Figure of speech: Wikis

  
  

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.A figure of speech is a use of a word that diverges from its normal meaning,[citation needed] or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it such as a metaphor, simile, or personification.^ In this case, the person is not using the word literally in its true meaning.
  • Mrs. Dowling's Literature Terms-Figure of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.dowlingcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figures of speech based on resemblance .
  • Figures of Speech Part I « English Practice – Learn and Practice English Online 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.englishpractice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using figures of speech correctly .

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity.^ Figures of speech are often used and crafted for emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity.
  • Figures of speech - SgWiki 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedom of speech and freedom of expression provided the focus of ‘Free to Air 2009’.

^ See More About: writing style figurative language literary terms Definition: A figure of speech is a word or phrase that departs from everyday literal language for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness.
  • Figure of Speech -- Definition of Figure of Speech -- Understand Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC fictionwriting.about.com [Source type: General]

.However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation.^ Figurative language is the non-literal use of language.
  • WikiAnswers - Literary Devices and Figures of Speech Questions including "How do you write each type of paragraph" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figures of speech used in the Bible .
  • American Rhetoric: Rhetorical Devices in Sound 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: General]

^ Using figures of speech correctly .

.A figure of speech is sometimes called a rhetoric or a locution.^ Figures of Speech: Groupings by rhetorical category .
  • figures of speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC humanities.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figurative language is also called figures of speech.

^ A metaphor is a figure of speech , also called a rhetorical trope , or trope for short.
  • Braintique.com--You Can Learn How to Write 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.braintique.com [Source type: General]

.Not all theories of meaning have a concept of "literal language" (see literal and figurative language).^ Figurative language is the opposite of literal language.
  • Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.englishclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Literal language means exactly what it says.
  • Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.englishclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figurative language is language that cannot be taken literally.
  • Sounds, Figures, and Movement: Basic Tools of the Poet 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under theories that do not, figure of speech is not an entirely coherent concept.^ Under theories that do not, figure of speech is not an entirely coherent concept .
  • Figures of speech - SgWiki 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Loading mentions Retweet Filed under // Far from the Madding Crowd figure of speech literature loneliness misery quotes Thomas Hardy Comments (0) .
  • Jonathan's secret city - Filed under 'figure of speech' 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC jqr.posterous.com [Source type: General]

^ Another fact of Commission life is that the Commission operates in the proverbial fishbowl and that fishbowl, to switch figures of speech, is under a microscope.
  • SEC Speech: Remarks before the Committee on Federal Regulation of Securites; Section of Business Law; American Bar Association (David M. Becker; November 20, 2009) 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sec.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Rhetoric originated as the study of the ways in which a source text can be transformed to suit the goals of the person reusing the material.^ Groupings by rhetorical category Groupings made by well-known authorities (authors and texts) Figures of Grammar Original suggestions for other kinds of groupings are invited.
  • figures of speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC humanities.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not rely on summary articles as your main source because these are considered " secondary " sources; you need to read the information in the original study or book.
  • Hearing and Speech Sciences 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.bsos.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The plain text meaning is this way transformed into a second meaning level, which is to be interpreted by the receivers.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this goal, classical rhetoric detected four fundamental operations[1] that can be used to transform a sentence or a larger portion of a text.^ Moreover, the findings support the pattern of distinctions between schemes and tropes and among the four rhetorical operations proposed in the framework.
  • Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC lsb.scu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This level of the framework distinguishes simple from complex schemes and tropes to yield four rhetorical operations--repetition, reversal, substitution, destabilization.
  • Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC lsb.scu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper develops a framework for classifying rhetorical figures that distinguishes between figurative and non-figurative text, between two types of figures (schemes and tropes), and among four rhetorical operations that underlie individual figures (repetition, reversal, substitution, destabilization).
  • Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC lsb.scu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are: expansion, abridgement, switching, transferring.

Contents

The four fundamental operations

The four fundamental operations, or categories of change, governing the formation of all figures of speech are:[1]
  • expansion/superabundance/addition (adiectio)
  • abridgement/lack/omission/subtraction (detractio)
  • switching/interchange/substitution/transmutation (immutatio)
  • transferring/transposition (transmutatio)
.These four operations were detected by classical rhetoric, and still serve to encompass the various figures of speech.^ Figure: Classic spectrogram of speech sample.
  • Spectrogram of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC books.w3k.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D. Identify these additional figures of speech .
  • Aeneid 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.tabney.com [Source type: General]

^ Figures of Speech: Groupings by rhetorical category .
  • figures of speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC humanities.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Originally these were called, in Latin, the four operations of quadripartita ratio.^ At that point, any existing media operations attached to the original call channel are terminated, and any new listens or plays will be attached to the consultation call channel.
  • Telephony Call Control with Microsoft Speech Server 2004 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC technet.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.The ancient surviving text mentioning them, although not recognizing them as the four fundating principles, is the Rhetorica ad Herennium, of author unknown, where they are called ἔνδεια, πλεονασμός, μετάθεσις and ἐναλλαγή.^ It helps us to appreciate them, and understand the emphasis they bring to the text, when we recognize them for what they are.

^ Although the meaning of conventional symbols is almost automatically recognized, this does not mean that they are not powerful or not literary.
  • Symbol, Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC angol.btk.ppke.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ H andbooks of rhetoric remain ed in fragmentary form with the exception of the Rhetorica ad Alexandrum and the pseudo-Ciceronian Rhetorica ad Herennium (ca.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] Quintillian then mentioned them in Institutio Oratoria.[3] Philo of Alexandria also listed them as addition (πρόσθεσις), subtraction (ἀφαίρεσις), transposition (μετάθεσις), and transmutation (ἀλλοίωσις).[4]

Examples

.The saying "I have got your back" almost never has the literal meaning of receipt or possession of another's spine.^ It means to say your goodbyes.
  • How to Use the Rule of Three in Your Speeches 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

^ Literal language means exactly what it says.
  • Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.englishclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your child is unable to pick up cues from your tone of voice, he or she may take what you say at face value -- that is, the exact opposite of your meaning.

.It is a figure of speech that means the speaker intends to protect the listener, actually or symbolically.^ A Figure of Speech is where a word or words are used to create an effect, often where they do not have their original or literal meaning.
  • Figure of Speech - Glossary Definition - UsingEnglish.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.usingenglish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bible translators have, through inattention to figures of speech, made serious translation blunders, clouding the real meaning of many important passages of God's Word.
  • Figures of Speech Used in the Bible: E.W. Bullinger: 9780801005596: Christianbook.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.christianbook.com [Source type: General]
  • Figures of Speech Used in the Bible: Explained and Illustrated 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.annapolischurch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speech is the integration of respiration, phonation (voicing) resonance (nasality), and articulation to form a pattern in the oral-motor musculature to produce sounds that come together to create a system (language) that has meaning to its speakers and listeners.
  • DC Speech and Language Center 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.dcspeechcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It originates from war, in which one soldier informs another that the first will train his weapon toward an area from which an enemy might shoot the second in the back.^ This knot consists of a loose figure-of-eight knot made in one rope, and feeding the lesser diameter of the two back through the figure-of-eight starting from the original knot's running end and retracing the rope through the figure-of-eight until the second ropes running end is parallel with the first's ropes standing end, essentially creating a figure-of-eight within a figure-of-eight.
  • Figure of speech encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: General]

^ We show that, for these utterances, when training and transfer materials are equated to varying degrees on kinematics, in no case is there transfer from one to another.
  • Specificity of Speech Motor Learning -- Tremblay et al. 28 (10): 2426 -- Journal of Neuroscience 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It might not be perfect but the first step will be put in place and there’s no turning back.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » Text of Obama’s Speech to Students 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC patterico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other examples of figures of speech:
.
  • "It's raining cats and dogs" means it's raining intensely.
  • "I'll give you a piece of my mind" means the speaker will state a frank opinion.
  • "Break a leg" is a saying from theatre meaning "Good luck."
  • "Butterflies in your stomach" figuratively describes nervousness.
  • "You want a piece of me?"^ It means to say your goodbyes.
    • How to Use the Rule of Three in Your Speeches 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I figured that you wanted me to stay.
    • Figure Definition | Definition of Figure at Dictionary.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ You must be pulling my leg is an example of a figure of speech.

    means "Do you want a fight?"
.In each of these examples of figures of speech, there is a literal meaning of the words, which a listener would normally reject as absurd or inappropriate.^ Figures of speech are idiomatic expressions in which words are used figuratively, rather than with their literal meaning.

^ D. Identify these additional figures of speech .
  • Aeneid 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.tabney.com [Source type: General]

^ What are some examples of irony as a figure of speech?
  • WikiAnswers - Literary Devices and Figures of Speech Questions including "How do you write each type of paragraph" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The listener would select the figurative meaning of the utterance, assisted by the context.^ Spoken language” features a0 disfluencies a0 given/new information a0 question/answer pair identification Figure 3: Features available for utterance selection by knowledge source.
  • Paper: A Critical Reassessment of Evaluation Baselines for Speech Summarization 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC clair.si.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No, I didn't mean it when I said I would pay my bank loan back- it was a figure of speech.
  • Google: '99.99 percent' just 'a figure of speech' | Technically Incorrect - CNET News 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What would it mean for white feminist theology to figure Jesus as a black woman?
  • The Risks of Repeating Ourselves 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.aril.org [Source type: Original source]

.Absence of the proper context may defeat the figurative meaning.^ In systematic order, this classic gives the proper pronunciation of each figure of speech, its etymology or origin, and a number of Scripture passages where the figure of speech is used, giving full explanation of its use in each context.
  • Figures of Speech Used in the Bible: E.W. Bullinger: 9780801005596: Christianbook.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.christianbook.com [Source type: General]

^ Results Figure 2 relates the mean percentage of /ga/ responses for CVs following the speech /al/ and /ar/ contexts and for the CVs following the non-speech /al/ and /ar/ sine-pair analogues.
  • Speech Context Effects 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.parmly.luc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that individual figures may have a personality or ambiance apart from the meanings they convey in context.
  • Figures of Rhetoric in Advertising Language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC lsb.scu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If someone not in a theater troupe tells someone else to break a leg, the listener must decide whether the speaker intends to adapt the figure of speech from theater to the present context; if not, the literal meaning would be provocative.^ You must be pulling my leg is an example of a figure of speech.

^ The speech must be presented on the day assigned.
  • JSCC Faculty - Speech Grading Criteria 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC faculty.jscc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The speech must be presented extemporaneously.
  • JSCC Faculty - Speech Grading Criteria 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC faculty.jscc.edu [Source type: Reference]

If there is no cause for nervousness, complaining about butterflies in

Categories of figures of speech

.Scholars of classical Western rhetoric have divided figures of speech into two main categories: schemes and tropes.^ They can be divided into two categories: the syntactic (scheme) and the semantic (trope) figures.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhetorical figures and tropes are standardized deviations from the natural speech.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modes of figuration correspond to the classical distinction between schemes and tropes.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Schemes (from the Greek schēma, form or shape) are figures of speech that change the ordinary or expected pattern of words.^ A " Figure of speech " relates to the form in which the words are used.
  • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropes figures which change the typical meaning of a word or words Metaplasmic Figures figures which move the letters or syllables of a word from their typical places Figures of Omission figures which omit something--eg.
  • Figures of speech - SgWiki 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figures of speech change ordinary language through repetition, substitution, sound, and wordplay.
  • figures of speech - definition and examples of figures of speech - figurative language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC grammar.about.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the phrase, "John, my best friend" uses the scheme known as apposition.^ Isn't it a widely used liberal phrase to say … “sunshine is the best disinfectant”?
  • Corporate speech protected - A Matter Of Opinion - Spokesman.com - Jan. 21, 2010 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.spokesman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During my description I found myself using the phrase "bog standard," much to the bemusement of the Italian listener.

^ Today, he uses the platform to offer, as he told his Facebook friends, “ My take on Obama’s declining rhetorical reputation .
  • Vital Speeches of the Day 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.vsotd.com [Source type: General]

.Tropes (from the Greek tropein, to turn) change the general meaning of words.^ X. Changes of usage of words in the Greek language ...
  • E. W. Bullinger "Figures of Speech used in the Bible" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC bible.zoxt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetorical Devices which change word meanings .
  • Speech Preparation: Impact with Rhetorical Devices, Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

^ Devices which change the usual meaning of words e.g.
  • Speech Preparation: Impact with Rhetorical Devices, Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

.An example of a trope is irony, which is the use of words to convey the opposite of their usual meaning ("For Brutus is an honorable man; / So are they all, all honorable men").^ Using the word like as an example: .
  • An Overview of the Eight Parts of Speech by Carla Cross - CTER Eportfolio Server 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC cterfile.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhetoric The use of words in a sense opposite to the proper meaning.
  • Ernest Speakers--Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.earnestspeakers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are all recognizable similes; they use the words "as" or "like."
  • Figures of speech - SgWiki 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Renaissance, scholars meticulously enumerated and classified figures of speech.^ Making an attempt to identify and classify the figures of speech from prose and poetry will help you to master the figures of speech and thus use them effectively and appropriately!
  • Examples of Hyperboles 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

^ (In older times there was much discussion about how to classify the different figures of speech.
  • Figures of speech - Awe 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC slb-ltsu.hull.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book is the first modern account of Renaissance rhetoric to focus solely on the figures of speech.
  • Renaissance Figures of Speech - Cambridge University Press 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

.Henry Peacham, for example, in his The Garden of Eloquence (1577), enumerated 184 different figures of speech.^ Figures of speech based on contrast or difference .
  • Figures of Speech Part II « English Practice – Learn and Practice English Online 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.englishpractice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry Peacham , The Garden of Eloquence , 1593) "The figurings of speech reveal to us the apparently limitless plasticity of language itself.
  • figures of speech - definition and examples of figures of speech - figurative language 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC grammar.about.com [Source type: General]

^ In this resource, Bullinger describes 217 distinct Scripture figures of speech, defined as a word or sentence in a peculiar form, different from its original or simplest meaning or use.
  • Figures of Speech Used in the Bible: E.W. Bullinger: 9780801005596: Christianbook.com 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.christianbook.com [Source type: General]

.For simplicity, this article divides the figures between schemes and tropes, but does not further sub-classify them (e.g., "Figures of Disorder").^ Modes of figuration correspond to the classical distinction between schemes and tropes.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can be divided into two categories: the syntactic (scheme) and the semantic (trope) figures.
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhetorical elements such as rhetorical figures are tropes ( single word figures of speech), and schemes ( complex figures of expression).
  • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within each category, words are listed alphabetically.^ It contains an alphabetical listing of words with custom pronunciations as well as any words you added by using Add to dictionary in Input Panel.
  • How to Use Speech Recognition Profiles and Dictionaries with a Tablet PC 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Voice notes are organized into a two-dimensional matrix (Figure 4), allowing the user to navigate within a particular list of notes, or between categories of notes.
  • VoiceNotes: A Speech Interface for a Hand-Held Voice Notetaker 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.media.mit.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The design of the experiment was based on a within-student multiple baseline design in which all three categories of words were continuously being tested while one of the categories was being trained.
  • Animated Speech Corporation -- Research - Improving the Vocabulary of Children with Hearing Loss 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC animatedspeech.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most entries link to a page that provides greater detail and relevant examples, but a short definition is placed here for convenience.^ What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link This page was last modified on 4 May 2009, at 19:40.
  • English in Use/Figures of Syntax - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For while dialogue is a frequently invoked concept in most of what he wrote, there are relatively few places where he concentrates on the subject in any detail, as he does here.
  • Table of Contents and Excerpt, Bakhtin, Speech Genres and Other Late Essays 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Part II, “Office Communicator Automation API,” explains the Office Communicator Automation API in depth and provides a detailed walkthrough of an example.
  • Speech Served Here 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC gotspeech.net [Source type: General]

.Some of those listed may be considered rhetorical devices, which are similar in many ways.^ Rhetoric Use in successive clauses of initial words which are the same or similar in meaning; as in: "The voice of the Lord is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth: the Lord is upon many waters.
  • Ernest Speakers--Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.earnestspeakers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we consider the particular articulatory gestures associated with each stop, some additional expressive potentials may become conspicuous.
  • PsyArt: An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts. 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.clas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those strikes may have come from the 74th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron – the “flying tigers” who trace their lineage back to Claire Chennault.
  • Defense.gov Speech: 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.defense.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Schemes

.
  • accumulation: Summary of previous arguments in a forceful manner
  • adnomination: Repetition of a word with a change in letter or sound
  • alliteration: Series of words that begin with the consonant or sound alike
  • anacoluthon: Change in the syntax within a sentence
  • anadiplosis: Repetition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another
  • anaphora: Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
  • anastrophe: Inversion of the usual word order
  • anticlimax: Arrangement of words in order of decreasing importance
  • antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, in reverse order
  • antistrophe: Repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses (see epistrophe)
  • antithesis: Juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas
  • aphorismus: Statement that calls into question the definition of a word
  • aposiopesis: Breaking off or pausing speech for dramatic or emotional effect
  • apostrophe: Directing the attention away from the audience and to a personified abstraction
  • apposition: Placing of two elements side by side, in which the second defines the first
  • assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse
  • asteismus: Facetious or mocking answer that plays on a word
  • asyndeton: Omission of conjunctions between related clauses
  • cacophony: Juxtaposition of words producing a harsh sound
  • cataphora: Co-reference of one expression with another expression which follows it (example: If you need one, there's a towel in the top drawer.^ The placing of a word out of its usual order in a sentence.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The repetition of the conjunction is called polysyndeton; and the omission of it, asyndeton.
    • English in Use/Figures of Syntax - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Amplification as a scheme (an arrangement of words) .
    • figures of amplification 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC rhetoric.byu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    )
  • .
  • classification (literature & grammar): Linking a proper noun and a common noun with an article
  • chiasmus: Word order in one clause is inverted in the other (inverted parallelism).
  • climax: Arrangement of words in order of increasing importance
  • commoratio: Repetition of an idea, re-worded
  • consonance: Repetition of consonant sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse
  • dystmesis: A synonym for tmesis
  • ellipsis: Omission of words
  • enallage: Substitution of forms that are grammatically different, but have the same meaning
  • enjambment: Breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses
  • enthymeme: Informal method of presenting a syllogism
  • epanalepsis: Repetition of the initial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end of the clause or sentence
  • epistrophe: Repetition of the same word or group of words at the end of successive clauses.^ The repetition of different words in successive sentences in the same order and the same sense.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Assonance Repetition of vowel sounds preceded and followed by different consonant sounds.

    ^ Inclusio : Bracketing a passage with the same words.
    • Figures of speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC changingminds.org [Source type: Reference]

    The counterpart of anaphora (also known as antistrophe)
  • euphony: Opposite of cacophony - i.e. pleasant sounding
  • hendiadys: Use of two nouns to express an idea when the normal structure would be a noun and a modifier
  • hendiatris: Use of three nouns to express one idea
  • homographs: Words that are identical in spelling but different in origin and meaning
  • homonyms: Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation and spelling, but differing in origin and meaning
  • homophones:Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation but differing in origin and meaning
  • hypallage: Changing the order of words so that they are associated with words normally associated with others
  • hyperbaton: Schemes featuring unusual or inverted word order
  • hyperbole: Exaggeration of a statement
  • hysteron proteron: The inversion of the usual temporal or causal order between two elements
  • isocolon: Use of parallel structures of the same length in successive clauses
  • internal rhyme: Using two or more rhyming words in the same sentence
  • kenning: A metonymic compound where the terms together form a sort of anecdote
  • merism: Referring to a whole by enumerating some of its parts
  • non sequitur: Statement that bears no relationship to the context preceding
  • onomatopoeia: Word that imitates a real sound (e.g. tick-tock or boom)
  • .
  • paradiastole: Repetition of the disjunctive pair "neither" and "nor"
  • parallelism: The use of similar structures in two or more clauses
  • paraprosdokian: Unexpected ending or truncation of a clause
  • parenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentence
  • paroemion: Resolute alliteration in which every word in a sentence or phrase begins with the same letter
  • parrhesia: Speaking openly or boldly, or apologizing for doing so (declaring to do so)
  • perissologia: The fault of wordiness
  • pleonasm: Use of superfluous or redundant words
  • polyptoton: Repetition of words derived from the same root
  • polysyndeton: Repetition of conjunctions
  • pun: When a word or phrase is used in two different senses
  • sibilance: Repetition of letter 's', it is a form of alliteration
  • sine dicendo: A statement that is so obvious it need not be stated; when uttered almost seems pointless (e.g.^ Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.  (Also known as epistrophe.

    ^ The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive sentences (antistrophe, epiphora, conversio) .
    • E. W. Bullinger "Figures of Speech used in the Bible" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC bible.zoxt.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause.

    'You can never save too much')
  • superlative: Saying something the best of something i.e. the ugliest,the most precious
  • spoonerism: Interchanging of (usually initial) letters of words with amusing effect
  • symploce: Simultaneous use of anaphora and epistrophe: the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning and the end of successive clauses
  • synchysis: Interlocked word order
  • synesis: Agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical form
  • synizesis: Pronunciation of two juxtaposed vowels or diphthongs as a single sound
  • synonymia: Use of two or more synonyms in the same clause or sentence
  • tautology: Redundancy due to superfluous qualification; saying the same thing twice
  • tmesis: Division of the elements of a compound word

Tropes

.
  • allegory: Extended metaphor in which a story is told to illustrate an important attribute of the subject
  • alliteration: Repetition of the first consonant sound in a phrase.
  • allusion: Indirect reference to another work of literature or art
  • anacoenosis: Posing a question to an audience, often with the implication that it shares a common interest with the speaker
  • antanaclasis: A form of pun in which a word is repeated in two different senses
  • anthimeria: Substitution of one part of speech for another, often turning a noun into a verb
  • anthropomorphism: Ascribing human characteristics to something that is not human, such as an animal or a god (see zoomorphism)
  • antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed grammatical order
  • antiphrasis: Word or words used contradictory to their usual meaning, often with irony
  • antonomasia: Substitution of a phrase for a proper name or vice versa
  • aphorism: Tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion, an adage
  • apophasis: Invoking an idea by denying its invocation
  • aporia: Deliberating with oneself, often with the use of rhetorical questions
  • apostrophe: Addressing a thing, an abstraction or a person not present
  • archaism: Use of an obsolete, archaic, word(a word used in olden language, e.g.^ You say that you have to address an audience's question What's in it for me?
    • Make Better Presentations – The Anatomy of a Good Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.chrisbrogan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.  (Also known as epistrophe.

    ^ Approval of one thing after reproving for another thing.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Shakespeare's language)
  • auxesis: Form of hyperbole, in which a more important sounding word is used in place of a more descriptive term
  • catachresis: Mixed metaphor (sometimes used by design and sometimes a rhetorical fault)
  • circumlocution: "Talking around" a topic by substituting or adding words, as in euphemism or periphrasis
  • commiseration: Evoking pity in the audience
  • correctio: Linguistic device used for correcting one's mistakes, a form of which is epanorthosis
  • denominatio: Another word for metonymy
  • double negative: Grammar construction that can be used as an expression and it is the repetition of negative words
  • dysphemism: Substitution of a harsher, more offensive, or more disagreeable term for another.^ The exchange of one word for another ...
    • E. W. Bullinger "Figures of Speech used in the Bible" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC bible.zoxt.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The right column has a description of rhetorical devices used in the corresponding passage.
    • Speech Preparation: Impact with Rhetorical Devices, Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Figurative language uses both grammar and rhetoric.
    • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Opposite of euphemism
  • epanorthosis: Immediate and emphatic self-correction, often following a slip of the tongue
  • enumeratio: A form of amplification in which a subject is divided, detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly
  • epanados: Repetition in a sentence with a reversal of words.^ An explanation immediately following a statement to make it more clear.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It IS a palilogia--repetition of a word for emphasis--but it's also a form of enargia, the special-effects part of rhetoric.
    • Ask Figaro - Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.figarospeech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Repetition in the opposite order : In economics, causes precede effects and effects precede causes.
    • figures 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.niquette.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Example: The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath
  • erotema: Synonym for rhetorical question
  • euphemism: Substitution of a less offensive or more agreeable term for another
  • hermeneia: Repetition for the purpose of interpreting what has already been said
  • hyperbaton: Words that naturally belong together are separated from each other for emphasis or effect
  • hyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis
  • hypophora: Answering one's own rhetorical question at length
  • hysteron proteron: Reversal of anticipated order of events; a form of hyperbaton
  • innuendo: Having a hidden meaning in a sentence that makes sense whether it is detected or not
  • invocation: Apostrophe to a god or muse
  • irony: Use of word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning
  • kataphora: Repetition of a cohesive device at the end
  • litotes: Emphasizing the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite
  • malapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds similar
  • meiosis: Use of understatement, usually to diminish the importance of something
  • merism: Statement of opposites to indicate reality
  • metalepsis: Referring to something through reference to another thing to which it is remotely related
  • metaphor: Stating one entity is another for the purpose of comparing them in quality
  • metonymy: Substitution of a word to suggest what is really meant
  • neologism: The use of a word or term that has recently been created, or has been in use for a short time.^ Approval of one thing after reproving for another thing.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When rendered to the user, the word "you" will be emphasized, and the end of the sentence will raise in pitch to indicate a question.
    • Introduction and Overview of W3C Speech InterfaceFramework 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Other meanings derived from rhetorical elements do not make an interpretation necessary.
    • Fee-Alexandra Haase - ´Transfer of information´ and ´ rhetorical figuration´ - Limits of speech communication 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.sinc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Opposite of archaism
  • onomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meaning
  • oxymoron: Using two terms together, that normally contradict each other
  • parable: Extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral lesson
  • paradox: Use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truth
  • paradiastole: Extenuating a vice in order to flatter or soothe
  • paraprosdokian: Phrase in which the latter part causes a rethinking or reframing of the beginning
  • parallel irony: An ironic juxtaposition of sentences or situations (informal)
  • paralipsis: Drawing attention to something while pretending to pass it over
  • paronomasia: A form of pun, in which words similar in sound but with different meanings are used
  • pathetic fallacy: Using a word that refers to a human action on something non-human
  • periphrasis: Using several words instead of few
  • personification/prosopopoeia/anthropomorphism: Attributing or applying human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena
  • praeteritio: Another word for paralipsis
  • procatalepsis: Refuting anticipated objections as part of the main argument
  • prolepsis: Another word for procatalepsis
  • proslepsis: Extreme form of paralipsis in which the speaker provides great detail while feigning to pass over a topic
  • proverb: Succinct or pithy expression of what is commonly observed and believed to be true
  • pun: Play on words that will have two meanings
  • repetition: Repeated usage of word(s)/group of words in the same sentence to create a poetic/rhythmic effect
  • rhetorical question: Asking a question as a way of asserting something.^ Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses.  (Also known as epistrophe.

    ^ What is the name for words which are suggestive of their sound object or action?
    • WikiAnswers - Literary Devices and Figures of Speech Questions including "How do you write each type of paragraph" 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The placing of a word out of its usual order in a sentence.
    • FIGURES OF SPEECH 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Or asking a question not for the sake of getting an answer but for asserting something (or as in a poem for creating a poetic effect)
  • satire: Use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.^ The answering of one question by asking another.
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The asking of questions, not for information, or for an answer.
    • Bullinger: Figures of Speech Used in the Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.gtft.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Figures of Speech This Is Appendix 6 From The Companion Bible 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.biblestudysite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Irony : Saying something by using its opposite.
    • Figures of speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC changingminds.org [Source type: Reference]

    .A literary composition, in verse or prose, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule.^ Webster describes it as (1) a literary work in which vices and stupidity are held up to ridicule or contempt, and (2) the use of trenchant wit, irony, sarcasm, etc., to mock or discredit human follies & foibles.
    • Figures of Speech 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC www.cswnet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The tone of all these allegations is derisive and holds the plaintiff up to ridicule and contempt.
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Calling Speech Restrictors "Enemies of Free Speech" Can Now Lead to Legal Liability in Canada: 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Drama Literary work with dialogue written in verse and/or prose and spoken by actors playing characters experiencing conflict and tension.

    .A literary genre comprising such compositions
  • simile: Comparison between two things using like or as
  • snowclone: Quoted or misquoted cliché or phrasal template
  • superlative: Saying that something is the best of something or has the most of some quality, e.g.^ Simile is the comparison of two unlike things using like or as.
    • Figures of speech - SgWiki 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Use two for comparison, contrast.
    • How to Use the Rule of Three in Your Speeches 31 January 2010 12:46 UTC sixminutes.dlugan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Simile-comparison of two things that are not alike that includes the words like or as .

    the ugliest, the most precious etc
  • syllepsis: Form of pun, in which a single word is used to modify two other words, with which it normally would have differing meanings
  • syncatabasis (condescension, accommodation): adaptation of style to the level of the audience
  • synecdoche: Form of metonymy, in which a part stands for the whole
  • synesthesia: Description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another.
  • tautology: Needless repetition of the same sense in different words Example: The children gathered in a round circle
  • transferred epithet: Placing of an adjective with what appears to be the incorrect noun
  • truism: a self-evident statement
  • tricolon diminuens: Combination of three elements, each decreasing in size
  • tricolon crescens: Combination of three elements, each increasing in size
  • zeugma: A figure of speech related to syllepsis, but different in that the word used as a modifier is not compatible with one of the two words it modifies
  • zoomorphism: Applying animal characteristics to humans or gods

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jansen (2008), quote from the summary:
    Using these formulas, a pupil could render the same subject or theme in a myriad of ways. For the mature author, this principle offered a set of tools to rework source texts into a new creation. In short, the quadripartita ratio offered the student or author a ready-made framework, whether for changing words or the transformation of entire texts. Since it concerned relatively mechanical procedures of adaptation that for the most part could be learned, the techniques concerned could be taught at school at a relatively early age, for example inthe improvement of pupils’ own writing.
  2. ^ Book IV, 21.29, pp.303-5
  3. ^ Institutio Oratoria, Vol. I, Book I, Chapter 5, paragraphs 6 and 38-41. And also in Nook VI Chapter 3
  4. ^ Harry Caplan

Simple English

A figure of speech is an way of saying a message. Many figures of speech are not meant to be understood exactly as they are said.

A common figure of speech in North America is to say that someone "threw down the gauntlet." This does not usually mean that a person threw a protective wrist-covering down on the ground. Instead, it usually means that the person issued a public challenge to another person (or group of people).


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Figure of speech, which are similar to those in the above article.








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