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An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.
^ The 27th fighter squadron at langley Air Force base was...
  • F4 fighter aircraft pictures and videos on Webshots 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC rides.webshots.com [Source type: General]

^ An A-10 Thunderbolt II , F-86 Sabre , P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the F-22 would be far superior to any air-to-air fighter in the world, it was designed during the Cold War era when potent Soviet air forces roamed the planet.
  • Send the Raptor to Jurassic Park | Ivan Eland | Cato Institute: Daily Commentary 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F-22—A Needed Fighter . . . Or a Fantasy?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The formation displays two generations of U.S. Air Force fighter aircraft, and an attack aircraft (the A-10).
F-16 Fighting Falcon.ogv
F-16 Fighting Falcon is a fighter aircraft
.A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets by dropping bombs.^ This type is optimized for attacking ground targets.
  • Fighter aircraft - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft , as opposed to a bomber , which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bomb s.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, unlike the F-22, the F-15E was designed primarily to attack ground targets and only secondarily to fight other aircraft.
  • Send the Raptor to Jurassic Park | Ivan Eland | Cato Institute: Daily Commentary 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F-22—A Needed Fighter . . . Or a Fantasy?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fighters are small, fast, and maneuverable.^ Fighters are very small, fast, and maneuverable.

^ Fighters are small, fast, and maneuverable.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighters are comparatively small, fast, and maneuverable.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term "fighter" is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft.^ Adding ground attack capability .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some attempt was made to put it to use as a ground-attack aircraft, but it was quickly withdrawn from this role.
  • MiG-3 fighter | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter-bombers fill the dual role suggested by their name.
  • fighter aircraft -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fighter aircraft are the primary means by which armed forces gain air superiority over their opponents in battle.^ Fighter aircraft are the primary means by which armed forces gain air superiority over their opponents in battle.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hellenic Air Force interception fighters, while 10 of the Turkish aircraft were armed.
  • HELLENIC NATIONAL DEFENCE GENERAL STAFF 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.geetha.mil.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter aircraft are the primary means by which armed forces gain air superiority over their opponents above a particular battle space.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since at least World War II, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been a key component of victory in warfare, particularly conventional warfare between regular armies (as opposed to guerrilla warfare).^ Since at least World War II, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been a key component of victory in warfare, particularly conventional warfare between regular armies (as opposed to guerrilla warfare).
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since at least World War II, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been a key component of victory in most modern warfare, particularly conventional warfare between regular armies (as opposed to guerrilla warfare ), and the acquisition, training and maintenance of a fighter fleet represent a very substantial proportion of defence budgets for modern militaries.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the F-22 would be far superior to any air-to-air fighter in the world, it was designed during the Cold War era when potent Soviet air forces roamed the planet.
  • Send the Raptor to Jurassic Park | Ivan Eland | Cato Institute: Daily Commentary 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F-22—A Needed Fighter . . . Or a Fantasy?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The purchase, training and maintenance of a fighter fleet represent a very substantial proportion of defense budgets for modern militaries.^ The purchase, training and maintenance of a fighter fleet represent a very substantial proportion of defense budgets for modern militaries.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, modern fighter technologies have surpassed these planes and the current fleet is insufficient to meet the possible challenge from fifth-generation foreign fighters.
  • Fixing the Fighter Gap Facing the U.S. Navy, Air Force, and Air National Guard 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Navy deactivated its last full-time adversary squadron in 1996 amid shrinking defense budgets and aging aircraft, even as training demands increased.
  • Wired 13.10: Building Your Own Air Force, One Mig at a Time 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Terminology

.The word "fighter" did not become the official English term for such aircraft until after World War I.^ The word fighter did not become the official English term for such aircraft until after World War I. Some designs, such as the German Fw 190, proved extremely capable in this role – though the designer Kurt Tank had designed it as a pure interceptor.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the fastest fighter aircraft in the world?
  • What is the fastest fighter aircraft in the world? - Yahoo! Answers 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 war" .
  • Fokker Dr.I Specifications 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fokkerdr1.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Great Britain's Royal Flying Corps – later the Royal Air Force – these aircraft continued to be called "scouts" into the early 1920s.^ In Great Britain s Royal Flying Corps – later the Royal Air Force – these aircraft continued to be called scouts into the early 1920s.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Great Britain’s Royal Flying Corps – which would later become the Royal Air Force – these aircraft continued to be called " scouts " into the early 1920s.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page-11 Aircraft of the Royal Air Force .

.The U.S. Army called their fighters "pursuit" aircraft (reflected by their designation in the "P" series) from 1916 until the late 1940s.^ The U.S. Army called their fighters "pursuit" aircraft (reflected by their designation in the "P" series) from 1916 until the late 1940s.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Army called their fighters pursuit aircraft (reflected by their designation in the P series) from 1916 until the late 1940s.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serious competition also exists in Saudi Arabia and Singapore from Frances Dassault Rafale the aircraft which was created when Paris quit the European Fighter Aircraft programme.
  • BBC/OU Open2.net - Management & Organisations - Making it pay 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.open2.net [Source type: News]

In the French, Portuguese and German languages the term used (and still in use) literally means "hunter". This has been followed in most other languages, an exception being Russian, in which the fighter is called "истребитель" (pronounced "istrebitel"), meaning "exterminator".
.Although the term "fighter" technically refers to aircraft designed to shoot down other aircraft, such designs are often also useful as multirole fighter-bombers and sometimes lighter, fighter-sized tactical ground-attack aircraft.^ I have noticed that US fighter aircraft have evolved in terms of their designation prefix also.
  • JXX Next-Generation Stealthy Fighter Aircraft, page 1 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft , as opposed to a bomber , which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bomb s.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designed as a lightweight fighter, it evolved into a successful multirole aircraft.

.For example, in World War II the US Navy would later favor fighters over dedicated dive bombers, and the P-47 Thunderbolt would be favored for ground attack.^ For example, in WWII the US Navy would later favor fighters over dedicated dive bombers, and the P-47 Thunderbolt would be favored for ground attack.
  • Fighter Aircraft - Royalty Free Space and Military Stock Photography--Stocktrek Images 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stocktrekimages.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tempest - RAF fighter aircraft of World War II Hawker Tempest - RAF fighter aircraft of World War II .
  • Tempest - RAF fighter aircraft of World War II 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in World War II the US Navy would later favor fighters over dedicated dive bombers, and the P-47 Thunderbolt would be favored for ground attack.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The controversial F-111 would be employed largely only as a strike bomber as the fighter variant was abandoned.^ The controversial F-111 would be employed largely only as a strike bomber as the fighter variant was abandoned.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fighter Aircraft - Royalty Free Space and Military Stock Photography--Stocktrek Images 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stocktrekimages.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The core of the day fighter units continued to be built around later variants of the Bf-109 and the Fw-190, which were being continually modified and upgraded with new armament combinations and employing new tactics to force down the U.S. heavy bombers.
  • German Fighter Aircraft Of WW2 - 1942 - 1945 DVD | LOVEFiLM 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lovefilm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a nuclear bomber was attacked, it would deploy the parasite fighter, let the fighter kill off the attacker, and then retrieve the parasite fighter through a docking and trapeze mechanism.
  • XF-85 — The Goblin Survivors 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.johnweeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bombers generally refer to long-range strategic or theater bombing roles.^ Bombers generally refer to long-range strategic or theater bombing roles.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft was used in a number of different roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground strafing, photo reconnaissance missions,[3] and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with droppable fuel tanks under its wings.
  • 3d p-38j lightning fighter aircraft model 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the term "fighter" technically refers to aircraft specifically designed to shoot down other aircraft, colloquial usage often extends to include multirole fighter-bombers and sometimes lighter, fighter-sized tactical ground-attack aircraft (as opposed to bombers, which serve mainly in strategic bombing roles).
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This blurring follows the use of fighters from their earliest days for "attack" or "strike" operations against enemy troops, field positions, vehicles, and facilities by means of strafing or dropping of bombs or incendiaries.^ This blurring follows the use of fighters from their earliest days for “attack” or “strike” operations against enemy troops, field positions, vehicles, and facilities by means of strafing or dropping of bombs or incendiaries.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This blurring follows the use of fighters from their earliest days for attack or strike operations against enemy troops, field positions, vehicles, and facilities by means of strafing or dropping of bombs or incendiaries.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. airborne warning and control system (AWACS) is an unparalleled device for providing early warning of an attack by enemy fighters and acts as a tremendous force multiplier in air-to-air combat.
  • Send the Raptor to Jurassic Park | Ivan Eland | Cato Institute: Daily Commentary 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F-22—A Needed Fighter . . . Or a Fantasy?: Newsroom: The Independent Institute 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.independent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the most expensive fighters such as the F-14 Tomcat,F-22 Raptor and F-15 Eagle were employed as all-weather interceptors as well as air superiority combat aircraft, only developing air-to-ground roles late in their careers.^ The F-22 Raptor is the Air Force's newest fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology.
  • Fighter Aircraft - Royalty Free Space and Military Stock Photography--Stocktrek Images 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stocktrekimages.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the air combat role, the F-16’s maneuverability and combat radius exceed that of all potential enemy fighter aircraft.
  • F-16 Fighting Falcons - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ This year’s Farnborough highlight was the F-22, the world’s best - and most expensive - fighter aircraft.
  • FT.com | John Gapper's Business Blog | The world’s best fighter aircraft goes slow 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC blogs.ft.com [Source type: General]

.Multirole fighter-bombers such as the F/A-18 Hornet are often less expensive and tasked (and in this case, given an F/A designation) with ground attack as part of a "high-low mix", or in the case of the Super Hornet, replacing a range of specialized aircraft types.^ This type is optimized for attacking ground targets.
  • Fighter aircraft - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type: Single-seat long-range fighter or fighter-bomber.
  • Fighter Aircraft of World War II: P-47 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.354thpmfg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed as a lightweight fighter, it evolved into a successful multirole aircraft.

Introduction

.Fighters were developed in response to the fledgling use of aircraft and dirigibles in World War I for reconnaissance and ground-attack roles.^ SE5 The SE5 was a British fighter aircraft used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ German Fighter Aircraft of World War 2: 1942-1945 (DVD) .
  • German Fighter Aircraft of WW2 1942-1945 at bizrate this holiday season 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were developed in response to the fledgling use of aircraft and dirigibles in World War I for reconnaissance and ground attack roles.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]

.Early fighters were very small and lightly armed by later standards, and were mostly biplanes.^ Early fighters were very small and lightly armed by later standards, and were mostly biplanes.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early fighters were very small and lightly armed by later standards, and were mostly biplanes .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These early fighters were mostly wooden biplanes with light machine guns.
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]

.As aerial warfare became increasingly important, so did control of the airspace.^ As aerial warfare became increasingly important, so did control of the airspace.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By World War II, fighters were predominantly all-metal monoplanes with wing-mounted batteries of cannons or machine guns.^ By World War II, fighters were predominantly metal monoplanes with wing-mounted cannon.
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]

^ It was the first all-metal aircraft built during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By World War II , fighters were predominantly metal monoplanes with wing-mounted cannon.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.By the end of the war, turbojet engines were already beginning to replace piston engines as the means of propulsion, and increasingly sophisticated refinements to armament were already appearing.^ Following the war, turbojet s replaced piston engines as the means of propulsion, and missiles augmented or replaced guns.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Following the war, turbojets replaced piston engines as the means of propulsion, and missiles augmented or replaced guns.
  • China crosses threshold on Military Technology Independence - Fighter aircraft - Zimbio 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: News]

^ By the end of the war, turbojet engines were already beginning to replace piston engines as the means of propulsion, and increasingly sophisticated refinements to armament were already appearing.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern jet fighters are predominantly powered by one or two turbofan engines, and are equipped with a radar as the primary method of target acquisition.^ Modern jet fighters are predominantly powered by one or two turbofan engines, armed primarily with missiles with a cannon as backup armament (typically between 20 and 30mm in calibre ), and equipped with a radar as the primary method of target acquisition.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Jet-powered fighters .
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern jet fighters are predominantly powered by one or two turbofan engines, and are equipped with a radar as the primary method of target acquisition.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Armament consists primarily of air-to-air missiles (from as few as two on some lightweight day fighters to as many as eight or twelve on air superiority fighters like the Sukhoi Su-27 or Boeing F-15 Eagle), with a cannon as backup armament (typically between 20 and 30 mm in caliber); however, they can also often employ air-to-surface missiles, as well as guided and unguided bombs.^ Sukhoi Su-30 / Su-30Mk Fighter Aircraft Photo Print .
  • Modern Military Fighter Aircraft Photos For Sale - Photographs, Prints, Posters, Picture Licensing & Image Research 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.mcmahanphoto.com [Source type: General]

^ Rapier Mk 2 surface-to-air missiles .
  • BASIC Publications 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.basicint.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Armament consists primarily of air-to-air missiles (from as few as two on some lightweight day fighters to as many as eight or twelve on air superiority fighters like the Su-37 Flanker or F-15 Eagle ), with a cannon as backup armament (typically between 20 and 30 mm in calibre ); however, they can also often employ air-to-surface missiles , as well as guided and unguided bombs.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Piston engine fighters

World War I

Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus
.The word "fighter" was first used to describe a two-seater aircraft with sufficient lift to carry a machine gun and its operator as well as the pilot.^ The word fighter was first used to describe a two-seater aircraft with sufficient lift to carry a machine gun and its operator as well as the pilot.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft can be used for pilot training or as a standard fighter.
  • Jian-10 (J-10, F-10) Multirole Fighter Aircraft - SinoDefence.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.sinodefence.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word “fighter” was first used to describe a two-seater aircraft with sufficient lift to carry a machine gun and its operator as well as the pilot.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first such "fighters" belonged to the "gunbus" series of experimental gun carriers of the British Vickers company which culminated in the Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus of 1914. The main drawback of this type of aircraft was its lack of speed.^ Vickers F.B.5 -One of the first purpose-built fighter aircraft.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first such fighters belonged to the gunbus series of experimental gun carriers of the British Vickers company which culminated in the Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus of 1914.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first such “fighters” belonged to the “gunbus” series of experimental gun carriers of the British Vickers company which culminated in the Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus of 1914.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was quickly realized that an aircraft intended to destroy its kind in the air needed at least to be fast enough to catch its quarry.^ It was quickly realized that an aircraft intended to destroy its kind in the air needed at least to be fast enough to catch its quarry.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was quickly realised that an aircraft intended to destroy its kind in the air needed at least to be fast enough to catch its quarry.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some aircraft designated as "fighters" have no air-to-air capability, such as the F-117 Nighthawk , which is really a light bomber .
  • Fighter aircraft - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before there were weapons that could accurately be used to shoot down other aircraft, shotguns, handguns, and bolt-action rifles were used to try to kill the other plane's crew or hit the engine.^ Early in World War I they were used as scout planes for artillery spotting, but it was quickly discovered that they could be armed and do combat with one another, shoot down enemy bombers, and conduct other tactical missions.
  • fighter aircraft -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Its introduction was fortuitous being one of the few aircraft able to intercept and shoot down the V1 flying bomb.

^ Although the term fighter technically refers to aircraft designed to shoot down other aircraft, such designs are often also useful as multirole fighter-bombers and sometimes lighter, fighter-sized tactical ground-attack aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fighter Aircraft - Royalty Free Space and Military Stock Photography--Stocktrek Images 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stocktrekimages.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also, some pilots attached grappling hooks to their planes and ripped the enemy planes apart.^ Crafty pilots attempted to shoot down their counterparts in a manner of amateur ways, including grappling hooks, small arms, and grenades.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To: mkjessup "Great looking plane, now they just need some pilots."
  • J-XX Stealthy Fighter Aircraft - (China stealth fighter) 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To: Flavius Great looking plane, now they just need some pilots.
  • J-XX Stealthy Fighter Aircraft - (China stealth fighter) 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fortunately another type of military aircraft already existed, which was to form the basis for an effective "fighter" in the modern sense of the word.^ Fortunately another type of military aircraft already existed, which was to form the basis for an effective fighter in the modern sense of the word.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter Aircraft Word Template #01747 .
  • Fighter Aircraft Word Template, Fighter Aircraft Word Background for Microsoft Word Document ready to edit and print. Download now! 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.poweredtemplates.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Search another word or see Fighter Aircraft& on Dictionary .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was based on the small fast aircraft developed before the war for such air races as the Gordon Bennett Cup and Schneider Trophy.^ It was based on the small fast aircraft developed before the war for such air races as the Gordon Bennett Cup and Schneider Trophy .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States already has two expensive stealth aircraft designed explicitly to attack targets on the ground -- the F-117 strike aircraft and the B-2 bomber -- and only needs a small "silver bullet" force of such aircraft to take out dangerous enemy ground-based air defenses and to destroy other targets before such defenses are obliterated.
  • Send the Raptor to Jurassic Park | Ivan Eland | Cato Institute: Daily Commentary 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft was originally intended to be a high-performance air-superiority fighter to counter the then emerging fourth-generation fighters such as F-16 and MiG-29, but the end of the Cold War and changing requirements shifted the development towards a multirole fighter with both air-to-air and ground attack mission capabilities.
  • Jian-10 (J-10, F-10) Multirole Fighter Aircraft - SinoDefence.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.sinodefence.com [Source type: Academic]

.The military scout airplane was not expected to be able to carry serious armament, but rather to rely on its speed to be able to reach the location it was required to "scout" or reconnoiter and then return quickly to report – while at the same time making itself a difficult target for anti-aircraft artillery or enemy gun-carrying aircraft.^ The military scout aeroplane was not initially expected to be able to carry serious armament, but rather to rely on its speed to be able to reach the location it was required to “scout” or reconnoitre and then return quickly to report – while at the same time making itself a difficult target for anti-aircraft artillery or enemy gun-carrying aircraft.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military scout airplane was not expected to be able to carry serious armament, but rather to rely on its speed to be able to reach the location it was required to scout or reconnoiter and then return quickly to report – while at the same time making itself a difficult target for anti-aircraft artillery or enemy gun-carrying aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F4U-5NL Night Corsair Model Airplane In 1938, when the United States Navy (USN) published a requirement for a new carrier aircraft that could match the performance of the best land and carrier-based fighter planes, the result was the F4U Corsair.
  • Page 6: Propeller Airplane Models - Mahogany Wooden Scale Model Prop Planes & Aircraft: War Planes 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.warplanes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British "scout" aircraft in this sense included the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout; French equivalents included the light, fast Morane-Saulnier N.^ British “scout” aircraft in this sense included the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout ; French equivalents included the light, fast Morane-Saulnier N .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British scout aircraft in this sense included the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout; French equivalents included the light, fast Morane-Saulnier N. In practice, soon after the actual commencement of the war, the pilots of small scout aircraft began to arm themselves with pistols, carbines, grenades, and an assortment of improvised weapons with which to attack enemy aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nymph The Nymph is a British single-engined four-seat light aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.In practice, soon after the actual commencement of the war, the pilots of small scout aircraft began to arm themselves with pistols, carbines, grenades, and an assortment of improvised weapons with which to attack enemy aircraft.^ In practice, soon after the actual commencement of the war, the pilots of small scout aircraft began to arm themselves with pistols, carbines , grenades , and an assortment of improvised weapons with which to attack enemy aircraft.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British scout aircraft in this sense included the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout; French equivalents included the light, fast Morane-Saulnier N. In practice, soon after the actual commencement of the war, the pilots of small scout aircraft began to arm themselves with pistols, carbines, grenades, and an assortment of improvised weapons with which to attack enemy aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hornet was among the first aircraft to heavily utilize multi-function displays, which at the switch of a button allow the pilot to perform either fighter or attack roles or both.
  • Fighter Aircraft - Royalty Free Space and Military Stock Photography--Stocktrek Images 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stocktrekimages.com [Source type: Reference]

.It was inevitable that sooner or later means of effectively arming "scouts" would be devised.^ It was inevitable that sooner or later means of effectively arming scouts would be devised.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One method was to build a "pusher" scout such as the Airco DH.2, with the propeller mounted behind the pilot.^ One method was to build a pusher scout such as the Airco DH.2, with the propeller mounted behind the pilot.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Grumman s F9F Panther was adopted by the U.S. One involved having a second crew member added behind the pilot to aim and fire a swivel-mounted machine gun at enemy airplanes.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main drawback was that the high drag of a pusher type's tail structure meant that it was bound to be slower than an otherwise similar "tractor" aircraft.^ The main drawback was that the high drag of a pusher type s tail structure meant that it was bound to be slower than an otherwise similar tractor aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main drawback of this type of aircraft was its lack of speed.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The other approach was to mount the machine gun armament on a tractor-type airplane in a manner that enabled the gun to fire outside the arc of the propeller.^ The other approach was to mount the machine gun armament on a tractor-type airplane in a manner that enabled the gun to fire outside the arc of the propeller.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alternative configuration mounted a gun on the upper wing to fire over the propeller arc.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

Airco DH.2 "pusher" scout
.Only two configuration options were practical initially for tractor aircraft.^ Only two configuration options were practical initially for tractor aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In China the A6M2s, reinforced with a number of production aircraft, destroyed 99 Chinese aircraft with a loss of only two of their own.

^ This option was chiefly employed as a defensive measure on two seater reconnaissance aircraft from 1915 on.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One involved having a second crew member added behind the pilot to aim and fire a swivel-mounted machine gun at enemy airplanes.^ Grumman s F9F Panther was adopted by the U.S. One involved having a second crew member added behind the pilot to aim and fire a swivel-mounted machine gun at enemy airplanes.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This will allow our members to follow along with the restoration of this assembly from start to finish, so one may get an understanding of just what is involved to restore just one small part of the airplane, and just how amazing these machines really are!

.However, this limited the area of coverage chiefly to the rear hemisphere, and the inability to effectively coordinate the pilot's maneuvering with the gunner's aiming, which reduced the accuracy and efficacy of the gunnery.^ However, this limited the area of coverage chiefly to the rear hemisphere, and the inability to effectively coordinate the pilot s maneuvering with the gunner s aiming, which reduced the accuracy and efficacy of the gunnery.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While more effective for offensive combat, since the pilot could move and aim the guns as a unit, this placement made determining the proper aim point more difficult.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a two-seat (pilot and rear gunner) German ground-attack aircraft.
  • Singapore Hobby Supplies Pte Ltd | 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC shop.singahobby.com [Source type: General]

.This option was chiefly employed as a defensive measure on two seater reconnaissance aircraft from 1915 on.^ This option was chiefly employed as a defensive measure on two seater reconnaissance aircraft from 1915 on.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only two configuration options were practical initially for tractor aircraft.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word fighter was first used to describe a two-seater aircraft with sufficient lift to carry a machine gun and its operator as well as the pilot.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alternative configuration mounted a gun on the upper wing to fire over the propeller arc.^ The alternative configuration mounted a gun on the upper wing to fire over the propeller arc.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The central obstacle was firing a machine gun through the arc of the propeller without hitting the blades.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.While more effective for offensive combat, since the pilot could move and aim the guns as a unit, this placement made determining the proper aim point more difficult.^ While more effective for offensive combat, since the pilot could move and aim the guns as a unit, this placement made determining the proper aim point more difficult.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this limited the area of coverage chiefly to the rear hemisphere, and the inability to effectively coordinate the pilot s maneuvering with the gunner s aiming, which reduced the accuracy and efficacy of the gunnery.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gut's of pilot to take the LCA Airframe to that speeds since the engine is already test to go for mach 2.0 speed on a f16 18 Need more competition By: Jiten .
  • Fighter aircraft Tejas clocks fastest speed during testing 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.indianexpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, this location made it nearly impossible for a pilot to maneuver his aircraft and have access to the gun's breech – a very important consideration, given the tendency of early machine guns to jam – hence this was a stopgap solution.^ Furthermore, this location made it nearly impossible for a pilot to manoeuvre his aeroplane and have access to the gun’s breech – a very important consideration, given the tendency of early machine guns to jam – hence this was a stopgap solution at best.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, this location made it nearly impossible for a pilot to maneuver his aircraft and have access to the gun s breech – a very important consideration, given the tendency of early machine guns to jam – hence this was a stopgap solution.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.Nevertheless, a machine gun firing over the propeller arc did have some advantages, and was to remain in service from 1915 (Nieuport 11) until 1918 (Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5).^ Nevertheless, a machine gun firing over the propeller arc did have some advantages, and was to remain in service from 1915 (Nieuport 11) until 1918 (Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5).
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wintgens aircraft, one of the five Fokker M.5K/MG production prototype examples of the Eindecker, was armed with a synchronized, air-cooled aviation version of the Parabellum MG14 machine gun, which did not require armored propellers.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British Foster mounting was specifically designed for this kind of application.^ The U.S. The British Foster mounting was specifically designed for this kind of application.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A captured Morane-Saulnier Type L with German insignia
.The need to arm a tractor scout with a forward-firing gun whose bullets passed through the propeller arc was evident even before the outbreak of war, and its approach motivated inventors in both France and Germany to devise a practical synchronization gear that could time the firing of the individual rounds to when the propeller was not in the way.^ The need to arm a tractor scout with a forward-firing gun whose bullets actually passed through the propeller arc was evident even before the outbreak of war, and its approach motivated inventors in both France and Germany to devise a practical synchronisation gear that could time the firing of the individual rounds to when the propeller wasn't in the way.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The need to arm a tractor scout with a forward-firing gun whose bullets passed through the propeller arc was evident even before the outbreak of war, and its approach motivated inventors in both France and Germany to devise a practical synchronization gear that could time the firing of the individual rounds to when the propeller was not in the way.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in World War I they were used as scout planes for artillery spotting, but it was quickly discovered that they could be armed and do combat with one another, shoot down enemy bombers, and conduct other tactical missions.
  • fighter aircraft -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Franz Schneider, a Swiss engineer, had patented such a device in Germany in 1913, but his original work was not followed up.^ Franz Schneider , a Swiss engineer, had patented such a device in Germany in 1913, but his original work was not followed up.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Franz Schneider, a Swiss engineer, had patented such a device in Germany in 1913, but his original work was not followed up.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French aircraft designer Raymond Saulnier patented a practical device in April 1914, but trials were unsuccessful because of the propensity of the machine gun employed to hang fire due to unreliable ammunition.^ French aircraft designer Raymond Saulnier patented a practical device in April 1914, but trials were unsuccessful because of the propensity of the machine gun employed to hang fire due to unreliable ammunition.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second issue is that the proposed armaments on the aircraft, 4 machine guns, would likely not be enough to handle ever newer fighter aircraft being developed by the Russians.
  • XF-85 — The Goblin Survivors 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.johnweeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central obstacle was firing a machine gun through the arc of the propeller without hitting the blades.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.In December 1914, French aviator Roland Garros asked Saulnier to install his synchronization gear on Garros' Morane-Saulnier Type L.^ French aviator Roland Garros asked Saulnier to install his synchronisation gear on Garros’ Morane-Saulnier Type L scout.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 1914, French aviator Roland Garros asked Saulnier to install his synchronization gear on Garros Morane-Saulnier Type L. In October 2007, Russia and India signed an agreement for joint participation in a Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft Program (FGFA), which will give India responsibility for development of a two-seat model of the PAK-FA. The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO), a system rarely used in fighters.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British “scout” aircraft in this sense included the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout ; French equivalents included the light, fast Morane-Saulnier N .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately the gas-operated Hotchkiss machine gun had a firing cycle which caused the bullet to leave the weapon too late to effectively and consistently synchronize the gunfire with a spinning propeller.^ Unfortunately the gas-operated Hotchkiss machine gun had a firing cycle which caused the bullet to leave the weapon too late to effectively and consistently synchronise the gunfire with a spinning propeller.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately the gas-operated Hotchkiss machine gun had a firing cycle which caused the bullet to leave the weapon too late to effectively and consistently synchronize the gunfire with a spinning propeller.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because of this, the propeller blades were armored, and Garros' mechanic, Jules Hue, fitted metal wedges to the blades to protect the pilot from ricochets.^ Because of this, the propeller blades were armored, and Garros mechanic, Jules Hue, fitted metal wedges to the blades to protect the pilot from ricochets.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to this problem, the propeller blades were armoured, and Garros’ mechanic, Jules Hue, fitted metal wedges to the blades to protect the pilot from ricochets .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French aviator Roland Garros 's solution was to fit deflector plates to his propellers where the machinegun would strike.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

.Garros' modified monoplane was first flown in March 1915 and he began combat operations soon thereafter.^ Garros modified monoplane was first flown in March 1915 and he began combat operations soon thereafter.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Garros’ modified monoplane was first flown in March 1915 and he began combat operations soon thereafter.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P-47s began to arrive in Britain in November 1942 and the first operational sortie with the 8th Air Force was made on April 8, 1943.
  • Fighter Aircraft of World War II: P-47 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.354thpmfg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Firing 8 mm (.323 in) solid copper bullets, Garros scored three victories in three weeks before he himself was shot down on 18 April and his airplane – along with its synchronization gear and propeller – was captured by the Germans.^ Firing 8 mm (.323 in) solid copper bullets, Garros scored three victories in three weeks before he was himself shot down on 18 April and his aeroplane – along with its synchronisation gear and propeller – was captured by the Germans.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Firing 8 mm (.323 in) solid copper bullets, Garros scored three victories in three weeks before he himself was shot down on 18 April and his airplane – along with its synchronization gear and propeller – was captured by the Germans.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The need to arm a tractor scout with a forward-firing gun whose bullets actually passed through the propeller arc was evident even before the outbreak of war, and its approach motivated inventors in both France and Germany to devise a practical synchronisation gear that could time the firing of the individual rounds to when the propeller wasn't in the way.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Captured Fokker E.III Eindecker 210/16 in flight at Upavon, Wiltshire in 1916
.However, the synchronization gear (called the Zentralsteuerung in German) devised by the engineers of Anthony Fokker's firm was the first gear to attract official sponsorship, and this would make the pioneering Fokker Eindecker monoplane a feared name over the Western Front, despite its being an adaptation of an obsolete pre-war French Morane-Saulnier racing airplane, with a mediocre performance and poor flight characteristics.^ However, the synchronisation gear (called the Zentralsteuerung in German) devised by the engineers of Anthony Fokker 's firm was the first gear to attract official sponsorship, and this would make the pioneering Fokker Eindecker monoplane a feared name over the Western Front , despite its being an adaptation of an obsolete pre-war French Morane-Saulnier racing aeroplane, with a mediocre performance and poor flight characteristics.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the synchronization gear (called the Zentralsteuerung in German) devised by the engineers of Anthony Fokker s firm was the first gear to attract official sponsorship, and this would make the pioneering Fokker Eindecker monoplane a feared name over the Western Front, despite its being an adaptation of an obsolete pre-war French Morane-Saulnier racing airplane, with a mediocre performance and poor flight characteristics.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first victory for the Eindecker came on 1 July 1915, when Leutnant Kurt Wintgens , flying with the Fliegerabteilung 6 unit on the Western Front, forced down a Morane-Saulnier Type L two-seat "parasol" monoplane of Luneville.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first victory for the Eindecker came on 1 July 1915, when Leutnant Kurt Wintgens, flying with the Fliegerabteilung 6 unit on the Western Front, forced down a Morane-Saulnier Type L two-seat "parasol" monoplane of Luneville.^ The first victory for the Eindecker came on 1 July 1915, when Leutnant Kurt Wintgens , flying with the Fliegerabteilung 6 unit on the Western Front, forced down a Morane-Saulnier Type L two-seat "parasol" monoplane of Luneville.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first victory for the Eindecker came on 1 July 1915, when Leutnant Kurt Wintgens, flying with the Fliegerabteilung 6 unit on the Western Front, forced down a Morane-Saulnier Type L two-seat parasol monoplane of Luneville.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the synchronisation gear (called the Zentralsteuerung in German) devised by the engineers of Anthony Fokker 's firm was the first gear to attract official sponsorship, and this would make the pioneering Fokker Eindecker monoplane a feared name over the Western Front , despite its being an adaptation of an obsolete pre-war French Morane-Saulnier racing aeroplane, with a mediocre performance and poor flight characteristics.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wintgens' aircraft, one of the five Fokker M.5K/MG production prototype examples of the Eindecker, was armed with a synchronized, air-cooled aviation version of the Parabellum MG14 machine gun, which did not require armored propellers.^ Wintgens' aircraft, one of the five Fokker M.5K/MG production prototype examples of the Eindecker, was armed with a synchronised, air-cooled aviation version of the Parabellum MG14 machine gun, which did not require armoured propellors.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MK I was armed with 4 machine guns in each wing.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wintgens aircraft, one of the five Fokker M.5K/MG production prototype examples of the Eindecker, was armed with a synchronized, air-cooled aviation version of the Parabellum MG14 machine gun, which did not require armored propellers.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some respects, this was the first "true" fighter victory of military aviation history.^ In some respects, this was the first true fighter victory of military aviation history.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some respects, this was the first "true" fighter victory of military aviation history.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, advances in guided missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The success of the Eindecker kicked off a competitive cycle of improvement among the combatants, building ever more capable single-seat fighters.^ The success of the Eindecker kicked off a competitive cycle of improvement among the combatants, building ever more capable single-seat fighters.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Westland Welkin The Welkin I was a British single-seat high-altitude fighter designed to combat possible stratospheric raids by the Luftwaffe over England at heights beyond the range of the then existing fighters, during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger, was a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s.
  • Singapore Hobby Supplies Pte Ltd | 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC shop.singahobby.com [Source type: General]

.The Albatros D.I of late 1916, designed by Robert Thelen, set the classic pattern followed by almost all such aircraft for about twenty years.^ The Albatros D.I of late 1916, designed by Robert Thelen, set the classic pattern followed by almost all such aircraft for about twenty years.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger, was a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s.
  • Singapore Hobby Supplies Pte Ltd | 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC shop.singahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ A plethora of classic combat aircraft that would go on to take part in all the major conflicts of the mid-to-late 1900's.

.Like the D.I, they were biplanes (only very occasionally monoplanes or triplanes).^ Like the D.I, they were biplanes (only very occasionally occasionally monoplanes or triplanes).
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^ Like the D.I, they were biplanes (only very occasionally occasionally monoplanes or triplanes ).
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They forgot the IJN airforce, the japs had very interesting planes like the Ki 61,Ki 100 and of course the legendary Mitsubishi A6M Zero.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strong box structure of the biplane wing allowed for a rigid wing that afforded accurate lateral control, which was essential for fighter-type maneuvers.^ The strong box structure of the biplane wing allowed for a rigid wing that afforded accurate lateral control, which was essential for fighter-type maneuvers.
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^ Much of the structure, including the wing box, wing pivots and upper and lower wing skins is made of titanium, a light, rigid and strong material, but also difficult to weld, and costly.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early fighters were very small and lightly armed by later standards, and were mostly biplanes.
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.They had a single crew member, who flew the aircraft and also operated its armament.^ They had a single crew member, who flew the aircraft and also operated its armament.
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^ Military aircraft are operated by men and women who belong to the Navy services.

^ The interior seats 38 people including: the cockpit crew, aircraft maintenance crew, foreign country representatives and crew members from the Department of Defense's On-Site Inspection Agency .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.They were armed with two Maxim-type machine guns – which had proven much easier to synchronize than other types – firing through the propeller arc.^ Two or Four 12.7mm Type 1 machine guns .
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other approach was to mount the machine gun armament on a tractor-type airplane in a manner that enabled the gun to fire outside the arc of the propeller.
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^ They were armed with two Maxim -type machine guns – which had proven much easier to synchronise than other types – firing through the propeller arc.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gun breeches were typically right in front of the pilot's face.^ The gun breeches were typically right in front of the pilot’s face.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gun breeches were typically right in front of the pilot s face.
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.This had obvious implications in case of accidents, but enabled jams (to which Maxim-type machine guns always remained liable) to be cleared in flight and made aiming much easier.^ This had obvious implications in case of accidents, but enabled jams (to which Maxim-type machine guns always remained liable) to be cleared in flight and made aiming much easier.
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^ Furthermore, this location made it nearly impossible for a pilot to manoeuvre his aeroplane and have access to the gun’s breech – a very important consideration, given the tendency of early machine guns to jam – hence this was a stopgap solution at best.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One early solution was to mount a swiveling machine gun for the backseater or a forward-facing machine gun on the top wing to clear the propeller.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

Replica of the Fokker Dr.I, the "Red Baron's" triplane, at the ILA 2006 air show
The use of metal in fighter aircraft was pioneered in World War I by Germany, as Anthony Fokker used chrome-molybdenum steel tubing (a close chemical cousin to stainless steel) for the fuselage structure of all his fighter designs, and the innovative German engineer Hugo Junkers developed two all-metal, single-seat fighter monoplane designs with cantilever wings: the strictly experimental Junkers J 2 private-venture aircraft, made with steel, and some forty examples of the Junkers D.I, made with corrugated duralumin, all based on his pioneering Junkers J 1 all-metal airframe technology demonstration aircraft of late 1915.
A Sopwith Camel 2F1 biplane at the Imperial War Museum in London
.As collective combat experience grew, the more successful pilots such as Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann, and Edward Mannock developed innovative tactical formations and maneuvers to enhance their air units' combat effectiveness and accelerate the learning – and increase the expected lifespan – of newer pilots reaching the front lines.^ As collective combat experience grew, the more successful pilots such as Oswald Boelcke , Max Immelmann , and Edward Mannock developed innovative new tactical formations and manoeuvres to enhance their air units’ combat effectiveness and accelerate the learning – and increase the expected lifespan – of newer pilots reaching the front lines.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As collective combat experience grew, the more successful pilots such as Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann, and Edward Mannock developed innovative tactical formations and maneuvers to enhance their air units combat effectiveness and accelerate the learning – and increase the expected lifespan – of newer pilots reaching the front lines.
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^ Navy to establish its famous TOPGUN fighter weapons school, which provided a graduate-level curriculum to train fleet fighter pilots in advanced Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) and Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) tactics and techniques.
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.Allied and – until 1918 – German pilots of World War I were not equipped with parachutes, so most cases of an aircraft catching fire, or structurally breaking up in flight were fatal.^ Allied and – until 1918 – German pilots of World War I were not equipped with parachutes, so most cases of an aircraft catching fire, or structurally breaking up in flight were fatal.
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^ Allied and – until 1918 – German pilots of World War I were not equipped with parachutes , so most cases of an aircraft catching fire, or structurally breaking up in flight were fatal.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considering that many aircraft were constructed similarly to World War I designs (albeit with aluminum frames), it was not considered unreasonable to use World War I-style armament to counter them.
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.Parachutes were well-developed by 1918, and were adopted by the German flying services during the course of that year (the famous "Red Baron" was wearing one when he was killed), but the allied command continued to oppose their use, on various grounds.^ Parachutes were well-developed by 1918, and were adopted by the German flying services during the course of that year (the famous "Red Baron" was wearing one when he was killed), but the allied command continued to oppose their use, on various grounds.
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^ Parachutes were well-developed by 1918, and were adopted by the German flying services during the course of that year (the famous Red Baron was wearing one when he was killed), but the allied command continued to oppose their use, on various grounds.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
See also: List of fighter aircraft of the World War I period

Interwar period (1919-38)

.Fighter development slowed between the wars, with the most significant change coming late in the period, when the classic World War I type machines started to give way to metal monocoque or semi-monocoque monoplanes, with cantilever wing structures.^ Fighter development slowed between the wars, the most significant change coming from the change from wood, cloth-skinned biplanes to metal , monocoque or semi-monocoque monoplanes.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By World War II , fighters were predominantly metal monoplanes with wing-mounted cannon.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wings: Low-wing cantilever monoplane.
  • Fighter Aircraft of World War II: P-47 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.354thpmfg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given limited defense budgets, air forces tended to be conservative in their aircraft purchases, and biplanes remained popular with pilots because of their agility.^ Given limited defense budgets, air forces tended to be conservative in their aircraft purchases, and biplanes remained popular with pilots because of their agility.
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^ Maintaining the current force structure for Air Force fighters will probably require production of approximately 120 aircraft per year, starting now; unfortunately, we currently have neither the budget nor production capacity to manufacture that many.
  • The Merge: The American Aircraft Industrial Base: On the Brink 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air force contract includes outright purchase of 18 war jets by 2012 with another 108 of the same planes to be built in India.
  • Global giants bid for $12 bln Indian fighter aircraft deal - MarketWatch 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.marketwatch.com [Source type: News]

.Designs such as the Gloster Gladiator, Fiat CR.42, and Polikarpov I-15 were common even in the late 1930s, and many were still in service as late as 1942. Up until the mid-1930s, the vast majority of fighter aircraft remained fabric-covered biplanes.^ Up until the mid-1930s, the vast majority of fighter aircraft remained fabric-covered biplanes.
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^ Designs such as the Gloster Gladiator, Fiat CR.42, and Polikarpov I-15 were common even in the late 1930s, and many were still in service as late as 1942.
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^ Designs such as the Gloster Gladiator , Fiat CR.42 , and Polikarpov I-15 were common even in the late 1930s, and many were still in service as late as 1942.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An early monoplane fighter: the Boeing P-26 Peashooter which first flew in 1932
.Fighter armament eventually began to be mounted inside the wings, outside the arc of the propeller, though most designs retained two synchronized machine-guns above the engine (which were considered more accurate).^ Armament: Two fuselage-mounted 20-mm Ho 5 cannon and two wing- mounted 12.7 mm machine guns.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

^ The other approach was to mount the machine gun armament on a tractor-type airplane in a manner that enabled the gun to fire outside the arc of the propeller.
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^ When used as a fighter the armament was increased by four guns mounted in the nose.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Rifle-caliber guns were the norm, with .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns and 20 mm cannons deemed "overkill."^ Rifle-caliber guns were the norm, with .50 calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns and 20 mm cannons were deemed "overkill."
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armament: Two fuselage-mounted 20-mm Ho 5 cannon and two wing- mounted 12.7 mm machine guns.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rifle-caliber guns were the norm, with .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns and 20 mm cannons deemed overkill.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Considering that many aircraft were constructed similarly to World War I designs (albeit with aluminum frames), it was not considered unreasonable to use World War I-style armament to counter them.^ Considering that many aircraft were constructed similarly to World War I designs (albeit with aluminum frames), it was not considered unreasonable to use World War I-style armament to counter them.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considering that many aircraft were constructed similarly to WWI designs (albeit with aluminium frames), it was not considered unreasonable to use WWI-style armament to counter them.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of bombers as military aircraft became wide spread during World War II. Bombers differ from fighter aircraft in that a bomber is capable of flying over great distances carrying the bombs to enemy home lands.

.There was insufficient aerial combat during most of the period to disprove this notion.^ There was insufficient aerial combat during most of the period to disprove this notion.
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  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rotary engine, popular during World War I, quickly disappeared, replaced chiefly by the stationary radial engine.^ The rotary engine , popular during WWI, quickly disappeared, replaced chiefly by the stationary radial engine .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rotary engine, popular during World War I, quickly disappeared, replaced chiefly by the stationary radial engine.
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^ DH4 The DH4 was a two-seater daylight bomber used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Aircraft engines increased in power several-fold over the period, going from a typical 180 hp (130 kW) in the 1918 Fokker D.VII to 900 hp (670 kW) in the 1938 Curtiss P-36.^ Aircraft engines increased in power several-fold over the period, going from a typical 180 hp in the 1918 Fokker D.VII to 900 hp in the 1938 Curtiss P-36 .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aircraft engines increased in power several-fold over the period, going from a typical 180 hp (130 kW) in the 1918 Fokker D.VII to 900 hp (670 kW) in the 1938 Curtiss P-36.
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^ The Spitfire Mk I of 1939 was powered by a 1030 hp (770 kW) Merlin II; its 1945 successor, the Spitfire F.Mk 21, was equipped with the 2035 hp (1520 kW) Griffon 61.
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.The debate between the sleek in-line engines versus the more reliable radial models continued, with naval air forces preferring the radial engines, and land-based forces often choosing in-line units.^ The debate between the sleek in-line engines versus the more reliable radial models continued, with naval air forces preferring the radial engines, and land-based forces often choosing in-line units.
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^ An A-10 Thunderbolt II , F-86 Sabre , P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The V-12 layout offered a sharper nose profile all around due to their inherently slim cross section size which made of better streamlining while all country's naval aircraft used the fatter air-cooled radials due to their more reliable nature over vast stretches of water where a damaged cooling system meant certain engine failure.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: Big Iron - Engines of WWII Fighter Aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radial designs did not require a separate (and vulnerable) cooling system, but had increased drag.^ Radial designs did not require a separate (and vulnerable) cooling system, but had increased drag.
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^ Fit of the LANTIRN pod didn't require any updates to the F-14's own system software, which would have substantially increased the time and expense of the upgrade.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certainly cooling was a critical factor and Spitfires ultimately required larger then dual radiators.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: Big Iron - Engines of WWII Fighter Aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In-line engines often had a better power-to-weight ratio, but there were radial engines that kept working even after having suffered significant battle damage.^ In-line engines often had a better power-to-weight ratio , but there were radial engines that kept working even after having suffered significant battle damage.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In-line engines often had a better power-to-weight ratio, but there were radial engines that kept working even after having suffered significant battle damage.
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^ Despite the fact that the supercharger was in the tail and the engine in the nose, the system proved quite successful and did not even suffer greatly from battle damage.
  • Fighter Aircraft of World War II: P-47 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.354thpmfg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer "heavy fighter"
.Some air forces experimented with "heavy fighters" (called "destroyers" by the Germans).^ Some air forces experimented with " heavy fighters " (called "destroyers" by the Germans).
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some air forces experimented with heavy fighters (called destroyers by the Germans).
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^ J-10 is the most advanced fighter jet developed by China and the country's air force has been equipped with the first batch of the aircraft.
  • Our new fighter aircraft superior to F-16s: China 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.expressindia.com [Source type: News]

.These were larger, usually two-engined aircraft, sometimes adaptations of light or medium bomber types.^ These were larger, usually two-engined aircraft, sometimes adaptations of light or medium bomber types.
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^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dornier DO215 The Dornier DO215 was a German twin-engined bomber aircraft of the Second World War.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Such designs typically had greater internal fuel capacity (thus longer range) and heavier armament than their single-engine counterparts.^ Such designs typically had greater internal fuel capacity (thus longer range) and heavier armament than their single-engine counterparts.
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^ Images of the concepts show a twin-engine aircraft sharing some design traits with Lockheed Martin's stealthy F/A-22 "Raptor" multirole fighter such as the internal carriage of its weapons.
  • J-XX Stealthy Fighter Aircraft - (China stealth fighter) 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New automatic-fire weapons, primarily chain-guns that use an electric engine to drive the mechanism of a cannon -- allowed a single multi-barrel weapon (such as the 20mm Vulcan ) to be carried -- with greater rate-of-fire and accuracy.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In combat, they proved ungainly and vulnerable to more nimble single-engine fighters.^ In combat, they proved ungainly and vulnerable to more nimble single-engine fighters.
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  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In combat, the Ki-100-Ia proved to be an excellent fighter, especially at low altitudes.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

^ The success of the Eindecker kicked off a competitive cycle of improvement among the combatants, building ever more capable single-seat fighters.
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.The primary driver of fighter innovation, right up to the period of rapid rearmament in the late thirties, were not military budgets, but civilian aircraft races.^ The primary driver of fighter innovation, right up to the period of rapid rearmament in the late thirties, were not military budgets, but civilian aircraft races.
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^ Another innovation of this period was the strike fighter.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary driver of fighter innovation were not military budgets, but civilian aircraft races.
  • Fighter aircraft at AllExperts 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Reference]

Aircraft designed for these races pioneered innovations like streamlining and more powerful engines that would find their way into the fighters of World War II.
.At the very end of the inter-war period came the Spanish Civil War.^ Aircraft designed for these races pioneered innovations like streamlining and more powerful engines that would find their way into the fighters of World War II. At the very end of the inter-war period came the Spanish Civil War .
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^ Aircraft designed for these races pioneered innovations like streamlining and more powerful engines that would find their way into the fighters of World War II. At the very end of the inter-war period came the Spanish Civil War.
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^ The Germans experiences in the Spanish Civil War led them to put 20 mm cannons on their fighters.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was just the opportunity the German Luftwaffe, Italian Regia Aeronautica, and the Soviet Union's Red Air Force needed to test their latest aircraft designs.^ It is the first U.S. Air Force aircraft designed exclusively for close air support.

^ This was just the opportunity the German Luftwaffe , Italian Regia Aeronautica , and the Soviet Union’s Red Air Force needed to test their latest aircraft designs.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was just the opportunity the German Luftwaffe, Italian Regia Aeronautica, and the Soviet Union s Red Air Force needed to test their latest aircraft designs.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each party sent several aircraft to back their side in the conflict.^ Each party sent several aircraft to back their side in the conflict.
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^ Several years after that, the aircraft was sent to the Texas Air Museum for static restoration.

.In the dogfights over Spain, the latest Messerschmitt fighters (Bf 109) did well, as did the Soviet Polikarpov I-16.^ In the dogfights over Spain , the latest Messerschmitt fighters ( Bf 109 ) did well, as did the Soviet Polikarpov I-16 .
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^ In the dogfights over Spain, the latest Messerschmitt fighters (Bf 109) did well, as did the Soviet Polikarpov I-16.
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^ Messerschmitt Bf 109 .
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.The German design, however, had considerable room for development and the lessons learned in Spain led to greatly improved models in World War II. The Russians, whose side lost in the conflict, nonetheless determined that their planes were sufficient for their immediate needs.^ The German design, however, had considerable room for development and the lessons learned in Spain led to greatly improved models in World War II. With range and payload capabilities that rivaled that of World War II bombers such as B-24 Liberator, the Phantom would became a highly successful multirole aircraft.
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^ The Russians, whose side lost in the conflict, nonetheless determined that their planes were sufficient for their immediate needs.
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^ The German design, however, had considerable room for development and the lessons learned in Spain led to greatly improved models in World War II. The Russians, whose side lost in the conflict, nonetheless determined that their planes were sufficient for their immediate needs.
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.I-16s were later slaughtered en masse by these improved German models in World War II, although they remained the most common Soviet front-line fighter until well into 1942. For their part, the Italians were satisfied with the performance of their Fiat CR.42 biplanes, and being short on funds, continued with this design even though it was obsolescent.^ For their part, the Italians were satisfied with the performance of their Fiat CR.42 biplanes, and being short on funds, continued with this design even though it was obsolescent.
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^ Fokker DVII The Fokker DVII was a German biplane fighter aircraft during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I-16s were later slaughtered en masse by these improved German models in the Second World War, although they remained the most common Soviet front-line fighter until well into 1942.
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.The Spanish Civil War also provided an opportunity for updating fighter tactics.^ The Spanish Civil War also provided an opportunity for updating fighter tactics.
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^ The Germans experiences in the Spanish Civil War led them to put 20 mm cannons on their fighters.
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^ This report provides an overview discussion on the modernization of U.S. military tactical aircraft, meaning fighter aircraft, strike-fighters, and attack planes.
  • Aviation: Attack and Fighter Aircraft - Storming Media 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

.One of the innovations to result from the aerial warfare experience this conflict provided was the development of the "finger-four" formation by the German pilot Werner Mölders.^ One of the innovations to result from the aerial warfare experience this conflict provided was the development of the finger-four formation by the German pilot Werner Mölders.
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^ One of the chief innovations to result from the aerial warfare experience this conflict provided was the development of the “ finger-four ” formation by the German pilot Werner Mölders .
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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.Each fighter squadron (German: Staffel) was divided into several flights (Schwärme) of four aircraft.^ Each fighter squadron (German: Staffel ) was divided into several flights ( Schwärme ) of four aircraft.
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^ Each fighter squadron (German: Staffel) was divided into several flights (Schwärme) of four aircraft.
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^ BF 110C The Messerschmitt BF 110C was a German fighter aircraft of the Second World War.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Each Schwarm was divided into two Rotten which was a pair of aircraft.^ Each Schwarm was divided into two Rotten which was a pair of aircraft.
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^ Military aircraft can be divided into aircraft that are land based and aircraft that are carrier based.

^ Each fighter squadron (German: Staffel ) was divided into several flights ( Schwärme ) of four aircraft.
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.Each Rotte was composed of a leader and a wingman.^ Each Rotte was composed of a leader and a wingman.
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.This flexible formation allowed the pilots to maintain greater situational awareness, and the two Rotten could split up at any time and attack on their own.^ This flexible formation allowed the pilots to maintain greater situational awareness, and the two Rotten could split up at any time and attack on their own.
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^ The two aircraft had different strengths, but were similar enough that only the superior skills of the veteran United States Air Force pilots allowed them to prevail.
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^ GPS Navigation Systems enhance pilot situational awareness.
  • Radar equips fighter aircraft with AESA capabilities., Raytheon Company 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

The finger-four would become widely adopted as the fundamental tactical formation over the course of World War II.
See also: List of fighter aircraft of the inter-war period

World War II

C.200 in the markings of 372° Sq. Regia Aeronautica
Messerschmitt Bf 109G-2/Trop 'Black 6'
The Mitsubishi A6M Zero typified the highly maneuverable, but lightly armored, fighter design
.Aerial combat formed an important part of World War II military doctrine.^ The finger-four would become widely adopted as the fundamental tactical formation over the course of World War II. Aerial combat formed an important part of World War II military doctrine.
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^ Aerial combat formed an important part of World War II military doctrine.
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^ The use of bombers as military aircraft became wide spread during World War II. Bombers differ from fighter aircraft in that a bomber is capable of flying over great distances carrying the bombs to enemy home lands.

.The ability of aircraft to locate, harass, and interdict ground forces was an instrumental part of the German combined-arms doctrine, and their inability to achieve air superiority over Britain made a German invasion unfeasible.^ The ability of aircraft to locate, harass, and interdict ground forces was an instrumental part of the German combined-arms doctrine, and their inability to achieve air superiority over Britain made a German invasion unfeasible.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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^ The United States Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps maintain an inventory of approximately 3,500 fixed-wing fighter and attack aircraft that provide unsurpassed air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities.
  • Aviation: Attack and Fighter Aircraft - Storming Media 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel noted the effect of airpower: "Anyone who has to fight, even with the most modern weapons, against an enemy in complete command of the air, fights like a savage against modern European troops, under the same handicaps and with the same chances of success."
.During the 1930s, two different streams of thought about air-to-air combat began to emerge, resulting in two different approaches to monoplane fighter development.^ During the 1930s, two different streams of thought about air-to-air combat began to emerge, resulting in two different approaches to monoplane fighter development.
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^ Fighter designs were significantly influenced by the Energy-Maneuverability (E-M) theory developed by Colonel John Boyd and mathematician Thomas Christie, based upon Boyd s combat experience in the Korean War and as a fighter tactics instructor during the 1960s.
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^ The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.
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.In Japan and Italy especially, there continued to be a strong belief that lightly armed, highly maneuverable single-seat fighters would still play a primary role in air-to-air combat.^ F-20 The F-20 is an American single-seat multi-role fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is highly maneuverable and has proven itself in air-to-air combat and air-to-surface attack.
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^ In Japan and Italy especially, there continued to be a strong belief that lightly armed, highly maneuverable single-seat fighters would still play a primary role in air-to-air combat.
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.Aircraft such as the Nakajima Ki-27, Nakajima Ki-43 and the Mitsubishi A6M Zero in Japan, and the Fiat G.50 and Macchi C.200 in Italy epitomized a generation of monoplanes designed to this concept.^ Aircraft such as the Nakajima Ki-27, Nakajima Ki-43 and the Mitsubishi A6M Zero in Japan, and the Fiat G.50 and Macchi C.200 in Italy epitomized a generation of monoplanes designed to this concept.
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^ Aircraft such as the Nakajima Ki-27 , Nakajima Ki-43 and the Mitsubishi A6M Zero in Japan, and the Fiat G.50 and Macchi C.200 in Italy epitomised a generation of monoplanes designed to this concept.
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^ The Albatros D.I of late 1916, designed by Robert Thelen, set the classic pattern followed by almost all such aircraft for about twenty years.
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This Supermarine Spitfire XVI was typical of World War II fighters optimized for high level speeds and good climb rates
.The other stream of thought, which emerged primarily in Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States was the belief that the high speeds of modern combat aircraft and the g-forces imposed by aerial combat meant that dogfighting in the classic World War I sense would be impossible.^ The other stream of thought, which emerged primarily in Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States was the belief that the high speeds of modern combat aircraft and the g -forces imposed by aerial combat meant that dogfighting in the classic WWI sense would be impossible.
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^ The other stream of thought, which emerged primarily in Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States was the belief that the high speeds of modern combat aircraft and the g-forces imposed by aerial combat meant that dogfighting in the classic World War I sense would be impossible.
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^ Beginning in 1942, significant numbers of British, and later U.S., fighter aircraft were also supplied to aid the Soviet war effort, with the Bell P-39 Airacobra proving particularly effective in the lower-altitude combat typical of the Eastern Front.
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.Fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the Supermarine Spitfire, the Yakovlev Yak-1 and the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk were all designed for high level speeds and a good rate of climb.^ Fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the Supermarine Spitfire, the Yakovlev Yak-1 and the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk were all designed for high level speeds and a good rate of climb.
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^ Fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the Supermarine Spitfire , the Yakovlev Yak-1 and the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk were all designed for high level speeds and a good rate of climb.
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^ But the concept of the Spitfire really began way back in 1930 when Supermarine submitted their design (Westland and Blackburn Aircraft Companies also submitted designs) in relation for the construction of an all metal type fighter aircraft that would have a fabric covered wing area as well as tailplane sections.

.Good maneuverability was desirable, but it was not the primary objective.^ Good manoeuvrability was desirable, but it was not the primary objective.
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^ Good maneuverability was desirable, but it was not the primary objective.
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.The 1939 Soviet-Japanese Battle of Khalkhyn Gol and the initial German invasion of Poland that same year were too brief to provide much feedback to the participants for further evolution of their respective fighter doctrines.^ The 1939 Soviet-Japanese Battle of Khalkhyn Gol and the initial German invasion of Poland that same year were too brief to provide much feedback to the participants for further evolution of their respective fighter doctrines.
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^ The 1939 Soviet-Japanese Battle of Khalkhyn Gol and the initial German invasion of Poland that same year were too brief to provide much feedback to the participants for further evolution of the participant’s fighter doctrines.
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^ The Second World War saw the emergence of the importance of air power with the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of Britain, and the D-Day invasion.
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.During the Winter War, the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force, which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia's Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation.^ During the Winter War, the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force, which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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^ The Air Force's F-22 Raptor fighter/bomber was originally designed to achieve air superiority against advanced, futuristic Soviet tactical fighters that were never built.
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European theater (Eastern Front)

.On the Eastern Front, the strategic surprise of Operation Barbarossa demonstrated that Soviet air defense preparations were woefully inadequate, and the Great Purge rendered any lessons learned by the Red Air Force command from previous experience in Spain and Finland virtually useless.^ On the Eastern Front, the strategic surprise of Operation Barbarossa demonstrated that Soviet air defense preparations were woefully inadequate, and the Great Purge rendered any lessons learned by the Red Air Force command from previous experience in Spain and Finland virtually useless.
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^ On the Eastern Front , the strategic surprise of Operation Barbarossa demonstrated that Soviet air defence preparations were woefully inadequate, and the Great Purge rendered any lessons learned by the Red Air Force command from previous experience in Spain and Finland virtually useless.
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^ The Air Force's F-22 Raptor fighter/bomber was originally designed to achieve air superiority against advanced, futuristic Soviet tactical fighters that were never built.
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.During the first few months of the invasion, Axis air forces were able to destroy large numbers of Red Air Force aircraft on the ground and in one-sided dogfights.^ During the first few months of the invasion, Axis air forces were able to destroy large numbers of Red Air Force aircraft on the ground and in one-sided dogfights.
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^ It is the first U.S. Air Force aircraft designed exclusively for close air support.

^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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.However, by the winter of 1941–1942, the Red Air Force was able to put together a cohesive air defense of Moscow, successfully interdict attacks on Leningrad, and begin production of new aircraft types in the relocated semi-built factories in the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia and the Caucasus.^ However, by the winter of 1941–1942, the Red Air Force was able to put together a cohesive air defence of Moscow, successfully interdict attacks on Leningrad, and begin production of new aircraft types in the relocated semi-built factories in the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
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^ However, by the winter of 1941–1942, the Red Air Force was able to put together a cohesive air defense of Moscow, successfully interdict attacks on Leningrad, and begin production of new aircraft types in the relocated semi-built factories in the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia and the Caucasus.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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.These facilities produced more advanced monoplane fighters, such as the Yak-1, Yak-3, LaGG-3, and MiG-3, to wrest air superiority from the Luftwaffe.^ These facilities produced more advanced monoplane fighters, such as the Yak-1 , Yak-3 , LaGG-3 , and MiG-3 , to wrest air superiority from the Luftwaffe .
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^ These facilities produced more advanced monoplane fighters, such as the Yak-1, Yak-3, LaGG-3, and MiG-3, to wrest air superiority from the Luftwaffe.
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^ The Air Force's F-22 Raptor fighter/bomber was originally designed to achieve air superiority against advanced, futuristic Soviet tactical fighters that were never built.
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.However, Soviet aircrew training was hasty in comparison to that provided to the Luftwaffe, so Soviet pilot losses continued to be disproportionate until a growing number of survivors were matched to more effective machines.^ However, Soviet aircrew training was hasty in comparison to that provided to the Luftwaffe, so Soviet pilot losses continued to be disproportionate until a growing number of survivors were matched to more effective machines.
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^ However, Soviet aircrew training was hasty in comparison to that provided to the Luftwaffe , so Soviet pilot losses continued to be disproportionate until a growing number of survivors were matched to more effective machines.
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^ The steady attrition of experienced pilots forced the Germans to more frequently dip into their training pool to make up numbers when casualties surged.
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.Beginning in 1942, significant numbers of British, and later U.S., fighter aircraft were also supplied to aid the Soviet war effort, with the Bell P-39 Airacobra proving particularly effective in the lower-altitude combat typical of the Eastern Front.^ Beginning in 1942, significant numbers of British, and later U.S., fighter aircraft were also supplied to aid the Soviet war effort, with the Bell P-39 Airacobra proving particularly effective in the lower-altitude combat typical of the Eastern Front.
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^ Beginning in 1942, significant numbers of British, and later U.S., fighter aircraft were also sent to aid the Soviet war effort, with the P-39 Airacobra proving particularly effective in the lower-altitude combat typical of the Eastern Front.
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^ Westland Welkin The Welkin I was a British single-seat high-altitude fighter designed to combat possible stratospheric raids by the Luftwaffe over England at heights beyond the range of the then existing fighters, during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also from that time, the Eastern Front became the largest arena of fighter aircraft use in the world; fighters were used in all of the roles typical of the period, including close air support, interdiction, escort and interception roles.^ It is the first U.S. Air Force aircraft designed exclusively for close air support.

^ Also from that time, the Eastern Front became the largest arena of fighter aircraft use in the world; fighters were used in all of the roles typical of the period, including close air support, interdiction, escort and interception roles.
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^ All these MK V's became successful fighter aircraft.

.Some aircraft were armed with weapons as large as 45 mm cannon (particularly for attacking enemy armored vehicles), and the Germans began installing additional smaller cannons in under-wing pods to assist with ground-attack missions.^ Some aircraft were armed with weapons as large as 45 mm cannon (particularly for attacking enemy armored vehicles), and the Germans began installing additional smaller cannons in under-wing pods to assist with ground-attack missions.
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^ Some aircraft were armed with weapons as large as 45 mm cannon (particularly for attacking enemy armoured vehicles), and the Germans began installing additional smaller cannon in under-wing pods to assist with ground-attack missions.
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^ In practice, soon after the actual commencement of the war, the pilots of small scout aircraft began to arm themselves with pistols, carbines , grenades , and an assortment of improvised weapons with which to attack enemy aircraft.
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Pacific theatre

Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat on patrol in early 1942
.In the Pacific Theater, the experienced Japanese used their latest Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" to clear the skies of all opposition.^ In the Pacific Theater, the experienced Japanese used their latest Mitsubishi A6M Zero to clear the skies of all opposition.
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^ In the Pacific Theatre , the experienced Japanese used their latest Mitsubishi A6M “Zero” to clear the skies of all opposition.
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^ They forgot the IJN airforce, the japs had very interesting planes like the Ki 61,Ki 100 and of course the legendary Mitsubishi A6M Zero.
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.Allied air forces – often flying obsolete aircraft, as the Japanese were not deemed as dangerous as the Germans – were caught off-guard and driven back until the Japanese became overextended.^ Allied air forces – often flying obsolete aircraft, as the Japanese were not deemed as dangerous as the Germans – were caught off-guard and driven back until the Japanese became overextended.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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^ The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft that takes off and lands vertically like a helicopter but flies like an airplane by tilting its wing-mounted rotors to become propellers.
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.While the Japanese entered the war with a cadre of superbly trained airmen, they were never able to adequately replace their losses with pilots of the same quality, resulting in zero leave for experienced pilots and sending pilots with minimal skill into battle, while the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and U.S. schools produced thousands of competent airmen, compared to one hundred Japanese that graduated a year before the war.^ Japanese graduated a year before the war.
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^ While the Japanese entered the war with a cadre of superbly trained airmen, they were never able to adequately replace their losses with pilots of the same quality, while the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and U.S. schools produced thousands of competent airmen.
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^ While the Japanese entered the war with a cadre of superbly trained airmen, they were never able to adequately replace their losses with pilots of the same quality, resulting in zero leave for experienced pilots and sending pilots with minimal skill into battle, while the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and U.S. It was based on the small fast aircraft developed before the war for such air races as the Gordon Bennett Cup and Schneider Trophy.
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.Japanese fighter planes were also optimized for agility and range, and in time Allied airmen developed tactics that made better use of the superior armament and protection in their Grumman F4F Wildcats and Curtiss P-40s.^ Japanese fighter planes were also optimised for agility and range, and in time Allied airmen developed tactics that made better use of the superior armament and protection in their Grumman F4F Wildcats and Curtiss P-40s .
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^ Japanese fighter planes were also optimized for agility and range, and in time Allied airmen developed tactics that made better use of the superior armament and protection in their Grumman F4F Wildcats and Curtiss P-40s.
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^ This report provides an overview discussion on the modernization of U.S. military tactical aircraft, meaning fighter aircraft, strike-fighters, and attack planes.
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.From mid-1942, newer Allied fighter models were faster (Wildcat was 13 mph (21 km/h) slower than the Zero, but the Warhawk was 29 mph (47 km/h) faster) and better-armed than the Japanese fighters.^ From mid-1942, newer Allied fighter models were faster and better-armed than the Japanese fighters, and improved tactics such as the Thach weave helped counter the more agile Zeros and Nakajima Ki-43 ‘Oscars’.
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^ From mid-1942, newer Allied fighter models were faster (Wildcat was 13 mph slower than the Zero, but the Warhawk was 29 mph faster) and better-armed than the Japanese fighters.
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^ The Ki-43-II-KAI was capable of out-maneuvering every Allied fighter it encountered, but the P-38, P-47, and P-51 could all out-dive and out-zoom the Japanese fighter.
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Improved tactics such as the Thach weave helped counter the more agile Zeros and Nakajima Ki-43 'Oscars'. Japanese industry was not up to the task of mass-producing fighter designs equal to the latest Western models, and Japanese fighters had been largely driven from the skies by mid-1944.

Technological innovations

.Piston-engine power increased considerably during the war.^ Piston-engine power increased considerably during the war.
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^ By the end of the war, turbojet engines were already beginning to replace piston engines as the means of propulsion, and increasingly sophisticated refinements to armament were already appearing.
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^ Several prototype fighter programs begun early in 1945 continued on after the war and led to advanced piston-engine fighters that entered production and operational service in 1946.
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.The Curtiss P-36 Hawk had a 900 hp (670 kW) radial engine but was soon redesigned as the P-40 Warhawk with a 1100 hp (820 kW) in-line engine.^ The Curtiss P-36 Hawk had a 900 hp radial engine but was soon redesigned as the P-40 Warhawk with an 1100 hp in-line engine .
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^ The Curtiss P-36 Hawk had a 900 hp (670 kW) radial engine but was soon redesigned as the P-40 Warhawk with a 1100 hp (820 kW) in-line engine.
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^ Aircraft engines increased in power several-fold over the period, going from a typical 180 hp (130 kW) in the 1918 Fokker D.VII to 900 hp (670 kW) in the 1938 Curtiss P-36.
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.By 1943, the latest P-40N had a 1300 hp (970 kW) Allison engine.^ By 1943, the latest P-40N had a 1300 hp (970 kW) Allison engine.
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^ The Curtiss P-36 Hawk had a 900 hp (670 kW) radial engine but was soon redesigned as the P-40 Warhawk with a 1100 hp (820 kW) in-line engine.
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^ Likewise, the radial engines favored for many fighters also grew from 1,100 hp (820 kW) to as much as 2090 hp (770 kW) during the same timeframe.
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.At war's end, the German Focke-Wulf Ta 152 interceptor could achieve 2050 hp (1530 kW) with an MW-50 (methanol-water injection) supercharger and the American P-51H Mustang fitted with the Packard V-1650-9 could achieve 2218 hp (1650 kW) under war emergency power.^ At war’s end, the German Focke-Wulf Ta 152 interceptor could achieve over 2000 hp with an MW-50 ( methanol -water injection) supercharger and the American P-51 Mustangs had a similar amount of power.
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^ At war s end, the German Focke-Wulf Ta 152 interceptor could achieve 2050 hp (1530 kW) with an MW-50 (methanol-water injection) supercharger and the American P-51H Mustang fitted with the Packard V-1650-9 could achieve 2218 hp (1650 kW) under war emergency power.
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^ The Spitfire Mk I of 1939 was powered by a 1030 hp (770 kW) Merlin II; its 1945 successor, the Spitfire F.Mk 21, was equipped with the 2035 hp (1520 kW) Griffon 61.
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.The Spitfire Mk I of 1939 was powered by a 1030 hp (770 kW) Merlin II; its 1945 successor, the Spitfire F.Mk 21, was equipped with the 2035 hp (1520 kW) Griffon 61.^ The Spitfire Mk I of 1939 was powered by a 1030 hp (770 kW) Merlin II; its 1945 successor, the Spitfire F.Mk 21, was equipped with the 2035 hp (1520 kW) Griffon 61.
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^ The 1,030hp Merlins of the Spitfires of 1939 eventually grew to 2,050hp models used in the Spitfire F.21 of 1945, while the radial engines favored for many fighters also grew from 1,100hp to 2,800hp during the same time.
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^ It was powered by a 1500 hp Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru with a turbosupercharger and water-methanol injection to boost power for short intervals.
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.Likewise, the radial engines favored for many fighters also grew from 1,100 hp (820 kW) to as much as 2090 hp (770 kW) during the same timeframe.^ Likewise, the radial engines favored for many fighters also grew from 1,100 hp (820 kW) to as much as 2090 hp (770 kW) during the same timeframe.
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^ The Spitfire Mk I of 1939 was powered by a 1030 hp (770 kW) Merlin II; its 1945 successor, the Spitfire F.Mk 21, was equipped with the 2035 hp (1520 kW) Griffon 61.
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^ The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.
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.The first turbojet-powered fighter designs became operational in 1944, and clearly outperformed their piston-engined counterparts.^ The first turbojet -powered fighter designs became operational in 1944, and clearly outperformed their piston-engined counterparts.
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^ The first turbojet-powered fighter designs became operational in 1944, and clearly outperformed their piston-engined counterparts.
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^ The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star (soon re-designated F-80) was less elegant than the swept-wing Me 262, but had a cruise speed (660 km/h ) as high as the combat maximum of many piston-engined fighters.
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.New designs such as the Messerschmitt Me 262 and Gloster Meteor demonstrated the effectiveness of the new propulsion system.^ New designs such as the Messerschmitt Me 262 and Gloster Meteor demonstrated the effectiveness of the new propulsion system.
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^ Design and development of simulation systems is dealt with commonly as an iterative procedure in which the goal is to improve on the training effectiveness of the system.
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^ Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to be carried aboard smaller aircraft.
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.(Rocket-powered interceptors – most notable the Messerschmitt Me 163 – appeared at the same time, but proved less effective.^ (Rocket-powered interceptors – most notable the Messerschmitt Me 163 – appeared at the same time, but proved less effective.
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^ The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270.
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^ The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 .
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) .Many of these fighters could do over 660 km/h (410 mph) in level flight, and were fast enough in a dive that they started encountering the transonic buffeting experienced near the speed of sound; such turbulence occasionally resulted in a jet breaking up in flight due to the heavy load placed on an aircraft near the so-called "sound barrier". Dive brakes were added to jet fighters late in World War II to minimize these problems and restore control to pilots.^ Only the pilot has flight controls.
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^ It is capable of near sonic speed flight at sea level.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many of these fighters could do over 660 km/h in level flight, and were fast enough in a dive that they started encountering the transonic buffeting experienced near the speed of sound ; such turbulence occasionally resulted in a jet breaking up in flight due to the heavy load placed on an aircraft near the so-called " sound barrier ".
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Focke-Wulf Fw 190D-9 fighter-bomber
.More powerful armament became a priority early in the war, once it became apparent that newer stressed-skin monoplane fighters could not be easily shot down with rifle-caliber machine guns.^ More powerful armament became a priority early in the war, once it became apparent that newer stressed-skin monoplane fighters could not be easily shot down with rifle-caliber machine guns.
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^ More powerful armament became a priority early in the war, once it became apparent that newer stressed-skin monoplane fighters could not be easily shot down with rifle-calibre machine guns.
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^ Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.
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.The Germans' experiences in the Spanish Civil War led them to put 20 mm cannons on their fighters.^ The Germans experiences in the Spanish Civil War led them to put 20 mm cannons on their fighters.
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^ The Germans’ experiences in the Spanish Civil War led them to put 20 mm cannons on their fighters.
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^ The Spanish Civil War also provided an opportunity for updating fighter tactics.
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.The British soon followed suit, putting cannons in the wings of their Hurricanes and Spitfires.^ The British soon followed suit, putting cannons in the wings of their Hurricanes and Spitfires.
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.The Americans, lacking a native cannon design, instead chose to place multiple .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns on their fighters.^ Rifle-caliber guns were the norm, with .50 calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns and 20 mm cannons were deemed "overkill."
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^ The Americans, lacking a native cannon design, instead chose to place multiple .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns on their fighters.
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^ The Americans, lacking a native cannon design, instead chose to place multiple .50 calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns on their fighters.
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.Armaments continued to increase over the course of the war, with the German Me 262 jet having four 30 mm cannons in the nose.^ Armaments continued to increase over the course of the war, with the German Me 262 jet having four 30 mm cannons in the nose.
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^ When used as a fighter the armament was increased by four guns mounted in the nose.
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^ During the Winter War , the greatly outnumbered Finnish Air Force , which had adopted the German finger-four formation, bloodied the noses of Russia’s Red Air Force, which relied on the less effective tactic of a three-aircraft delta formation .
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.Cannons fired explosive shells, and could blast a hole in an enemy aircraft rather than relying on kinetic energy from a solid bullet striking a critical subsystem (fuel line, hydraulics, control cable, pilot, etc.^ Cannons fired explosive shells, and could blast a hole in an enemy aircraft rather than relying on kinetic energy from a solid bullet striking a critical subsystem (fuel line, hydraulics, control cable, pilot, etc.
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^ The F-16 s sole reliance on electronics and wires to relay flight commands, instead of the usual cables and mechanical linkage controls, earned it the sobriquet of the electric jet .
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^ The aircraft made repeated firing passes, attacking USS Liberty with rockets and their internal cannons.
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). .A debate existed over the merits of high rate-of-fire machine guns versus slower-firing, but more devastating, cannon.^ A debate existed over the merits of high rate-of-fire machine guns versus slower-firing, but more devastating, cannon.
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^ New automatic-fire weapons, primarily chain-guns that use an electric engine to drive the mechanism of a cannon -- allowed a single multi-barrel weapon (such as the 20mm Vulcan ) to be carried -- with greater rate-of-fire and accuracy.
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^ Rifle-caliber guns were the norm, with .50 calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns and 20 mm cannons were deemed "overkill."
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German Bf 110G-4 night fighter at the RAF Museum in London
.With the increasing need for close air support on the battlefield, fighters were increasingly fitted with bomb racks and used as fighter-bombers.^ With the increasing need for close air support on the battlefield, fighters were increasingly fitted with bomb racks and used as fighter-bombers .
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^ With the increasing need for close air support on the battlefield, fighters were increasingly fitted with bomb racks and used as fighter-bombers.
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^ While carrying air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath the aircraft’s wing, its maneuverability is decreased because of lessened lift and increased drag , but once the ordnance is delivered (or jettison ), the aircraft is again a fully capable fighter aircraft.
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.Some designs, such as the German Fw 190, proved extremely capable in this role – though the designer Kurt Tank had designed it as a pure interceptor.^ The word fighter did not become the official English term for such aircraft until after World War I. Some designs, such as the German Fw 190, proved extremely capable in this role – though the designer Kurt Tank had designed it as a pure interceptor.
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^ Some designs, such as the German Fw 190, proved extremely capable in this role – though the designer Kurt Tank had designed it as a pure interceptor.
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^ The McDonnell F-4 Phantom II was designed as a pure interceptor for the United States Navy , but became a highly successful multi-role aircraft for the Air Force , Navy and Marine Corps as well as many other nations.
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.While carrying air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath the aircraft's wing, its maneuverability is decreased because of lessened lift and increased drag, but once the ordnance is delivered (or jettisoned), the aircraft is again a fully capable fighter aircraft.^ While carrying air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath the aircraft’s wing, its maneuverability is decreased because of lessened lift and increased drag , but once the ordnance is delivered (or jettison ), the aircraft is again a fully capable fighter aircraft.
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^ Army Air Force (USAAF) bombers like the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated B-24 Liberator suffered such high losses to German fighters (such as the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 bomber destroyer ) and flak (AAA) that – following the second raid on Schweinfurt in August 1943 – the U.S. While carrying air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath the aircraft s wing, its maneuverability is decreased because of lessened lift and increased drag, but once the ordnance is delivered (or jettisoned), the aircraft is again a fully capable fighter aircraft.
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^ In an air-to-surface role, the F-16 can fly more than 500 miles (860 kilometers), deliver its weapons with superior accuracy, defend itself against enemy aircraft, and return to its starting point.
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.By their flexible nature, fighter-bombers offer the command staff the freedom to assign a particular air group to air superiority or ground-attack missions, as need requires.^ By their flexible nature, fighter-bombers offer the command staff the freedom to assign a particular air group to air superiority or ground-attack missions, as need requires.
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^ Dedicated ground-attack aircraft (like the Grumman A-6 Intruder, SEPECAT Jaguar and LTV A-7 Corsair II) offered longer range, more sophisticated night attack systems or lower cost than supersonic fighters.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term fighter is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft.
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.Rapid technology advances in radar, which had been invented shortly prior to World War II, would permit their being fitted to some fighters, such as the Messerschmitt Bf 110, Bristol Beaufighter, de Havilland Mosquito, Grumman F6F Hellcat and Northrop P-61 Black Widow, to enable them to locate targets at night.^ BF 110C The Messerschmitt BF 110C was a German fighter aircraft of the Second World War.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rapid technology advances in radar , which had been invented shortly prior to World War II, would permit their being fitted to some fighters, such as the Messerschmitt Bf 110 , Bristol Beaufighter , de Havilland Mosquito , Grumman F6F Hellcat and Northrop P-61 Black Widow , to enable them to locate targets at night.
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^ Rapid technology advances in radar, which had been invented shortly prior to World War II, would permit their being fitted to some fighters, such as the Messerschmitt Bf 110, Bristol Beaufighter, de Havilland Mosquito, Grumman F6F Hellcat and Northrop P-61 Black Widow, to enable them to locate targets at night.
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.The Germans developed several night-fighter types as they were under constant night bombardment by RAF Bomber Command.^ The Germans developed several night-fighter types as they were under constant night bombardment by RAF Bomber Command.
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^ The Germans developed several night-fighter types as they were under constant night bombardment by RAF Bomber Command .
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^ As the industrial might and great cities of Germany began to suffer under the constant aerial bombardments, Hitler promised a devastating revenge.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

.The British, who developed the first radar-equipped night fighters in 1940–1941, lost their technical lead to the Luftwaffe.^ The British, who developed the first radar-equipped night fighters in 1940–1941, lost their technical lead to the Luftwaffe .
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^ The British, who developed the first radar-equipped night fighters in 1940–1941, lost their technical lead to the Luftwaffe.
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^ Likewise, guns remained the principal armament, although development of infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) had begun; radar was not yet in common usage except on specialised night fighters .
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.Since the radar of the era was fairly primitive and difficult to use, larger two- or three-seat aircraft with dedicated radar operators were commonly adapted to this role.^ Since the radar of the era was fairly primitive and difficult to use, larger two- or three-seat aircraft with dedicated radar operators were commonly adapted to this role.
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^ Since the radar of the era was fairly primitive and difficult to use properly, larger two- or three-seat aircraft with dedicated radar operators were commonly adapted to this role.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term fighter is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft.
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See also: List of fighter aircraft of the World War II period

Post-World War II period

.Several prototype fighter programs begun early in 1945 continued on after the war and led to advanced piston-engine fighters that entered production and operational service in 1946. A typical example is the Lavochkin La-9 'Fritz', which was an evolution of the successful wartime Lavochkin La-7 'Fin'. Working through a series of prototypes, the La-120, La-126 and La-130, the Lavochkin design bureau sought to replace the La-7's wooden airframe with a metal one, as well as fit a laminar-flow wing to improve maneuver performance, and increased armament.^ It was designed to improve on the F-4 Phantom's air combat performance in several respects.
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^ Working through a series of prototypes, the La-120, La-126 and La-130, the Lavochkin design bureau sought to replace the La-7 s wooden airframe with a metal one, as well as fit a laminar-flow wing to improve maneuver performance, and increased armament.
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^ Piston engine fighters .
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.The La-9 entered service in August 1946 and was produced until 1948; it also served as the basis for the development of a long-range escort fighter, the La-11 'Fang', of which nearly 1200 were produced 1947–1951. Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.^ Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.
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^ The La-9 entered service in August 1946 and was produced until 1948; it also served as the basis for the development of a long-range escort fighter, the La-11 Fang , of which nearly 1200 were produced 1947–1951.
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^ La-9 derivatives included examples fitted with two underwing auxiliary pulsejet engines (the La-9RD) and a similarly mounted pair of auxiliary ramjet engines (the La-138); however, neither of these entered service.
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.This period also witnessed experimentation with jet-assisted piston engine aircraft.^ This period also witnessed experimentation with jet-assisted piston engine aircraft.
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^ A few designs combining piston and jet engines for propulsion – such as the Ryan FR Fireball – saw brief use, but by the end of the 1940s virtually all new combat aircraft were jet-powered.
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^ The world s navies also transitioned to jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.
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.La-9 derivatives included examples fitted with two underwing auxiliary pulsejet engines (the La-9RD) and a similarly mounted pair of auxiliary ramjet engines (the La-138); however, neither of these entered service.^ La-9 derivatives included examples fitted with two underwing auxiliary pulsejet engines (the La-9RD) and a similarly mounted pair of auxiliary ramjet engines (the La-138); however, neither of these entered service.
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^ Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain’s Gloster Meteor entered production soon after and the two entered service around the same time in 1944.
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^ It entered service in 1963 and is powered by two Pratt and Whitney JT11D-20B bleed turbojets giving a top speed of 3715 kmph.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.One which did enter service – with the U.S. Navy in March 1945 – was the Ryan FR-1 Fireball; production was halted with the war's end on VJ-Day, with only 66 having been delivered, and the type was withdrawn from service in 1947. The USAAF had ordered its first 13 mixed turboprop-turbojet-powered pre-production prototypes of the Consolidated Vultee XP-81 Silver Bullet fighter, but this program was also canceled by VJ Day, with 80% of the engineering work completed.^ Several prototype fighter programs begun early in 1945 continued on after the war and led to advanced piston-engine fighters that entered production and operational service in 1946.
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^ By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.
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^ Navy in March 1945 – was the Ryan FR-1 Fireball; production was halted with the war s end on VJ-Day, with only 66 having been delivered, and the type was withdrawn from service in 1947.
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See also: List of piston-engined and hybrid propulsion fighter aircraft of the post-World War II period

Rocket-powered fighters

The Messerschmitt Me 163 was the fastest aircraft of WWII and the only mass-produced rocket-powered fighter
.The first rocket-powered aircraft was the Lippisch Ente, which made a successful maiden flight in March 1928.[2] The only pure rocket aircraft ever to be mass-produced was the Messerschmitt Me 163 in 1944, one of several German World War II projects aimed at developing rocket-powered aircraft.^ BF 110C The Messerschmitt BF 110C was a German fighter aircraft of the Second World War.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was the first all-metal aircraft built during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Arado Arado were a German aircraft company producing German warplanes during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] .Later variants of the Me 262 (C-1a and C-2b) were also fitted with rocket powerplants, while earlier models were fitted with rocket boosters, but were not mass-produced with these modifications.^ Later variants of the Me 262 (C-1a and C-2b) were also fitted with rocket powerplants, while earlier models were fitted with rocket boosters, but were not mass-produced with these modifications.
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^ Japanese industry was not up to the task of mass-producing fighter designs equal to the latest Western models, and Japanese fighters had been largely driven from the skies by mid-1944.
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^ I-16s were later slaughtered en masse by these improved German models in the Second World War, although they remained the most common Soviet front-line fighter until well into 1942.
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[4]
.The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270.^ The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 .
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^ The USSR experimented with a rocket-powered interceptor in the years immediately following World War II, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270.
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^ Soon after World War II Australia pursued aircraft carriers as they wished to move the ability to project further out into the Indian Ocean.
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.Only two were built.^ Only two were built.
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.In the 1950s, the British developed mixed-power jet designs employing both rocket and jet engines to cover the performance gap that existed in existing turbojet designs.^ In the 1950s, the British developed mixed-power designs employing both rocket and jet engines to cover the performance gap that existed in existing turbojet designs.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. fighter to exceed Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service.
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^ Weapon system software development, systems integration and design modifications are all performed in the Amberley WSBU facility, which employs hundreds of engineering personnel.
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.The rocket was the main engine for delivering the speed and height required for high-speed interception of high-level bombers and the turbojet gave increased fuel economy in other parts of flight, most notably to ensure the aircraft was able to make a powered landing rather than risking an unpredictable gliding return.^ The rocket was the main engine for delivering the speed and height required for high-speed interception of high-level bombers and the turbojet gave increased fuel economy in other parts of flight, most notably to ensure the aircraft was able to make a powered landing rather than risking an unpredictable gliding return.
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^ While carrying air-to-surface ordnance such as bombs or rockets beneath the aircraft’s wing, its maneuverability is decreased because of lessened lift and increased drag , but once the ordnance is delivered (or jettison ), the aircraft is again a fully capable fighter aircraft.
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^ Aircraft engines increased in power several-fold over the period, going from a typical 180 hp (130 kW) in the 1918 Fokker D.VII to 900 hp (670 kW) in the 1938 Curtiss P-36.
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.The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a successful design and was planned to be developed into production when economics forced curtailment of most British aircraft programs in the late 1950s.^ The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a successful design and was planned to be developed into production when economics forced curtailment of most British aircraft programmes in the late 1950s.
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^ The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a successful design and was planned to be developed into production when economics forced curtailment of most British aircraft programs in the late 1950s.
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^ The Albatros D.I of late 1916, designed by Robert Thelen, set the classic pattern followed by almost all such aircraft for about twenty years.
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.Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology had rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe's SR.53 (and its SR.177 maritime variant) obsolete.^ Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology had rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe’s SR.53 (and its SR.177 maritime variant) obsolete.
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^ Furthermore, rapid advancements in jet engine technology had rendered mixed-power aircraft designs like Saunders-Roe s SR.53 (and its SR.177 maritime variant) obsolete.
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^ Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to be carried aboard smaller aircraft.
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.The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. fighter to exceed Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service.^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. fighter to exceed Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service.
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term fighter is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft.
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.The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO), a system rarely used in fighters.^ The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO), a system rarely used in fighters.
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^ In December 1914, French aviator Roland Garros asked Saulnier to install his synchronization gear on Garros Morane-Saulnier Type L. In October 2007, Russia and India signed an agreement for joint participation in a Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft Program (FGFA), which will give India responsibility for development of a two-seat model of the PAK-FA. The only operational implementation of mixed propulsion was Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO), a system rarely used in fighters.
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^ The United States Air Force has advanced fighter aircraft that lose the ability to operate in a large portion of their operating flight envelope when an air data system failure is experienced.
  • Aviation: Attack and Fighter Aircraft - Storming Media 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

Jet-powered fighters

.It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by "generations" for historical purposes.^ It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by “generations” for historical purposes.
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^ It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by generations for historical purposes.
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^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

[5] .There are no official definitions of these generations; rather, they represent the notion that there are stages in the development of fighter design approaches, performance capabilities, and technological evolution.^ There are no official definitions of these generations; rather, they represent the notion that there are stages in the development of fighter design approaches, performance capabilities, and technological evolution.
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^ There are no formal, official definitions of these generations; rather, they are a sort of consensus that captures recognizable “stages” in the development of fighter design approaches, performance capabilities, and technological evolution.
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^ These improved designs have become known as Generation 4.5 fighters, recognizing their intermediate nature between the 4th and 5th generations, and their contribution in furthering development of individual fifth-generation technologies.
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.The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.^ The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.
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^ These improved designs have become known as Generation 4.5 fighters, recognizing their intermediate nature between the 4th and 5th generations, and their contribution in furthering development of individual fifth-generation technologies.
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^ These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft, but it should be recognised that it is not unusual for continuing introduction and production of one generation’s aircraft as combat “lessons learned” and continuing technological innovation and improvements are already germinating a new design philosophy and prototypes for a successor generation.
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.These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft.^ These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft.
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^ These timeframes also encompass the peak period of service entry for such aircraft, but it should be recognised that it is not unusual for continuing introduction and production of one generation’s aircraft as combat “lessons learned” and continuing technological innovation and improvements are already germinating a new design philosophy and prototypes for a successor generation.
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^ With increased miniaturization, smaller aircraft such as the F16 and F18 now carry these same precision weapon systems.
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First generation subsonic jet fighters (mid-1940s to mid-1950s)

.The first generation of jet fighters comprises the initial, subsonic jet fighter designs introduced late in World War II and in the early post-war period.^ First-generation jet fighters (mid-1940s to mid-1950s) .
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^ The Americans were one of the first to begin using jet fighters post-war.
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^ The first generation of jet fighters comprises the initial, subsonic jet fighter designs introduced late in World War II and in the early post-war period.
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.They differed little from their piston-engined counterparts in appearance, and many employed unswept wings.^ They differed little from their piston-engined counterparts in appearance, and many employed unswept wings.
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^ They differ widely in appearance and operational efficiency but they all had one thing in common: they all possessed some claim to fame.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star (soon re-designated F-80) was less elegant than the swept-wing Me 262, but had a cruise speed (660 km/h ) as high as the combat maximum of many piston-engined fighters.
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.Guns remained the principal armament.^ Guns remained the principal armament.
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^ Likewise, guns remained the principal armament, although development of infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) had begun; radar was not yet in common usage except on specialised night fighters .
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.The impetus for the development of turbojet-powered aircraft was to obtain a decisive advantage in maximum speed.^ The impetus for the development of turbojet-powered aircraft was to obtain a decisive advantage in maximum speed.
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^ The main impetus for the development of turbojet-powered was to obtain a decisive advantage in maximum speed.
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^ It entered service in 1963 and is powered by two Pratt and Whitney JT11D-20B bleed turbojets giving a top speed of 3715 kmph.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Top speeds for fighters rose steadily throughout World War II as more powerful piston engines were developed, and had begun approaching the transonic flight regime where the efficiency of piston-driven propellers drops off considerably.^ Top speeds for fighters rose steadily throughout World War II as more powerful piston engines were developed, and had begun approaching the transonic flight regime where the efficiency of piston-driven propellers drops off considerably.
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^ Piston engine fighters .
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^ Piston-engine power increased considerably during the war.
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.The first jets were developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war.^ DH4 The DH4 was a two-seater daylight bomber used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was the first all-metal aircraft built during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first jets were developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war.
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.Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me 262.^ Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me 262 .
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^ Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me 262.
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^ The first jets were developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war.
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.It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, was quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.^ It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, was quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.
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^ The U.S. It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, was quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.
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^ The Ki-100 was in fact an excellent fighter, a nasty customer for Allied aircraft to deal with while being surprisingly comfortable and easy to fly, an important consideration when experienced Japanese pilots were in increasingly short supply.
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.The design was never deployed in numbers sufficient to stop the Allied air campaign, and a combination of fuel shortages, pilot losses, and technical difficulties with the engines kept the number of sorties low.^ The design was never deployed in numbers sufficient to stop the Allied air campaign, and a combination of fuel shortages, pilot losses, and technical difficulties with the engines kept the number of sorties low.
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^ While the Japanese entered the war with a cadre of superbly trained airmen, they were never able to adequately replace their losses with pilots of the same quality, while the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and U.S. schools produced thousands of competent airmen.
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^ The combination of air-superiority fighters and multirole fighters is often referred to as the “high-low mix”.
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.Nevertheless, the Me 262 indicated the obsolescence of piston-driven aircraft.^ Nevertheless, the Me 262 indicated the obsolescence of piston-driven aircraft.
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^ It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, was quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.
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^ The U.S. It was considerably faster than contemporary piston-driven aircraft, and in the hands of a competent pilot, was quite difficult for Allied pilots to defeat.
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.Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain's Gloster Meteor entered production soon after and the two entered service around the same time in 1944. Meteors were commonly used to intercept the V-1 "buzz bomb", as they were faster than available piston-engined fighters.^ Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain’s Gloster Meteor entered production soon after and the two entered service around the same time in 1944.
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^ Spurred by reports of the German jets, Britain s Gloster Meteor entered production soon after and the two entered service around the same time in 1944.
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^ Meteors were commonly used to intercept the V-1 “buzz bomb” , as they were faster than available piston-engined fighters.
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.By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.^ By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.
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^ Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.
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^ Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters were retained until the early-to-mid 1950s, even in the air forces of the major powers (though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs).
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.A few designs combining piston and jet engines for propulsion – such as the Ryan FR Fireball – saw brief use, but by the end of the 1940s virtually all new combat aircraft were jet-powered.^ A few designs combining piston and jet engines for propulsion – such as the Ryan FR Fireball – saw brief use, but by the end of the 1940s virtually all new combat aircraft were jet-powered.
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^ This period also witnessed experimentation with jet-assisted piston engine aircraft.
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^ By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.
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.Despite their advantages, the early jet fighters were far from perfect, particularly in the opening years of the generation.^ Despite their advantages, the early jet fighters were far from perfect, particularly in the opening years of the generation.
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^ (CAC), are both working on advanced 4th generation fighter designs that could enter the PLAAF service as early as 2015.
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^ It has become common in the aviation community to classify jet fighters by “generations” for historical purposes.
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.Their operational lifespans could be measured primarily in hours; the engines themselves were fragile and bulky, and power could be adjusted only slowly.^ Their operational lifespans could be measured primarily in hours; the engines themselves were fragile and bulky, and power could be adjusted only slowly.
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^ Even as little as fifteen years ago, the precision weaponry was large and bulky and could only be carried by larger aircraft such as the F111.
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.Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters were retained until the early-to-mid 1950s, even in the air forces of the major powers (though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs).^ Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters were retained until the early-to-mid 1950s, even in the air forces of the major powers (though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs).
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^ By the end of the war almost all work on piston-powered fighters had ended.
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^ Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters were retained until the early-to-mid 1950s, even in the air forces of the major powers (though the types retained were the best of the WWII designs).
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.Innovations including ejector seats and all-moving tailplanes were introduced in this period.^ Innovations including ejector seats and all-moving tailplanes were introduced in this period.
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^ Innovations such as swept wings , ejector seats , and all-moving tailplanes were introduced in this period.
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A de Havilland Sea Vampire Mk.10 taking off from the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ocean on 3 December 1945, the first take-off and landing of a jet-powered fighter from an aircraft carrier.
.The Americans were one of the first to begin using jet fighters post-war.^ The Americans were one of the first to begin using jet fighters post-war.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. fighter to exceed Mach 1 in level flight) met a similar fate for the same reason, and no hybrid rocket-and-jet-engine fighter design has ever been placed into service.
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^ The American XF-91 Thunderceptor (which was the first U.S. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are dual-roled as fighter-bombers; the term fighter is also sometimes used colloquially for dedicated ground-attack aircraft.
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.The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star (soon re-designated F-80) was less elegant than the swept-wing Me 262, but had a cruise speed (660 km/h [410 mph]) as high as the combat maximum of many piston-engined fighters.^ The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star (soon re-designated F-80) was less elegant than the swept-wing Me 262, but had a cruise speed (660 km/h [410 mph]) as high as the combat maximum of many piston-engined fighters.
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^ The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star (soon re-designated F-80) was less elegant than the swept-wing Me 262, but had a cruise speed (660 km/h ) as high as the combat maximum of many piston-engined fighters.
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^ Altogether, the nine partner nations anticipate procuring over 3000 Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II fighters at an anticipated average FAC of $80–85 million.
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.The British designed several new jets, including the iconic de Havilland Vampire which was sold to the air forces of many nations.^ The British designed several new jets, including the iconic de Havilland Vampire which was sold to the air forces of many nations.
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^ Many squadrons of piston-engined fighters were retained until the early-to-mid 1950s, even in the air forces of the major powers (though the types retained were the best of the World War II designs).
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^ This report examines the Air Forces F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and ...
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A MiG-15 in Polish markings
.Ironically, the British transferred the technology of the Rolls-Royce Nene jet engine technology to the Soviets, who soon put it to use in their advanced Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 fighters which were the first to introduce swept wings in combat, an innovation first proposed by German research which allowed flying much closer to the speed of sound than straight-winged designs such as the F-80. Their top speed of 1,075 km/h (668 mph) proved quite a shock to the American F-80 pilots who encountered them over Korea, along with their armament of two 23 mm cannons and a single 37 mm cannon compared to machine guns.^ It can fly at speeds of greater than 180 mph and has provisions for mounting two M-60 machineguns as armament.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While carrying the same armament as the F-80, the North American F-86 Sabre was a true swept-wing transonic fighter, as was the MiG-15.
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^ The British soon followed suit, putting cannons in the wings of their Hurricanes and Spitfires.
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.Nevertheless, in the first jet-versus-jet dogfight in history, which occurred during the Korean War on 8 November 1950, an F-80 (as the P-80 had been redesignated) intercepted two North Korean MiG-15s near the Yalu River and shot them down.^ Nevertheless, in the first jet-versus-jet dogfight in history, which occurred during the Korean War on 8 November 1950, an F-80 (as the P-80 had been redesignated) intercepted two North Korean MiG-15s near the Yalu River and shot them down.
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^ During the first few months of the invasion, Axis air forces were able to destroy large numbers of Red Air Force aircraft on the ground and in one-sided dogfights.
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^ DH4 The DH4 was a two-seater daylight bomber used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

F-86 Sabres in Pakistani markings
.The Americans responded by rushing their own swept-wing F-86 squadrons to battle against the MiGs which had similar trans-sonic performance.^ The response to this was to rush F-86 squadrons to battle against the MiGs.
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^ The Americans responded by rushing their own swept-wing F-86 squadrons to battle against the MiGs which had similar trans-sonic performance.
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^ While carrying the same armament as the F-80, the North American F-86 Sabre was a true swept-wing transonic fighter, as was the MiG-15.
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.The two aircraft had different strengths, but were similar enough that the superior technology such as a radar ranging gunsight and skills of the veteran United States Air Force pilots allowed them to prevail.^ The two aircraft had different strengths, but were similar enough that the superior technology such as a radar ranging gunsight and skills of the veteran United States Air Force pilots allowed them to prevail.
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^ The two aircraft had different strengths, but were similar enough that only the superior skills of the veteran United States Air Force pilots allowed them to prevail.
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^ Fighter aircraft are the primary means by which armed forces gain air superiority over their opponents in battle.
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F9F Panther and AJ-2 Savage conducting in-flight refueling trials in 1953
.The world's navies also transitioned to jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.^ The world s navies also transitioned to jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.
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^ The world’s navies also went for jets during this period, despite the need for catapult-launching of the new aircraft.
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^ The first jets were developed during World War II and saw combat in the last two years of the war.
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.Grumman's F9F Panther was adopted by the U.S. Navy as their primary jet fighter in the Korean War period, and it was one of the first jet fighters to employ an afterburner.^ Grumman’s F9F Panther was adopted by the U.S. Navy as their primary jet fighter in the Korean War period.
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^ The Americans were one of the first to begin using jet fighters post-war.
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^ Navy as their primary jet fighter in the Korean War period, and it was one of the first jet fighters to employ an afterburner.
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.The de Havilland Sea Vampire was the Royal Navy's first jet fighter.^ The de Havilland Sea Vampire was the Royal Navy s first jet fighter.
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^ Messerschmitt developed the first operational jet fighter, the Me 262 .
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^ The Vampire was commonly used in this role for the Royal Navy .
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.Radar was used on specialized night fighters such as the F3D Skyknight which also downed MiGs over Korea, and later fitted to the F2H Banshee and swept wing F7U Cutlass and F3H Demon as all-weather / night fighters.^ Radar was used on specialized night fighters such as the F3D Skyknight which also downed MiGs over Korea, and later fitted to the F2H Banshee and swept wing F7U Cutlass and F3H Demon as all-weather / night fighters.
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^ The Americans responded by rushing their own swept-wing F-86 squadrons to battle against the MiGs which had similar trans-sonic performance.
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^ Early versions of Infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and radar guided missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow which would be developed into the 21st century were first introduced on swept wing subsonic Demon and Cutlass naval fighters.
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.Early versions of Infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and radar guided missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow which would be developed into the 21st century were first introduced on swept wing subsonic Demon and Cutlass naval fighters.^ Early versions of Infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and radar guided missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow which would be developed into the 21st century were first introduced on swept wing subsonic Demon and Cutlass naval fighters.
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^ Radar-guided (RF) missiles were introduced as well, but early examples proved unreliable.
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^ Likewise, guns remained the principal armament, although development of infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) had begun; radar was not yet in common usage except on specialised night fighters .
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See also: List of first generation jet fighters

Second generation jet fighters (mid-1950s to early 1960s)

.The development of second-generation fighters was shaped by technological breakthroughs, lessons learned from the aerial battles of the Korean War, and a focus on conducting operations in a nuclear warfare environment.^ The development of second-generation fighters was shaped by technological breakthroughs, lessons learned from the aerial battles of the Korean War, and a focus on conducting operations in a nuclear warfare environment.
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^ Fighter designs were significantly influenced by the Energy-Maneuverability (E-M) theory developed by Colonel John Boyd and mathematician Thomas Christie, based upon Boyd s combat experience in the Korean War and as a fighter tactics instructor during the 1960s.
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^ The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.
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.Technological advances in aerodynamics, propulsion and aerospace building materials (primarily aluminium alloys) permitted designers to experiment with aeronautical innovations, such as swept wings, delta wings, and area-ruled fuselages.^ Technological advances in aerodynamics, propulsion and aerospace building materials (primarily aluminium alloys) permitted designers to experiment with aeronautical innovations, such as swept wings, delta wings, and area-ruled fuselages.
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^ Designers experimented with a variety of aeronautical innovations, such as the swept wing , delta wing , variable-geometry wings, and area ruled fuselages.
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^ Aerodynamic innovations included variable-camber wings and exploitation of the vortex lift effect to achieve higher angles of attack through the addition of leading-edge extension devices such as strakes.
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.Widespread use of afterburning turbojet engines made these the first production aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the ability to sustain supersonic speeds in level flight became a common capability amongst fighters of this generation.^ It is capable of near sonic speed flight at sea level.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Widespread use of afterburning turbojet engines made these the first production aircraft to break the sound barrier, and the ability to sustain supersonic speeds in level flight became a common capability amongst fighters of this generation.
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^ With the aid of swept wing, these were the first production aircraft to break the sound barrier.
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.Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to be carried aboard smaller aircraft.^ Fighter designs also took advantage of new electronics technologies that made effective radars small enough to be carried aboard smaller aircraft.
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^ The AESA radar offers unique capabilities for fighters (and it is also quickly becoming a sine qua non for Generation 4.5 aircraft designs, as well as being retrofitted onto some fourth-generation aircraft).
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^ This half-generation has been coined to describe an interim period of aircraft design marked by a relative stagnation of aerodynamic technologies compared to third and fourth generation advances, but with tremendous achievements made in the field of avionics and other flight electronics.
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.Onboard radars permitted detection of enemy aircraft beyond visual range, thereby improving the handoff of targets by longer-ranged ground-based warning and tracking radars.^ Onboard radars permitted detection of enemy aircraft beyond visual range, thereby improving the handoff of targets by longer-ranged ground-based warning and tracking radars.
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^ Dedicated ground-attack aircraft (like the Grumman A-6 Intruder, SEPECAT Jaguar and LTV A-7 Corsair II) offered longer range, more sophisticated night attack systems or lower cost than supersonic fighters.
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^ The latest upgrade to the Tomcat included the Link 16 software which enables the aircraft to target enemy aircraft spotted by AWACS aircraft without using its own radar, giving it superior look down kill ability in Beyond Visual Range combat scenarios.
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.Similarly, advances in guided missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.^ Similarly, advances in guided missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.
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^ Navy to establish its famous TOPGUN fighter weapons school, which provided a graduate-level curriculum to train fleet fighter pilots in advanced Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) and Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) tactics and techniques.
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^ Likewise, guns remained the principal armament, although development of infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) had begun; radar was not yet in common usage except on specialised night fighters .
  • Fighter Aircraft& encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period, passive-homing infrared-guided (IR) missiles became commonplace, but early IR missile sensors had poor sensitivity and a very narrow field of view (typically no more than 30°), which limited their effective use to only close-range, tail-chase engagements.^ During this period, passive-homing infrared-guided (IR) missiles became commonplace, but early IR missile sensors had poor sensitivity and a very narrow field of view (typically no more than 30°), which limited their effective use to only close-range, tail-chase engagements.
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^ The timeframes associated with each generation are inexact and are only indicative of the period during which their design philosophies and technology employment enjoyed a prevailing influence on fighter design and development.
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^ Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs, and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.
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.Radar-guided (RF) missiles were introduced as well, but early examples proved unreliable.^ Radar-guided (RF) missiles were introduced as well, but early examples proved unreliable.
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^ Early versions of Infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and radar guided missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow which would be developed into the 21st century were first introduced on swept wing subsonic Demon and Cutlass naval fighters.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs, and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These semi-active radar homing (SARH) missiles could track and intercept an enemy aircraft "painted" by the launching aircraft's onboard radar.^ The RWR set could also display the status of the tracking aircraft's radar.
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^ These semi-active radar homing (SARH) missiles could track and intercept an enemy aircraft painted by the launching aircraft s onboard radar.
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^ It could differentiate between search radar, tracking radar, and missile-homing radar.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medium- and long-range RF air-to-air missiles promised to open up a new dimension of "beyond-visual-range" (BVR) combat, and much effort was placed in further development of this technology.^ Medium- and long-range RF air-to-air missiles promised to open up a new dimension of beyond-visual-range (BVR) combat, and much effort was placed in further development of this technology.
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^ As such, the F-14 was a full air superiority fighter and not only a long range interceptor.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-14 was developed after the collapse of the F-111B project, and was the first of the American teen-series fighters which were designed incorporating the experience of air combat in Vietnam against MiGs.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MiG-21F interceptor
.The prospect of a potential third world war featuring large mechanized armies and nuclear weapon strikes led to a degree of specialization along two design approaches: interceptors (like the English Electric Lightning and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F) and fighter-bombers (such as the Republic F-105 Thunderchief and the Sukhoi Su-7).^ The prospect of a potential third world war featuring large mechanized armies and nuclear weapon strikes led to a degree of specialization along two design approaches: interceptors (like the English Electric Lightning and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21F) and fighter-bombers (such as the Republic F-105 Thunderchief and the Sukhoi Su-7).
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^ Images of the concepts show a twin-engine aircraft sharing some design traits with Lockheed Martin's stealthy F/A-22 "Raptor" multirole fighter such as the internal carriage of its weapons.
  • J-XX Stealthy Fighter Aircraft - (China stealth fighter) 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such fighter jets are generally heavier and examples include the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet which is an evolution of the 1970s F/A-18 Hornet design, the F-15E Strike Eagle which is a ground-attack variant of the Cold War-era F-15 Eagle, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI which is a further development of the Su-30 fighter and the Mikoyan MiG-29M/35, an upgraded version of the 1980s MiG-29.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dogfighting, per se, was de-emphasized in both cases.^ The McDonnell F-4 Phantom was designed around radar and missiles as an all-weather interceptor, but emerged as a versatile strike bomber nimble enough to prevail in air combat, adopted by the U.S. Dogfighting, per se, was de-emphasized in both cases.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The interceptor was an outgrowth of the vision that guided missiles would completely replace guns and combat would take place at beyond visual ranges.^ The interceptor was an outgrowth of the vision that guided missiles would completely replace guns and combat would take place at beyond visual ranges.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the course of the 1960s, increasing combat experience with guided missiles demonstrated that combat would devolve into close-in dogfights.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, advances in guided missile development allowed air-to-air missiles to begin supplementing the gun as the primary offensive weapon for the first time in fighter history.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, interceptors were designed with a large missile payload and a powerful radar, sacrificing agility in favor of high speed, altitude ceiling and rate of climb.^ As a result, interceptors were designed with a large missile payload and a powerful radar, sacrificing agility in favor of high speed, altitude ceiling and rate of climb.
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^ IJARG/images/ki60-1.jpg The first prototype suffered from high wing loading which resulted in excessive take-off and landing speeds.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter-bombers could swing between air superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance.
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.With a primary air defense role, emphasis was placed on the ability to intercept strategic bombers flying at high altitudes.^ With a primary air defense role, emphasis was placed on the ability to intercept strategic bombers flying at high altitudes.
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^ B-1B The B-1B is an American multi-role, long-range bomber , capable of flying intercontinental missions without refueling, then penetrating present and predicted sophisticated enemy defenses.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-14 was the United States Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter, fleet defense interceptor and tactical reconnaissance platform from 1974 to 2006.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specialized point-defense interceptors often had limited range and little, if any, ground-attack capabilities.^ Adding ground attack capability .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the low dogfight loss-exchange ratios experienced by American fighters in the skies over Vietnam led the U.S. Specialized point-defense interceptors often had limited range and little, if any, ground-attack capabilities.
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^ The third generation witnessed continued maturation of second-generation innovations, but it is most marked by renewed emphases on maneuverability and traditional ground-attack capabilities.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fighter-bombers could swing between air superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance.^ Fighter-bombers could swing between air superiority and ground-attack roles, and were often designed for a high-speed, low-altitude dash to deliver their ordnance.
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^ In the ground attack role it subsequently proved its ability to absorb considerable punishment and in return deliver a more then powerful punch.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

^ Westland Welkin The Welkin I was a British single-seat high-altitude fighter designed to combat possible stratospheric raids by the Luftwaffe over England at heights beyond the range of the then existing fighters, during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs, and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.^ Television- and IR-guided air-to-surface missiles were introduced to augment traditional gravity bombs, and some were also equipped to deliver a nuclear bomb.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early versions of Infra-red (IR) air-to-air missiles (AAMs) such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and radar guided missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow which would be developed into the 21st century were first introduced on swept wing subsonic Demon and Cutlass naval fighters.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air-to-surface missiles (ASM) equipped with electro-optical (E-O) contrast seekers – such as the initial model of the widely used AGM-65 Maverick – became standard weapons, and laser-guided bombs (LGBs) became widespread in effort to improve precision-attack capabilities.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also: List of second generation jet fighters

Third-generation jet fighters (early 1960s to circa 1970)

.The third generation witnessed continued maturation of second-generation innovations, but it is most marked by renewed emphases on maneuverability and traditional ground-attack capabilities.^ Adding ground attack capability .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third generation witnessed continued maturation of second-generation innovations, but it is most marked by renewed emphases on maneuverability and traditional ground-attack capabilities.
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^ This era also saw an expansion in ground-attack capabilities, principally in guided missiles, and witnessed the introduction of the first truly effective avionics for enhanced ground attack, including terrain-avoidance systems.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the course of the 1960s, increasing combat experience with guided missiles demonstrated that combat would devolve into close-in dogfights.^ Over the course of the 1960s, increasing combat experience with guided missiles demonstrated that combat would devolve into close-in dogfights.
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^ Over the course of the Korean War, however, it became obvious that the day of the piston-engined fighter was coming to a close and that the future would lie with the jet fighter.
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^ The interceptor was an outgrowth of the vision that guided missiles would completely replace guns and combat would take place at beyond visual ranges.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Analog avionics began to be introduced, replacing older "steam-gauge" cockpit instrumentation.^ Analog avionics began to be introduced, replacing older steam-gauge cockpit instrumentation.
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^ Analog avionics, required to enable FBW operations, became a fundamental requirement and began to be replaced by digital flight control systems in the latter half of the 1980s.
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.Enhancements to improve the aerodynamic performance of third-generation fighters included flight control surfaces such as canards, powered slats, and blown flaps.^ Enhancements to improve the aerodynamic performance of third-generation fighters included flight control surfaces such as canards, powered slats, and blown flaps.
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^ Most fourth-generation fighter-bombers, such as the Boeing F/A-18 Hornet and Dassault Mirage 2000, are true multirole warplanes, designed as such from the start.
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^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.A number of technologies would be tried for Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing, but thrust vectoring would be successful on the Harrier jump jet.^ A number of technologies would be tried for Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing, but thrust vectoring would be successful on the Harrier jump jet.
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^ Maneuver performance remains important and is enhanced by thrust-vectoring, which also helps reduce takeoff and landing distances.
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.Growth in air combat capability focused on the introduction of improved air-to-air missiles, radar systems, and other avionics.^ Growth in air combat capability focused on the introduction of improved air-to-air missiles, radar systems, and other avionics.
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^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The U-2 is capable of collecting multi-sensor photo, electro-optic, infrared and radar imagery, as well as performing other types of reconnaissance functions.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.While guns remained standard equipment (early models of F-4 being a notable exception), air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs to achieve greater "stand-off" ranges, however, kill probabilities proved unexpectedly low for RF missiles due to poor reliability and improved electronic countermeasures (ECM) for spoofing radar seekers.^ While guns remained standard equipment, air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs to achieve greater stand-off ranges, however, kill probabilities proved unexpectedly low for RF missiles due to poor reliability and improved electronic countermeasures (ECM) for spoofing radar seekers.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radar-guided (RF) missiles were introduced as well, but early examples proved unreliable.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More powerful armament became a priority early in the war, once it became apparent that newer stressed-skin monoplane fighters could not be easily shot down with rifle-caliber machine guns.
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.Infrared-homing AAMs saw their fields of view expand to 45°, which strengthened their tactical usability.^ One which did enter service – with the U.S. Infrared-homing AAMs saw their fields of view expand to 45°, which strengthened their tactical usability.
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.Nevertheless, the low dogfight loss-exchange ratios experienced by American fighters in the skies over Vietnam led the U.S. Navy to establish its famous "TOPGUN" fighter weapons school, which provided a graduate-level curriculum to train fleet fighter pilots in advanced Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) and Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) tactics and techniques.^ Navy to establish its famous TOPGUN fighter weapons school, which provided a graduate-level curriculum to train fleet fighter pilots in advanced Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) and Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT) tactics and techniques.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the low dogfight loss-exchange ratios experienced by American fighters in the skies over Vietnam led the U.S. Specialized point-defense interceptors often had limited range and little, if any, ground-attack capabilities.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Soviet aircrew training was hasty in comparison to that provided to the Luftwaffe, so Soviet pilot losses continued to be disproportionate until a growing number of survivors were matched to more effective machines.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This era also saw an expansion in ground-attack capabilities, principally in guided missiles, and witnessed the introduction of the first truly effective avionics for enhanced ground attack, including terrain-avoidance systems.^ Adding ground attack capability .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This era also saw an expansion in ground-attack capabilities, principally in guided missiles, and witnessed the introduction of the first truly effective avionics for enhanced ground attack, including terrain-avoidance systems.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Air-to-surface missiles (ASM) equipped with electro-optical (E-O) contrast seekers – such as the initial model of the widely used AGM-65 Maverick – became standard weapons, and laser-guided bombs (LGBs) became widespread in effort to improve precision-attack capabilities.^ Air-to-surface missiles (ASM) equipped with electro-optical (E-O) contrast seekers – such as the initial model of the widely used AGM-65 Maverick – became standard weapons, and laser-guided bombs (LGBs) became widespread in effort to improve precision-attack capabilities.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While guns remained standard equipment, air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs to achieve greater stand-off ranges, however, kill probabilities proved unexpectedly low for RF missiles due to poor reliability and improved electronic countermeasures (ECM) for spoofing radar seekers.
  • fiankoma.org: Fighter aircraft 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.fiankoma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the weapons it can carry is the TOW missile and the aircraft can be equipped with two weapon pods on each side of the fuselage plus a telescopic nose sight for the gunner and a steering indicator for the pilot.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Guidance for such precision-guided munitions (PGM) was provided by externally mounted targeting pods, which were introduced in the mid-1960s.^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Two under-engine mount points are provided for external fuel tanks.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To provide for use of precision munitions, the remaining F-14As and F-14Bs underwent an upgrade program.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also led to the development of new automatic-fire weapons, primarily chain-guns that use an electric engine to drive the mechanism of a cannon; this allowed a single multi-barrel weapon (such as the 20 mm Vulcan) to be carried and provided greater rates of fire and accuracy.^ 'Vengeance weapons' were developed and deployed and were soon causing indiscriminate damage to cities such as London and Antwerp.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

^ The AC-130H carries armament of two 20mm Vulcan cannons with 3,000 rounds, one 40mm Bofors cannon with 256 rounds and one 105mm howitzer with 100 rounds.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A 30 mm chain gun can be fired at rates of up to 750 rounds per minute.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Powerplant reliability increased and jet engines became "smokeless" to make it harder to visually sight aircraft at long distances.^ That abruptly ended concerns over the reliability of the Ha-140 engine, but left 275 airframes sitting around without powerplants.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

^ These aircraft motions were sent to the navigation computer, allowing it to calculate the jet's distance and direction from the initial starting point.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dedicated ground-attack aircraft (like the Grumman A-6 Intruder, SEPECAT Jaguar and LTV A-7 Corsair II) offered longer range, more sophisticated night attack systems or lower cost than supersonic fighters.^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Video: F-14 Tomcat - combat training, cockpit footage Video: F-14 Tomcat, fly-by and final landing Video: F-14 Tomcat in action Video: F-14 Tomcat Top Gun video salute Video: F-14 Tomcat farewell tribute Grumman A-6 Intruder: Aircraft profile F-4 Phantom II: Aircraft profile North American A-5 Vigilante: Aircraft profile Northrop F-5 Tiger II and Freedom Fighter: Aircraft profile C-20 Gulfstream: Aircraft profile .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was an optical system, Northrop AAX-1, also called TCS (TV Camera Set) and was used to help pilots visually identify and track aircraft, at least on day missions, up to a range of more than 60 miles for large aircraft (a zoom function was included to help with small fighters).
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With variable-geometry wings, the supersonic F-111 introduced the Pratt & Whitney TF30, the first turbofan equipped with afterburner.^ Propulsion: F-14A: (2) TF30-414A Afterburning Turbofans with over 40,000 lb Total Thrust .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Pratt & Whitney JT10A's (better known as the TF30) were relatively powerful for the time (5.670/9.480 kg/t) and being turbofans, they allowed reduced fuel consumption while cruising, which was important for long patrol missions.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ambitious project sought to create a versatile common fighter for many roles and services. .It would serve well as an all-weather bomber, but lacked the performance to defeat other fighters.^ The U-2 is capable of collecting multi-sensor photo, electro-optic, infrared and radar imagery, as well as performing other types of reconnaissance functions.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-14A was the original production two-seat all-weather interceptor fighter version for the US Navy.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JA 37 The JA 37 is a Swedish single-seat all-weather interceptor fighter aircraft with secondary strike capability.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.The McDonnell F-4 Phantom was designed around radar and missiles as an all-weather interceptor, but emerged as a versatile strike bomber nimble enough to prevail in air combat, adopted by the U.S. Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.^ It was designed to improve on the F-4 Phantom's air combat performance in several respects.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tomcat was originally designed to combat both highly maneuverable aircraft and the Soviet cruise missile/bomber threat.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also provides aerial refueling support to Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allied aircraft.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Despite numerous shortcomings that would be not be fully addressed until newer fighters, the Phantom claimed 280 aerial kills, more than any other U.S. fighter over Vietnam.^ Aeroflot's vast fleet contains more An-24s than any other airliner; over 1,000 fire-fighting, aerial survey and passenger versions have been built.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

[6] .With range and payload capabilities that rivaled that of World War II bombers such as B-24 Liberator, the Phantom would became a highly successful multirole aircraft.^ Arado Arado were a German aircraft company producing German warplanes during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Tomcat was originally designed to combat both highly maneuverable aircraft and the Soviet cruise missile/bomber threat.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whitley The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley IV was a British twin-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

See also: List of third generation jet fighters

Fourth generation jet fighters (circa 1970 to mid-1990s)

.Fourth-generation fighters continued the trend towards multirole configurations, and were equipped with increasingly sophisticated avionics and weapon systems.^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (See F-111 ) F-111D The F-111D has improved avionics with better navigation, air-to-air weapon delivery systems, and newer turbofan engines than earlier model F-111s.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fighter designs were significantly influenced by the Energy-Maneuverability (E-M) theory developed by Colonel John Boyd and mathematician Thomas Christie, based upon Boyd's combat experience in the Korean War and as a fighter tactics instructor during the 1960s.^ Westland Welkin The Welkin I was a British single-seat high-altitude fighter designed to combat possible stratospheric raids by the Luftwaffe over England at heights beyond the range of the then existing fighters, during the Second World War .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spad VII The Spad VII was a single seater fighter aircraft used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fokker D.VII The Fokker D.VII was a single-seater fighter scout aircraft used by the German forces during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.E-M theory emphasized the value of aircraft specific energy maintenance as an advantage in fighter combat.^ Featuring colour footage of the last surviving aircraft alongside original combat film, this is the definitive documentary of a fighter plane that truly changed the course of history.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

^ No combat aircraft ever achieved perfection, but at the time of its debut the FW 190 probably came as near to this elusive goal as any other fighter.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

Boyd perceived maneuverability as the primary means of getting "inside" an adversary's decision-making cycle, a process Boyd called the "OODA loop" (for "Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action"). .This approach emphasized aircraft designs that were capable of performing "fast transients" – quick changes in speed, altitude, and direction – as opposed to relying chiefly on high speed alone.^ One of two Tomcat squadrons per airwing was designated as a TARPS unit and received 3 TARPS capable aircraft and training for 4 TARPS aircrews.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A self-protection subsystem is designed to protect the EF-111A against radar-directed, anti-aircraft artillery , and missile or aircraft threats.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AN-28 The Antonov An-28 is a Russian 19-seater aircraft designed for STOL performance from the most inaccessible "hot and high" airstrips.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

Mikoyan MiG-29 'Fulcrum' (background) and F-16 Fighting Falcon (foreground)
Sukhoi Su-27 'Flanker'
E-M characteristics were first applied to the F-15 Eagle, but Boyd and his supporters believed these performance parameters called for a small, lightweight aircraft with a larger, higher-lift wing. .The small size would minimize drag and increase the thrust-to-weight ratio, while the larger wing would minimize wing loading; while the reduced wing loading tends to lower top speed and can cut range, it increases payload capacity and the range reduction can be compensated for by increased fuel in the larger wing.^ This maintains the wing sweep to give the optimum lift-to-drag ratio as the Mach number varies, but the system can be manually overridden by the pilot if necessary.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overall thrust-to-weight ratio at maximum load is around 0.56, which does not compare favorably with the F-15A's ratio of 0.85.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had a top speed of 349 mph and a range of 565 miles.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

The efforts of Boyd's "Fighter Mafia" would result in General Dynamics' (now Lockheed Martin's) F-16 Fighting Falcon.
The F-16's manoeuvrability was further enhanced by its being designed to be slightly aerodynamically unstable. .This technique, called "relaxed static stability" (RSS), was made possible by introduction of the "fly-by-wire" (FBW) flight control system (FLCS), which in turn was enabled by advances in computers and system integration techniques.^ The F-14's wing sweep can be varied between 20° and 68° in flight, and is automatically controlled by an air data computer.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No dual control version was ever made for the F-14, so the pilot starts to learn how to fly the machine using other aircraft and simulators.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main control systems are a HUD made by Kaiser, a VSI and a HSI display, that gives data on airspeed, navigation and other information.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Analog avionics, required to enable FBW operations, became a fundamental requirement and began to be replaced by digital flight control systems in the latter half of the 1980s.^ Avionics and flight controls .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crews have classical controls and many older instruments, with an analog-digital hybrid lay out.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The upgrade included digital avionics, improved cockpit displays, structural improvements and improved defensive systems.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, Full Authority Digital Engine Controls (FADEC) to electronically manage powerplant performance were introduced with the Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan.^ Console operators perform surveillance, identification, weapons control, battle management and communications functions.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is powered by two Pratt and Whitney JT8D-9A turbofan engines giving a speed of 565 mph and a range of 2000 miles.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pratt and Whitney Pratt and Whitney are an American aircraft engine manufacturer.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.The F-16's sole reliance on electronics and wires to relay flight commands, instead of the usual cables and mechanical linkage controls, earned it the sobriquet of "the electric jet". Electronic FLCS and FADEC quickly became essential components of all subsequent fighter designs.^ Fuel, electronics, flight controls, and the wing-sweep mechanism are all housed in the fuselage "pancake".
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the first flight of fighter aircraft had exhausted their ordnance, subsequent flights of Israeli fighter aircraft continued to prosecute the attack with rockets, cannon fire, and napalm.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tomcat has fully mechanical flying controls, with the only exception being the spoilers, which are hydro-electrically driven.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other innovative technologies introduced in fourth-generation fighters include pulse-Doppler fire-control radars (providing a "look-down/shoot-down" capability), head-up displays (HUD), "hands on throttle-and-stick" (HOTAS) controls, and multi-function displays (MFD), all of which have become essential equipment.^ The U-2 is capable of collecting multi-sensor photo, electro-optic, infrared and radar imagery, as well as performing other types of reconnaissance functions.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cruise missiles are also possible targets with the AWG-9, since this radar can lock onto and track even small objects at low altitude when in a Pulse-Doppler mode.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main control systems are a HUD made by Kaiser, a VSI and a HSI display, that gives data on airspeed, navigation and other information.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Composite materials in the form of bonded aluminum honeycomb structural elements and graphite epoxy laminate skins began to be incorporated into flight control surfaces and airframe skins to reduce weight. .Infrared search-and-track (IRST) sensors became widespread for air-to-ground weapons delivery, and appeared for air-to-air combat as well.^ The F-14 also has the LANTIRN targeting system that allows delivery of various laser-guided bombs for precision strikes in air-to-ground combat missions and for battle damage assessment.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other systems included the Airborne Self Protection Jammer (ASPJ), Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), SJU-17(V) Naval Aircrew Common Ejection Seats (NACES) and Infrared Search and Track (IRST).
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."All-aspect" IR AAM became standard air superiority weapons, which permitted engagement of enemy aircraft from any angle (although the field of view remained relatively limited).^ The Navy also wanted the aircraft to possess inherent air superiority characteristics.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For reference purposes, the aircraft is similar to a standard model C-130H except for electrical and air-conditioning modifications.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ F-15 The F-15 is an American single-seat air superiority fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.The first long-range active-radar-homing RF AAM entered service with the AIM-54 Phoenix, which solely equipped the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, one of the few variable-sweep-wing fighter designs to enter production.^ The first AIM-54 Phoenix launch by a Tomcat occurred on 28 April 1972.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-14 Tomcat was designed as both an air superiority fighter and a long range, naval interceptor.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even with the tremendous advancement of Air to Air missiles in this era, internal guns were standard equipment.^ It had the standard US gun, the M61 Vulcan, with 676 rounds and 4,000 or 6,000 RPM selectable (the latter usually for air-to ground missions).
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another revolution came in the form of a stronger reliance on ease of maintenance, which led to standardisation of parts, reductions in the numbers of access panels and lubrication points, and overall parts reduction in more complicated equipment like the engines.^ This engine had established a standard of easy maintenance and reliable service, which contrasted markedly with the notoriously unreliable and temperamental Ha-140.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

.Some early jet fighters required 50 man-hours of work by a ground crew for every hour the aircraft was in the air; later models substantially reduced this to allow faster turn-around times and more sorties in a day.^ Orao The orao is a joint Yugoslavian and Romanian single-seat close air support fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Later production IIb aircraft had the oil cooler moved backward from the carburetor air intake and relocated underneath the central fuselage.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

^ YAK-36mp The YAK-36mp is a Soviet shipboard VTOL air defence and strike fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some modern military aircraft only require 10 man-hours of work per hour of flight time, and others are even more efficient.^ This was a marked difference with many previous fighter aircraft in that some did not even include a simple RWR. .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1450 hours local time on June 8, 1967, two Israeli aircraft circled the U.S.S. Liberty three times, with the evident purpose of identifying the vessel.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As of July 2007, many of the remaining 165 aircraft were being shredded to prevent parts from being acquired by Iran, the only other nation to buy the F-14.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aerodynamic innovations included variable-camber wings and exploitation of the vortex lift effect to achieve higher angles of attack through the addition of leading-edge extension devices such as strakes.^ This maintains the wing sweep to give the optimum lift-to-drag ratio as the Mach number varies, but the system can be manually overridden by the pilot if necessary.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike interceptors of the previous eras, most fourth-generation air-superiority fighters were designed to be agile dogfighters (although the Mikoyan MiG-31 and Panavia Tornado ADV are notable exceptions).^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As such, the F-14 was a full air superiority fighter and not only a long range interceptor.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-14 was the United States Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter, fleet defense interceptor and tactical reconnaissance platform from 1974 to 2006.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The continually rising cost of fighters, however, continued to emphasize the value of multirole fighters. .The need for both types of fighters led to the "high/low mix" concept which envisioned a high-capability and high-cost core of dedicated air-superiority fighters (like the F-15 and Su-27) supplemented by a larger contingent of lower-cost multi-role fighters (such as the F-16 and MiG-29).^ F-15 The F-15 is an American single-seat air superiority fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Harrier The Harrier is a British VTOL multi-role fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As such, the F-14 was a full air superiority fighter and not only a long range interceptor.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most fourth-generation fighter-bombers, such as the Boeing F/A-18 Hornet and Dassault Mirage 2000, are true multirole warplanes, designed as such from the start.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ VFAX would be merged with the USAF Light Weight Fighter fighter competition, from which the F/A-18 Hornet emerged as roughly a midsize fighter.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was facilitated by multimode avionics which could switch seamlessly between air and ground modes. The earlier approaches of adding on strike capabilities or designing separate models specialized for different roles generally became passé (with the Panavia Tornado being an exception in this regard). .Dedicated attack roles were generally assigned either to interdiction strike aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su-24 and Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle or to armored "tank-plinking" close air support (CAS) specialists like the Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II and Sukhoi Su-25.^ SU-24 The SU-24 is a Soviet deep penetration interdictor and strike aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SU-20 The Sukhoi SU-20 is a Soviet single-seat attack and close-support aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SU-25 The SU-25 is a Soviet single-seat close air support aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Perhaps the most novel technology to be introduced for combat aircraft was "stealth", which involves the use of special "low-observable" (L-O) materials and design techniques to reduce the susceptibility of an aircraft to detection by the enemy's sensor systems, particularly radars.^ It is also used for combat and special operations.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Tomcat was originally designed to combat both highly maneuverable aircraft and the Soviet cruise missile/bomber threat.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-14 Tomcat: On the flight deck of the USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65), sailors employ techniques on an F-14 Tomcat, used in aircraft fire fighting.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first stealth aircraft to be introduced were the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk attack aircraft (introduced in 1983) and the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit bomber (which first flew in 1989).^ DH4 The DH4 was the first British daylight bomber aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-14 first flew on 21 December 1970, just 22 months after Grumman was awarded the contract, and reached Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 1973.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the first flight of fighter aircraft had exhausted their ordnance, subsequent flights of Israeli fighter aircraft continued to prosecute the attack with rockets, cannon fire, and napalm.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although no stealthy fighters per se appeared amongst the fourth generation, some radar-absorbent coatings and other L-O treatments developed for these programs are reported to have been subsequently applied to fourth-generation fighters.^ No combat aircraft ever achieved perfection, but at the time of its debut the FW 190 probably came as near to this elusive goal as any other fighter.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

See also: List of fourth generation jet fighters
File:LCA Tejas.jpg

4.5th generation jet fighters (1990s to the present)

.The end of the Cold War in 1991 led many governments to significantly decrease military spending as a "peace dividend". Air force inventories were cut, and research and development programs intended to produce what was then anticipated to be "fifth-generation" fighters took serious hits; many programs were canceled during the first half of the 1990s, and those which survived were "stretched out". While the practice of slowing the pace of development reduces annual investment expenses, it comes at the penalty of increased overall program and unit costs over the long-term.^ The commanders of combatant commands are responsible for the overall execution of the DOD Law of War Program within their respective commands.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ DH4 The DH4 was a two-seater daylight bomber used during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was the first all-metal aircraft built during the first world war.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this instance, however, it also permitted designers to make use of the tremendous achievements being made in the fields of computers, avionics and other flight electronics, which had become possible largely due to the advances made in microchip and semiconductor technologies in the 1980s and 1990s.^ The G model is a converted FB-111A. The conversion made minor avionics updates and strengthened the aircraft to allow its use in a more dynamic role as a fighter aircraft.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sikorsky The Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation, is an American company involved in the design and manufacture of advanced helicopters for commercial, industrial and military uses.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However due to legal issues beyond our control we cannot currently make this package available to you.
  • WW2 Fighter Aircraft Warplane Documentary DVDs - FactualTV 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.factualtv.com [Source type: General]

This opportunity enabled designers to develop fourth-generation designs – or redesigns – with significantly enhanced capabilities. .These improved designs have become known as "Generation 4.5" fighters, recognizing their intermediate nature between the 4th and 5th generations, and their contribution in furthering development of individual fifth-generation technologies.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.The primary characteristics of this sub-generation are the application of advanced digital avionics and aerospace materials, modest signature reduction (primarily RF "stealth"), and highly integrated systems and weapons.^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The upgrade included digital avionics, improved cockpit displays, structural improvements and improved defensive systems.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See F-111 ) F-111D The F-111D has improved avionics with better navigation, air-to-air weapon delivery systems, and newer turbofan engines than earlier model F-111s.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.These fighters have been designed to operate in a "network-centric" battlefield environment and are principally multirole aircraft.^ It can direct fighter-interceptor aircraft to these enemy targets.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ COMTUEX is designed to bring the aircraft carrier/carrier air wing team together as a cohesive fighting unit while giving the team "blue water" certification for operating at sea.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Key weapons technologies introduced include beyond-visual-range (BVR) AAMs; Global Positioning System (GPS)-guided weapons, solid-state phased-array radars; helmet-mounted sights; and improved secure, jamming-resistant datalinks.^ The governing Rules of Engagement (ROE) also dictated a strict Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) requirement when employing Beyond Visual Range weapons such as the AIM-7 Sparrow and particularly the AIM-54 Phoenix.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In November of that year, a single launch was achieved against an incoming target at over 200 km, this being outside the normal range for the Tomcat weapon system of 166 km.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thrust vectoring to further improve transient maneuvering capabilities have also been adopted by many 4.5th generation fighters, and uprated powerplants have enabled some designs to achieve a degree of "supercruise" ability.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This was a marked difference with many previous fighter aircraft in that some did not even include a simple RWR. .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stealth characteristics are focused primarily on frontal-aspect radar cross section (RCS) signature-reduction techniques including radar-absorbent materials (RAM), L-O coatings and limited shaping techniques.
."Half-generation" designs are either based on existing airframes or are based on new airframes following similar design theory as previous iterations; however, these modifications have introduced the structural use of composite materials to reduce weight, greater fuel fractions to increase range, and signature reduction treatments to achieve lower RCS compared to their predecessors.^ Much of the structure, including the wing box, wing pivots and upper and lower wing skins is made of titanium, a light, rigid and strong material, but also difficult to weld, and costly.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this tunnel provides space to carry Phoenix or Sparrow missiles, assorted bombs, or the TARPS reconnaissance pod, and increases fuel capacity and room for equipment.
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^ The U.S. Navy wanted the F-14 to have a thrust-to-weight ratio of one or greater, though this was not achieved until after the F-14 entered service because of delays in engine development.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prime examples of such aircraft, which are based on new airframe designs making extensive use of carbon-fibre composites, include the Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale, Saab JAS 39 Gripen NG and the HAL Tejas.^ Sikorsky The Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation, is an American company involved in the design and manufacture of advanced helicopters for commercial, industrial and military uses.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ravens engaged in direct support often use the extensive night terrain-following capability built into the basic F-111 design.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Apart from these fighter jets, most of the 4.5 generation aircraft are actually modified variants of existing airframes from the earlier fourth generation fighter jets.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It can direct fighter-interceptor aircraft to these enemy targets.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Such fighter jets are generally heavier and examples include the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet which is an evolution of the 1970s F/A-18 Hornet design, the F-15E Strike Eagle which is a ground-attack variant of the Cold War-era F-15 Eagle, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI which is a further development of the Su-30 fighter and the Mikoyan MiG-29M/35, an upgraded version of the 1980s MiG-29.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SU-20 The Sukhoi SU-20 is a Soviet single-seat attack and close-support aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Instead, the Navy elected to retire the F-14 and chose the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to fill the roles of fleet defense and strike formerly filled by the F-14.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Su-30MKI and MiG-35 use two- and three-dimensional thrust vectoring engines respectively so as to enhance maneuvering.^ (See F-111 ) F-111F The F-111F has improved turbofan engines which give F-111F models 35 percent more thrust than previous F-111A and E engines.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This engine had a two-speed supercharger and drove a three-bladed constant-speed metal propeller.
  • Imperial Japanese Army - Fighter Aircraft - WW2 in Color History Forum 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: General]

.Most 4.5 generation aircraft are being retrofitted with Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radars and other state-of-the art avionics such as electronic counter-measure systems and forward looking infrared.^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The U-2 is capable of collecting multi-sensor photo, electro-optic, infrared and radar imagery, as well as performing other types of reconnaissance functions.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The radar combined with an identification friend or foe subsystem can look down to detect, identify and track enemy and friendly low-flying aircraft by eliminating ground clutter returns that confuse other radar systems.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.4.5 generation fighters first entered service in the early 1990s, and most of them are still being produced and evolved.^ While the F-14 had been developed as a light weight alternative to the 80,000 lb (36,000 kg) F-111B, the F-14 was still the largest and most expensive fighter in its time.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was first developed in 1978 and entered service in 1983.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is quite possible that they may continue in production alongside fifth-generation fighters due to the expense of developing the advanced level of stealth technology needed to achieve aircraft designs featuring very low observables (VLO), which is one of the defining features of fifth-generation fighters.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-117A production decision was made in 1978 with a contract awarded to Lockheed Advanced Development Projects, the "Skunk Works," in Burbank , Calif.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He called the aircraft 1960s technology and planned to replace the F-14 with an Advanced Tactical Fighter variant.
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.Of the 4.5th generation designs, only the Super Hornet, Strike Eagle, and the Rafale have seen combat action.^ Instead, the Navy elected to retire the F-14 and chose the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to fill the roles of fleet defense and strike formerly filled by the F-14.
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Some others, such as HAL Tejas, are yet to achieve full operational clearance.[7]
.The United States Government defines 4.5 generation fighter aircraft as those that "(1) have advanced capabilities, including— (A) AESA radar; (B) high capacity data-link; and (C) enhanced avionics; and (2) have the ability to deploy current and reasonably foreseeable advanced armaments."^ The United States of American has long and vigorously asserted the right of its warships to transit the high seas, free from molestation by belligerents of wars to which the United States is not a party.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whoever kills or attempts to kill any officer or employee of the United States or of any agency in any branch of the United States Government (including any member of the uniformed services) while such officer or employee is engaged in or on account of the performance of official duties, or any person assisting such an officer or employee in the performance of such duties or on account of that assistance, shall be punished - .
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

[8][9]
See also: List of 4.5 generation jet fighters

Fifth generation jet fighters (2005 to the present)

.The fifth generation was ushered in by the Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor in late 2005. Currently the cutting edge of fighter design, fifth-generation fighters are characterized by being designed from the start to operate in a network-centric combat environment, and to feature extremely low, all-aspect, multi-spectral signatures employing advanced materials and shaping techniques.^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-14 was developed after the collapse of the F-111B project, and was the first of the American teen-series fighters which were designed incorporating the experience of air combat in Vietnam against MiGs.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ailerons are not fitted, with roll control being provided by wing mounted spoilers at low speed (which are disabled if the sweep angle exceeds 57°), and by differential operation of the all-moving tailerons at high speed.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have multifunction AESA radars with high-bandwidth, low-probability of intercept (LPI) data transmission capabilities.^ The radar has a range of more than 200 miles for low-flying targets and farther for aerospace vehicles flying at medium to high altitudes.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Infra-red search and track sensors incorporated for air-to-air combat as well as for air-to-ground weapons delivery in the 4.5th generation fighters are now fused in with other sensors for Situational Awareness IRST or SAIRST, which constantly tracks all targets of interest around the aircraft so the pilot need not guess when he glances.^ Among the weapons it can carry is the TOW missile and the aircraft can be equipped with two weapon pods on each side of the fuselage plus a telescopic nose sight for the gunner and a steering indicator for the pilot.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Orao The orao is a joint Yugoslavian and Romanian single-seat close air support fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.(Requires software upgrade on the F-22.) These sensors, along with advanced avionics, glass cockpits, helmet-mounted sights (not available on F-22), and improved secure, jamming-resistant LPI datalinks are highly integrated to provide multi-platform, multi-sensor data fusion for vastly improved situational awareness while easing the pilot's workload.^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The upgrade included digital avionics, improved cockpit displays, structural improvements and improved defensive systems.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my case these warnings were repeated upon my transfer from each duty station I left along with the standard security clearance de-briefing.
  • War Crimes Committed Against U.S. Military Personnel, June 8, 1967 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ussliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] Avionics suites rely on extensive use of very high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) technology, common modules, and high-speed data buses. Overall, the integration of all these elements is claimed to provide fifth-generation fighters with a "first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability".
.The AESA radar offers unique capabilities for fighters (and it is also quickly becoming a sine qua non for Generation 4.5 aircraft designs, as well as being retrofitted onto some fourth-generation aircraft).^ This was a marked difference with many previous fighter aircraft in that some did not even include a simple RWR. .
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of two Tomcat squadrons per airwing was designated as a TARPS unit and received 3 TARPS capable aircraft and training for 4 TARPS aircrews.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to its high resistance to ECM and LPI features, it enables the fighter to function as a sort of "mini-AWACS," providing high-gain electronic support measures (ESM) and electronic warfare (EW) jamming functions.^ The multiple tasks of navigation, target acquisition, electronic counter measures (ECM), and weapons employment are divided between the pilot and the radar intercept officer (RIO).
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^ The EF-111A provides protection by using a jamming orbit where it stands off from threat radars to cover friendly aircraft entering and leaving the threat areas, or by using the aircraft's high-performance capabilities to directly support attacking forces.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is a jam-resistant system that has performed missions while experiencing heavy electronic countermeasures.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other technologies common to this latest generation of fighters includes integrated electronic warfare system (INEWS) technology, integrated communications, navigation, and identification (CNI) avionics technology, centralized "vehicle health monitoring" systems for ease of maintenance, fiber optics data transmission, and stealth technology.^ Other major subsystems in the E-3 are navigation, communications and computers ( data processing).
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other avionics (such as IFF, communication radios, direction-finding equipment, etc) are near the RIO's position, and are mostly integrated into the AWG-9 display system.
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Maneuver performance remains important and is enhanced by thrust-vectoring, which also helps reduce takeoff and landing distances. .Supercruise may or may not be featured; it permits flight at supersonic speeds without the use of the afterburner – a device that significantly increases IR signature when used in full military power.^ The basic engine thrust without afterburner was powerful enough for carrier launches, further increasing safety.
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^ Full-span slats and flaps are used to increase lift both for landing and combat, with slats being set at 17° for landing and 7° for combat, while flaps are set at 35° for landing and 10° for combat.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were used to generate additional lift ahead of the aircraft's center of gravity, thus helping to compensate for the nose-down pitching tendencies at supersonic speeds.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A key attribute of fifth-generation fighters is very-low-observables stealth.^ Its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and threaten its most-valued, and heavily defended, targets.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Great care has been taken in designing its layout and internal structure to minimize RCS over a broad bandwidth of detection and tracking radar frequencies; furthermore, to maintain its VLO signature during combat operations, primary weapons are carried in internal weapon bays that are only briefly opened to permit weapon launch.^ Furthermore, the powerful emissions from the AWG-9 radar are detectable at great range with a radar warning receiver.
  • F-14 Tomcat fighter: Aircraft profile | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser , infrared and electro-optically guided weapons.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It can perform a variety of missions, including that of a conventional weapons carrier for theater operations.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

Furthermore, stealth technology has advanced to the point where it can be employed without a tradeoff with aerodynamics performance, in contrast to previous stealth efforts. .Some attention has also been paid to reducing IR signatures, especially on the F-22. Detailed information on these signature-reduction techniques is classified, but in general includes special shaping approaches, thermoset and thermoplastic materials, extensive structural use of advanced composites, conformal sensors, heat-resistant coatings, low-observable wire meshes to cover intake and cooling vents, heat ablating tiles on the exhaust troughs (seen on the Northrop YF-23), and coating internal and external metal areas with radar-absorbent materials and paint (RAM/RAP).^ The radar and computer subsystems on the E-3 Sentry can gather and present broad and detailed battlefield information.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The EF-111A provides protection by using a jamming orbit where it stands off from threat radars to cover friendly aircraft entering and leaving the threat areas, or by using the aircraft's high-performance capabilities to directly support attacking forces.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

The expense of developing such sophisticated aircraft is as high as their capabilities. .The U.S. Air Force had originally planned to acquire 650 F-22s, but it now appears that only 187 will be built.^ (See F-111 ) F-111G The F-111G is assigned to the 27th Fighter Wing at Cannon Air Force Base and is used in a training role only.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Air Combat Command's only F-117A unit, the 4450th Tactical Group, (now the 49th Fighter Wing, Holloman Air Force Base, N.M.), achieved operational capability in October 1983.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As of 2008, it remains in service only with the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force.
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As a result, its unit flyaway cost (FAC) is reported to be around $140 million. .To spread the development costs – and production base – more broadly, the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program enrolls eight other countries as cost- and risk-sharing partners.^ Jaguar The jaguar is a joint British and French single-seat tactical strike fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

Altogether, the nine partner nations anticipate procuring over 3000 Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II fighters at an anticipated average FAC of $80–85 million. .The F-35, however, is designed to be a family of three aircraft, a conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) fighter, a short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter, and a Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery (CATOBAR) fighter, each of which has a different unit price and slightly varying specifications in terms of fuel capacity (and therefore range), size and payload.^ It is used with aircraft which can take-off and land with out a runway.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ VTOL VTOL is an abbreviation for vertical take off and landing.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This aircraft can take off from 6,000-foot long runways, or at altitudes as high as 15,000 feet.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other countries have initiated fifth-generation fighter development projects, with Russia's Sukhoi PAK-FA anticipated to enter service circa 2012–2015. In October 2007, Russia and India signed an agreement for joint participation in a Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft Program (FGFA), which will give India responsibility for development of a two-seat model of the PAK-FA. India is also developing its own indigenous fifth generation aircraft named Medium Combat Aircraft.^ Tornado The Tornado is a British two-seat interceptor fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The standard light bomber , and the demon which was a two-seat fighter, the hardy was designed for general-purpose duties and the hind was a high-powered variation.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Orao The orao is a joint Yugoslavian and Romanian single-seat close air support fighter aircraft .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Aircraft of the World 8 January 2010 0:59 UTC vets.com [Source type: Reference]

China is reported to be pursuing multiple fifth-generation projects under the western code name; J-XX, while Japan is exploring their technical feasibility to produce fifth-generation fighters.
See also: List of fifth generation jet fighters

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee, Arthur Gould. No Parachute. London: Jarrolds, 1968. ISBN 0090865901.
  2. ^ Darling, David. "Lippisch Ente", The Internet Encyclopedia of Science – Experimental Aircraft. Accessed 5 October 2008.
  3. ^ "Me-163 Komet". Planes of Fame Air Museum. Accessed 5 October 2008.
  4. ^ Munson, Kenneth. Fighters and Bombers of World War II. New York City: Peerage Books, 1983, p. 159. ISBN 0907408370.
  5. ^ For one representation, see: Yoon, Joe. "Fighter Generations". Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
  6. ^ Where Have All the Phantoms Gone? Ralph Wetterhahn Air & Space Magazine, January 01, 2009
  7. ^ IAF may not get to fly LCA before 2010
  8. ^ CRS RL33543, Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress July 09, 2009
  9. ^ H.R.2647 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010
  10. ^ LockMart's 5TH Generation Fighters

External links


Simple English

Fighter aircraft are small airplanes that are made to fight other airplanes. They are often fast, having aerodynamic shapes (shapes that make them move through air easily) and very powerful engines for their size. They also usually are maneuverable (turn well). Fighters can carry many different kinds of weapons, including missiles, machine guns, and bombs. While fighters may be used to attack vehicles, soldiers, or buildings on the ground, they are different from bombers because they are usually designed to attack other airplanes.

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