States government feared were carrying new supplies of weapons.

.As a result, the U.S. publicly announced its discovery on October 22, 1962, and implemented a quarantine around Cuba that would actively intercept and search any vessels heading for the island.^ As a result, the US publicly announced its discovery on 22 October , 1962 , and implemented a quarantine around Cuba that would actively intercept and search any vessels heading for the island.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 19th February, 2008, Fidel Castro announced he would neither seek nor accept a new term as either president or commander-in-chief of Cuba.

^ Instead Eisenhower announced that he would not buy any more sugar from Cuba.

.Nikolai Sergevich Leonov, who would become a General in the KGB Intelligence Directorate[70] and the Soviet KGB deputy station chief in Warsaw, was the translator Castro used for contact with the Russians during this period.^ Nikolai Sergeevich Leonov , who would become General in KGB Intelligence Directorate, [51] and Soviet KGB deputy station chief in Warsaw, was the translator Castro used for contact with the Russians.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, it is safe to surmise that, as Americans had a James Jesus Angleton-a former CIA's chief of counterintelligence, who firmly believed Tito was Stalin's Trojan horse and that the Soviets had been successful in infiltrating a mole into the CIA-, the Russians should also had their KGB's Ivan Ivanovich Angletonovich, Chief of the Second Directorate 8 -counterintelligence-who firmly believed that Fidel Castro was a super mole, an enemy agent infiltrated into the Communist camp.

^ Yet, there were too many unanswered questions about Fidel Castro that made some Soviet intelligence officers nervous.

.In a personal letter to Khrushchev dated October 27, 1962, Castro urged him to launch a nuclear first strike against the United States if Cuba were invaded, but Khrushchev rejected any first strike response.^ Khrushchev documents in his memoirs how Castro pleaded with him to launch a pre-emptive nuclear attack on the U.S. in October of 1962.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wrote a letter [on October 26, 1962] to Khrushchev to give him courage.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba for culture; the United States for ignorance.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States.^ However, the United States decided not to completely abandon Cuba.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba for culture; the United States for ignorance.
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a U.S. commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the US would secretly remove American MRBMs targeting the Soviet Union from Turkey and Italy, a measure that the U.S. implemented a few months later.^ Soviet officials agree to remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev agrees on condition that Cuba receives guarantee of non-aggression from the U.S. and Jupiter missiles aimed at the Soviet Union are removed from Turkey.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a US commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the US would remove American MRBM s targeting the Soviet Union from Turkey and Italy , a measure that the US implemented a few months later.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The missile swap was never publicized because the Kennedy Administration demanded secrecy in order to preserve NATO relations and protect Democratic Party candidates in the upcoming U.S. elections.^ The missile swap was never publicized because the Kennedy Administration demanded secrecy in order to preserve NATO relations and protect Democratic candidates in the upcoming elections.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Kennedy had invaded Cuba he would find himself empty handed because he would have no Soviet nuclear missiles to show to the American public.

^ Batista, meanwhile, ordered new elections for November 1, 1954, offering himself as a candidate with his own election platform.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Assassination attempts

.Fabian Escalante, who was long tasked with protecting the life of Castro, estimated the number of assassination schemes or attempts by the CIA to be 638. Some such attempts allegedly included an exploding cigar, a fungal-infected scuba-diving suit, and a mafia-style shooting.^ February 23rd, 2008 at 8:10 pm “638 Ways to Kill Castro” is a Channel 4 documentary film, broadcast in the United Kingdom on November 2006, which tells the story of some of the numerous attempts to kill Fidel Castro.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Last week the CIA published documents called the "Family Jewels", revealing spy plots and assassination attempts.

^ Castro is particularly irked by the bad press Cuba gets concerning the balseros , the rafters, who risk life and limb to get to Florida.

.Some of these plots are depicted in a documentary entitled 638 Ways to Kill Castro.^ He is accused of plotting to kill Fidel Castro.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know many details of the way in which these crimes were carried out, from the lips of some of the soldiers who, filled with shame, told me of the scenes they had witnessed.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a 3-hour interview with Associated Press reporter Daniel Harker , Castro indicates that he's aware of CIA plots to kill him, and adds that U.S. leaders also "may not be safe."
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .One of these attempts was by his ex-lover Marita Lorenz whom he met in 1959. She allegedly agreed to aid the CIA and attempted to smuggle a jar of cold cream containing poison pills into his room.^ With these problems weighing heavily upon his mind, Cantillo decided to make one more attempt to defeat Castro.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CIA has been publicly embarrassed by revelations of attempts to kill Fidel Castro by a number of fanciful means, such as poisoning his cigar.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Castro realized, he reportedly gave her a gun and told her to kill him but her nerve failed.^ Castro's alliance with the local population, fostered by his respectful treatment of them, gave him an intelligence network the Cuban Army found impossible to defeat.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late 1963, ''Donovan told me that the idea of an attempt against Castro gave him goose bumps, and he refused to take the equipment from the CIA, thinking that if Cuba detected the operation, all the negotiations could be ruined and that he could be executed,'' .
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What does it show that Castro outlasted so many American Presidents many of whom tried to topple him and kill him?
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] Castro once said, in regards to the numerous attempts on his life he believes have been made, "If surviving assassination attempts were an Olympic event, I would win the gold medal."
.According to the Family Jewels documents declassified by the CIA in 2007, one such assassination attempt before the Bay of Pigs invasion involved Johnny Roselli and Al Capone's successor in the Chicago Outfit, Salvatore Giancana and his right-hand man Santos Trafficante.^ They were identified as Momo Salvatore Giancana and Santos Trafficante, respectively.

^ One of these events, according to Angletonovich, was the Bay of Pigs invasion.

^ Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was personally authorized by the then US attorney general Robert Kennedy.[74]
.Giancana and Miami Syndicate leader Santos Trafficante were contacted in September 1960 about the possibility of an assassination attempt by a go-between from the CIA, Robert Maheu, after Maheu had contacted Johnny Roselli, a member of the Las Vegas Syndicate and Giancana's number-two man.^ In September 1960, Richard Bissell and Allen W. Dulles , the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), initiated talks with two leading figures of the Mafia, Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana .

^ "Robert A. Maheu was contacted, he was informed in general terms about the project, and he was asked to evaluate whether he could get access to gangster-type elements as a first step for achieving the desired goal.

^ Bernstein claims that a senior CIA officer told him that between 1950 and 1966 the NYT provided cover for about 10 CIA operators.

.Maheu had presented himself as a representative of numerous international business firms in Cuba that were being expropriated by Castro.^ I ask Castro to talk about the changes in attitudes toward gays in Cuba, and remind him that he himself expressed doubts about gays.

^ We dont want to take Cuba BACK to the 1950's, we want to take her FORWARD to the 1950's being that fidel castro has taken the island back in time, in every way imaginable to the turn of the century.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ He said LAs needed firm ground on which to stand in event Cuba or socialists presented res which because of reasonableness and conformance with Charter LAs would be unable to oppose.
  • FRUS 1961-63, Vol. XI Cuba: 76-90 documents and memos 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.He offered $150,000 for the "removal" of Castro through this operation (the documents suggest that neither Roselli nor Giancana and Trafficante accepted any sort of payments for the job).^ They were convinced that the elimination of Castro would be a solution to their problem and they were ready to pay $ 150,000 for a successful outcome.

^ According to the human Rights group Freedom House, 500,000 Cubans (young and old, male and female) have passed through Castro's prison camps.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert Maheu , a veteran of CIA counter-espionage activities, was instructed to offer the Mafia $150,000 to kill Fidel Castro .

.According to the files, it was Giancana who suggested using a series of poison pills that could be used to doctor Castro's food and drink.^ Agrarian reform remained a major issue into the 1950's when Fidel Castro used the simple appeal that those who farmed the land should own it.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of those who stayed, 90 per cent of the population, according to public opinion polls, supported Castro.

^ Captain Pelletier was instructed to put poison in Castro's food.

.These pills were given by the CIA to Giancana's nominee Juan Orta, whom Giancana presented as being an official in the Cuban government who was also in the pay of gambling interests, and who did have access to Castro.^ Sam indicated that he had a possible candidate in the person of Juan Orta, a Cuban official who had been receiving bribery payments in the gambling racket, and who still had access to Castro and was in a financial bind.

^ Official Biography Cuban Communist Party ‘The Real Cuba’ , a site critical of Castro’s policies.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had believed the testimonies of the Cuban exiles, who told them that Castro was not well supported by the Cuban people when, in fact, Castro at this time enjoyed wide popular support.
  • Fidel Castro at AllExperts 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75][76][77]
.After a series of six attempts to introduce the poison into Castro's food, Orta abruptly demanded to be let out of the mission, handing over the job to another, unnamed participant.^ The city fell into Castro's hands on January 2, 1959.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Pelletier was instructed to put poison in Castro's food.

^ The plan was for poisoned pills to be put in Mr Castro's food, but it was shelved after the US-sponsored invasion of the Bay of Pigs failed a year later.

Later, a second attempt was mounted through Giancana and Trafficante using Dr. Anthony Verona, the leader of the Cuban Exile Junta, who had, according to Trafficante, become "disaffected with the apparent ineffectual progress of the Junta". Verona requested $10,000 in expenses and $1,000 worth of communications equipment. .However, it is unknown how far the second attempt went, as the entire program was cancelled shortly thereafter due to the launching of the Bay of Pigs Invasion.^ Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961, Castro finally declared his revolution "Socialist," and in December of that year he declared himself "a lifelong Marxist-Leninist!"
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sorí Marin and Rogelio Gonzalez, CIA agents captured a few days before the Bay of Pigs invasion, are executed.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75][76][77]

United States embargo

.Jose Maria Aznar, former Spanish Prime Minister, wrote that the embargo was Castro's greatest ally, and that Castro would lose his presidency within three months if the embargo was lifted.^ A former Prime Minister of Spain has written that the embargo is Castro’s greatest ally, as it perpetuates the government and, if lifted, Castro would lose his presidency in three months.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifting the embargo would be a good thing.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US embargo of Cuba is Castro’s ‘great ally’, says former Spanish PM .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] .Castro retained control after Cuba became bankrupt and isolated following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The synergic contraction of Cuban economy resulted in eighty-five percent of its markets disappearing, along with subsidies and trade agreements that had supported it, causing extended gas and water outages, severe power shortages, and dwindling food supplies.^ Eighty-five percent of its markets had disappeared, along with the subsidies and trade agreements that had supported its economy.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The likely cause of the failure, was that the Americans misjudged Cuban support for Castro.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Daily life was a struggle with extended gas and water outages, severe power shortages, and dwindling food supplies available for rationing.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79]
.In 1994, the island's economy plunged into what was called the "Special Period"; teetering on the brink of collapse.^ By 1994 the island’s economy, which had survived over 30 years of sanctions by the US, teetered on the brink.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba was plunged into what is called their “Special Period” during which there were shortages of everything.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the same period, the sugar industry began its rapid expansion into a position of extreme dominance in the Cuban economy.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cuba legalized the US dollar, turned to tourism, and encouraged the transfer of remittances in US dollars from Cubans living in the USA to their relatives on the Island.^ To survive, Cuba legalized the US dollar and turned to tourism.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cubans are not literally prisoners living on a very large island prison… .
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, dollar-based tourism is the great white hope for Cuba.

.After massive damage caused by Hurricane Michelle in 2001, Castro proposed a one-time cash purchase of food from the U.S. while declining a U.S. offer of humanitarian aid.^ Castro visits hurricane victims 5.11.2001 CUBA: Cardenas: Fidel Castro meeting with local people in Cardenas affected by Hurricane Michelle / Castro looking at damaged crops in Matanzas / Castro ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the doves landed on Castro's shoulder causing the crowd to fall into a deep silence.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been a supporter of the Cuban Revolution for exactly fifty years and recognize Fidel Castro as one of the great revolutionary leaders of our time.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

[80]
.The U.S. authorized the shipment of food in 2001, the first since the embargo was imposed.^ The U.S. authorized the shipment of food in 2001, the first since the embargo was imposed in 1962, because of the devastation caused by the hurricane.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .During 2004, Castro shut down 118 factories, including steel plants, sugar mills and paper processors to compensate for the crisis due to fuel shortages.^ Even as late as 2004, Castro was forced to shut down 118 factories, including steel plants, sugar mills and paper processors for the month of October to deal with the crisis in fuel shortages.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tensions between Castro and US heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR to direct confrontation.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro “seemed very sick to me” following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82], and in .2005 directed thousands of Cuban doctors to Venezuela in exchange for oil imports.^ Back in Feb the WaPo had a story of 38 Cuban doctors defecting from a “medical mission” in Venezuela – helping Hugo’s revolution – and applying for political asylum in the US. .
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By mid 2005, 160,000 barrels of oil were flowing from Venezuela to Cuba daily.
  • http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=912 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.discoverthenetworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]

Foreign relations

Soviet Union

Fidel Castro embracing former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
.Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid.^ Cuba and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors.^ Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev , allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from them.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the latter two groups, the respective regimes did not lean toward the Communist bloc, seek military help or economic assistance from the Soviet Union, etc.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

.The KGB kept in close touch with Havana, and Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, and the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force.^ The KGB kept in close touch with Havana, and Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, and the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of a 1949 decree by Pope Pius XII forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breaking News: Fidel Castro announces retirement Cuba's ailing leader Fidel Castro has announced he will not return to the presidency, in a letter published by official Communist Party paper, Granma.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

.Castro's alliance with the Soviet Union caused something of a split between him and Guevara.^ Castro’s alliance with the Soviet Union caused something of a split between him and Guevara, who took a more pro- Chinese view following ideological conflict between the CPSU and the Maoist CPC .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there were more strange things about the Castro-Wieland connection that made him even more suspicious to the Soviet intelligence.

^ Castro begins a 5-week visit to the Soviet Union.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1966, Guevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against the country's government.^ In 1966, Guevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against the country’s government.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His attempted revolution had considerable support in the country.

^ U.S. government cables all Latin American governments and NATO countries new measures to tighten the economic embargo against Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 23, 1968, Castro made a public gesture to the USSR that caused the Soviet leadership to reaffirm their support for him.^ On 23 August , 1968 Castro made a public gesture to the Soviet Union that reaffirmed their support in him.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there were more strange things about the Castro-Wieland connection that made him even more suspicious to the Soviet intelligence.

.Two days after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring, Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion.^ Two days after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring , Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro endorses the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia (on August 20).
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But just a few days after the Soviets had overthrown Bishop to replace him with a pro-Soviet man, President Reagan rushed in to order an American invasion of the island.

Castro warned the Cuban people about the Czechoslovakian 'counterrevolutionaries', who "were moving Czechoslovakia towards capitalism and into the arms of imperialists". He called the leaders of the rebellion "the agents of West Germany and fascist reactionary rabble."[84] In return for his public backing of the invasion, at a time when many Soviet allies were deeming the invasion an infringement of Czechoslovakia's sovereignty, the Soviets bailed out the Cuban economy with extra loans and an immediate increase in oil exports.
.In 1971, despite an Organization of American States convention that no nation in the Western Hemisphere would have a relationship with Cuba (the only exception being Mexico, which had refused to adopt that convention), Castro took a month-long visit to Chile, following the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba.^ In 1971, following the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba , despite a previously established Organization of American States convention that no nation in the Western Hemisphere would do so (the only exception being Mexico , which had refused to adopt that convention), Cuban President Fidel Castro took a month-long visit to Chile.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba: No diplomatic and trade relations.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Were Kennedy's visits to Cuba in any way related to Castro's revolutionary activities?

.The visit, in which Castro participated actively in the internal politics of the country, holding massive rallies and giving public advice to Salvador Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that "The Chilean Way to Socialism" was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba.^ The visit, in which Castro participated actively in the internal politics of the country, holding massive rallies and giving public advice to Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that “The Chilean Way to Socialism” was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Were Kennedy's visits to Cuba in any way related to Castro's revolutionary activities?

^ Why are dictators of the left not scorned in the same way as those of the right?
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 13 | Left-Handers Day Nemoralia goddess Diana Annie Oakley famous left-handers Alfred Hitchcock Olmec calendar Australian UFOs 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[85]
.When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba in 1989, the comradely relationship between Havana and Moscow was strained by Gorbachev's implementation of economic and political reforms in the USSR. "We are witnessing sad things in other socialist countries, very sad things," lamented Castro in November 1989, in reference to the changes that were sweeping such communist allies as the Soviet Union, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland.^ When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba in 1989, the close relationship between Moscow and Havana was strained by Gorbachev’s implementation of economic and political reforms in the USSR. “We are witnessing sad things in other socialist countries, very sad things,” lamented Castro in November 1989, in reference to the reforms that were sweeping such communist allies as the Soviet Union, East Germany , Hungary , and Poland .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The visit, in which Castro participated actively in the internal politics of the country, holding massive rallies and giving public advice to Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that “The Chilean Way to Socialism” was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro visits Nikita Khruschev in Moscow 6.5.1963 RUSSIA (USSR, SOVIET UNION): Moscow Red Square: *** text overlaid on opening shot *** Fidel Castro (President of Cuba) riding in open car with Nikita Khruschev (Secretary of the Communist Party of Soviet Union) through crowd-lined streets / Massed crowds in Red Square / Castro and Khruschev in Red Square, troops marching in parade / Castro and Khruschev shake hands and embrace .
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[86] .The subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had an immediate and devastating effect on Cuba.^ The subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had an immediate and devastating effect on Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a 5-year agreement that reschedules payment of Cuban debt (about $500 million).
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, when he announced the blockade of the island, he unexpectedly stated that the American actions were not directed against Cuba, but against the Soviet Union.

Other countries

.As I have said before, the ever more sophisticated weapons piling up in the arsenals of the wealthiest and the mightiest can kill the illiterate, the ill, the poor and the hungry, but they cannot kill ignorance, illness, poverty or hunger.^ Long before the terrorist attacks of September 11, Bush had promoted enormous budgets for the research and production of more deadly and sophisticated weapons, although the Cold War was over...
  • Selected Statements: 1958-2003 Fidel Castro on the United States 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.neoliberalismo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That said, here are a few additional points for those who like their information in hand, before they travel: .
  • Z Space - Fidel Castro 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ However, unjustifiable as those killings of 1933 were, they took place in a matter of minutes, in no more time than it took for a round of machine gun fire.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

Fidel Castro, 2002 [87]

.On November 4, 1975, Castro ordered the deployment of Cuban troops to Angola in order to aid the Marxist MPLA-ruled government against the South African-backed UNITA opposition forces.^ On November 4 , 1975 , Castro ordered the deployment of Cuban troops to Angola in order to aid the Marxist MPLA -ruled government against the UNITA opposition forces, which were being supported by South Africa .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brain Latell, who handled the CIA’s Cuba Desk for long years, rates the Cuban armed forces under Castro as even more impressive than the Israeli Defence Forces, because the Israelis never fought and won battles against a foe as sophisticated as the South African conventional forces at a distance across an ocean and on another continent, as did the Cubans.
  • Dissident Voice : Fidel Castro and the FARC: Eight Mistaken Thesis of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moscow aided the Cuban initiative with the USSR engaging in a massive airlift of Cuban forces into Angola.^ On September 4, 1933, Batista was turned overnight into a Colonel, and Chief of the Cuban Armed Forces.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On Cuba's role in Angola, Nelson Mandela is said to have remarked "Cuban internationalists have done so much for African independence, freedom, and justice."[88]
.Cuban troops were also sent to Marxist Ethiopia to assist Ethiopian forces in the Ogaden War with Somalia in 1977. In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza government in Nicaragua in 1979. It has been claimed by the Carthage Foundation-funded Center for a Free Cuba[89] that an estimated 14,000 Cubans were killed in Cuban military actions abroad.^ Overall, an estimated 14,000 Cubans were killed in Cuban military actions abroad.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba develops close relations with the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assist Cuban exile groups and Latin American governments to take actions; f.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .Castro never disclosed the amount of casualties in Soviet African wars, but one estimate is 14,000, a high number for the small country.^ Overall, an estimated 14,000 Cubans were killed in Cuban military actions abroad.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cantillo's concern stemmed primarily from his belief that Castro's forces numbered between 1,000 and 2,000 veteran guerrilla fighters.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was Castro who tried to push the Soviets into supporting never-ending guerrilla wars in Central America-an effort they strongly resisted.

[91]
.Juan Antonio Rodríguez Mernier, a former Cuban Intelligence Major who defected in 1987, says the regime made large amounts of money from drug trafficking operations in the 1970s.^ When questioned about the droves of Cubans seeking escape to the U.S., Castro dexterously spins: "A large part of the Cuban migration to the United States is an economic migration, like the Mexican migration," he says.

^ A large majority of those responding are saying positive things about Castro saying he provided free eductation, universal health care and so on.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He says he wants to discuss it with his "closest collaborators," a reference to Robaina, who is said to be working on a possible upcoming summit between Miami exiles and the Cuban government.

.The cash was to be deposited in Fidel's Swiss bank accounts "in order to finance liberation movements".[92] Norberto Fuentes, a defected member of the Castro brothers' inner circle, has provided details about these operations.^ Notice of material changes will be posted on the Site's homepage and/or will be provided by e-mailing you or notifying you upon login about these changes; the form of such notice is at our discretion.
  • Fidel Castro Breaks His Knee | SPIKE 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Castro and brother Raul watch anniversary parade 2.12.1996 CUBA: Havana: Parade (to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the landing in the country of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary forces), ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ These actions coincided with the birth of liberal political philosophy and provided the ideological base for a new social class, which was then struggling to break the bonds of feudalism.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to him, an operation conducted in cooperation with the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine helped Cuban intelligence to steal one billion by robbing banks in Lebanon during the 1975-76 civil war.^ According to a study conducted by Cornell University, these industrious insects pollinate crops valued at anywhere from 12 to 14 billion dollars.
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think you have to situate Fidel and the Cuban revolution in its own context - post Second World War national liberation movements which were driven to the left by the imperialists.
  • Rootless Cosmopolitan - By Tony Karon » Blog Archive » The Guilty Pleasure of Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC tonykaron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "They kept him in the basement clinic [of the Palacio de la Revolucion) for two weeks," one source, a well-connected Cuban, told me.

Gold bars, jewelry, gems, and museum pieces were carried in diplomatic pouches via air route Beirut-Moscow-Havana. Castro personally greeted the robbers as heroes.[92]
.Cuba and Panama restored diplomatic ties in 2005 after breaking them off a year prior when Panama's former president pardoned four Cuban exiles accused of attempting to assassinate Cuban President Fidel Castro in 2000. The foreign minister of each country re-established official diplomatic relations in Havana by signing a document describing a spirit of fraternity that has long linked both nations.^ Cuba's leader Fidel Castro resigns .
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Collection of stories on the President of Cuba, Fidel Castro.
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba’s Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .Cuba, once shunned by many of its Latin American neighbours, now has full diplomatic relations with all but Costa Rica and El Salvador.^ Cuba: No diplomatic and trade relations.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. government cables all Latin American governments and NATO countries new measures to tighten the economic embargo against Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It doesn't make sense that our policy on Cuba is so different from our policy with other governments that call themselves communist, like Vietnam and China, where we have diplomatic relations and trade."
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

[93]
.Although the relationship between Cuba and Mexico remains strained, each side appears to make attempts to improve it.^ Although the relationship between Cuba and Mexico remains strained, each side appears to make attempts to improve it.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Mexico and Venezuela have a lot of oil and Cuba lies between the two."

.In 1998, Fidel Castro apologized for remarks he made about Mickey Mouse which led Mexico to recall its ambassador from Havana.^ In 1998 Fidel Castro apologised for remarks he made about Mickey Mouse which led Mexico to recall its ambassador from Havana.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexico’s Fox apologises to Castro .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, there were too many unanswered questions about Fidel Castro that made some Soviet intelligence officers nervous.

.He said he intended no offense when he said earlier that Mexican children would find it easier to name Disney characters than to recount key figures in Mexican history.^ He said he intended no offense when he said earlier that Mexican children would find it easier to name Disney characters than to recount key figures in Mexican history.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Kennedy had invaded Cuba he would find himself empty handed because he would have no Soviet nuclear missiles to show to the American public.

^ If men like these had not partially saved the name of the Armed Forces, it would be more honorable today to wear a dishrag than to wear an Army uniform.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rather, he said, his words were meant to underscore the cultural dominance of the US.[94] Mexican president Vicente Fox apologized to Fidel Castro in 2002 over statements by Castro, who had taped their telephone conversation, to the effect that Fox forced him to leave a United Nations summit in Mexico so that he would not be in the presence of President Bush, who also attended.^ Rather, he said, his words were meant to underscore the cultural dominance of the US. [69] Mexican president, Vicente Fox, apologised to Fidel Castro in 2002 over allegations by Castro that Fox forced him to leave a United Nations summit in Mexico so that he would not be in the presence of President Bush, who also attended.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexico’s Fox apologises to Castro .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations viewed him as a threat.
  • Fidel Castro: The Pathology of George Bush 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

[95]
.At a summit meeting of sixteen Caribbean countries in 1998, Castro called for regional unity, saying that only strengthened cooperation between Caribbean countries would prevent their domination by rich nations in a global economy.^ Castro calls for Caribbean unity .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At a summit meeting of sixteen Caribbean countries in 1998, Castro called for regional unity, saying that only strengthened cooperation between Caribbean countries would prevent their domination by rich nations in a global economy.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro, until recently a regional outcast, has been increasing grants and scholarships to the Caribbean countries, while US aid has dropped 25% over the past five years.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba's Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.^ Cuba's leader Fidel Castro resigns .
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba’s Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro and Cuba's hereditary rule .
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

.Castro, until recently a regional outcast, has been increasing grants and scholarships to the Caribbean countries, while US aid has dropped 25% over the past five years.^ Castro, until recently a regional outcast, has been increasing grants and scholarships to the Caribbean countries, while US aid has dropped 25% over the past five years.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba’s Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But he is no longer the leader of Cuba:Fidel Castro, the communist strongman who has led Cuba for 49 years, will step down as president of the Caribbean country, according to a letter published in the state newspaper Granma.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

[97] .Cuba has opened four additional embassies in the Caribbean Community including: Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Suriname, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.^ Cuba has opened four additional embassies in the Caribbean Community including: Antigua and Barbados , Dominica , Suriname , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This development makes Cuba the only country to have embassies in all independent countries of the Caribbean Community.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba opens more Carribbean embassies “, Caribbean Net News , March, 2006.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This development makes Cuba the only country to have embassies in all independent countries of the Caribbean Community.^ This development makes Cuba the only country to have embassies in all independent countries of the Caribbean Community.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba has opened four additional embassies in the Caribbean Community including: Antigua and Barbados , Dominica , Suriname , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. government cables all Latin American governments and NATO countries new measures to tighten the economic embargo against Cuba.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98]
North Korea has granted Castro "the Golden Medal (Hammer and Sickle) and the First Class Order of the National Flag".[99]
.Libyan de facto leader Muammar al-Gaddafi has granted Castro a "Libyan human rights prize".[100] On a visit to South Africa in 1998 he was warmly received by President Nelson Mandela.^ Libyan human rights prize awarded to Fidel Castro of Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro and human rights .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro ends state-visit to South Africa .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] .President Mandela gave Castro South Africa's highest civilian award for foreigners, the Order of Good Hope.^ On a visit to South Africa he was warmly received by President Nelson Mandela.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro’s state visit to South Africa .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Mandela gave Castro South Africa’s highest civilian award for foreigners, the Order of Good Hope.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] .Last December Castro fulfilled his promise of sending 100 medical aid workers to Botswana, according to the Botswana presidency.^ Last December Castro fulfilled his promise of sending 100 medical aid workers to Botswana, according to the Botswana presidency.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro’s “promise to Botswana fulfilled” .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the NYT :"Fidel Castro stepped down Tuesday morning as the president of Cuba after a long illness, according to Granma, the official publication of the Cuban Communist Party.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

These workers play an important role in Botswana's war against HIV/AIDS. According to Anna Vallejera, Cuba's first-ever Ambassador to Botswana, the health workers are part of her country's ongoing commitment to proactively assist in the global war against HIV/AIDS,[103]
.In Harlem, Castro is seen as an icon because of his historic visit with Malcolm X in 1960 at the Hotel Theresa.^ In Harlem he is seen as a icon because of his historic visit with Malcolm X in 1960 at the Hotel Theresa .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Premier met Castro for the first time in New York in September, 1960, when both leaders were visiting the United Nations.

[104]
.Castro was known to be a friend of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and was an honorary pall bearer at Trudeau's funeral in October 2000. They had continued their friendship after Trudeau left office until his death.^ Castro returns to his post of Prime Minister.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro was known to be a friend of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1998 Canadian Prime Minister, Jean Chretien arrived in Cuba to meet President Castro and highlight their close ties.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canada became one of the first American allies openly to trade with Cuba.^ Canada became one of the first American allies to open trade with Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact remains that Cuba and the Soviet Union signed their first trade agreement on February 13, 1960.

^ In an effort to stabilize Cuba's economy and rekindle American investments, Washington and Cuba signed a trade agreement in 1934.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cuba still has a good relationship with Canada.^ Cuba still has a good relationship with Canada.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's given Canada a chance to actually build a relationship with Cuba, as evidenced by the foreign aid, tourism industry etc .
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1998, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien arrived in Cuba to meet President Castro and highlight their close ties.^ In 1998 Canadian Prime Minister, Jean Chretien arrived in Cuba to meet President Castro and highlight their close ties.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro returns to his post of Prime Minister.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York Times : "Fidel Castro stepped down Tuesday morning as the president of Cuba after a long illness.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

He is the first Canadian government leader to visit the island since Pierre Trudeau was in Havana in 1976.[105]
Vladimir Putin and Castro in 2000.
.The European Union accuses the Castro regime of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms".[106] In December 2001, European Union representatives described their political dialogue with Cuba as back on track after a weekend of talks in Havana.^ European Union representatives described their political dialogue with Cuba as back on track after a weekend of talks in Havana.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Libyan human rights prize awarded to Fidel Castro of Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galloway backs Castro on Cuba TV .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EU praised Cuba's willingness to discuss questions of human rights.^ The EU praised Cuba’s willingness to discuss questions of human rights.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Libyan human rights prize awarded to Fidel Castro of Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN sees no significant change in human rights’ situation in Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cuba is the only Latin American country without an economic co-operation agreement with the EU. However, trade with individual European countries remains strong since the US trade embargo on Cuba leaves the market free from American rivals.^ The EU is Cuba’s largest trading partner.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'An educated country will always be strong and free.'
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba is the only Latin American country without an economic co-operation agreement with the EU. However trade with individual European countries remains strong, since the US trade embargo on Cuba leaves the market free from American rivals.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107]
.In 2005, EU Development Commissioner Louis Michel ended his visit to Cuba optimistic that relations with the communist state will become stronger.^ [Document number 399, page 974, Foreign Relations of the United States, Cuba, 1961-1963, Volume X.] .
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro visits hurricane victims 5.11.2001 CUBA: Cardenas: Fidel Castro meeting with local people in Cardenas affected by Hurricane Michelle / Castro looking at damaged crops in Matanzas / Castro ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Cuba develops close relations with the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EU is Cuba's largest trading partner.^ The EU is Cuba’s largest trading partner.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cuba's imprisonment of 75 dissidents and the execution of three hijackers have strained diplomatic relations.^ Cuba’s imprisonment of 75 dissidents and the execution of three hijackers have strained diplomatic relations.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba: No diplomatic and trade relations.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba and the Soviet Union establish diplomatic relations.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the EU commissioner was impressed with Fidel Castro's willingness to discuss these concerns, although he received no commitments from Castro.^ It appears that he initially saw Castro as just another rival for political power who, although popular, had no widespread base of support among he Cuban population.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Bonachea and San Martin cite convincing evidence, in the form of a certifying letter from Castro's mother, that attests to Fidel's birthyear as 1927.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Castro's school stirred such strong revolutionary fervor among the inmates that it was eventually closed down, and Fidel was placed in solitary confinement.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cuba does not admit to holding political prisoners, seeing them rather as mercenaries in the pay of the United States.^ Sooner rather than later, he assures us, the arrogance of the United States will result in its downfall.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States will help the people of Cuba realize the blessings of liberty ,” President Bush said in response.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ The United States, as a market for sugar and a source of imports, continued to carry much influence in Cuba.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]
.Castro is seen as an icon by leaders of recent socialist governments in Latin America.^ In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the attack on the Moncada Fortress was unsuccessful, Castro turned to a type of combat virtually unknown in Latin America -- guerrilla warfare.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the words of Fidel Castro: The Armies of Latin America are unnecessary if it's a guestion of this part of the world lining up against Russia.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hugo Chavez of Venezuela is a long-time admirer and reached agreements with Cuba to provide subsidized petroleum in exchange for Cuban medical assistance.^ New York Times : "Fidel Castro stepped down Tuesday morning as the president of Cuba after a long illness.
  • Fidel Castro Resigns as Cuba's President - Blogrunner 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Cuba could easily provide for a population three times as great as it has now, so there is no excuse for the abject poverty of a single one of its present inhabitants.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have lurked here for a long time, completing my education about the island of Cuba and its native sons and daughters in Florida.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

Evo Morales of Bolivia has described him as "the grandfather of all Latin American revolutionaries".[109]

Religious beliefs

.Castro was baptized and raised a Roman Catholic as a child but did not practice as one.^ Castro is an atheist and has not been a practicing Roman Catholic since his childhood.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro attended a Roman Catholic convent blessing in 2003.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Oliver Stone's documentary Comandante, Castro states "I have never been a believer", and has total conviction that there is only one life.^ I know they did so believing in good faith that this was the only way they could save my life, which they considered to be in grave danger.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the military technicians have stated right here in this Court that we only had one machine gun and not a single hand-grenade.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And there were all sorts of things about Fidel Castro that pointed to him as a suspect, because in the counterintelligence business things are almost never what they seem.

[110] .Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of Pope Pius XII's Decree against Communism, a 1949 decree forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments.^ Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of a 1949 decree by Pope Pius XII forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The excommunication was aimed at undermining support for Castro among Catholics.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American haste in recognizing the Castro government in Earl T. Smith, The Fourth Floor, New York: Random House, 1962, 196; also in Communist Threat, 683.

.In 1992, Castro agreed to loosen restrictions on religion and even permitted church-going Catholics to join the Cuban Communist Party.^ In 1992 Castro agreed to loosen restrictions on religion and even permitted church-going Catholics to join the Cuban Communist Party.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of a 1949 decree by Pope Pius XII forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Communists criticizing the Moncada attack in A. Surez, Cuba: Castroism and Communism, 1959-1966, 40.

.He began describing his country as "secular" rather than "atheist".[111] Pope John Paul II visited Cuba in 1998, the first visit by a reigning pontiff to the island.^ He began describing his country as “secular” rather than “atheist”.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II’s visit to Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II visited Cuba in 1998, the first visit by a reigning pontiff to the island.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castro and the Pope appeared side by side in public on several occasions during the visit.^ Castro and the Pope appeared side by side in public on several occasions during the visit.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies report that up to several thousands of political opponents have been killed, primarily during the first decade of Castro’s leadership.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.^ Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro “seemed very sick to me” following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro and the Pope appeared side by side in public on several occasions during the visit.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112] .In December 1998, Castro formally re-instated Christmas Day as the official celebration for the first time since its abolition by the Communist Party in 1969.[113] Cubans were again allowed to mark Christmas as a holiday and to openly hold religious processions.^ Castro ratifies Christmas holiday .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cubans were again allowed to mark Christmas as a holiday and to openly hold religious processions.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December, 1998, Castro formally re-instated Christmas Day as the official celebration it was formerly before the Communist Party abolished it in 1969.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pope sent a telegram to Castro thanking him for restoring Christmas as a public holiday.^ The Pope sent a telegram to Castro thanking him for restoring Christmas as a public holiday.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope’s Christmas message for Castro .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro ratifies Christmas holiday .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114]
.Castro attended a Roman Catholic convent blessing in 2003. The purpose of this unprecedented event was to help bless the newly restored convent in Old Havana and to mark the fifth anniversary of the Pope's visit to Cuba.^ The purpose of this unprecedented event was to help bless the newly restored convent in Old Havana and to mark the fifth anniversary of the Pope’s visit to Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro attends convent blessing .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro attended a Roman Catholic convent blessing in 2003.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115]
.The senior spiritual leader of the Orthodox Christian faith arrived in Cuba in 2004, the first time any Orthodox Patriarch has visited Latin America in the Church's history: Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I consecrated a cathedral in Havana and bestowed an honor on Fidel Castro.^ History will absolve me - Fidel Castro .
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Fidel: The inside story of Castro’s regime and Cuba’s next leader.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro greets Orthodox patriarch .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] .His aides said that he was responding to the decision of the Cuban Government to build and donate to the Orthodox Christians a tiny Orthodox cathedral in the heart of old Havana.^ His aides said that he was responding to the decision of the Cuban Government to build and donate to the Orthodox Christians a tiny Orthodox cathedral in the heart of old Havana.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cubans would, of course, turn Eighth Street into the vibrant heart of Little Havana.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ Two months later, Donovan made the first of 11 trips to Havana for mediation with the Cuban government.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[117]
.After Pope John Paul II's death in April 2005, an emotional Castro attended a mass in his honor in Havana's cathedral and signed the Pope's condolence book at the Vatican Embassy.^ After the Pope’s death in April 2005, an emotional Castro attended a mass in his honor in Havana’s cathedral and signed the Pope’s condolence book at the Vatican Embassy.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II’s visit to Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro mourns pope at Havana cathedral .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118] .He had last visited the cathedral in 1959, 46 years earlier, for the wedding of one of his sisters.^ He had last visited the cathedral in 1959, 46 years earlier, for the wedding of one of his sisters.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given his health these last couple of years, this should surprise no one.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino led the mass and welcomed Castro, who was dressed in a black suit, expressing his gratitude for the "heartfelt way the death of our Holy Father John Paul II was received (in Cuba)."[119]

Succession issues

.According to Article 94 of the Cuban Constitution, the First Vice President of the Council of State assumes presidential duties upon the illness or death of the president.^ He held the title of Prime Minister from 1959 [1] , after commanding the revolution that overthrew Fulgencio Batista , until 1976 when he became president of the Council of State as well as the Council of Ministers .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Batista proposed that a civilian junta be organized with individuals not involved with the government, and that the senior member of the Supreme Court assume the presidency in accordance with Article 149 of the Cuban Constitution.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time Cuba had a constitution that reflected Cuban ideals and philosophy, rather than that of a foreign power.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Raúl Castro was the person in that position for the last 32 years of Fidel Castro's presidency.^ Collection of stories on the President of Cuba, Fidel Castro.
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ The school year book of that year said of Fidel Castro: "...we do not doubt he will fill the book of his life with brilliant pages.

^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 , 1926 ) is the current President of Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Speculation on illness 1998-2005

.Due to the issue of presidential succession and Castro's longevity, there have long been rumors, speculation and hoaxing about Castro's health and demise.^ There has long been speculation about Castro’s health.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many things about Castro that invited speculation.

^ The CIA has long been preoccupied with Castro’s health.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1998 there were reports that he had a serious brain disease, later discredited.^ In 1998 there were reports that he had a serious brain disease, later discredited.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120] .In June 2001, he apparently fainted during a seven-hour speech under the Caribbean sun.^ In June, 2001, he apparently fainted during a seven-hour speech under the Caribbean sun.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Login or register to reply I'll miss his seven hour Mon, 02/18/2008 - 12:27 — miss_kitty (not verified) I'll miss his seven hour speeches.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro nearly faints during speech 23.6.2001 CUBA: Havana: Fidel Castro making speech (not heard), as offical brings glass of water, then others rush on stage as Castro almost collapses and is ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[121] .Later that day he finished the speech, walking buoyantly into the television studios in his military fatigues, joking with journalists.^ Later that day he finished the speech, walking buoyantly into the television studios in his military fatigues, joking with journalists.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122]
.In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá, said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.^ In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá , said that Castro “seemed very sick to me” following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro and Matthews were followed by the TV crew of Andrew Saint George, said to be a CIA contact person.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] .In May 2004, Castro's physician denied that his health was failing, and speculated that he would live to be 140 years old.^ In May 2004, Castro’s physician denied that his health was failing, and speculated that he would live to be 140 years old.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has long been speculation about Castro’s health.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro can live to 140, doctor says “, The Sydney Morning Herald , 2004-09-24 .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dr. Eugenio Selman Housein said that the "press is always speculating about something, that he had a heart attack once, that he had cancer, some neurological problem", but maintained that Castro was in good health.[124]
.On October 20, 2004, Castro tripped and fell following a speech he gave at a rally, breaking his kneecap and fracturing his right arm.^ On 20 October 2004 , Castro fell off a stage following a speech he gave at a rally.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted: October 21, 2004 Description: The Cuban leader trips and falls off of a concrete step after giving a...
  • Fidel Castro Breaks His Knee | SPIKE 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ It breaks my heart that I can't be with those near and dear to me right now, but I am also thrilled at the prospect that hope has been rekindled, that yesterday marked the beginning of the end for Castro's tyranny.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

[125] .He was able to recover his ability to walk and publicly demonstrated this two months later.^ Two months after his fall a smiling Castro walked for the first time in public.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two months later, Donovan made the first of 11 trips to Havana for mediation with the Cuban government.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[126]
.In 2005, the CIA said it thought Castro had Parkinson's disease.^ Parkinson’s disease a CIA fabrication, says Fidel Castro .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005 the CIA said it thought Castro has Parkinson’s disease .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro has Parkinson’s says CIA .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127][128] .Castro denied such allegations, while also citing the example of Pope John Paul II in saying that he would not fear the disease.^ Castro denies such allegations, while also stating “I don’t care if I get Parkinson’s.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II’s visit to Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of a 1949 decree by Pope Pius XII forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129]

Transfer of duties, speculation on illness 2006-2007

.On July 31, 2006, Castro delegated his duties as President of the Council of state, President of the Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party and the post of commander in chief of the armed forces to his brother Raúl Castro.^ Posted by: QbanCaramelo at July 31, 2006 11:34 PM .
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by: Gigi at July 31, 2006 11:09 PM .
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by: Piruli at July 31, 2006 11:03 PM .
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

.This transfer of duties was described at the time as temporary while Fidel recovered from surgery he underwent due to an "acute intestinal crisis with sustained bleeding".[130] Fidel Castro was too ill to attend the nationwide commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Granma boat landing on December 2, 2006, which also became his belated 80th birthday celebrations.^ For the first time, the Cuban people were able to hear the uncensored version of what had happened at Moncada and the accusations of Fidel Castro at the trials.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro and brother Raul watch anniversary parade 2.12.1996 CUBA: Havana: Parade (to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the landing in the country of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary forces), ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ When Castro took ill, Cuba should have been bombarded with propaganda loaded with slogans such as "The time is near", "Freedom is coming", "rise up and be free".
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castro's non-appearance fueled reports that he had terminal pancreatic cancer and was refusing treatment,[131] but on December 17, 2006 Cuban officials stated that Castro had no terminal illness and would eventually return to his public duties.^ Official Biography Cuban Communist Party ‘The Real Cuba’ , a site critical of Castro’s policies.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea that Cubans would rise up against Castro, was simply a misconception on the part of the Eisenhower, and then Kennedy administrations.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Kennedy had invaded Cuba he would find himself empty handed because he would have no Soviet nuclear missiles to show to the American public.

[132][133]
Castro in 2006.
.However, on December 24, 2006, Spanish newspaper El Periódico de Catalunya reported that Spanish surgeon José Luis García Sabrido had been flown to Cuba on a plane chartered by the Cuban government.^ Discurso pronunciado en el acto celebrado por la CTC revolucionaria, en el teatro “blanquita”, el 24 de febrero de 1960.
  • Discursos e Intervenciones del Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.cuba.cu [Source type: General]

^ Discurso pronunciado en el Estadio de Rancagua, Chile, el 24 de noviembre de 1971.
  • Discursos e Intervenciones del Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.cuba.cu [Source type: General]

^ Discurso pronunciado en el acto por el Da Internacional de los Trabajadores, Plaza de la Revolucin, 1ro de mayo del 2006.
  • Discursos e Intervenciones del Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.cuba.cu [Source type: General]

Dr. García Sabrido is an intestinal expert who further specializes in the treatment of cancer. The plane that Dr. García Sabrido's traveled in also was reported to be carrying a large quantity of advanced medical equipment.[134][135] On December 26, 2006, shortly after returning to Madrid, Dr. García Sabrido held a news conference in which he answered questions about Castro's health. He stated that "He does not have cancer, he has a problem with his digestive system," and added, "His condition is stable. He is recovering from a very serious operation. It is not planned that he will undergo another operation for the moment."[136] .Although most Cubans acknowledge that they are aware Castro is seriously ill, most also seem worried about a future without Castro.^ The Papal Nuncio more likely represented the Church hierarchy and wealthy patrons only, since most young cubans advocated the overthrow of Batista, although not necessarily in accordance with Castro's plan.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, Donovan tells me he wants to get quality equipment for a person, but without telling me they are for Castro.''
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among other things, the Russians' antihomosexual biases had been awakened, and they began having serious suspicions about Fidel's strange relationship with homosexuals.

[137]
On January 16, 2007, the Spanish newspaper, El País, citing two unnamed sources from the Gregorio Marañón hospital —who employs Dr. García Sabrido— in Madrid, reported Castro was in "very grave" condition, having trouble cicatrizing, after three failed operations and complications from an intestinal infection caused by a severe case of diverticulitis. However, Dr. García Sibrido told CNN that he was not the source of the report and that "any statement that doesn't come directly from [Castro's] medical team is without foundation."[138] Also, a Cuban diplomat in Madrid said the reports were lies and declined to comment, while White House press secretary Tony Snow said the report appeared to be "just sort of a roundup of previous health reports. We've got nothing new."[139][140][141] .On January 30, 2007, Cuban television and the paper Juventud Rebelde showed fresh video and photos from a meeting between Castro and Hugo Chavez said to have taken place the previous day.^ Tensions between Castro and US heightened during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR to direct confrontation.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro wanted the President arrested and brought to trial for crimes against the Cuban people.* Castro also opposed the junta, preferring (he said) a return to constitutional guarantees and democracy.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The committee's first meeting with Castro took place in Barreto de los Heros' house in Miramar on April 10, 1962.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[142][143]
.In mid-February 2007, it was reported by the Associated Press that Acting President Raul Castro had said that Fidel Castro's health was improving and he was taking part in all important issues facing the government.^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on a sugar plantation in Birán, near Mayarí, in the modern-day province of Holguín – then a part of the now-defunct Oriente province.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island’s crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support for Castro and his movement.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eugenio Selman Housein said that the “press is always speculating about something, that he had a heart attack once, that he had cancer, some neurological problem”, but maintained that Castro was in good health.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."He's consulted on the most important questions," Raul Castro said of Fidel.^ Consequently, during most of the late 1950's, America's power, which might have proved decisive to the fate of Fidel Castro, was neutralized.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raul Castro will take over the leadership of Cuba when Fidel dies.
  • Fidel Castro Breaks His Knee | SPIKE 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Castro and brother Raul watch anniversary parade 2.12.1996 CUBA: Havana: Parade (to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the landing in the country of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary forces), ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

"He doesn't interfere, but he knows about everything."[144] .On February 27, 2007, Reuters reported that Fidel Castro had called into Aló Presidente, a live radio talk show hosted by Hugo Chávez, and chatted with him for thirty minutes during which time he sounded "much healthier and more lucid" than he had on any of the audio and video tapes released since his surgery in July.^ February 27, 2007 .
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the title of The American Model is an Idea whose Time has Come, Amy Goodman, host of Democracy Now!, an international daily news show broadcast by 650 radio and television stations in the U.S. and the world, wrote: .
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, during most of the late 1950's, America's power, which might have proved decisive to the fate of Fidel Castro, was neutralized.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Castro reportedly told Chávez, "I am gaining ground. I feel I have more energy, more strength, more time to study," adding with a chuckle, "I have become a student again." .Later in the conversation (transcript in Spanish; audio) , he made reference to the fall of the world stock markets that had occurred earlier in the day and remarked that it was proof of his contention that the world capitalist system is in crisis.^ A recessive crisis in the United Stateswould immediately impact on the stock exchanges and the globalized money marketscompleting the cycle of the collapse of todays model of capitalist economy on a world scale.
  • Fidel Castro Reflections on John McCain, the Republican Candidate, written February 2008. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.walterlippmann.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]
Reports of improvements in his condition continued to circulate throughout March and early April. .On April 13, 2007, Chávez was quoted by the Associated Press as saying that Castro has "almost totally recovered" from his illness.^ Between April 15th and 26th, Castro visited the U.S. as a guest of the Press Club where he was greeted with thunderous applause.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro visits New York April 1959 ** wrongly dated as 1950 in original script ** GRAPHIC Titles: Castro - Gotham says 'Bienvenido!'
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ I notice how The Associated Press is reporting how Castro "erased illiteracy" in Cuba.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

.That same day, Cuban Foreign Minister Felipe Roque confirmed during a press conference in Vietnam that Castro had improved steadily and had resumed some of his leadership responsibilities.^ I was told by a friend in cuba, that castro died august 1 and that Raul had been shot that same day, but he is not dead.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ Some studies report that up to several thousands of political opponents have been killed, primarily during the first decade of Castro’s leadership.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro was in Colombia at the time and participated in the Bogotazo riots during the Foreign Ministers Conference in Bogot in 1948.

[146] .On April 21, 2007, the official newspaper Granma reported that Castro had met for over an hour with Wu Guanzheng, a member of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party who was visiting Havana.^ In a 3-hour interview with Associated Press reporter Daniel Harker , Castro indicates that he's aware of CIA plots to kill him, and adds that U.S. leaders also "may not be safe."
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Behind the scenes, Raul Castro and Che Guevara, both long established Marxists, provided that practicality, aided by the Cuban Communist Party.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December, 1998, Castro formally re-instated Christmas Day as the official celebration it was formerly before the Communist Party abolished it in 1969.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Photographs of their meeting showed the Cuban president looking healthier than he had in any previously released since his surgery.^ In the early morning hours of January 1, 1959, President Batista released a message to the Cuban people.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than signing their name with the "X" of illiteracy, the sons of Cubans who previously were starving and illiterate, are now doctors, engineers, agronomists, musicians.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cuban Constitution of 1940 reflected most of Batista's ideas, although, like the previous Cuban Constitution of 1902; it was more idealistic than practical.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[147]
As a comment on Castro’s recovery, U.S. President George W. Bush said: "One day the good Lord will take Fidel Castro away," Hearing about this, Castro, who is an atheist, ironically replied: "Now I understand why I survived Bush's plans and the plans of other presidents who ordered my assassination: the good Lord protected me."[148]
.In January 2009 Castro asked Cubans not to worry about his lack of recent news columns, his failing health, and not to be disturbed by his future death.^ I asked them, 'Who is so worried about my health?'
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I came for the news about Castro.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ USA recognises Castro's new regime January 1959 GRAPHIC ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[149] At the same time pictures were released of Castro's meeting with the Argentine president Cristina Fernandez on January 21, 2009.[150]

Retirement

"I'm really happy to reach 80. I never expected it, not least having a neighbor - the greatest power in the world - trying to kill me every day."
— Fidel Castro, July 21, 2006 [151]
.In a letter dated February 18, 2008, Castro announced that he would not accept the positions of president and commander in chief at the February 24, 2008 National Assembly meetings, saying "I will not aspire nor accept—I repeat I will not aspire or accept—the post of President of the Council of State and Commander in Chief,"[152] effectively announcing his retirement from official public life.^ "I neither will aspire to, nor will I accept, the position of president of the council of state and commander in chief," he wrote in the letter.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Castro biography with pictures and sound clips Official Site for Fidel: The Untold Story (2001) “A Visit With Castro” Arthur Miller tells about his encounter with Castro (December 24, 2003) in The Nation .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He held the title of Prime Minister from 1959 [1] , after commanding the revolution that overthrew Fulgencio Batista , until 1976 when he became president of the Council of State as well as the Council of Ministers .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[153][154][155] .The letter was published online by the official Communist Party newspaper Granma.^ In December, 1998, Castro formally re-instated Christmas Day as the official celebration it was formerly before the Communist Party abolished it in 1969.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Cuba's official newspaper Granma, the total membership is now about 4,750,000.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Communist newspaper L'Unita (from Italy), Castro is asked by journalist Arminio Savioli about his opinion of Cuba's Communist Party.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In it, Castro stated that his health was a primary reason for his decision, stating that "It would betray my conscience to take up a responsibility that requires mobility and total devotion, that I am not in a physical condition to offer".[156]

Succession

Fidel Castro's brother Raúl Castro and Dmitry Medvedev.
.On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly of People's Power unanimously chose his brother, Raúl Castro, as Fidel's successor as President of Cuba.^ Fidel Castro biography with pictures and sound clips Official Site for Fidel: The Untold Story (2001) “A Visit With Castro” Arthur Miller tells about his encounter with Castro (December 24, 2003) in The Nation .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, during most of the late 1950's, America's power, which might have proved decisive to the fate of Fidel Castro, was neutralized.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba’s Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .In his first speech as Fidel’s successor, he proposed to the National Assembly of People's Power that Fidel continue to be consulted on matters of great importance, such as defence, foreign policy and "the socioeconomic development of the country". The proposal was immediately and unanimously approved by the 597 members of the National Assembly.^ For the first time, the Cuban people were able to hear the uncensored version of what had happened at Moncada and the accusations of Fidel Castro at the trials.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One must have great faith in one's country to do such a thing.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, the dictatorship that oppresses the nation is not a constitutional power, but an unconstitutional one: it was established against the Constitution, over the head of the Constitution, violating the legitimate Constitution of the Republic.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Raúl described Fidel as "not substitutable".[157] Fidel also remains the First Secretary of the Communist Party.^ Leonid Brezhnev visits Castro 1.2.1974 CUBA: Havana: Massed crowds in square, waving Cuban flags / Leonid Brezhnev (General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) and Fidel Castro ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Cuba's ailing leader Fidel Castro has announced he will not return to the presidency, in a letter published by official Communist Party paper, Granma.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mikhail Gorbachev visits Cuba 3.4.1989 CUBA: Havana: Mikhail Gorbachev (General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) down steps from plane with wife Raisa Gorbachev / Fidel Castro ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[158]

Public image

.By wearing military-style uniforms and leading mass demonstrations, Castro projected an image of a perpetual revolutionary.^ By wearing military-style uniforms and leading mass demonstrations, Castro projects an image of a perpetual revolutionary.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro launches the "revolutionary offensive" which nationalizes 55,000 small businesses and leads to state control of nearly all trades and services.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sam Dolgoft, in an anarchist critique of Castro’s government, wrote that Castro attempts to justify oppressive rule by projecting a messianic image: .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was mostly seen in military attire, but his personal tailor, Merel Van 't Wout, convinced him to occasionally change to a business suit.^ Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[159] Castro is often referred to as "Comandante", but is also nicknamed "El Caballo", meaning "The Horse", a label that was first attributed to Cuban entertainer Benny Moré, who on hearing Castro passing in the Havana night with his entourage, shouted out "Here comes the horse!"[160]
.During the revolutionary campaign, fellow rebels knew Castro as "The Giant".[161] Large throngs of people gathered to cheer at Castro's fiery speeches, which typically lasted for hours.^ Large throngs of people gather to cheer at Castro’s fiery speeches, which typically last for hours.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The speech lasts 4.5 hours.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro collapses during speech .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many details of Castro's private life, particularly involving his family members, are scarce as the media is forbidden to mention them.^ Unlike most leaders considered the subject of a cult of personality, however, many details of Castro’s private life, particularly involving his family members, are scarce.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What the media barely mentioned, however, was that Castro visited the headquarters of the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, where he spoke on "Cuba and the United States."

[162] .Castro's image appears frequently in Cuban stores, classrooms, taxicabs, and national television.^ Since the image of the opposition to Fidel has always been an American one, with Cubans in the U.S. appearing to participate in a subordinate capacity, the harsh treatment given to the anti-Castro underground appeared to be justified by the circumstances.

^ As suggested, the contradictory image of Castro combined with the tarnished image of Batista brought irresolution to America's Cuban policy.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears that he initially saw Castro as just another rival for political power who, although popular, had no widespread base of support among he Cuban population.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[163] .Despite this, Castro has stated that he does not promote a cult of personality.^ Although some believe this praise to be genuine, it has led to a common characterization of Castro as being a subject of such a cult of personality .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite his charisma, tactics and popular appeal, Castro's quest may well have proved fruitless if the power of the United States had been applied to his downfall with unqualified vigor.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike most leaders considered the subject of a cult of personality, however, many details of Castro’s private life, particularly involving his family members, are scarce.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[164]

Family

.By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, whom he married on October 11, 1948, Castro has a son named Fidel Ángel "Fidelito" Castro Díaz-Balart, born on September 1, 1949. Díaz-Balart and Castro were divorced in 1955, and she remarried Emilio Núñez Blanco.^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They then had a son, Fidelito, born in 1949.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel's wife and son were not present.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a spell in Madrid, Díaz-Balart reportedly returned to Havana to live with Fidelito and his family.^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro returned to Cuba and married Mirta Díaz Balart , a student from a wealthy Cuban family where he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[165] .Fidelito grew up in Cuba; for a time, he ran Cuba's atomic-energy commission before being removed from the post by his father.^ We dont want to take Cuba BACK to the 1950's, we want to take her FORWARD to the 1950's being that fidel castro has taken the island back in time, in every way imaginable to the turn of the century.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ When Castro took ill, Cuba should have been bombarded with propaganda loaded with slogans such as "The time is near", "Freedom is coming", "rise up and be free".
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spirited out of Cuba on a program that delivered nearly 14,000 Cuban children to orphanages and foster care in the United States, he grew up fast.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

[166] .Díaz-Balart's nephews are Republican U.S. Congressmen Lincoln Diaz-Balart and Mario Diaz-Balart, vocal critics of the Castro government.^ After his return to the University, Castro married fellow-student, Mirtha Diaz Balart.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro returned to Cuba and married Mirta Díaz Balart , a student from a wealthy Cuban family where he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fidel has five other sons by his second wife, Dalia Soto del Valle: Antonio, Alejandro, Alexis, Alexander "Alex" and Ángel Castro Soto del Valle.^ Fidel's wife and son were not present.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel has four other sons named Alex, Alexis, Antonio, and Alejandro who are with his second wife Dalia Soto del Valle.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166]
.While Fidel was married to Mirta, he had an affair with Natalia "Naty" Revuelta Clews, born in Havana in 1925 and married to Orlando Fernández, resulting in a daughter named Alina Fernández-Revuelta.^ While Fidel was still married to Mirta, he had an affair with Naty Revuelta resulting in a daughter named Alina Fernandez-Revuelta .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, Castro has a son named Fidel “Fidelito” Castro Díaz-Balart.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel and those born before him were actually illegitimate as Angel did not marry Lina until sometime after Fidel's birth.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166] .Alina left Cuba in 1993, disguised as a Spanish tourist,[167] and sought asylum in the United States.^ The United States, as a market for sugar and a source of imports, continued to carry much influence in Cuba.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, their decision proved wrong and the United States was left out in the cold.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I find myself obliged to respond to this gentleman, it is my duty to remind him that Cuba's infant mortality rate is lower than the United States'.
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She has been a vocal critic of her father's policies.^ She has been a vocal critic of her father’s policies.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By an unnamed woman he had another son, Jorge Ángel Castro. .Fidel has another daughter, Francisca Pupo (born 1953) the result of a one night affair.^ While Fidel was still married to Mirta, he had an affair with Naty Revuelta resulting in a daughter named Alina Fernandez-Revuelta .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pupo and her husband now live in Miami.^ As I type this, the local Miami Univision affiliate is interviewing Marta Beatriz Roque live and she is stating how "quiet" her neighborhood is right now and how nothing is going on.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

[3][168]
.His sister Juanita Castro has been living in the United States since the early 1960s.^ Consequently, as U.S. investments in Cuba increased in the early 1900's, the United States increasingly became a stabilizing force in Cuban affairs, as much for the protection of American lives and business interests as for strategic considerations.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investigates the rise of the Castro regime and its relationships with the United States, Soviet Union and the Organization of American States.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States both the government and the press were becoming more and more favorably disposed towards Fidel Castro and his men.

.When she emigrated, she said "I cannot longer remain indifferent to what is happening in my country.^ My mom said in no uncertain terms that if this happens I HAVE to come down to Miami.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

My brothers Fidel and Raúl have made it an enormous prison surrounded by water. The people are nailed to a cross of torment imposed by international Communism."[169]

Controversy and criticism

Human rights record

.Many of Castro's critics refer to him as a dictator[170][171][172][173][174] and his rule was the longest to-date in modern Latin American history.^ What does it show that Castro outlasted so many American Presidents many of whom tried to topple him and kill him?
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He depicted Castro as a liberal and a folk hero-a Latin American Robin Hood crusading against evil.

^ In 1948 Castro traveled to Bogotá in Colombia for a political conference of Latin American students that coincided with the ninth meeting of the Pan-American Union Conference.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[171][172][173][174]
The Human Rights Watch organization has suggested that Castro constructed a "repressive machinery" which "continues to deprive Cubans of their basic rights".[175]

Allegations of mismanagement

In their book, Corruption in Cuba, Sergio Diaz-Briquets and Jorge F. Pérez-López Servando state that Castro "institutionalized" corruption and that "Castro's state-run monopolies, cronyism, and lack of accountability have made Cuba one of the world's most corrupt states".[176] Servando Gonzalez, in The Secret Fidel Castro, calls Castro a "corrupt tyrant".[177]
.In 1959, according to Gonzalez, Castro established "Fidel's checking account", from which he could draw funds as he pleased.^ Chapters III and IV give a detailed account of the rebellion and Castro's consoldation of power, spanning the years 1953- 1959.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insurrection which Castro orchestrated between 1953 and 1959 wad designed to revitalize the interrupted Cuban revolution and install Fidel Castro as its epicenter.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Superb and highly detailed account of the last weeks of Castro's revolution from 26 Novem- ber 1958 through 8 January 1959.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[177] .The "Comandante's reserves" were created in 1970, from which Castro allegedly "provided gifts to many of his cronies, both home and abroad".[177] Gonzalez asserts that Comandante's reserves have been linked to counterfeiting business empires and money laundering.^ Behind the scenes, Raul Castro and Che Guevara, both long established Marxists, provided that practicality, aided by the Cuban Communist Party.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaders of the guerrilla columns and many of their troops had backgrounds traceable to middle-class professions; the urban underground organizations were almost exclusively middle-class; and most of the financial support generated both at home and abroad came from middle-class pockets.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[177]
As early as 1968, a once-close friend of Castro's wrote that Castro had huge accounts in Swiss banks.[177] Castro's secretary was allegedly seen using Zurich banks.[177] .Gonzalez believes that Cuba's paucity of trade with Switzerland contrasts oddly with the National Office of Cuba's relatively large office in Zurich.^ Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba’s Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This opens the way for each member nation to decide whether to have diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba, which many had already established.
  • History of Cuba Timetable: 1959 thru 1979 22 September 2009 18:018 UTC www.historyofcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro speaks on phone to father of Elian Gonzalez 1.5.2000 CUBA: Havana: Large crowds of people / Fidel Castro at mics, speaking on mobile telephone to Juan Miguel Gonzalez (the father of Elian ...
  • Fidel Castro Compilation 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[177] .Castro has denied having a bank account abroad with even a dollar in it.^ If they can prove I have an account abroad… containing even one dollar I will resign my post.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178]
Anti-Castro activist and poet Jorge Valls was on record stating that Castro never knew how to love, and that "Fidel tried a respectable marriage, which failed; he tried respectable politics, which failed".[25]

Allegations of wealth

.A KGB officer, Alexei Novikov, stated that Castro's personal life, like the lives of the rest of the Communist elite, is "shrouded under an impenetrable veil of secrecy". Among other things, he asserted that Castro has a personal guard of more than 9,700 men and three luxurious yachts.^ What is more, my comrades are neither dead nor forgotten; they live today, more than ever, and their murderers will view with dismay the victorious spirit of their ideas rise from their corpses.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there were more strange things about the Castro-Wieland connection that made him even more suspicious to the Soviet intelligence.

^ I live in North Florida and like most folks in this state we do not consider the South Florida Cuban to be a positive influence.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[177]
.In 2005, American business and financial magazine Forbes listed Castro among the world's richest people, with an estimated net worth of $550 million.^ In 2005, American business and financial magazine Forbes listed Castro among the world’s richest people, with an estimated net worth of $550 million, based on his economic control of state-owned companies .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castro worth $900 million: Forbes .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While his force was training, Castro traveled extensively throughout the United States, attempting to raise financial and moral support for his cause from exiled Cubans and American sympathizers.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The estimates, which the magazine admitted were "more art than science",[179] claimed that the Cuban leader's personal wealth was nearly double that of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, despite anecdotal evidence from diplomats and businessmen that the Cuban leader's personal life was notably austere.^ Despite this, no one is more dedicated than the Cuban teacher.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniel Weaver, president of the US Beekeepers Association, stated that more than half a million colonies, each with a population of nearly 50 thousand bees, had been lost.
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cuban Constitution of 1940 reflected most of Batista's ideas, although, like the previous Cuban Constitution of 1902; it was more idealistic than practical.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .This assessment was drawn by making economic estimates of the net worth of Cuba's state-owned companies, and used the assumption that Castro had personal economic control.^ In 2005, American business and financial magazine Forbes listed Castro among the world’s richest people, with an estimated net worth of $550 million, based on his economic control of state-owned companies .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US Goverment has been the going on about Castro because he overthrew the puppets that Washington had in control of Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[180]
.Forbes Magazine later increased the estimates to $900 million, adding rumors of large cash stashes in Switzerland.^ Castro worth $900 million: Forbes .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2006, Forbes magazine increased their estimate of Castro’s wealth to $900 million [110] but acknowledged in the article that the estimates for all the leaders are “more art than science” and admitted that they had based their report on assumptions.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, American business and financial magazine Forbes listed Castro among the world’s richest people, with an estimated net worth of $550 million, based on his economic control of state-owned companies .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .The magazine offered no proof of this information,[179] and according to CBS news, Castro's entry on the rich list was notably brief compared to the amount of information provided on other figures.^ Certainly, there is no reason why that young guy who announced the news on air, should've done so, and not Alarcon or indeed, Raul Castro himself.
  • Babalu Blog: fidel castro Death Watch, Take 2846 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ The KGB had been collecting information on Castro for just a few years, but the amount of information was outstanding.

^ According to the information the KGB had gathered, Fidel Castro never joined the Cuban communist party, nor any of the Communist front organizations.

[179]
.Castro, who had considered suing the magazine, responded that the claims were "lies and slander", and that they were part of a US campaign to discredit him.^ On the road from the Civilian Hospital to the barracks they shot him in the back and left him lying there, face down in a pool of blood.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They had believed the testimonies of the Cuban exiles, who told them that Castro was not well supported by the Cuban people, when in fact, Castro enjoyed wide support at this time.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the same reason they hate Iran, after the US and British goverment removed Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq they installed the Shaw who ruled for 26 years untill THE PEOPLE removed him from power.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .He declared: "If they can prove that I have a bank account abroad, with $900m, with $1m, $500,000, $100,000 or $1 in it, I will resign."^ If they can prove I have an account abroad… containing even one dollar I will resign my post.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178] .President of Cuba's Central Bank, Francisco Soberón, called the claims a "grotesque slander", asserting that money made from various state owned companies is pumped back into the island's economy, "in sectors including health, education, science, internal security, national defense and solidarity projects with other countries."^ With the loss of Santa Clara and expecting the betrayal of his own army, Batista and president-elect Andres Rivero Agüero fled Cuba in the early hours of January 1 , 1959 , initially to the Dominican Republic and then to Francisco Franco ’s Spain .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba's absolutely legitimate and defensive action gave the United States a pretext to promulgate the well-known Helms-Burton Act, which encroaches upon the sovereignty of other nations besides Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro: Where Have All the Bees Gone? 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I met many bright young educated students at University of Havana who were from Haiti, Trindad, Dominican Republic -- all democratic nations -- and to a man and woman, they all claimed Cuba was not pefect by a long stretch, but that it was miles ahead of their homelands as far as education, medical care and security.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[180]

Legacy

.Fidel Castro remains a very controversial figure to this day.^ Fidel Castro in his days as a guerrilla .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on a sugar plantation in Birán, near Mayarí, in the modern-day province of Holguín – then a part of the now-defunct Oriente province.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 2, 1961, Fidel Castro delivered a televised speech in which he declared to his amazed audience that he had always been a Marxist-Leninist by heart and would remain so until the last day of his life.

Whether his legacy will be interpreted in a positive or negative light is frequently debated in political circles. .Those who support his government generally state that Cuba has one of the world's highest literacy rates and most effective healthcare systems, low wealth inequalities, a stable government, and record of supporting international populist struggles in Africa.^ Confident in this assurance from the highest American levels of government that air support would be provided, the invaders disembarked.

^ None support those who oppress the people, revile them, and rob them heartlessly.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ral Chibs, a long time political associate of Castro, said that he believes Fidel was just "utilizing Communism as the most appropriate system for reaching the objectives of one-man government."

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] His detractors point out Cuba's bleak human rights record, authoritarian state, stagnant economy, and repression of political dissent.^ Libyan human rights prize awarded to Fidel Castro of Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN sees no significant change in human rights’ situation in Cuba .
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How about pointing out all the good stuff about the Marxist/Leninist state of the USSR then.
  • Fidel Castro Announces Retirement | Crooks and Liars 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In September 2009, Castro was named "World Hero of Solidarity" by Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann, President of the United Nations General Assembly.^ The Communist State Fidel Castro finally reached Havana on January 6th, the day after the United States extended formal diplomatic recognition to President Urrutia's government.
  • The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, 1953 - 1959 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the poorest areas of Latin America and Africa , Castro is seen as a hero, the leader of the Third World , and the enemy of the wealthy and greedy.
  • Fidel Castro » Information 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.fidelcastro.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is more, it was not simply a matter of usurping sovereignty at a given moment in order to name a Cabinet, Generals and a President.
  • History will absolve me - Fidel Castro 10 January 2010 6:14 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: Original source]

[181][182]

Ancestors of Fidel Castro

Authored works

Fully or partially by Fidel Castro
  • Capitalism in Crisis: Globalization and World Politics Today, Ocean Press, 2000, ISBN 1876175184
  • Che: A Memoir, Ocean Press, 2005, ISBN 192088825X
  • Cuba at the Crossroads, Ocean Press, 1997, ISBN 187528494X
  • Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, Scribner, 2008, ISBN 1416553282
  • Fidel Castro Reader, Ocean Press, 2007, ISBN 1920888888
  • Fidel My Early Years, Ocean Press, 2004, ISBN 1920888098
  • Fidel & Religion: Conversations with Frei Betto on Marxism & Liberation Theology, Ocean Press, 2006, ISBN 1920888454
  • Playa Giron: Bay of Pigs : Washington's First Military Defeat in the Americas, Pathfinder Press, 2001, ISBN 087348925X
  • Political Portraits: Fidel Castro reflects on famous figures in history, Ocean Press, 2008, ISBN 1920888942
  • The Declarations of Havana, Verso, 2008, ISBN 1844671569
  • The Prison Letters of Fidel Castro, Nation Books, 2007, ISBN 1560259833
  • War, Racism and Economic Justice: The Global Ravages of Capitalism, Ocean Press, 2002, ISBN 1876175478

See also

References and footnotes

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  2. ^ "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations". english.peopledaily.com.cn. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200609/16/eng20060916_303402.html. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c [1]
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  7. ^ a b Sweig, Julia E. (2002). Inside the Cuban Revolution. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00848-0. 
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External links

By Fidel Castro
About Fidel Castro
Political offices
Preceded by
José Miró Cardona
Prime Minister of Cuba
1959–1976
Merged with office of President
Preceded by
Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado
President of Cuba
President of the Council of State of Cuba
Raúl Castro acting from 2006 to 2008

1976–2008
Succeeded by
Raúl Castro
Preceded by
José Miró Cardona
Prime Minister of Cuba
President of the Council of Ministers of Cuba
Raúl Castro acting from 2006 to 2008

1976–2008
Party political offices
Preceded by
New title
First Secretary of Integrated Revolutionary Organizations
1961–1962
Succeeded by
Himself
First Secretary of UPCSR
Preceded by
Himself
First Secretary of IRO
First Secretary of the United Party of Cuban Socialist Revolution
1962–1965
Succeeded by
Himself
First Secretary of CPC
Preceded by
Himself
First Secretary of UPCSR
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba
Raúl Castro acting from 2006

1965 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Military offices
Preceded by
None
Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces
Raúl Castro acting from 2006 to 2008

1959–2008
Succeeded by
Raúl Castro
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Junius Richard Jayewardene
Sri Lanka
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
1979–1983
Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Malaysia
Preceded by
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
India
Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
2005–2008
Succeeded by
Raúl Castro