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Fight Club
"FIGHT CLUB" is embossed on a pink bar of soap in the upper right. <a name=.Below are head-and-shoulders portraits of Brad Pitt facing the viewer with a broad smile and wearing a red leather jacket over a decorative blue t-shirt, and Edward Norton in a white button-up shirt with a tie and the top button loosened.^ A film that does a great job doing this is the film Fight Club starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The demolition of Brad Pitt and about seven skyscrapers leaves the viewer with a sense of peace leaving the theater.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bob stops talking and breaks into sobbing, putting his head down on Jack's shoulder and completely covering Jack's face.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Norton's body faces right and his head faces the viewer with little expression. Below the portraits are the two actors' names, followed by "HELENA BONHAM CARTER" in smaller print. Above the portraits is "MISCHIEF. MAYHEM. SOAP."" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/1/3/3/40433043542163526.jpg" width="200" height="263" />
Theatrical release poster
Directed by David Fincher
Produced by Art Linson
Ross Grayson Bell
Cean Chaffin
Written by Screenplay:
Jim Uhls
Novel:
Chuck Palahniuk
Starring Edward Norton
Brad Pitt
Helena Bonham Carter
Music by Dust Brothers
Cinematography Jeff Cronenweth
Editing by James Haygood
Studio Regency Enterprises
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) October 15, 1999 (1999-10-15)
Running time 139 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget US$63 million
Gross revenue US$100,853,753 (worldwide)
.Fight Club is a 1999 American film adapted from the 1996 novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A film that does a great job doing this is the film Fight Club starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I didn't think you would stay up long enough for me to return from watching Fight Club film lol.
  • Late Night Posters!! - Console Monster Forum 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.consolemonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The film was directed by David Fincher and stars Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter.^ A film that does a great job doing this is the film Fight Club starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ David Fincher as quoted in Gavin Smith,"Inside out," Film Comment.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One film which explores these t hemes is David Fincher's Fight Club , which articulates the late-90s crisis of masculinity.
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.Norton plays the unnamed protagonist, an "everyman" who is discontented with his white-collar job in American society.^ It is worth noting that all participants in Fight Club are white males, kings of American hegemony, who have no scapegoat for their problems but themselves and the corporations.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He forms a "fight club" with soap salesman Tyler Durden, played by Pitt, and becomes embroiled in a relationship with him and a dissolute woman, Marla Singer, played by Carter.^ A film that does a great job doing this is the film Fight Club starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film, about an insomniac (the narrator) played by Norton who becomes addicted to self help groups, meets a man named Tyler Durden played by Pitt who is a soap salesman.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, in the wake of September 11th terrorist attacks, Fight Club 's moral aloofness has become less clear.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Palahniuk's novel was optioned by 20th Century Fox producer Laura Ziskin, who hired Jim Uhls to write the film adaptation. .Fincher was one of four directors the producers considered; they hired him because of his enthusiasm for the film.^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One film which explores these t hemes is David Fincher's Fight Club , which articulates the late-90s crisis of masculinity.
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Fincher developed the script with Uhls and sought screenwriting advice from the cast and others in the film industry. The director and the cast compared the film to Rebel Without a Cause (1955) and The Graduate (1967). .Fincher intended Fight Club's violence to serve as a metaphor for the conflict between a generation of young people and the value system of advertising.^ Fight Club explores the dark side of otherwise normal people.
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^ Fight Club becomes such a structure wherein violence is contained within a particular communal order.
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^ Edward Norton challenges dismissing Fight Club because of its violence or moral ambiguity.
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The director copied the homoerotic overtones from Palahniuk's novel to make audiences uncomfortable and keep them from anticipating the twist ending.
Studio executives did not like the film, and they restructured Fincher's intended marketing campaign to try to reduce anticipated losses. .Fight Club failed to meet the studio's expectations at the box office, and received polarized reactions from critics.^ Fight Club 's linking of violence, masculinity, and gender flows directly from the consumer culture it claims to be criticizing.
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^ Tyler and Jack start "Fight Club," ostensibly an underground boxing club, but the point is not to win fights, it is to experience pain and power in an attempt to regain some shred of manhood.
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^ INTRODUCTION Cues in Films with Surprise Endings And Why They Are Missed: An Analysis of the Film Fight Club In narrative films our expectations are cued by an event or events.
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.It was cited as one of the most controversial and talked-about films of 1999. The Guardian saw it as an omen for change in American political life, and described its visual style as ground-breaking.^ Some films might be political or social commentary, some might just comment on modern life in general.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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^ These films externalized fears and anxieties of American society of the time, generating a dark feeling or mood to accompany its visual style.
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.The film later found commercial success with its DVD release, which established Fight Club as a cult film.^ A film that does a great job doing this is the film Fight Club starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I didn't think you would stay up long enough for me to return from watching Fight Club film lol.
  • Late Night Posters!! - Console Monster Forum 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.consolemonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "How to Start a Fight," Fight Club DVD, 200, 14.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Plot

The nameless narrator (Norton) is a traveling automobile company employee who suffers from insomnia. .His doctor refuses to give him medication and advises him to visit a support group to witness more severe suffering.^ The testicular cancer support group gives Jack the kind of emotional attention he needs.
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^ The testicular cancer group inspires him to join support groups for lymphoma, tuberculosis, blood parasites, brain parasites, organic brain dementia, and ascending bowel cancer.
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.The narrator attends a support group for testicular cancer victims and, after fooling them into thinking that he is a fellow victim, finds an emotional release that relieves his insomnia.^ The testicular cancer support group gives Jack the kind of emotional attention he needs.
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^ We begin to realize this six minutes into the film when the narrator is at the testicular cancer meeting and his name tag says his name is Cornelius.
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^ Ironically, Jack identifies with the testicular cancer group.
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.He becomes addicted to attending support groups and pretending to be a victim, but the presence of another impostor—Marla Singer (Bonham Carter)—disturbs him, so he negotiates with her to avoid their meeting at the same groups.^ Nineteen minutes into the film Marla Singer questions his name saying he changes it for every meeting he goes to.
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^ Obsession is intense; Jack has a lifestyle obsession, both he and Marla become obsessed with support groups and the cathartic effects they have on them, and Tyler becomes obsessed with setting people free from some oppressive societal evil.
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^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After a flight home from a business trip, the narrator finds his apartment destroyed by an explosion. .He calls Tyler Durden (Pitt), a soap salesman whom he befriended on the flight, and they meet at a bar.^ Tyler and the narrator decide to go in together to create something they call "Fight Club" which is an underground bare knuckles fighting league which gives the narrator his release.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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.A conversation about consumerism leads to Tyler inviting the narrator to stay at his place; afterward, he requests that the narrator hit him.^ Tyler goes onto to tell a story to the narrator about why Marla ended up in their house.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The detective calls to tell the narrator that his condo was blown up by a homemade bomb and Tyler says “just tell him you did it”.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two engage in a fistfight outside the bar, with the narrator subsequently moving into Tyler's dilapidated house.^ Tyler blew the narrator’s house up .
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^ Tyler goes onto to tell a story to the narrator about why Marla ended up in their house.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost an hour into the film we know about what Fight Club is, who we think the narrator is, who we think Tyler is and we know who Marla Singer is.
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.They have further fights outside the bar, and these attract a crowd of men.^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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^ However, in Fight Club it is not the social stratification but empty materialistic values that compromises these men's masculinity.
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.The fighting moves to the bar's basement, where the men form a fight club.^ Fight Club moves in this direction.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast with the sterile, bleak world above, the underworld of Fight Club is a dark, dingy, and damp basement with men interacting in ways that are unsanctioned by the society upstairs.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Marla overdoses on pills and telephones the narrator for help; he ignores her, but Tyler answers the call and saves her.^ Tyler and the narrator decide to go in together to create something they call "Fight Club" which is an underground bare knuckles fighting league which gives the narrator his release.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler goes onto to tell a story to the narrator about why Marla ended up in their house.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The detective calls to tell the narrator that his condo was blown up by a homemade bomb and Tyler says “just tell him you did it”.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tyler and Marla become sexually involved, and Tyler warns the narrator never to talk to Marla about him.^ The narrator says “Tyler and Marla were never in the same room.” .
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^ Tyler goes onto to tell a story to the narrator about why Marla ended up in their house.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More fight clubs form across the country, and they become the anti-materialist and anti-corporate organization called "Project Mayhem", under Tyler's leadership.^ He explains how the group which organizes project mayhem has buildings lined with explosives and they are ready to detonate at anytime.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, in the wake of September 11th terrorist attacks, Fight Club 's moral aloofness has become less clear.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The narrator complains to Tyler that he wants to be more involved in the organization, but Tyler suddenly disappears.^ The confirmation bias makes any possible thoughts of Tyler and the narrator being the same person disappear.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a member of Project Mayhem dies, the narrator tries to shut down the project, and follows evidence of Tyler's national travels to track him down.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler apparently threatens castration for any member of the group, even himself, who stands in the way of Project Mayhem, Fight Club's paramilitary urban mischief spin-off.
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^ Mike thinks he's going to settle down with Bridget, which is exactly what she promises him if he follows through on the plan.
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.In one city, a project member greets the narrator as Tyler Durden.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pretty soon Fight Clubs are popping up in every major city in the US due to Tyler Durden's pushing the Fight Club franchise.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The narrator calls Marla from his hotel room and discovers that Marla also believes him to be Tyler.^ The narrator says “Tyler and Marla were never in the same room.” .
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^ Tyler explains the story of how Marla ended up there and the narrator says – “I already knew the story before he told it to me.” .
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^ The narrator fights himself in front of his boss, it reminds him of his first fight with Tyler.
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.He suddenly sees Tyler Durden in his room, and Tyler explains that they are dissociated personalities in the same body.^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
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^ We know that Tyler and the narrator are the same person, but we tend to still believe that they are really two separate people (Landman & Manis, 1992).
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^ The confirmation bias makes any possible thoughts of Tyler and the narrator being the same person disappear.
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Tyler controls the narrator's body when the narrator is asleep.
The narrator blacks out after the conversation. When he wakes, he discovers from his telephone log that Tyler made calls during his blackout. He uncovers Tyler's plans to erase debt by destroying buildings that contain credit card companies' records. The narrator tries to contact the police but finds that the officers are members of the project. .He attempts to disarm explosives in a building, but Tyler subdues him and moves to a safe building to watch the destruction.^ In the end, even though he renounces Tyler's militia-like terrorism, it's meaningless, and all he can do is watch the buildings explode around him (Giroux).
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.The narrator, held by Tyler at gunpoint, realizes that in sharing the same body with Tyler, he himself is actually holding the gun.^ The narrator is chained to a chair while Tyler holds a gun to his mouth.
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^ The narrator starts to realize he and Tyler are the same person.
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^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He fires it into his mouth, shooting through the cheek without killing himself.^ Tyler dies when Jack shoots himself in the mouth, but Jack remains a spirit to bear witness to "ground zero."
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^ He shoots himself to kill off his alter-ego, but it is too late.
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.Tyler collapses with an exit wound to the back of his head, and the narrator stops mentally projecting him.^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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.Afterward, Project Mayhem members bring a kidnapped Marla to him, believing him to be Tyler, and leave them alone.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler apparently threatens castration for any member of the group, even himself, who stands in the way of Project Mayhem, Fight Club's paramilitary urban mischief spin-off.
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^ Tyler addresses the members of Fight Club, saying, "We've all been raised to believe that we'll be millionaires and movie idols.
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.The explosives detonate, collapsing the buildings, and the narrator and Marla watch the scene, holding hands.^ He explains how the group which organizes project mayhem has buildings lined with explosives and they are ready to detonate at anytime.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jack and his lover, Marla Singer, hold hands at the "theater of mass destruction."
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Themes

."We're designed to be hunters and we're in a society of shopping.^ But according to Fincher, "We're designed to be hunters and we're in a society of shopping.
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.There's nothing to kill anymore, there's nothing to fight, nothing to overcome, nothing to explore.^ There's nothing to kill anymore, there's nothing to fight, nothing to overcome, nothing to explore.
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.In that societal emasculation this everyman [the narrator] is created."^ In that societal emasculation this everyman is created."
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David Fincher[1]
.Fincher said Fight Club was a coming of age film, like the 1967 film The Graduate but for people in their 30s.^ Fight Club explores the dark side of otherwise normal people.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club forces us to be suspicious of what we see on film and its relation to reality.
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Fincher described the narrator as an "everyman";[1] the character is identified in the script as "Jack", but left nameless in the film.[2] Fincher outlined the narrator's background: "He's tried to do everything he was taught to do, tried to fit into the world by becoming the thing he isn't." .The narrator cannot find happiness, so he travels on a path to enlightenment in which he must "kill" his parents, his god, and his teacher.^ A Buddhist proverb states that on the path to enlightenment, one must kill his parents, his god, and his teacher (Chen).
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^ The narrator finds used plane tickets, starts traveling to find Tyler.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the start of the film, he has killed his parents. .With Tyler Durden, he kills his god by doing things they are not supposed to do.^ When the narrator first meets Tyler, one of the first things he says to him is that they have the exact same briefcase.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jack has a psychological meltdown, realizing that the Tyler half of him has been doing things without his knowledge or approval.
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^ Tyler repeatedly tells Jack that men have lost their manhood because they have been feminized, that they have been raised by women, and another woman (a wife) is the last thing they need.
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.To complete the process of maturing, the narrator has to kill his teacher, Tyler Durden.^ When the violence spirals out of control, Jack rejects the masculine model offered by Tyler and shoots him, completing his maturing process by killing his teacher (Chen).
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^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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[3]
.The character is a 1990s inverse of The Graduate archetype: "a guy who does not have a world of possibilities in front of him, he has no possibilities, he literally cannot imagine a way to change his life". He is confused and enraged, so he responds to his environment by creating Tyler Durden, a Nietzschean Übermensch, in his mind.^ Little do we know this simple dialogue answers the question the movie asks of who is Tyler Durden.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The narrator is now stuck with one question on his mind, who is Tyler Durden?
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Tyler is who the narrator would want to be, he is not empathetic and does not help the narrator face decisions in his life "that are complicated and have moral and ethical implications". Fincher explained, "[Tyler] can deal with the concepts of our lives in an idealistic fashion, but it doesn't have anything to do with the compromises of real life as modern man knows it.^ He tries to find his identity as a man in IKEA brochures and self-help gatherings; as a result, his life is not tied to any stable or permanent reality.
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^ The lack of an accessible reality in the postmodern is reflected in the narrator's fractured psyche - he doesn't even have access to half of his identity.
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^ Fight Club asks the question, what do you want to do with the Jacks of our country--those unwanted children of America who were raised on cultural action hero myths and yearn to live those stories?
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Which is: You're not really necessary to a lot of what's going on. It's built, it just needs to run now."[1] .While studio executives worried that the Fight Club was going to be "sinister and seditious", Fincher sought to make it "funny and seditious" by including humor to temper the sinister element.^ Tyler and the narrator decide to go in together to create something they call "Fight Club" which is an underground bare knuckles fighting league which gives the narrator his release.
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^ One film which explores these t hemes is David Fincher's Fight Club , which articulates the late-90s crisis of masculinity.
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[4]
.Uhls described the film as a "romantic comedy", explaining, "It has to do with the characters' attitudes toward a healthy relationship, which is a lot of behavior which seems unhealthy and harsh to each other, but in fact does work for them—because both characters are out on the edge psychologically."^ Later on in the film the narrator goes onto explain how Tyler worked in a movie theater and how he used to splice pornographic pictures into the film in between frames.
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^ During the second viewing everything is explained and much easier to pick up because the viewer already knows the outcome of the film from the first viewing.
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[5] .The narrator seeks intimacy, but he avoids it with Marla Singer, seeing too much of himself in her.^ Almost an hour into the film we know about what Fight Club is, who we think the narrator is, who we think Tyler is and we know who Marla Singer is.
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^ Marla Singer asks the narrator who he is because his name is different at every self help group he goes to.
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^ The self help groups only help the narrator until Marla Singer shows up (The narrator and Tyler's interest later on in the film).
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[6] .While Marla is a seductive and negativist prospect for the narrator, he instead embraces the novelty and excitement that comes with befriending Tyler Durden.^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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.The narrator is comfortable being personally connected to Tyler Durden, but he becomes jealous when Tyler becomes sexually involved with Marla.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The narrator is now stuck with one question on his mind, who is Tyler Durden?
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.When the narrator argues with Tyler about their friendship, Tyler tells him that being friends is secondary to pursuing the philosophy they have been exploring.^ Tyler is also telling the narrator what to say.
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^ Tyler tells the narrator not to say anything to Marla or else “ we’re ” done.
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^ I know this because Tyler knows this” – The narrator talking about the bombs Tyler has planted everywhere.
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[7] .Tyler also suggests doing something about Marla, implying that she is a risk to be removed.^ Tyler goes onto to tell a story to the narrator about why Marla ended up in their house.
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^ Tyler tells Jack that this will be the most important event in that clerk's life, because he'll have to confront what it means to do something about his future.
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^ Almost an hour into the film we know about what Fight Club is, who we think the narrator is, who we think Tyler is and we know who Marla Singer is.
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.When Tyler says this, the narrator realizes that his desires should have been focused on Marla and begins to diverge from Tyler's path.^ The narrator says “Tyler and Marla were never in the same room.” .
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^ Tyler is also telling the narrator what to say.
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^ Tyler tells the narrator not to say anything to Marla or else “ we’re ” done.
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[6]
"We decided early on that I would start to starve myself as the film went on, while [Brad Pitt] would lift and go to tanning beds; he would become more and more idealized as I wasted away."
Edward Norton[8]
.The unreliable narrator is not immediately aware that Tyler Durden originated in him and is being mentally projected.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
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^ Jack's creation of Tyler Durden allows him to reclaim his masculinity amidst a culture of post-feminist, cathartic, "self"-help groups.
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^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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[9] .He also mistakenly promotes the fight clubs as a way to feel powerful,[10] though the narrator's physical condition worsens while Tyler Durden's appearance improves.^ In contrast with the sterile, bleak world above, the underworld of Fight Club is a dark, dingy, and damp basement with men interacting in ways that are unsanctioned by the society upstairs.
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^ If Jack is the crisis of capitalism repackaged as the crisis of domesticated masculinity, are Tyler and Fight Club the redemption of masculinity?
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^ Fight Club subverts the message it is trying to send in a number of ways.
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.While Tyler desires "real experiences" of actual fights like the narrator at first,[11] he manifests a nihilistic attitude of rejecting and destroying institutions and value systems.^ Tyler and Jack start "Fight Club," ostensibly an underground boxing club, but the point is not to win fights, it is to experience pain and power in an attempt to regain some shred of manhood.
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^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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^ However, Tyler Durden, like Iron John, is only a temporary experience.
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[12] His impulsive nature, representing the id,[6] conveys an attitude that is seductive and liberating to the narrator and the members of Project Mayhem. .Tyler's initiatives and methods become dehumanizing;[12] he orders around the members of Project Mayhem with a megaphone similar to camp directors at Chinese re-education camps.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
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^ Tyler apparently threatens castration for any member of the group, even himself, who stands in the way of Project Mayhem, Fight Club's paramilitary urban mischief spin-off.
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[6] The narrator pulls back from Tyler and in the end, he arrives at a middle ground between his two conflicting selves.[7]
.Edward Norton said, "I feel that Fight Club really, in a way ...^ In contrast with the sterile, bleak world above, the underworld of Fight Club is a dark, dingy, and damp basement with men interacting in ways that are unsanctioned by the society upstairs.
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^ Despite the extreme politics and fighting, Fight Club is really about how to become a man.
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^ Fight Club forces us to be suspicious of what we see on film and its relation to reality.
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probed into the despair and paralysis that people feel in the face of having inherited this value system out of advertising."[11] .Brad Pitt said, "Fight Club is a metaphor for the need to push through the walls we put around ourselves and just go for it, so for the first time we can experience the pain."^ We can send them to support groups to mourn the impossibility of living this dream, send them to war to partake in the battle, or send them to experience the "Fight Club" of American cinema.
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^ This reveals how pervasive Fight Club has become and hints at just how universal the frustrations and anxieties behind Fight Club are.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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[13] .Fight Club also parallels the 1955 film Rebel Without a Cause; both probe the frustrations of the people that live in the system.^ Fight Club explores the dark side of otherwise normal people.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ We can send them to support groups to mourn the impossibility of living this dream, send them to war to partake in the battle, or send them to experience the "Fight Club" of American cinema.
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[11] .The characters, having undergone societal emasculation, are reduced to "a generation of spectators".[14] A culture of advertising defines society's "external signifiers of happiness", causing an unnecessary chase for material goods that replaces the more essential pursuit of spiritual happiness.^ Just as noir's visual style was used to express the anxieties and cynicism of its characters, noir as a movement externalized the mentality of an entire society.
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^ These films externalized fears and anxieties of American society of the time, generating a dark feeling or mood to accompany its visual style.
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The film references Calvin Klein, IKEA, and the Volkswagen New Beetle. Norton said of the Beetle, "We smash it ... because it seemed like the classic example of a Baby Boomer generation marketing plan that sold culture back to us."[15] His character also walks through his apartment while visual effects identify his many IKEA possessions. Fincher described the narrator's immersion, "It was just the idea of living in this fraudulent idea of happiness."[16] .Pitt explained the dissonance, "I think there's a self-defense mechanism that keeps my generation from having any real honest connection or commitment with our true feelings.^ I think there always has been violence in our culture in one form or another.
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We're rooting for ball teams, but we're not getting in there to play. .We're so concerned with failure and success—like these two things are all that's going to sum you up at the end."^ And that's one of the things that was interesting to me, how much can you jump around in time and go: Wait, let me back up a little bit more, okay, no, no, this is where this started, this is how I met this person....
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^ So there's this jumping around in time to bring you into the present and then leaping back to go, Let me tell you about this other thing.
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^ Murder, crime, poverty -- these things don't concern me.
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[13]
.The violence of the fight clubs serves not to promote or glorify physical combat, but for participants to experience feeling in a society where they are otherwise numb.^ In contrast with the sterile, bleak world above, the underworld of Fight Club is a dark, dingy, and damp basement with men interacting in ways that are unsanctioned by the society upstairs.
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^ Fight Club explores the dark side of otherwise normal people.
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^ We can send them to support groups to mourn the impossibility of living this dream, send them to war to partake in the battle, or send them to experience the "Fight Club" of American cinema.
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[17] The fights tangibly represent a resistance to the impulse to be "cocooned" in society.[14] .Norton believed that the fighting between the men strips away the "fear of pain" and "the reliance on material signifiers of their self-worth", leaving them to experience something valuable.^ The salvation experience in the Greco-Roman tradition of the Cults of Metamorphosis operates through the re-integration of the self with something lost.
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[11] .When the fights evolve into revolutionary violence, the film only half-accepts the revolutionary dialectic by Tyler Durden; the narrator pulls back and rejects Durden's ideas.^ Fight Club , the film, and Fight Club, the cult within the film, becomes the reclamation of American sacred violence.
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^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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[7] .Fight Club purposely shapes an ambiguous message, the interpretation of which is left to the audience.^ Edward Norton challenges dismissing Fight Club because of its violence or moral ambiguity.
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[12] Fincher elaborated, "I love this idea that you can have fascism without offering any direction or solution. .Isn't the point of fascism to say, 'This is the way we should be going'? But this movie couldn't be further from offering any kind of solution."^ Fight Club exposes the void and offers three solutions: crying, violence, and movies.
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[4]

Production

Development

.The novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk was published in 1996. Before its publication, a 20th Century Fox book scout sent a galley proof of the novel to creative executive Kevin McCormick.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Fight Club frames America lacking a public venue to integrate the emotional component of white male identity.
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^ Thus, Fight Club as a film can only become ritualized by its small but growing cult watching public.
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The executive tasked a studio reader to review the proof as a candidate for a film adaptation, but the reader discouraged it. McCormick then forwarded the proof to producers Lawrence Bender and Art Linson, who also rejected it. Producers Josh Donen and Ross Bell saw potential and expressed interest. They arranged unpaid screen readings with actors to determine the script's length, and an initial reading lasted six hours. The producers cut out sections to reduce the running time, and they used the shorter script to record its dialogue. Bell sent the recording to Laura Ziskin, head of the division Fox 2000, who listened to the tape and purchased the rights to Fight Club from Palahniuk for $10,000.[18]
.Ziskin initially considered hiring Buck Henry to write the adaptation, finding Fight Club similar to the 1967 film The Graduate, which Henry had adapted.^ Fight Club - Film Review .
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When a new screenwriter, Jim Uhls, lobbied Donen and Bell for the job, the producers chose him over Henry. Bell contacted four directors to direct the film. He considered Peter Jackson the best choice, but Jackson was too busy filming the 1996 film The Frighteners in New Zealand. Bryan Singer received the book but did not read it. Danny Boyle met with Bell and read the book, but he pursued another film. .David Fincher, who had read Fight Club and tried to buy the rights himself, talked with Ziskin about directing the film.^ Fight Club moves in this direction.
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^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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He hesitated to accept the assignment with 20th Century Fox at first because he had an unpleasant experience directing the 1992 film Alien 3 for the studio. To repair his relationship with the studio, he met with Ziskin and studio head Bill Mechanic.[18] .In August 1997, 20th Century Fox announced that Fincher would direct the film adaptation of Fight Club.^ Fight Club moves in this direction.
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^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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[19]

Casting

Edward Norton  ... The Narrator
Brad Pitt  ... Tyler Durden
Helena Bonham Carter  ... Marla Singer
Meat Loaf  ... Robert Paulson
Jared Leto  ... Angel Face
Producer Ross Bell met with actor Russell Crowe to discuss his candidacy for the role of Tyler Durden. Producer Art Linson, who joined the project late, met with another candidate, Brad Pitt. Linson was the senior producer of the two, so the studio sought to cast Pitt instead of Crowe.[18] .Pitt was looking for a new film after the failure of his 1998 film Meet Joe Black, and the studio believed Fight Club would be more commercially successful with a major star.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ Tyler addresses the members of Fight Club, saying, "We've all been raised to believe that we'll be millionaires and movie idols.
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^ Fight Club forces us to be suspicious of what we see on film and its relation to reality.
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The studio signed Pitt and offered him a $17.5 million salary.[20]
For the role of the nameless narrator, the studio desired a "sexier marquee name" like Matt Damon to increase the film's commercial prospects; it also considered Sean Penn. Fincher instead considered Edward Norton a candidate for the role, based on the actor's performance in the 1996 film The People vs. Larry Flynt.[21] Other studios were approaching Norton for leading roles in developing films like The Talented Mr. Ripley and Man on the Moon. The actor was cast in Runaway Jury, but the film did not reach production. .20th Century Fox offered Norton a $2.5 million salary to attract him to Fight Club.^ Edward Norton challenges dismissing Fight Club because of its violence or moral ambiguity.
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^ Edward Norton, Interview printed on Fight Club DVD disc 2 "Special Features."
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^ Fight Club exposes the void and offers three solutions: crying, violence, and movies.
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Norton could not accept the offer immediately since he still owed Paramount Pictures a film. He signed a contractual obligation with Paramount to appear in one of the studio's future films for a smaller salary. (Norton satisfied the obligation with his role in the 2003 film The Italian Job).[20]
In January 1998, 20th Century Fox announced that Brad Pitt and Edward Norton were cast in the film.[22] The actors prepared for their roles by taking lessons in boxing, taekwondo, grappling,[23] and soapmaking.[24] Pitt voluntarily visited a dentist to have pieces of his front teeth chipped off so his character would not have perfect teeth. The pieces were restored after filming concluded.[25]
For the role of Marla Singer, the filmmakers considered Courtney Love and Winona Ryder as candidates early on.[26] The studio wanted to cast Reese Witherspoon, but Fincher objected that Witherspoon was too young for the role.[20] He chose to cast Helena Bonham Carter based on her performance in the 1997 film The Wings of the Dove.[27]

Writing

Screenwriter Jim Uhls started working on an early draft of the adapted screenplay, which excluded a voice-over because the industry perceived at the time that the technique was "hackneyed and trite". When Fincher joined the film, he thought that the film should have a voice-over, believing that the film's humor came from the narrator's voice.[20] The director described the film without a voice-over as seemingly "sad and pathetic".[28] Fincher and Uhls revised the script for six to seven months and by 1997 had a third draft that reordered the story and left out several major elements. .When Pitt was cast, he was concerned that his character, Tyler Durden, was too one-dimensional.^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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Fincher sought the advice of writer-director Cameron Crowe, who suggested giving the character more ambiguity. Fincher also hired screenwriter Andrew Kevin Walker for assistance. The director invited Pitt and Norton to help revise the script, and the group drafted five revisions in the course of a year.[20]
Two men are in an old bathroom cast in dark yellow lighting. In the foreground, the nameless narrator sits against the left wall, facing right. He wears a white button-up shirt, and his face is cast in shadows. In the background, to the right of center, Tyler Durden sits in the bathtub nude and facing right. He has a cigarette in his mouth and a wash rag in front of him in his hands.
The bathtub scene served as part of the director's intended homoerotic presentation to make audiences uncomfortable and unprepared for the film's coming events.
.Chuck Palahniuk praised the faithful film adaptation of his novel and applauded how the film's plot was more streamlined than the book's.^ Film can have the effect of a formative religious experience more so than the most sublime texts.
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Palahniuk recalled how the writers debated if film audiences would believe the plot twist from the novel. Fincher supported including the twist, arguing, "If they accept everything up to this point, they'll accept the plot twist. If they're still in the theater, they'll stay with it."[29] Palahniuk's novel also contained homoerotic overtones, which the director included in the film to make audiences uncomfortable and accentuate the surprise of the film's twists.[30] .The scene in which Tyler Durden bathes next to the narrator is an example of the overtones; the line, "I'm wondering if another woman is really the answer we need," was meant to suggest personal responsibility rather than homosexuality.^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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[6] .Another example is the scene at the beginning of the film in which Tyler Durden puts a gun barrel down the narrator's mouth.^ With a gun to Jack's head, Tyler begins the last scene where the film began.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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^ The narrator confronts the inner psychological split by placing a gun in his own mouth.
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[31]
.The narrator finds redemption at the end of the film by rejecting Tyler Durden's dialectic, a path that diverged from the novel's ending in which the narrator is placed in a mental institution.^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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[4] Norton drew parallels between redemption in the film and redemption in The Graduate, indicating that the protagonists of both films find a middle ground between two divisions of self.[7] .Fincher considered the novel too infatuated with Tyler Durden and changed the ending to move away from him: "I wanted people to love Tyler, but I also wanted them to be OK with his vanquishing."^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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^ Jack creates Tyler Durden as a mentoring father figure who will help him integrate his shadow in relationship with sex and violence and bring Jack closer to the Other.
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[4]

Filming

Studio executives Mechanic and Ziskin planned an initial budget of $23 million to finance the film,[18] but by the start of production, the budget was increased to $50 million. Half was paid by New Regency, but during filming, the projected budget escalated to $67 million. .New Regency's head and Fight Club executive producer Arnon Milchan petitioned Fincher to reduce costs by at least $5 million.^ With the possible exception of rare public architecture, I cannot think of an art form that costs many millions of dollars to produce like the Hollywood film.
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^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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The director refused, so Milchan threatened Mechanic that New Regency would withdraw financing. .Mechanic sought to restore Milchan's support by sending him tapes of dailies from Fight Club.^ We can send them to support groups to mourn the impossibility of living this dream, send them to war to partake in the battle, or send them to experience the "Fight Club" of American cinema.
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^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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After seeing three weeks of filming, Milchan reinstated New Regency's financial backing.[32] The final production budget was $63 million.[33]
The fight scenes were heavily choreographed, and the actors were required to "go full out" to capture realistic effects like having the wind knocked out of them.[13] Makeup artist Julie Pearce, who worked for the director on the 1997 film The Game, studied mixed martial arts and pay-per-view boxing to portray the fighters accurately. She designed an extra's ear to have cartilage missing, citing as inspiration the boxing match in which Mike Tyson bit off part of Evander Holyfield's ear.[34] .Makeup artists devised two methods to create sweat on cue: spraying mineral water over a coat of Vaseline, and using the unadulterated water for "wet sweat". Meat Loaf, who plays a member of the fight club who has "bitch tits", wore a 90-pound (40 kg) fat harness that gave him large breasts for the role.^ Tyler apparently threatens castration for any member of the group, even himself, who stands in the way of Project Mayhem, Fight Club's paramilitary urban mischief spin-off.
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^ Tyler addresses the members of Fight Club, saying, "We've all been raised to believe that we'll be millionaires and movie idols.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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[23] He also wore eight-inch (20 cm) lifts in his scenes with Norton to be taller than him.[6]
.The filming lasted 138 days,[35] during which Fincher shot more than 1,500 rolls of film, three times the average for a Hollywood film.^ The processing of the film is apparently similar to Fincher's last film, Seven (1995).
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^ Film can have the effect of a formative religious experience more so than the most sublime texts.
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[23] The locations were in and around Los Angeles and on sets built at the studio in Century City.[35] Production designer Alex McDowell constructed more than 70 sets.[23] .The exterior of Tyler Durden's house was built in San Pedro, California, while the interior was built on a sound stage at the studio's location.^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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The interior was given a decayed look to illustrate the deconstructed world of the characters.[35] Marla Singer's apartment was based on photographs of the Rosalind Apartments in downtown LA.[9] Overall production included 300 scenes, 200 locations, and complex special effects. .Fincher compared Fight Club to his succeeding and less complex film Panic Room, "I felt like I was spending all my time watching trucks being loaded and unloaded so I could shoot three lines of dialogue.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Unfortunately, in the wake of September 11th terrorist attacks, Fight Club 's moral aloofness has become less clear.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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There was far too much transportation going on."[36]

Cinematography

.Fincher used the Super 35 format to film Fight Club since it gave him maximum flexibility in composing shots.^ Fight Club forces us to be suspicious of what we see on film and its relation to reality.
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^ One film which explores these t hemes is David Fincher's Fight Club , which articulates the late-90s crisis of masculinity.
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^ Fight Club incorporates these themes using an over-the-top visual style that uses the slick technology and film techniques of the 1990s to externalize Jack's tortured identity.
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.He hired Jeff Cronenweth as cinematographer; Cronenweth's father Jordan Cronenweth was the cinematographer who worked for Fincher on the 1992 film Alien 3 but died midway through its production.^ Ironically, Tyler works as a projectionist who cuts in singular frames of pornography into family films.
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^ In addition to temporality, Fincher manipulates the medium itself dirtying the film through specific processing.
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.Fincher explored visual styles in his previous films Seven and The Game, and he and Cronenweth drew elements from these styles for Fight Club.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ The processing of the film is apparently similar to Fincher's last film, Seven (1995).
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^ Thus, Fight Club as a film can only become ritualized by its small but growing cult watching public.
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[35]
.They applied a lurid style, choosing to make people "sort of shiny".[9] The appearance of the narrator's scenes without Tyler Durden were bland and realistic.^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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.The scenes with Tyler were described by Fincher as "more hyper-real in a torn-down, deconstructed sense—a visual metaphor of what [the narrator is] heading into". The filmmakers used heavily desaturated colors in the costuming, makeup, and art direction.^ Bob stops talking and breaks into sobbing, putting his head down on Jack's shoulder and completely covering Jack's face.
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^ With a gun to Jack's head, Tyler begins the last scene where the film began.
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[35] Helena Bonham Carter wore opalescent makeup to portray her romantic nihilistic character with a "smack-fiend patina". Fincher and Cronenweth drew influences from the 1973 film American Graffiti, which applied a mundane look to nighttime exteriors while simultaneously including a variety of colors.[9]
The crew took advantage of both natural and practical light at filming locations. The director sought various approaches to the lighting setups, for example choosing several urban locations for the city lights' effects on the shots' backgrounds. He and the crew also embraced fluorescent lighting at other practical locations to maintain an element of reality and to light the prostheses depicting the characters' injuries.[35] On the other hand, Fincher also ensured that scenes were not so strongly lit so the characters' eyes were less visible, citing cinematographer Gordon Willis's technique as the influence.[6]
.Fight Club was filmed mostly at night and Fincher purposely filmed the daytime shots in shadowed locations.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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^ Since my interest in Fight Club has blossomed, I have been informed on numerous occasions of accounts of real life Fight Clubs formed in honor of the film.
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The crew equipped the bar's basement with inexpensive work lamps to create a background glow. Fincher avoided stylish camerawork when filming early fight scenes in the basement and instead placed the camera in a fixed position. In later fight scenes, Fincher moved the camera from the viewpoint of a distant observer to that of the fighter.[35]
.The scenes with Tyler Durden were staged to conceal that the character was a mental projection of the nameless narrator.^ While Tyler Durden becomes a scapegoat for Jack, corporate buildings become a scapegoat for Tyler as the "Demolitions Committee" of "Project Mayhem."
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^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
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.The character was not filmed in two shots with a group of people, nor was he shown in any over the shoulder shots in scenes where Tyler gives the narrator specific ideas to manipulate him.^ The last scene of the film illuminates Jack's final encounter with Tyler.
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^ In addition to temporality, Fincher manipulates the medium itself dirtying the film through specific processing.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a gun to Jack's head, Tyler begins the last scene where the film began.
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.In scenes before the narrator meets Tyler, the filmmakers inserted Tyler's presence in single frames for subliminal effect.^ In the last scene of the film a single frame of a naked penis is cut into the film just before the crumbling buildings fade to black.
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^ This is accomplished through a technique that may be truly unique by which Tyler is introduced to single frames in the film.
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[9] Tyler appears in the background and out of focus, like a "little devil on the shoulder".[6] Fincher explained the subliminal frames: "Our hero is creating Tyler Durden in his own mind, so at this point he exists only on the periphery of the narrator's consciousness."[37]
.While Cronenweth generally rated and exposed the Kodak film stock normally on Fight Club, several other techniques were applied to change its appearance.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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^ Fight Club generated no noticeably baleful side effects whatsoever.
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.Flashing was implemented on much of the exterior night photography, the contrast was stretched to be purposely ugly, the print was adjusted to be underexposed, Technicolor's ENR silver retention was used on a select number of prints to increase the density of the film's blacks, and high-contrast print stocks were chosen to create a "stepped-on" look on the print with a dirty patina.^ "When we processed it, we stretched the contrast to make it kind of ugly, a little bit of underexposure, a little bit of re-silvering, and using new high-contrast print stocks and stepping all over it so it has a dirty patina."
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[9]

Visual effects

.Fincher hired visual effects supervisor Kevin Tod Haug, who worked for him on The Game, to create visual effects for Fight Club.^ Jack creates Tyler Durden as a mentoring father figure who will help him integrate his shadow in relationship with sex and violence and bring Jack closer to the Other.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club generated no noticeably baleful side effects whatsoever.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Haug assigned the visual effects artists and experts to different facilities that each addressed different types of visual effects: CG modeling, animation, compositing, and scanning. Haug explained, "We selected the best people for each aspect of the effects work, then coordinated their efforts. In this way, we never had to play to a facility's weakness." Fincher visualized the narrator's perspective through a "mind's eye" view and structured a myopic framework for the film audiences. Fincher also utilized previsualized footage of challenging main-unit and visual effects shots as a problem-solving tool to avoid making mistakes during the actual filming.[37]
Blue and rough-looking tendrils stretch into a vanishing point in the middle; tendrils on the right side are visible, where the rest are obscured in darkness. Blue specks of matter float in the image. In front of the vanishing point are the words "Fight Club".
The opening scene in Fight Club that represents a brain's neural network in which the thought processes are initiated by the narrator's fear impulse. The network was mapped using an L-system and drawn out by a medical illustrator.
.The film's title sequence is a 90-second visual effects composition that depicts the inside of the narrator's brain at a microscopic level; the camera pulls back to the outside, starting at his fear center and following the thought processes initiated by his fear impulse.^ We hear a gun cock and watch the sound as an electrical impulse inside the psychoneurotic center of the protagonist's brain.
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[38] The sequence, designed in part by Fincher, was budgeted separately from the rest of the film at first, but the sequence was awarded by the studio in January 1999.[37] Fincher hired Digital Domain and its visual effects supervisor Kevin Mack, who won an Academy Award for Visual Effects for the 1998 film What Dreams May Come, for the sequence. The company mapped the computer-generated brain using an L-system,[39] and the design was detailed using renderings by medical illustrator Kathryn Jones. The pullback sequence from within the brain to the outside of the skull included neurons, action potentials, and a hair follicle. Haug explained the artistic license that Fincher took with the shot, "While he wanted to keep the brain passage looking like electron microscope photography, that look had to be coupled with the feel of a night dive—wet, scary, and with a low depth of field." The shallow depth of field was accomplished with the ray tracing process.[37]
Other visual effects include an early scene in which the camera flashes past city streets to survey Project Mayhem's destructive equipment lying in underground parking lots; the sequence was a three-dimensional composition of nearly 100 photographs of Los Angeles and Century City by photographer Michael Douglas Middleton. The final scene of the demolition of the credit card office buildings was designed by Richard Baily of Image Savant; Baily worked on the scene for over fourteen months.[37]
.Midway through the film, Tyler Durden points out the cue mark—nicknamed "cigarette burn" in the film—to the audience.^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
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^ This is accomplished through a technique that may be truly unique by which Tyler is introduced to single frames in the film.
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The scene represents a turning point that foreshadows the coming rupture and inversion of the "fairly subjective reality" that existed earlier in the film. .The director explained, "Suddenly it's as though the projectionist missed the changeover, the viewers have to start looking at the movie in a whole new way."^ The safety of the movie setting allows the viewer to make himself more vulnerable and be affected in emotionally deeper ways.
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[37]

Musical score

Fincher was concerned that bands experienced in writing film scores would be unable to tie the movie's themes together, so he sought a band which had never recorded for film. He pursued Radiohead,[6] but ultimately chose the breakbeat producing duo Dust Brothers to score the film. The duo created a post-modern score that included drum loops, electronic scratches, and computerized samples. Dust Brothers performer Michael Simpson explained the setup: "Fincher wanted to break new ground with everything about the movie, and a nontraditional score helped achieve that."[40]

Release

Marketing

.Filming concluded in December 1998, and David Fincher edited the footage in early 1999 to prepare Fight Club for a screening with senior executives.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Fight Club as a film can only become ritualized by its small but growing cult watching public.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They did not receive the film positively and were concerned that there would not be an audience for the film.[41] Executive producer Art Linson, who supported the film, recalled the response: "So many incidences of Fight Club were alarming, no group of executives could narrow them down."[42] Nevertheless, Fight Club was originally slated to be released in July 1999,[43] later changed to August 6, 1999. The studio further delayed the film's release, this time to autumn, citing a crowded summer schedule and a hurried post-production process.[44] Outsiders attributed the delays to the Columbine High School massacre earlier in the year.[45]
.Marketing executives at 20th Century Fox faced difficulties in marketing Fight Club and at one point considered marketing it as an art film.^ One female college student in Mexico informs me that she engages regularly in "fight club" with her brothers after having watched the film in which they bruise each other for the fun of it.
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^ I also know of a guy whose frat (not here) had a Fight Club like the one in the movie.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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.They considered that the film was primarily geared toward male audiences because of its violence and believed that not even Brad Pitt would attract female filmgoers.^ One female college student in Mexico informs me that she engages regularly in "fight club" with her brothers after having watched the film in which they bruise each other for the fun of it.
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Research testing showed that the film appealed to teenagers. Fincher refused to let the posters and trailers focus on Pitt and encouraged the studio to hire the advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy to devise a marketing plan. The firm proposed a bar of pink soap with the title "Fight Club" embossed on it as the film's main marketing image; the proposal was considered "a bad joke" by Fox executives. Fincher also released two early trailers in the form of fake public service announcements presented by Pitt and Norton; the studio did not think the trailers marketed the film appropriately. Instead, the studio financed a $20 million large-scale campaign to provide a press junket, posters, billboards, and trailers for TV that highlighted the film's fight scenes. The studio advertised Fight Club on cable during World Wrestling Federation broadcasts, which Fincher protested, believing that the placement created the wrong context for the film.[41] .Linson believed that the "ill-conceived one-dimensional" marketing by marketing executive Robert Harper largely contributed to Fight Club's lukewarm box office performance in the United States.^ In one Ivy League college, fraternity brothers gather weekly in the name of their "Fight Club."
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^ As a filmmaker and a man, I had been told Fight Club was one of those movies I would like.
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^ One female college student in Mexico informs me that she engages regularly in "fight club" with her brothers after having watched the film in which they bruise each other for the fun of it.
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[46]

Theatrical run

.The studio held Fight Club's world premiere at the 56th Venice International Film Festival in September 1999.[47] For the American theatrical release, the studio hired the National Research Group to test screen the film; the group predicted the film would gross between $13 million and $15 million in its opening weekend.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Unfortunately, in the wake of September 11th terrorist attacks, Fight Club 's moral aloofness has become less clear.
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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[48] .Fight Club opened commercially in the United States and Canada on October 15, 1999 and earned $11,035,485 in 1,963 theaters over the opening weekend.^ When I first saw Fight Club (1999 dir.
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^ Doppelganger: Exploded States of Consciousness in Fight Club .
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^ Doppelganger: Exploded States of Consciousness in Fight Club , (http://www.disinfo.com/pages/article/id1497/, 2001), 7.
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[33] .The film ranked first at the weekend box office, defeating Double Jeopardy and The Story of Us, a fellow weekend opener.^ However, categorizing the film in artistic terms negates the highest measurement of sacredness in America: box-office success.
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[49] .The gender mix of audiences for Fight Club, argued to be "the ultimate anti-date flick", was 61% male and 39% female; 58% of audiences were below the age of 21. Despite the film's top placement, its opening gross fell short of the studio's expectations.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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^ It is worth noting that all participants in Fight Club are white males, kings of American hegemony, who have no scapegoat for their problems but themselves and the corporations.
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[50] .Over the second weekend, Fight Club dropped 42.6% in revenue, earning $6,335,870.[51] The film, whose production budget was $63 million, grossed $37,030,102 from its theatrical run in the United States and Canada and earned $100,853,753 in theaters worldwide.^ One female college student in Mexico informs me that she engages regularly in "fight club" with her brothers after having watched the film in which they bruise each other for the fun of it.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also know of a guy whose frat (not here) had a Fight Club like the one in the movie.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] The underwhelming North American performance of Fight Club soured the relationship between 20th Century Fox's studio head Bill Mechanic and media executive Rupert Murdoch, which contributed to Mechanic's resignation in June 2000.[52]
.The British Board of Film Classification reviewed Fight Club for its November 12, 1999 release in the United Kingdom and removed two scenes involving "an indulgence in the excitement of beating a (defenseless) man's face into a pulp". The board assigned the film an 18 certificate, limiting the release to adult-only audiences in the UK. The BBFC did not censor any further, considering and dismissing claims that Fight Club contained "dangerously instructive information" and could "encourage anti-social (behavior)". The board decided, "The film as a whole is—quite clearly—critical and sharply parodic of the amateur fascism which in part it portrays.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
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^ Since the initial conception and transcription of my argument, I have been given reason to revisit a concern of many critics addressed in an article by Gary Crowdus: "They felt scenes served only as a mindless glamorization of brutality, a morally irresponsible portrayal, which they feared might encourage impressionable young male viewers to set up their own real-life Fight Clubs in order to beat each other senseless."
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^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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Its central theme of male machismo (and the anti-social behaviour that flows from it) is emphatically rejected by the central character in the concluding reels."[53] The scenes were restored in a two-disc DVD edition released in the UK in March 2007.[54]

Home media

Fincher supervised the composition of the DVD packaging and was one of the first directors to participate in a film's transition to home media. The film was released in two DVD editions.[55] The single-disc edition included a commentary track,[56] while the two-disc special edition included the commentary track, behind-the-scenes clips, deleted scenes, trailers, fake public service announcements, the promotional music video "This is Your Life", Internet spots, still galleries, cast biographies, storyboards, and publicity materials.[57] The director worked on the DVD as a way to finish his vision for the film. .Julie Markell, 20th Century Fox's senior vice president of creative development, said the DVD packaging complemented the director's vision: "The film is meant to make you question.^ Or in any way that let you walk away from the film like this, comfortable in having been told what you should make of it.
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The package, by extension, tries to reflect an experience that you must experience for yourself. The more you look at it, the more you'll get out of it." The studio developed the packaging for two months.[58] The two-disc special edition DVD was packaged to look covered in brown cardboard wrapper. The title "Fight Club" was labeled diagonally across the front, and packaging appeared tied with twine. Markell said, "We wanted the package to be simple on the outside, so that there would be a dichotomy between the simplicity of brown paper wrapping and the intensity and chaos of what's inside."[58] Deborah Mitchell, 20th Century Fox's vice president of marketing, described the design: "From a retail standpoint, [the DVD case] has incredible shelf-presence."[59]
Fight Club won the 2000 Online Film Critics Society Awards for Best DVD, Best DVD Commentary, and Best DVD Special Features.[60] Entertainment Weekly ranked the film's two-disc edition in first place on its 2001 list of "The 50 Essential DVDs", giving top ratings to the DVD's content and technical picture-and-audio quality.[61] When the two-disc edition went out of print, the studio re-released it in 2004 because of fans' requests.[62] The DVD was one of the largest-selling in the studio's history;[46] it also grossed $55 million in video and DVD rentals.[63] .With a weak box office performance in the United States and Canada, a better performance in other territories, and the highly successful DVD release, Fight Club generated a $10 million profit for the studio.^ "How to Start a Fight," Fight Club DVD, 200, 14.
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^ Edward Norton, Interview printed on Fight Club DVD disc 2 "Special Features."
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^ However, categorizing the film in artistic terms negates the highest measurement of sacredness in America: box-office success.
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[46]
.Fight Club was released in the Blu-ray Disc format in the United States on November 17, 2009.[64] Fox Creative chose Neuron Syndicate to design the art for the format's packaging, and Neuron commissioned five graffiti taggers to create 30 pieces of art.^ I would argue Fight Club is avante garde sublime art.
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^ In a similar way, when Fight Club was first released in 1999, many critics were upset by its violence voicing the concern that the film itself creates a violence that does not exist within the culture.
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^ Edward Norton, Interview printed on Fight Club DVD disc 2 "Special Features."
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The art encompasses urban aesthetics found on the East Coast and West Coast of the United States as well as influences from European street art.[65] .The Blu-ray edition opens with a menu screen for the romantic comedy Never Been Kissed starring Drew Barrymore before leading into the actual Fight Club menu screen.^ But Fight Club aggression spins out of control into Project Mayhem.
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David Fincher got permission from Barrymore to include the fake menu screen.[66]

Critical reception

.When Fight Club premiered at the Venice International Film Festival, the film was debated fiercely by critics.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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^ Since my interest in Fight Club has blossomed, I have been informed on numerous occasions of accounts of real life Fight Clubs formed in honor of the film.
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A newspaper reported, "Many loved and hated it in equal measures." Some critics expressed concern that the film would incite copycat behavior, such as that seen after A Clockwork Orange debuted in Britain nearly three decades previously.[67] Upon the film's theatrical release, The Times reported the reaction: "It touched a nerve in the male psyche that was debated in newspapers across the world."[68] Although the film's makers called Fight Club "an accurate portrayal of men in the 1990s", some critics called it "irresponsible and appalling". Another newspaper charged, "Fight Club is shaping up to be the most contentious mainstream Hollywood meditation on violence since Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange."[69]
.Janet Maslin, reviewing for The New York Times, praised Fincher's direction and editing of the film.^ Howard Hampton, "Blood and Gore Wars", Film Comment (New York, Nov/Dec 2000, Vol.
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She wrote that Fight Club carried a message of "contemporary manhood", and that, if not watched closely, the film could be misconstrued as an endorsement of violence and nihilism.[70] .Roger Ebert, reviewing for the Chicago Sun-Times, called Fight Club "visceral and hard-edged", and "a thrill ride masquerading as philosophy" that most audiences would not appreciate.^ I would argue Fight Club is avante garde sublime art.
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^ As a filmmaker and a man, I had been told Fight Club was one of those movies I would like.
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[71] Ebert later acknowledged that the film was "beloved by most, not by me".[72] Jay Carr of The Boston Globe opined that the film began with an "invigoratingly nervy and imaginative buzz", but that it eventually became "explosively silly".[73] Newsweek's David Ansen described Fight Club as "an outrageous mixture of brilliant technique, puerile philosophizing, trenchant satire and sensory overload" and thought that the ending was too pretentious.[74] Richard Schickel of Time described the director's mise en scène as dark and damp: "It enforces the contrast between the sterilities of his characters' aboveground life and their underground one. Water, even when it's polluted, is the source of life; blood, even when it's carelessly spilled, is the symbol of life being fully lived. To put his point simply: it's better to be wet than dry." Schickel applauded the performances of Brad Pitt and Edward Norton, but he criticized the film's "conventionally gimmicky" unfolding and the failure to make Helena Bonham Carter's character interesting.[75]
Cineaste's Gary Crowdus reviewed the critical reception in retrospect: "Many critics praised Fight Club, hailing it as one of the most exciting, original, and thought-provoking films of the year." He wrote of the negative opinion, "While Fight Club had numerous critical champions, the film's critical attackers were far more vocal, a negative chorus which became hysterical about what they felt to be the excessively graphic scenes of fisticuffs ... They felt such scenes served only as a mindless glamorization of brutality, a morally irresponsible portrayal, which they feared might encourage impressionable young male viewers to set up their own real-life fight clubs in order to beat each other senseless."[76]
.Fight Club was nominated for the 2000 Academy Award for Best Sound Editing, but it lost to The Matrix.^ Gary Crowdus, "Getting Exercised over Fight Club," Cineaste September 2000 (25:4), 47.
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^ Crowdus, Gary, "Getting Exercised over Fight Club ," Cineaste September 2000 (25:4), 46-48.
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[77] Helena Bonham Carter won the 2000 Empire Award for Best British Actress.[78] The Online Film Critics Society also nominated Fight Club for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor (Edward Norton), Best Editing, and Best Adapted Screenplay (Jim Uhls).[79] .Though the film won none of the awards, the organization listed Fight Club as one of the top ten films of 1999.[80] The soundtrack was nominated for a BRIT Award, losing to Notting Hill.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
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^ Since my interest in Fight Club has blossomed, I have been informed on numerous occasions of accounts of real life Fight Clubs formed in honor of the film.
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[81]

Cultural impact

Fight Club was one of the most controversial and talked-about films of the 1990s.[13][82] .Like other 1999 films Magnolia, Being John Malkovich, and Three Kings, Fight Club was recognized as an innovator in cinematic form and style since it exploited new developments in filmmaking technology.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
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^ With the possible exception of rare public architecture, I cannot think of an art form that costs many millions of dollars to produce like the Hollywood film.
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^ Thus, Fight Club as a film can only become ritualized by its small but growing cult watching public.
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[83] After Fight Club's theatrical release, it became more popular via word of mouth,[84] and the positive reception of the DVD established it as a cult film that David Ansen of Newsweek conjectured would enjoy "perennial" fame.[85][86] The film's success also heightened the profile of the novel's author, Chuck Palahniuk, to global renown.[87]
.Following Fight Club's release, several fight clubs were reported to have started in the United States.^ "How to Start a Fight," Fight Club DVD, 200, 14.
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^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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^ Doppelganger: Exploded States of Consciousness in Fight Club , (http://www.disinfo.com/pages/article/id1497/, 2001), 7.
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A "Gentleman's Fight Club" was started in Menlo Park, California in 2000 and had members mostly from the high tech industry.[88] .Teens and preteens in Texas, New Jersey, Washington state, and Alaska also initiated fight clubs and posted videos of their fights online, leading authorities to break up the clubs.^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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^ Doppelganger: Exploded States of Consciousness in Fight Club .
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^ Doppelganger: Exploded States of Consciousness in Fight Club , (http://www.disinfo.com/pages/article/id1497/, 2001), 7.
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.In 2006, an unwilling participant from a local high school was injured at a fight club in Arlington, Texas, and the DVD sales of the fight led to the arrest of six teenagers.^ "How to Start a Fight," Fight Club DVD, 200, 14.
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^ It is worth noting that all participants in Fight Club are white males, kings of American hegemony, who have no scapegoat for their problems but themselves and the corporations.
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^ Edward Norton, Interview printed on Fight Club DVD disc 2 "Special Features."
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[89] .An unsanctioned fight club was also started at Princeton University, where matches were held on campus.^ "How to Start a Fight," Fight Club DVD, 200, 14.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together, they start Fight Club, a new kind of support group for men that encourages them to sock and punch and tear at each other in order to feel saved.
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[90] The film was suspected of influencing Luke Helder, a college student who planted pipe bombs in mailboxes in 2002. Helder's goal was to create a smiley pattern on the map of the United States, similar to the scene in Fight Club in which a building is vandalized to have a smiley on its exterior.[91] On July 16, 2009, a 17-year-old who had formed his own fight club in Manhattan was charged with detonating a homemade bomb outside a Starbucks Coffee shop in the Upper East Side in May 2009; the New York City Police Department reported the suspect was trying to emulate "Project Mayhem".[92]
.In 2003, Fight Club was listed as one of the "50 Best Guy Movies of All Time" by Men's Journal.^ I also know of a guy whose frat (not here) had a Fight Club like the one in the movie.
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^ Fight Club , the movie, exists to solve the very problems of meaning it poses.
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^ It is worth noting that all participants in Fight Club are white males, kings of American hegemony, who have no scapegoat for their problems but themselves and the corporations.
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[93] In 2004 and 2006, Fight Club was voted by Empire readers as the ninth and eighth greatest film of all time, respectively.[94][95] .Total Film ranked Fight Club as "The Greatest Film of our Lifetime" in 2007 during the magazine's tenth anniversary.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since my interest in Fight Club has blossomed, I have been informed on numerous occasions of accounts of real life Fight Clubs formed in honor of the film.
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[96] .In 2007, Premiere selected Tyler Durden's line, "The first rule of fight club is you do not talk about fight club," as the 27th greatest movie line of all time.^ What may be unique about Fight Club is its self-consciousness about its own medium.
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^ When I first saw Fight Club (1999 dir.
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^ When the narrator finally confronts Tyler about the project, he comes to the realization that he is Tyler Durden.
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[97] In 2008, readers of Empire ranked Tyler Durden first on a list of the 100 Greatest Movie Characters.[98]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Smith 1999, p. 64
  2. ^ "100 DVDs You Must Own". Empire: 31. January 2003. 
  3. ^ Smith 1999, p. 60
  4. ^ a b c d Wise, Damon (December 1999). "Menace II Society". Empire. 
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  67. ^ Gritten, David (September 14, 1999). "Premiere of Fight Club leaves critics slugging it out in Venice". The Ottawa Citizen. 
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  72. ^ Ebert, Roger (August 24, 2007). "Zodiac". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070823/REVIEWS/708230308/-1/REVIEWS01. Retrieved April 30, 2008. 
  73. ^ Carr, Jay (October 15, 1999). "'Fight Club' packs a punch but lacks stamina". Boston Globe. 
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  75. ^ Schickel, Richard (October 11, 1999). "Conditional Knockout". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,992235,00.html. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  76. ^ Crowdus, Gary (September 2000). "Getting Exercised Over Fight Club". Cineaste 25 (4): pp. 46–48. 
  77. ^ Hawker, Philippa (March 28, 2000). "Oscar 2000 – Shocking? Not!". The Age. 
  78. ^ "Sony Ericsson Empire Awards – 2000 Winners". Empire. http://www.empireonline.com/awards2006/previouswinners/2000.asp. Retrieved March 23, 2007. 
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  82. ^ "'Fight Club' author Palahniuk to participate in academic conference at Edinboro University". Erie Times-News. March 26, 2001. 
  83. ^ Pulver, Andrew (November 27, 2004). "Personality crisis: David Fincher's Fight Club (1999)". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/nov/27/featuresreviews.guardianreview8. Retrieved June 23, 2008. 
  84. ^ Wise, Damon (November 2, 2000). "Now you see it". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2000/nov/02/features.theguardian. Retrieved April 30, 2008. 
  85. ^ Nunziata, Nick (March 23, 2004). "The personality of cult". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/SHOWBIZ/Movies/03/23/cult.films/. Retrieved April 1, 2007. 
  86. ^ Ansen, David (July 11, 2005). "Is Anybody Making Movies We'll Actually Watch In 50 Years?". Newsweek. 
  87. ^ Flynn, Bob (March 29, 2007). "Fighting talk". The Independent. 
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  89. ^ Rosenstein, Bruce (August 1, 2006). "Illegal, violent teen fight clubs face police crackdown". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-07-31-violent-fight-clubs_x.htm. Retrieved April 28, 2007. 
  90. ^ "At Princeton, no punches pulled". The Philadelphia Inquirer. June 6, 2001. 
  91. ^ Rossi, C. T. (2002-06-10). "Father Absence Key to Male Masculinity Crisis". Insight on the News (News World Communications). 
  92. ^ "Starbucks bombing blamed on 'Fight Club' fancy". Associated Press via The Washington Times. July 16, 2009. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jul/16/starbucks-bombing-blamed-on-fight-club-fancy/. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 
  93. ^ Dirks, Tim. "50 Best Guy Movies of All Time". Filmsite. AMC. http://www.filmsite.org/guyfilms.html. Retrieved April 27, 2009. 
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  95. ^ "The 201 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire: 98. January 2006. 
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References

  • Linson, Art (May 2002). "Fight Clubbed". What Just Happened? Bitter Hollywood Tales from the Front Line. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 141–156. ISBN 1582342407. 
  • Probst, Christopher (November 1999). "Anarchy in the U.S.A". American Cinematographer 80 (11): pp. 42–44+. http://www.theasc.com/magazine/nov99/anarchy/index.htm. .Retrieved July 19, 2009. 
  • Smith, Gavin (Sep/Oct 1999).^ New York; Sep/Oct 1999; Vol.
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Inside Out: Gavin Smith Goes One-on-One with David Fincher". Film Comment 35 (5): pp.^ David Fincher as quoted in Gavin Smith,"Inside out," Film Comment.
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Inside out," Film Comment.
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    58–62, 65, 67–68. 
  • Waxman, Sharon (December 2005). Rebels on the Backlot: Six Maverick Directors and How They Conquered the Hollywood Studio System. HarperEntertainment. ISBN 0060540176. 

External links


Fight Club
File:Fight Club
Theatrical release poster
Directed by David Fincher
Produced by Art Linson
Cean Chaffin
Ross Grayson Bell
Screenplay by Jim Uhls
Story by Chuck Palahniuk
Starring Brad Pitt
Edward Norton
Helena Bonham Carter
Music by Dust Brothers
Cinematography Jeff Cronenweth
Editing by James Haygood
Studio Regency Enterprises
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) October 15, 1999 (1999-10-15)
Running time 139 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $63 million
Gross revenue $100,853,753 (worldwide)

Fight Club is a 1999 American film adapted from the 1996 novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk. The film was directed by David Fincher and stars Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter. Norton plays the unnamed protagonist, an "everyman" who is discontented with his white-collar job in American society. He forms a "fight club" with soap salesman Tyler Durden, played by Pitt, and becomes embroiled in a relationship with him and a dissolute woman, Marla Singer, played by Carter.

Palahniuk's novel was optioned by 20th Century Fox producer Laura Ziskin, who hired Jim Uhls to write the film adaptation. Fincher was one of four directors the producers considered; they hired him because of his enthusiasm for the film. Fincher developed the script with Uhls and sought screenwriting advice from the cast and others in the film industry. The director and the cast compared the film to Rebel Without a Cause (1955) and The Graduate (1967). Fincher intended Fight Club's violence to serve as a metaphor for the conflict between a generation of young people and the value system of advertising. The director copied the homoerotic overtones from Palahniuk's novel to make audiences uncomfortable and keep them from anticipating the twist ending.

Studio executives did not like the film, and they restructured Fincher's intended marketing campaign to try to reduce anticipated losses. Fight Club failed to meet the studio's expectations at the box office, and received polarized reactions from critics. It was cited as one of the most controversial and talked-about films of 1999. The film later found commercial success with its DVD release, which established Fight Club as a cult film.

Contents

Plot

The nameless narrator (Norton) is a traveling automobile company employee who suffers from insomnia. His doctor refuses to give him medication and advises him to visit a support group to witness more severe suffering. The narrator attends a support group for testicular cancer victims and, after fooling them into thinking that he is a fellow victim, finds an emotional release that relieves his insomnia. He becomes addicted to attending support groups and pretending to be a victim, but the presence of another impostor, Marla Singer (Bonham Carter), disturbs him, so he negotiates with her to avoid their meeting at the same groups.

After a flight home from a business trip, the narrator finds his apartment destroyed by an explosion. He calls Tyler Durden (Pitt), a soap salesman whom he befriended on the flight, and they meet at a bar. A conversation about consumerism leads to Tyler inviting the narrator to stay at his place; outside the bar he requests that the narrator hit him. The two engage in a fistfight, with the narrator subsequently moving into Tyler's dilapidated house. They have further fights outside the bar, and these attract a crowd of men. The fighting moves to the bar's basement where the men form a "fight club."

Marla overdoses on pills and telephones the narrator for help; he ignores her, but Tyler answers the call and saves her. Tyler and Marla become sexually involved, and Tyler warns the narrator never to talk to Marla about him. More fight clubs form across the country, and they become the anti-materialist and anti-corporate organization called "Project Mayhem", under Tyler's leadership. The narrator complains to Tyler that he wants to be more involved in the organization, but Tyler suddenly disappears. When a member of Project Mayhem is killed by the police during a botched sabotage operation, the narrator tries to shut down the project, and follows evidence of Tyler's national travels to track him down. In one city, a project member greets the narrator as Tyler Durden. The narrator calls Marla from his hotel room and discovers that Marla also believes him to be Tyler. He suddenly sees Tyler Durden in his room, and Tyler explains that they are dissociated personalities in the same body. Tyler controls the narrator's body when the narrator is asleep.

The narrator blacks out after the conversation. When he wakes, he discovers from his telephone log that Tyler made calls during his blackout. He uncovers Tyler's plans to erase debt by destroying buildings that contain credit card companies' records. The narrator tries to contact the police but finds that the officers are members of the project. He attempts to disarm explosives in a building, but Tyler subdues him and moves to a safe building to watch the destruction. The narrator, held by Tyler at gunpoint, realizes that in sharing the same body with Tyler, he himself is actually holding the gun. He fires it into his mouth, shooting through the cheek without killing himself. Tyler collapses with an exit wound to the back of his head, and the narrator stops mentally projecting him. Afterward, Project Mayhem members bring a kidnapped Marla to him, believing him to be Tyler, and leave them alone. The explosives detonate, collapsing the buildings, and the narrator and Marla watch the scene, holding hands.

Themes

"We're designed to be hunters and we're in a society of shopping. There's nothing to kill anymore, there's nothing to fight, nothing to overcome, nothing to explore. In that societal emasculation this everyman [the narrator] is created."

—David Fincher[1]

Fincher said Fight Club was a coming of age film, like the 1967 film The Graduate but for people in their 30s. Fincher described the narrator as an "everyman";[1] the character is identified in the script as "Jack", but left nameless in the film.[2] Fincher outlined the narrator's background: "He's tried to do everything he was taught to do, tried to fit into the world by becoming the thing he isn't." The narrator cannot find happiness, so he travels on a path to enlightenment in which he must "kill" his parents, his god, and his teacher. At the start of the film, he has killed his parents. With Tyler Durden, he kills his god by doing things they are not supposed to do. To complete the process of maturing, the narrator has to kill his teacher, Tyler Durden.[3]

The character is a 1990s inverse of The Graduate archetype: "a guy who does not have a world of possibilities in front of him, he has no possibilities, he literally cannot imagine a way to change his life". He is confused and enraged, so he responds to his environment by creating Tyler Durden, a Nietzschean Übermensch, in his mind. While Tyler is who the narrator would want to be, he is not empathetic and does not help the narrator face decisions in his life "that are complicated and have moral and ethical implications". Fincher explained, "[Tyler] can deal with the concepts of our lives in an idealistic fashion, but it doesn't have anything to do with the compromises of real life as modern man knows it. Which is: You're not really necessary to a lot of what's going on. It's built, it just needs to run now."[1] While studio executives worried that Fight Club was going to be "sinister and seditious", Fincher sought to make it "funny and seditious" by including humor to temper the sinister element.[4]

Uhls described the film as a "romantic comedy", explaining, "It has to do with the characters' attitudes toward a healthy relationship, which is a lot of behavior which seems unhealthy and harsh to each other, but in fact does work for them—because both characters are out on the edge psychologically."[5] The narrator seeks intimacy, but he avoids it with Marla Singer, seeing too much of himself in her.[6] While Marla is a seductive and negativist prospect for the narrator, he instead embraces the novelty and excitement that comes with befriending Tyler Durden. The narrator is comfortable being personally connected to Tyler Durden, but he becomes jealous when Tyler becomes sexually involved with Marla. When the narrator argues with Tyler about their friendship, Tyler tells him that being friends is secondary to pursuing the philosophy they have been exploring.[7] Tyler also suggests doing something about Marla, implying that she is a risk to be removed. When Tyler says this, the narrator realizes that his desires should have been focused on Marla and begins to diverge from Tyler's path.[6]

"We decided early on that I would start to starve myself as the film went on, while [Brad Pitt] would lift and go to tanning beds; he would become more and more idealized as I wasted away."

—Edward Norton[8]

The unreliable narrator is not immediately aware that Tyler Durden originated in him and is being mentally projected.[9] He also mistakenly promotes the fight clubs as a way to feel powerful,[10] though the narrator's physical condition worsens while Tyler Durden's appearance improves. While Tyler desires "real experiences" of actual fights like the narrator at first,[11] he manifests a nihilistic attitude of rejecting and destroying institutions and value systems.[12] His impulsive nature, representing the id,[6] conveys an attitude that is seductive and liberating to the narrator and the members of Project Mayhem. Tyler's initiatives and methods become dehumanizing;[12] he orders around the members of Project Mayhem with a megaphone similar to camp directors at Chinese re-education camps.[6] The narrator pulls back from Tyler and in the end, he arrives at a middle ground between his two conflicting selves.[7]

Edward Norton said, "I feel that Fight Club really, in a way ... probed into the despair and paralysis that people feel in the face of having inherited this value system out of advertising."[11] Brad Pitt said, "Fight Club is a metaphor for the need to push through the walls we put around ourselves and just go for it, so for the first time we can experience the pain."[13] Fight Club also parallels the 1955 film Rebel Without a Cause; both probe the frustrations of the people that live in the system.[11] The characters, having undergone societal emasculation, are reduced to "a generation of spectators".[14] A culture of advertising defines society's "external signifiers of happiness", causing an unnecessary chase for material goods that replaces the more essential pursuit of spiritual happiness. The film references Calvin Klein, IKEA, and the Volkswagen New Beetle. Norton said of the Beetle, "We smash it ... because it seemed like the classic example of a Baby Boomer generation marketing plan that sold culture back to us."[15] His character also walks through his apartment while visual effects identify his many IKEA possessions. Fincher described the narrator's immersion, "It was just the idea of living in this fraudulent idea of happiness."[16] Pitt explained the dissonance, "I think there's a self-defense mechanism that keeps my generation from having any real honest connection or commitment with our true feelings. We're rooting for ball teams, but we're not getting in there to play. We're so concerned with failure and success—like these two things are all that's going to sum you up at the end."[13]

The violence of the fight clubs serves not to promote or glorify physical combat, but for participants to experience feeling in a society where they are otherwise numb.[17] The fights tangibly represent a resistance to the impulse to be "cocooned" in society.[14] Norton believed that the fighting between the men strips away the "fear of pain" and "the reliance on material signifiers of their self-worth", leaving them to experience something valuable.[11] When the fights evolve into revolutionary violence, the film only half-accepts the revolutionary dialectic by Tyler Durden; the narrator pulls back and rejects Durden's ideas.[7] Fight Club purposely shapes an ambiguous message, the interpretation of which is left to the audience.[12] Fincher elaborated, "I love this idea that you can have fascism without offering any direction or solution. Isn't the point of fascism to say, 'This is the way we should be going'? But this movie couldn't be further from offering any kind of solution."[4]

Production

Development

The novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk was published in 1996. Before its publication, a 20th Century Fox book scout sent a galley proof of the novel to creative executive Kevin McCormick. The executive tasked a studio reader to review the proof as a candidate for a film adaptation, but the reader discouraged it. McCormick then forwarded the proof to producers Lawrence Bender and Art Linson, who also rejected it. Producers Josh Donen and Ross Bell saw potential and expressed interest. They arranged unpaid screen readings with actors to determine the script's length, and an initial reading lasted six hours. The producers cut out sections to reduce the running time, and they used the shorter script to record its dialogue. Bell sent the recording to Laura Ziskin, head of the division Fox 2000, who listened to the tape and purchased the rights to Fight Club from Palahniuk for $10,000.[18]

Ziskin initially considered hiring Buck Henry to write the adaptation, finding Fight Club similar to the 1967 film The Graduate, which Henry had adapted. When a new screenwriter, Jim Uhls, lobbied Donen and Bell for the job, the producers chose him over Henry. Bell contacted four directors to direct the film. He considered Peter Jackson the best choice, but Jackson was too busy filming the 1996 film The Frighteners in New Zealand. Bryan Singer received the book but did not read it. Danny Boyle met with Bell and read the book, but he pursued another film. David Fincher, who had read Fight Club and tried to buy the rights himself, talked with Ziskin about directing the film. He hesitated to accept the assignment with 20th Century Fox at first because he had an unpleasant experience directing the 1992 film Alien 3 for the studio. To repair his relationship with the studio, he met with Ziskin and studio head Bill Mechanic.[18] In August 1997, 20th Century Fox announced that Fincher would direct the film adaptation of Fight Club.[19]

Casting

Actor Role
Norton, EdwardEdward Norton ... Narrator, TheThe Narrator
Pitt, BradBrad Pitt ... Durden, TylerTyler Durden
Carter, Helena BonhamHelena Bonham Carter ... Singer, MarlaMarla Singer
Leto, JaredJared Leto ... Angel Face, Angel Face
Meat Loaf, Meat Loaf ... Paulson, RobertRobert Paulson

Producer Ross Bell met with actor Russell Crowe to discuss his candidacy for the role of Tyler Durden. Producer Art Linson, who joined the project late, met with another candidate, Brad Pitt. Linson was the senior producer of the two, so the studio sought to cast Pitt instead of Crowe.[18] Pitt was looking for a new film after the failure of his 1998 film Meet Joe Black, and the studio believed Fight Club would be more commercially successful with a major star. The studio signed Pitt and offered him a $17.5 million salary.[20]

For the role of the nameless narrator, the studio desired a "sexier marquee name" like Matt Damon to increase the film's commercial prospects; it also considered Sean Penn. Fincher instead considered Edward Norton a candidate for the role, based on the actor's performance in the 1996 film The People vs. Larry Flynt.[21] Other studios were approaching Norton for leading roles in developing films like The Talented Mr. Ripley and Man on the Moon. The actor was cast in Runaway Jury, but the film did not reach production. 20th Century Fox offered Norton a $2.5 million salary to attract him to Fight Club. Norton could not accept the offer immediately since he still owed Paramount Pictures a film. He signed a contractual obligation with Paramount to appear in one of the studio's future films for a smaller salary. (Norton satisfied the obligation with his role in the 2003 film The Italian Job).[20]

In January 1998, 20th Century Fox announced that Brad Pitt and Edward Norton were cast in the film.[22] The actors prepared for their roles by taking lessons in boxing, taekwondo, grappling,[23] and soapmaking.[24] Pitt voluntarily visited a dentist to have pieces of his front teeth chipped off so his character would not have perfect teeth. The pieces were restored after filming concluded.[25]

Fincher's first choice for the role of Marla Singer was Janeane Garofalo, who objected to the film's sexual content.[26] The filmmakers considered Courtney Love and Winona Ryder as candidates early on.[27] The studio wanted to cast Reese Witherspoon, but Fincher objected that Witherspoon was too young for the role.[20] He chose to cast Helena Bonham Carter based on her performance in the 1997 film The Wings of the Dove.[28]

Writing

Screenwriter Jim Uhls started working on an early draft of the adapted screenplay, which excluded a voice-over because the industry perceived at the time that the technique was "hackneyed and trite". When Fincher joined the film, he thought that the film should have a voice-over, believing that the film's humor came from the narrator's voice.[20] The director described the film without a voice-over as seemingly "sad and pathetic".[29] Fincher and Uhls revised the script for six to seven months and by 1997 had a third draft that reordered the story and left out several major elements. When Pitt was cast, he was concerned that his character, Tyler Durden, was too one-dimensional. Fincher sought the advice of writer-director Cameron Crowe, who suggested giving the character more ambiguity. Fincher also hired screenwriter Andrew Kevin Walker for assistance. The director invited Pitt and Norton to help revise the script, and the group drafted five revisions in the course of a year.[20]

Chuck Palahniuk praised the faithful film adaptation of his novel and applauded how the film's plot was more streamlined than the book's. Palahniuk recalled how the writers debated if film audiences would believe the plot twist from the novel. Fincher supported including the twist, arguing, "If they accept everything up to this point, they'll accept the plot twist. If they're still in the theater, they'll stay with it."[30] Palahniuk's novel also contained homoerotic overtones, which the director included in the film to make audiences uncomfortable and accentuate the surprise of the film's twists.[31] The bathroom scene where Tyler Durden bathes next to the narrator is an example of the overtones; the line, "I'm wondering if another woman is really the answer we need," was meant to suggest personal responsibility rather than homosexuality.[6] Another example is the scene at the beginning of the film in which Tyler Durden puts a gun barrel down the narrator's mouth.[32]

The narrator finds redemption at the end of the film by rejecting Tyler Durden's dialectic, a path that diverged from the novel's ending in which the narrator is placed in a mental institution.[4] Norton drew parallels between redemption in the film and redemption in The Graduate, indicating that the protagonists of both films find a middle ground between two divisions of self.[7] Fincher considered the novel too infatuated with Tyler Durden and changed the ending to move away from him: "I wanted people to love Tyler, but I also wanted them to be OK with his vanquishing."[4]

Filming

Studio executives Mechanic and Ziskin planned an initial budget of $23 million to finance the film,[18] but by the start of production, the budget was increased to $50 million. Half was paid by New Regency, but during filming, the projected budget escalated to $67 million. New Regency's head and Fight Club executive producer Arnon Milchan petitioned Fincher to reduce costs by at least $5 million. The director refused, so Milchan threatened Mechanic that New Regency would withdraw financing. Mechanic sought to restore Milchan's support by sending him tapes of dailies from Fight Club. After seeing three weeks of filming, Milchan reinstated New Regency's financial backing.[33] The final production budget was $63 million.[34]

The fight scenes were heavily choreographed, but the actors were required to "go full out" to capture realistic effects like having the wind knocked out of them.[13] Makeup artist Julie Pearce, who worked for the director on the 1997 film The Game, studied mixed martial arts and pay-per-view boxing to portray the fighters accurately. She designed an extra's ear to have cartilage missing, citing as inspiration the boxing match in which Mike Tyson bit off part of Evander Holyfield's ear.[35] Makeup artists devised two methods to create sweat on cue: spraying mineral water over a coat of Vaseline, and using the unadulterated water for "wet sweat". Meat Loaf, who plays a member of the fight club who has "bitch tits", wore a 90-pound (40 kg) fat harness that gave him large breasts for the role.[23] He also wore eight-inch (20 cm) lifts in his scenes with Norton to be taller than him.[6]

The filming lasted 138 days,[36] during which Fincher shot more than 1,500 rolls of film, three times the average for a Hollywood film.[23] The locations were in and around Los Angeles and on sets built at the studio in Century City.[36] Production designer Alex McDowell constructed more than 70 sets.[23] The exterior of Tyler Durden's house was built in San Pedro, California, while the interior was built on a sound stage at the studio's location. The interior was given a decayed look to illustrate the deconstructed world of the characters.[36] Marla Singer's apartment was based on photographs of the Rosalind Apartments in downtown LA.[9] Overall production included 300 scenes, 200 locations, and complex special effects. Fincher compared Fight Club to his succeeding and less complex film Panic Room, "I felt like I was spending all my time watching trucks being loaded and unloaded so I could shoot three lines of dialogue. There was far too much transportation going on."[37]

Cinematography

Fincher used the Super 35 format to film Fight Club since it gave him maximum flexibility in composing shots. He hired Jeff Cronenweth as cinematographer; Cronenweth's father Jordan Cronenweth was the cinematographer who worked for Fincher on the 1992 film Alien 3 but died midway through its production. Fincher explored visual styles in his previous films Seven and The Game, and he and Cronenweth drew elements from these styles for Fight Club.[36]

They applied a lurid style, choosing to make people "sort of shiny".[9] The appearance of the narrator's scenes without Tyler Durden were bland and realistic. The scenes with Tyler were described by Fincher as "more hyper-real in a torn-down, deconstructed sense—a visual metaphor of what [the narrator is] heading into". The filmmakers used heavily desaturated colors in the costuming, makeup, and art direction.[36] Helena Bonham Carter wore opalescent makeup to portray her romantic nihilistic character with a "smack-fiend patina". Fincher and Cronenweth drew influences from the 1973 film American Graffiti, which applied a mundane look to nighttime exteriors while simultaneously including a variety of colors.[9]

The crew took advantage of both natural and practical light at filming locations. The director sought various approaches to the lighting setups, for example choosing several urban locations for the city lights' effects on the shots' backgrounds. He and the crew also embraced fluorescent lighting at other practical locations to maintain an element of reality and to light the prostheses depicting the characters' injuries.[36] On the other hand, Fincher also ensured that scenes were not so strongly lit so the characters' eyes were less visible, citing cinematographer Gordon Willis's technique as the influence.[6]

Fight Club was filmed mostly at night and Fincher purposely filmed the daytime shots in shadowed locations. The crew equipped the bar's basement with inexpensive work lamps to create a background glow. Fincher avoided stylish camerawork when filming early fight scenes in the basement and instead placed the camera in a fixed position. In later fight scenes, Fincher moved the camera from the viewpoint of a distant observer to that of the fighter.[36]

The scenes with Tyler Durden were staged to conceal that the character was a mental projection of the nameless narrator. The character was not filmed in two shots with a group of people, nor was he shown in any over the shoulder shots in scenes where Tyler gives the narrator specific ideas to manipulate him. In scenes before the narrator meets Tyler, the filmmakers inserted Tyler's presence in single frames for subliminal effect.[9] Tyler appears in the background and out of focus, like a "little devil on the shoulder".[6] Fincher explained the subliminal frames: "Our hero is creating Tyler Durden in his own mind, so at this point he exists only on the periphery of the narrator's consciousness."[38]

While Cronenweth generally rated and exposed the Kodak film stock normally on Fight Club, several other techniques were applied to change its appearance. Flashing was implemented on much of the exterior night photography, the contrast was stretched to be purposely ugly, the print was adjusted to be underexposed, Technicolor's ENR silver retention was used on a select number of prints to increase the density of the film's blacks, and high-contrast print stocks were chosen to create a "stepped-on" look on the print with a dirty patina.[9]

Visual effects

Fincher hired visual effects supervisor Kevin Tod Haug, who worked for him on The Game, to create visual effects for Fight Club. Haug assigned the visual effects artists and experts to different facilities that each addressed different types of visual effects: CG modeling, animation, compositing, and scanning. Haug explained, "We selected the best people for each aspect of the effects work, then coordinated their efforts. In this way, we never had to play to a facility's weakness." Fincher visualized the narrator's perspective through a "mind's eye" view and structured a myopic framework for the film audiences. Fincher also utilized previsualized footage of challenging main-unit and visual effects shots as a problem-solving tool to avoid making mistakes during the actual filming.[38]

File:Fight Club fear
The opening scene in Fight Club that represents a brain's neural network in which the thought processes are initiated by the narrator's fear impulse. The network was mapped using an L-system and drawn out by a medical illustrator.

The film's title sequence is a 90-second visual effects composition that depicts the inside of the narrator's brain at a microscopic level; the camera pulls back to the outside, starting at his fear center and following the thought processes initiated by his fear impulse.[39] The sequence, designed in part by Fincher, was budgeted separately from the rest of the film at first, but the sequence was awarded by the studio in January 1999.[38] Fincher hired Digital Domain and its visual effects supervisor Kevin Mack, who won an Academy Award for Visual Effects for the 1998 film What Dreams May Come, for the sequence. The company mapped the computer-generated brain using an L-system,[40] and the design was detailed using renderings by medical illustrator Katherine Jones. The pullback sequence from within the brain to the outside of the skull included neurons, action potentials, and a hair follicle. Haug explained the artistic license that Fincher took with the shot, "While he wanted to keep the brain passage looking like electron microscope photography, that look had to be coupled with the feel of a night dive—wet, scary, and with a low depth of field." The shallow depth of field was accomplished with the ray tracing process.[38]

Other visual effects include an early scene in which the camera flashes past city streets to survey Project Mayhem's destructive equipment lying in underground parking lots; the sequence was a three-dimensional composition of nearly 100 photographs of Los Angeles and Century City by photographer Michael Douglas Middleton. The final scene of the demolition of the credit card office buildings was designed by Richard Baily of Image Savant; Baily worked on the scene for over fourteen months.[38]

Midway through the film, Tyler Durden points out the cue mark—nicknamed "cigarette burn" in the film—to the audience. The scene represents a turning point that foreshadows the coming rupture and inversion of the "fairly subjective reality" that existed earlier in the film. The director explained, "Suddenly it's as though the projectionist missed the changeover, the viewers have to start looking at the movie in a whole new way."[38]

Musical score

Fincher was concerned that bands experienced in writing film scores would be unable to tie the movie's themes together, so he sought a band which had never recorded for film. He pursued Radiohead,[6] but ultimately chose the breakbeat producing duo Dust Brothers to score the film. The duo created a post-modern score that included drum loops, electronic scratches, and computerized samples. Dust Brothers performer Michael Simpson explained the setup: "Fincher wanted to break new ground with everything about the movie, and a nontraditional score helped achieve that."[41]

Release

Marketing

Filming concluded in December 1998, and David Fincher edited the footage in early 1999 to prepare Fight Club for a screening with senior executives. They did not receive the film positively and were concerned that there would not be an audience for the film.[42] Executive producer Art Linson, who supported the film, recalled the response: "So many incidences of Fight Club were alarming, no group of executives could narrow them down."[43] Nevertheless, Fight Club was originally slated to be released in July 1999,[44] later changed to August 6, 1999. The studio further delayed the film's release, this time to autumn, citing a crowded summer schedule and a hurried post-production process.[45] Outsiders attributed the delays to the Columbine High School massacre earlier in the year.[46]

Marketing executives at 20th Century Fox faced difficulties in marketing Fight Club and at one point considered marketing it as an art film. They considered that the film was primarily geared toward male audiences because of its violence and believed that not even Brad Pitt would attract female filmgoers. Research testing showed that the film appealed to teenagers. Fincher refused to let the posters and trailers focus on Pitt and encouraged the studio to hire the advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy to devise a marketing plan. The firm proposed a bar of pink soap with the title "Fight Club" embossed on it as the film's main marketing image; the proposal was considered "a bad joke" by Fox executives. Fincher also released two early trailers in the form of fake public service announcements presented by Pitt and Norton; the studio did not think the trailers marketed the film appropriately. Instead, the studio financed a $20 million large-scale campaign to provide a press junket, posters, billboards, and trailers for TV that highlighted the film's fight scenes. The studio advertised Fight Club on cable during World Wrestling Federation broadcasts, which Fincher protested, believing that the placement created the wrong context for the film.[42] Linson believed that the "ill-conceived one-dimensional" marketing by marketing executive Robert Harper largely contributed to Fight Club's lukewarm box office performance in the United States.[47]

Theatrical run

The studio held Fight Club's world premiere at the 56th Venice International Film Festival in September 1999.[48] For the American theatrical release, the studio hired the National Research Group to test screen the film; the group predicted the film would gross between $13 million and $15 million in its opening weekend.[49] Fight Club opened commercially in the United States and Canada on October 15, 1999 and earned $11,035,485 in 1,963 theaters over the opening weekend.[34] The film ranked first at the weekend box office, defeating Double Jeopardy and The Story of Us, a fellow weekend opener.[50] The gender mix of audiences for Fight Club, argued to be "the ultimate anti-date flick", was 61% male and 39% female; 58% of audiences were below the age of 21. Despite the film's top placement, its opening gross fell short of the studio's expectations.[51] Over the second weekend, Fight Club dropped 42.6% in revenue, earning $6,335,870.[52] The film, whose production budget was $63 million, grossed $37,030,102 from its theatrical run in the United States and Canada and earned $100,853,753 in theaters worldwide.[34] The underwhelming North American performance of Fight Club soured the relationship between 20th Century Fox's studio head Bill Mechanic and media executive Rupert Murdoch, which contributed to Mechanic's resignation in June 2000.[53]

The British Board of Film Classification reviewed Fight Club for its November 12, 1999 release in the United Kingdom and removed two scenes involving "an indulgence in the excitement of beating a (defenseless) man's face into a pulp". The board assigned the film an 18 certificate, limiting the release to adult-only audiences in the UK. The BBFC did not censor any further, considering and dismissing claims that Fight Club contained "dangerously instructive information" and could "encourage anti-social (behavior)". The board decided, "The film as a whole is—quite clearly—critical and sharply parodic of the amateur fascism which in part it portrays. Its central theme of male machismo (and the anti-social behaviour that flows from it) is emphatically rejected by the central character in the concluding reels."[54] The scenes were restored in a two-disc DVD edition released in the UK in March 2007.[55]

Home media

Fincher supervised the composition of the DVD packaging and was one of the first directors to participate in a film's transition to home media. The film was released in two DVD editions.[56] The single-disc edition included a commentary track,[57] while the two-disc special edition included the commentary track, behind-the-scenes clips, deleted scenes, trailers, fake public service announcements, the promotional music video "This is Your Life", Internet spots, still galleries, cast biographies, storyboards, and publicity materials.[58] The director worked on the DVD as a way to finish his vision for the film. Julie Markell, 20th Century Fox's senior vice president of creative development, said the DVD packaging complemented the director's vision: "The film is meant to make you question. The package, by extension, tries to reflect an experience that you must experience for yourself. The more you look at it, the more you'll get out of it." The studio developed the packaging for two months.[59] The two-disc special edition DVD was packaged to look covered in brown cardboard wrapper. The title "Fight Club" was labeled diagonally across the front, and packaging appeared tied with twine. Markell said, "We wanted the package to be simple on the outside, so that there would be a dichotomy between the simplicity of brown paper wrapping and the intensity and chaos of what's inside."[59] Deborah Mitchell, 20th Century Fox's vice president of marketing, described the design: "From a retail standpoint, [the DVD case] has incredible shelf-presence."[60]

Fight Club won the 2000 Online Film Critics Society Awards for Best DVD, Best DVD Commentary, and Best DVD Special Features.[61] Entertainment Weekly ranked the film's two-disc edition in first place on its 2001 list of "The 50 Essential DVDs", giving top ratings to the DVD's content and technical picture-and-audio quality.[62] When the two-disc edition went out of print, the studio re-released it in 2004 because of fans' requests.[63] The DVD was one of the largest-selling in the studio's history;[47] it also grossed $55 million in video and DVD rentals.[64] With a weak box office performance in the United States and Canada, a better performance in other territories, and the highly successful DVD release, Fight Club generated a $10 million profit for the studio.[47]

Fight Club was released in the Blu-ray Disc format in the United States on November 17, 2009.[65] Fox Creative chose Neuron Syndicate to design the art for the format's packaging, and Neuron commissioned five graffiti artists to create 30 pieces of art. The art encompasses urban aesthetics found on the East Coast and West Coast of the United States as well as influences from European street art.[66] The Blu-ray edition opens with a menu screen for the romantic comedy Never Been Kissed starring Drew Barrymore before leading into the actual Fight Club menu screen. David Fincher got permission from Barrymore to include the fake menu screen.[67]

Critical reception

When Fight Club premiered at the Venice International Film Festival, the film was debated fiercely by critics. A newspaper reported, "Many loved and hated it in equal measures." Some critics expressed concern that the film would incite copycat behavior, such as that seen after A Clockwork Orange debuted in Britain nearly three decades previously.[68] Upon the film's theatrical release, The Times reported the reaction: "It touched a nerve in the male psyche that was debated in newspapers across the world."[69] Although the film's makers called Fight Club "an accurate portrayal of men in the 1990s", some critics called it "irresponsible and appalling". Another newspaper charged, "Fight Club is shaping up to be the most contentious mainstream Hollywood meditation on violence since Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange."[70]

Janet Maslin, reviewing for The New York Times, praised Fincher's direction and editing of the film. She wrote that Fight Club carried a message of "contemporary manhood", and that, if not watched closely, the film could be misconstrued as an endorsement of violence and nihilism.[71] Roger Ebert, reviewing for the Chicago Sun-Times, called Fight Club "visceral and hard-edged", and "a thrill ride masquerading as philosophy" that most audiences would not appreciate.[72] Ebert later acknowledged that the film was "beloved by most, not by me".[73] Jay Carr of The Boston Globe opined that the film began with an "invigoratingly nervy and imaginative buzz", but that it eventually became "explosively silly".[74] Newsweek's David Ansen described Fight Club as "an outrageous mixture of brilliant technique, puerile philosophizing, trenchant satire and sensory overload" and thought that the ending was too pretentious.[75] Richard Schickel of Time described the director's mise en scène as dark and damp: "It enforces the contrast between the sterilities of his characters' aboveground life and their underground one. Water, even when it's polluted, is the source of life; blood, even when it's carelessly spilled, is the symbol of life being fully lived. To put his point simply: it's better to be wet than dry." Schickel applauded the performances of Brad Pitt and Edward Norton, but he criticized the film's "conventionally gimmicky" unfolding and the failure to make Helena Bonham Carter's character interesting.[76]

Cineaste's Gary Crowdus reviewed the critical reception in retrospect: "Many critics praised Fight Club, hailing it as one of the most exciting, original, and thought-provoking films of the year." He wrote of the negative opinion, "While Fight Club had numerous critical champions, the film's critical attackers were far more vocal, a negative chorus which became hysterical about what they felt to be the excessively graphic scenes of fisticuffs ... They felt such scenes served only as a mindless glamorization of brutality, a morally irresponsible portrayal, which they feared might encourage impressionable young male viewers to set up their own real-life fight clubs in order to beat each other senseless."[77]

Fight Club was nominated for the 2000 Academy Award for Best Sound Editing, but it lost to The Matrix.[78] Helena Bonham Carter won the 2000 Empire Award for Best British Actress.[79] The Online Film Critics Society also nominated Fight Club for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor (Edward Norton), Best Editing, and Best Adapted Screenplay (Jim Uhls).[80] Though the film won none of the awards, the organization listed Fight Club as one of the top ten films of 1999.[81] The soundtrack was nominated for a BRIT Award, losing to Notting Hill.[82]

Cultural impact

Fight Club was one of the most controversial and talked-about films of the 1990s.[13][83] Like other 1999 films Magnolia, Being John Malkovich, and Three Kings, Fight Club was recognized as an innovator in cinematic form and style since it exploited new developments in filmmaking technology.[84] After Fight Club's theatrical release, it became more popular via word of mouth,[85] and the positive reception of the DVD established it as a cult film that David Ansen of Newsweek conjectured would enjoy "perennial" fame.[86][87] The film's success also heightened the profile of the novel's author, Chuck Palahniuk, to global renown.[88]

Following Fight Club's release, several fight clubs were reported to have started in the United States. A "Gentleman's Fight Club" was started in Menlo Park, California in 2000 and had members mostly from the high tech industry.[89] Teens and preteens in Texas, New Jersey, Washington state, and Alaska also initiated fight clubs and posted videos of their fights online, leading authorities to break up the clubs. In 2006, an unwilling participant from a local high school was injured at a fight club in Arlington, Texas, and the DVD sales of the fight led to the arrest of six teenagers.[90] An unsanctioned fight club was also started at Princeton University, where matches were held on campus.[91] The film was suspected of influencing Luke Helder, a college student who planted pipe bombs in mailboxes in 2002. Helder's goal was to create a smiley pattern on the map of the United States, similar to the scene in Fight Club in which a building is vandalized to have a smiley on its exterior.[92] On July 16, 2009, a 17-year-old who had formed his own fight club in Manhattan was charged with detonating a homemade bomb outside a Starbucks Coffee shop in the Upper East Side in May 2009; the New York City Police Department reported the suspect was trying to emulate "Project Mayhem".[93]

In 2003, Fight Club was listed as one of the "50 Best Guy Movies of All Time" by Men's Journal.[94] In 2004 and 2006, Fight Club was voted by Empire readers as the ninth and eighth greatest film of all time, respectively.[95][96] Total Film ranked Fight Club as "The Greatest Film of our Lifetime" in 2007 during the magazine's tenth anniversary.[97] In 2007, Premiere selected Tyler Durden's line, "The first rule of fight club is you do not talk about fight club," as the 27th greatest movie line of all time.[98] In 2008, readers of Empire ranked Tyler Durden first on a list of the 100 Greatest Movie Characters.[99]

In 2010, a viral video titled Jane Austen's Fight Club gained popularity online as a mash-up of Fight Club's fighting rules and the characters created by 19th century novelist Jane Austen.[100]

See also

Film portal

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Smith 1999, p. 64
  2. ^ [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "100 DVDs You Must Own"]. Empire: 31. January 2003. 
  3. ^ Smith 1999, p. 60
  4. ^ a b c d Wise, Damon (December 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Menace II Society"]. Empire. 
  5. ^ Sragow, Michael (October 14, 1999). "Testosterama". Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/ent/col/srag/1999/10/14/fincher/index1.html. Retrieved December 2, 2007. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fight Club DVD commentary featuring David Fincher, Brad Pitt, Edward Norton and Helena Bonham Carter, [2000], 20th Century Fox.
  7. ^ a b c d Teasdall, Barbara (1999). "Edward Norton Fights His Way to the Top". Reel.com (Movie Gallery). http://www.reel.com/reel.asp?node=features/interviews/norton. Retrieved March 24, 2007. 
  8. ^ Said, S.F. (April 19, 2003). "It's the thought that counts". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=%2Farts%2F2003%2F04%2F19%2Fbfnort.xml. Retrieved April 30, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Smith 1999, pp. 65
  10. ^ O'Connor, Robby (October 8, 1999). "Interview with Edward Norton". Yale Herald. 
  11. ^ a b c d Schaefer, Stephen (October 1999). "Brad Pitt & Edward Norton". MrShowbiz.com (ABC News Internet Ventures). Archived from the original on April 17, 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20010417125217/http://mrshowbiz.go.com/celebrities/interviews/509_1.html. Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  12. ^ a b c Fuller, Graham; Eidelman, D; Thomson, JG (November 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Fighting Talk"]. Interview 24 (5): 1071–7. doi:10.1053/jhsu.1999.1281. PMID 10509287. 
  13. ^ a b c d "'Club' fighting for a respectful place in life". Post-Tribune. March 15, 2001. 
  14. ^ a b Hobson, Louis B. (October 10, 1999). "Get ready to rumble". Calgary Sun. 
  15. ^ Slotek, Jim (October 10, 1999). "Cruisin' for a bruisin'". Toronto Sun. 
  16. ^ Smith 1999, p. 67
  17. ^ Moses, Michael (1999). "Fighting Words: An interview with Fight Club director David Fincher". DrDrew.com. Dr. Drew. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071211235459/http://www.drdrew.com/article.asp?id=198. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c d Waxman 2005, pp. 137–151
  19. ^ Fleming, Michael (August 19, 1997). "Thornton holds reins of 'Horses'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1116678264.html?categoryid=3&cs=1. Retrieved March 23, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Waxman 2005, pp. 175–184
  21. ^ Biskind, Peter (August 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Extreme Norton"]. Vanity Fair. 
  22. ^ Petrikin, Chris (January 7, 1998). "Studio Report Card: Fox". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117434297.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved March 23, 2007. 
  23. ^ a b c d Garrett, Stephen (July 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Freeze Frame"]. Details. 
  24. ^ Schneller, Johanna (August 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Brad Pitt and Edward Norton make 'Fight Club'"]. Premiere. 
  25. ^ Nashawaty, Chris (July 16, 1998). "Brad Pitt loses his teeth for a "Fight"". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,83604,00.html. Retrieved March 23, 2007. 
  26. ^ "The Story Behind Fight Club". Total Film. 2009-11-20. http://www.totalfilm.com/features/the-story-behind-fight-club. Retrieved 2010-05-11. "The studio wanted Winona Ryder. Fincher wanted Janeane Garofalo, but she was "uncomfortable with the idea of all this sex”." 
  27. ^ "Palahniuk: Marketing 'Fight Club' is 'the ultimate absurd joke'". CNN. October 29, 1999. http://www.cnn.com/books/news/9910/29/fight.club.author/. Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  28. ^ Johnson, Richard (November 1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Boxing Helena"]. Los Angeles Magazine. 
  29. ^ Smith 1999, p. 61
  30. ^ Kleinman, Geoffrey. "Interview With Fight Club Author Chuck Palahniuk". DVD Talk. http://www.dvdtalk.com/interviews/chuck_palahniuk.html. Retrieved March 23, 2007. 
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References

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The first rule of Fight Club is:
you do not talk about Fight Club.

The second rule of Fight Club is:
you do not talk about Fight Club.
.Fight Club is a 1999 film based around an unnamed protagonist who struggles with his growing discomfort with consumerism and changes in the state of masculinity in American culture.^ Fight Club” film .
  • Perfectionism – the religion of XXI century? 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: General]

^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Search Fight Club (1999) trailers and videos full cast and crew trivia official sites memorable quotes .
  • Fight Club Quotes Joe S - Dogpile Web Search 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In an attempt to overcome this, he creates an underground fighting club as a radical form of psychotherapy.^ Fight Club itself is a radical meditation on film form and language.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler and the narrator decide to go in together to create something they call "Fight Club" which is an underground bare knuckles fighting league which gives the narrator his release.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fight Club also examines the temporal quality of film itself creating a unique stream-of-consciousness experience.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was adapted from the book of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk.^ Search Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk Quotations from the book and movie Fight Club .
  • Fight Club Quotes Joe S - Dogpile Web Search 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Directed by David Fincher.^ Fight Club movie, screenplay by Jim Uhls, directed by David Fincher, novel by Chuck Palahniuk We're the middle children of history....
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fight Club movie, screenplay by Jim Uhls, directed by David Fincher, novel by Chuck Palahniuk The things you own end up owning you.
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fight Club movie, screenplay by Jim Uhls, directed by David Fincher, novel by Chuck Palahniuk Fuck Martha Stewart.
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

.Screenplay by Jim Uhls, based on the novel by Chuck Palahniuk.^ Directed by David Fincher, written for the screen by Jim Uhls, and based on a novel by Chuck Plahniuk, Fight Club was released to Americans recovering from the Columbine school shootings in the fall of 1999.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mischief. Mayhem. Soap.

Contents

Narrator

.
  • People are always asking me if I know Tyler Durden.
  • If you wake up at a different time, in a different place, could you wake up as a different person?
  • You wake up at Seatac, SFO, LAX. You wake up at O'Hare, Dallas-Fort Worth, BWI. Pacific, mountain, central.^ At this time you don't know much about Tyler and about the explosives.
    • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whenever you land on a Giant Squid's lens, you know the person behind it is passionate about the topic and is hard at work making the lens worthy of your time and attention.
    • Brad Pitt 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sometimes people do feel they know the ending of a film but it's extremely rare to feel positive you know it.
    • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Lose an hour, gain an hour. This is your life, and it's ending one minute at a time.

Tyler Durden

.
  • The first rule of Fight Club is: you do not talk about Fight Club.^ Fight club isn't about words.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kind of like if you do a reversed Fight Club film based on the cops chasing down Tyler Durden.
    • ROTTEN TOMATOES: Weekly Ketchup: Gears of War, Robert Downey Jr.'s Next Comic Role, and More 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ David Fincher, director of Fight Club , interview with Gavin Smith, "Inside Out," Film Comment , Sep/Oct 1999 [The movie The Graduate ] was talking about that moment in time when you have this world of possibilities, all these expectations, and you don't know who it is you're supposed to be.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The second rule of Fight Club is: you do NOT talk about Fight Club.
    Third rule of Fight Club: someone yells stop, goes limp, taps out, the fight is over.^ Search Fight Club - Chuck Palahniuk The first rule about Fight Club is you don't talk about Fight Club .
    • Fight Club Quotes Joe S - Dogpile Web Search 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fight club isn't about words.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Search You are not your job, Brad Pitt, Fight Club , Tyler Durden, Sound Bite 2:05.
    • Fight Club Quotes Joe S - Dogpile Web Search 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Fourth rule: only two guys to a fight. .Fifth rule: one fight at a time, fellas.^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 2 This is your life, and it's ending one minute at a time.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    Sixth rule: no shirts, no shoes. .Seventh rule: fights will go on as long as they have to.^ Tyler and the narrator decide to go in together to create something they call "Fight Club" which is an underground bare knuckles fighting league which gives the narrator his release.
    • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And the eighth and final rule: if this is your first night at Fight Club, you have to fight.
  • Man, I see in Fight Club the strongest and smartest men who've ever lived.^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 18 I see the strongest and the smartest men who have ever lived...
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your image has been removed please see forum rules for allowed sizes, that was way too big!
    • Late Night Posters!! - Console Monster Forum 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.consolemonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fight Club is the Nineties inverse of that: a guy who does not have a world of possibilities in front of him, he has no possibilities, he literally cannot imagine a way to change his life.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    I see all this potential, and I see it squandered. God damn it, an entire generation pumping gas, waiting tables — slaves with white collars. .Advertising has us chasing cars and clothes, working jobs we hate so we can buy shit we don't need.^ Advertising has these people chasing cars and clothes they don't need.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fight Club movie, screenplay by Jim Uhls, directed by David Fincher, novel by Chuck Palahniuk Advertising has us chasing cars and clothes, working jobs we hate so we can buy shit we don't need.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Generations have been working in jobs they hate, just so they can buy what they don't really need.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    We're the middle children of history, man. No purpose or place. .We have no Great War.^ Tyler saya his generation had no Great Depression or great wars in which to prove their worth; the fights fulfill the men's need to test themselves (Redd).
    • Welcome to MIT Program in Women's Studies 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .No Great Depression.^ We have no Great War, no Great Depression.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tyler saya his generation had no Great Depression or great wars in which to prove their worth; the fights fulfill the men's need to test themselves (Redd).
    • Welcome to MIT Program in Women's Studies 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Our great war is a spiritual war.^ Our great war is a spiritual war.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 19 We don't have a great war in our generation, or a great depression, but we do, we have a great war of the spirit.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Our great depression is our lives.^ The great depression is our lives.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our great depression is our lives.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 19 We don't have a great war in our generation, or a great depression, but we do, we have a great war of the spirit.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We've all been raised on television to believe that one day we'd all be millionaires, and movie gods, and rock stars, but we won't.^ You've been raised on television To believe we'll all be Millionaires and movie gods and Rock stars - but we won't.
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ T he other two pivotal scenes, with regard to exploring masculinity, are occasions when Tyler speaks to the members of fight club, saying, "We've all been raised to believe that we'll be millionaires and movie idols.
    • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If Jack is not allowed to express his creativity as a "movie god" or "rock star," he can create his own god in the theater of his mind that will grant him permission to feel in a more lasting way.
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    We're slowly learning that fact. .And we're very, very pissed off.
  • In the world I see -- you're stalking elk through the damp canyon forests around the ruins of Rockefeller Center.^ Nothing can piss you off.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You'll hunt elk through the damp canyon forests around the ruins of Rockefeller Center, and dig clams next to the skeleton of the Space Needle leaning at a forty-five degree angle.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I was the warm little center that the life of this world crowded around."
    • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You will wear leather clothes that last you the rest of your life.^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 16 "Imagine," Tyler said, "stalking elk past department store windows and stinking racks of beautiful rotting dresses and tuxedos on hangers; you'll wear leather clothes that will last you the rest of your life, and you'll climb the wrist-thick kudzu vines that wrap the Sears Tower.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You tell yourself, this is the last sofa I will ever need in my life.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You will climb the wrist thick kudzu vines that wrap the Sears Tower.^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 16 "Imagine," Tyler said, "stalking elk past department store windows and stinking racks of beautiful rotting dresses and tuxedos on hangers; you'll wear leather clothes that will last you the rest of your life, and you'll climb the wrist-thick kudzu vines that wrap the Sears Tower.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You will see tiny figures pounding corn and laying strips of venison on the empty car pool lane of an abandoned superhighway.
  • It's only after we've lost everything that we're free to do anything.
  • You are not your job.^ It's only after you lose everything that you're free to do anything.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You're not the contents of your wallet.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You're not your fucking khakis.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You're not how much money you have in the bank.^ You're not how much money you have in the bank.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club , Chapter 17 ...you're not how much money you've got in the bank.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You're not the car you drive.^ You're not the car you drive.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are not the car you drive.
    • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

    .You're not the contents of your wallet.^ You're not the contents of your wallet.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You're not your fucking khakis.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You're not your job.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You're not your fucking khakis.^ You're not your job.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are not your khakis."
    • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You're not the contents of your wallet.
    • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

    You're the all-singing, all-dancing crap of the world.

Marla Singer

  • My God... I haven't been fucked like that since grade school.

Dialogue

.Narrator: Let me tell you a little bit about Tyler Durden.^ Kind of like if you do a reversed Fight Club film based on the cops chasing down Tyler Durden.
  • ROTTEN TOMATOES: Weekly Ketchup: Gears of War, Robert Downey Jr.'s Next Comic Role, and More 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chance encounter with Tyler Durden leads our narrator to his drastic change of "life-style."
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt) is everything the narrator wishes he could be.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tyler was a night person. While the rest of us were sleeping, he worked. He had one part time job as a projectionist. .See, a movie doesn't come all on one big reel.^ Representative of escaping out the bottom are the constant references to "trying to hit bottom" to attain a freedom that doesn't come until one has nothing to lose.
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

It comes on a few. .So someone has to be there to switch the projectors at the exact moment that one reel ends and the next one begins.^ While waiting for a plane, Jack says, "This is your life and it's ending one moment at a time."
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

.If you look for it, you can see these little dots come into the upper right-hand corner of the screen.^ You see this same guy here six months later, and he looks carved out of wood.
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At four and six minutes into the film you can see Tyler spliced into the film.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see a guy come to fight club for the first time, and his ass is a loaf of white bread.
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tyler Durden: In the industry, we call them cigarette burns.^ When the narrator's IKEA-furnished house burns down, he moves in with Tyler Durden.
  • The Film Journal...Passionate and informed film criticism from an auteurist perspective. 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.thefilmjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Narrator: That's the cue for a changeover. He flips the projectors, the movie keeps right on going, and nobody in the audience has any idea.
.Tyler Durden: And why would anyone want this shit job?^ With the proper training it could be possible for anyone to be able to pick up all the cues through a film and figure out the ending before the film has gotten there, but why would you want to do this?
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Narrator: Because it affords him other interesting opportunities.
.Tyler Durden: Like splicing single frames of pornography into family films.^ He enjoys splicing single frames of pornography ("a nice big (flaccid for the ratings people we suppose) cock") into family films.
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

^ Kind of like if you do a reversed Fight Club film based on the cops chasing down Tyler Durden.
  • ROTTEN TOMATOES: Weekly Ketchup: Gears of War, Robert Downey Jr.'s Next Comic Role, and More 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Narrator: So when the snooty cat and the courageous dog with the celebrity voices meet for the first time in reel three, that's when you'll catch a flash of Tyler's contribution to the film.^ The first of three pivotal scenes in this film is a moment of intimacy between Jack and Tyler when they confide that their fathers are distant and disengaged.
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

^ At four and six minutes into the film you can see Tyler spliced into the film.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see a guy come to fight club for the first time, and his ass is a loaf of white bread.
  • Quotes from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.quotegarden.com [Source type: Original source]

.[As the audience is watching the film, pornography flashes for a split second.] Nobody knows that they saw it, but they did.^ During the second viewing everything is explained and much easier to pick up because the viewer already knows the outcome of the film from the first viewing.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The audience will pick up on this imperfection but will not realize what they saw until later.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes people do feel they know the ending of a film but it's extremely rare to feel positive you know it.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tyler Durden: A nice, big cock...^ He enjoys splicing single frames of pornography ("a nice big (flaccid for the ratings people we suppose) cock") into family films.
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

[Several audience members look rattled. A little girl cries.]
.Narrator: Even a hummingbird couldn't catch Tyler at work.^ Later on in the film the narrator goes onto explain how Tyler worked in a movie theater and how he used to splice pornographic pictures into the film in between frames.
  • Cues in Films with Surprise Endings 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC people.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Narrator: A new car built by my company leaves somewhere traveling at 60 mph. The rear differential locks up. The car crashes and burns with everyone trapped inside. Now, should we initiate a recall? Take the number of vehicles in the field, A, multiply by the probable rate of failure, B, multiply by the average out-of-court settlement, C. A times B times C equals X. If X is less than the cost of a recall, we don't do one.
Woman on plane: Are there a lot of these kinds of accidents?
Narrator: You wouldn't believe.
Woman on plane: Which car company do you work for?
Narrator: A major one.

Narrator: I felt like putting a bullet between the eyes of every Panda that wouldn't screw to save its species. I wanted to open the dump valves on oil tankers and smother all those French beaches I'd never see. I wanted to breathe smoke.
.Tyler Durden: Where'd you go, psycho boy?^ This individual devaluation is also manifested in one of Tyler Durden's mantras for the corps: "You are not special.
  • Masculine Identity in the Service Class: An Analysis of Fight Club 15 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.criticism.com [Source type: General]

Narrator: I felt like destroying something beautiful.

External links

Wikipedia
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fight Club (film), which are similar to those in the above article.








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