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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Filipino people
Corazón AquinoEmilio AguinaldoVina MoralesManny Pacquiao
Ignacia del Espíritu SantoCharlene GonzalesJeanne Angeles HarnImelda Marcos
Lea SalongaJuan LunaCatherine UntalanGloria Arroyo

1st row: Corazón Aquino · Emilio Aguinaldo · Vina Morales · Manny Pacquiao
2nd row: Ignacia del Espíritu Santo · Charlene Gonzales · Jeanne Angeles Harn · Imelda Marcos
3rd row: Lea Salonga · Juan Luna · Catherine Untalan · Gloria Arroyo

Total population
about 103,000,000 people worldwide.[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Philippines 92,000,000 [2]
 United States 3,053,179[3]
 Saudi Arabia 1,066,401[4]
 Malaysia 636,544[5]
 United Arab Emirates 529,114[4]
 Canada 410,695[6]
 Japan 210,617[7]
 United Kingdom 203,035[4]
 Qatar 195,558[4]
 Kuwait 139,802[4]
 Hong Kong 130,810[8]
 Australia 129,400[9]
 Italy 120,192[4]
 South Korea 63,464[10]
 Spain 40,000[11]
 New Zealand 16,938[12]
 Nigeria 16,000[13]
 Norway 12,262[14]
 Netherlands 12,000[15]
 Pakistan 3,000[16]
Languages

Filipino, English, Philippine languages, Spanish, Arabic and other languages.

Religion

Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism), Islam, Buddhism, Traditional and folk religions and other religion.

Related ethnic groups

other Southeast Asians and Austronesian-speaking people.

The Filipino people are the citizens of the Republic of the Philippines. The term is also often used to refer to a person having Filipino ancestry. There are about 92,000,000 Filipinos in the Philippines[17] and about 11,000,000 outside the Philippines.[18] Most Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy" (feminine: "Pinay"), which is a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Pilipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". The pre-1987 Philippine alphabet (Abakada)'s lack of the letter "F" had caused the letter "F" to be substituted with "P". This is the reason, when the 28-letter modern Filipino alphabet has been made official in 1987, the name Filipino was preferred over Pilipino.

Contents

History

The earliest human remains found in the Philippines are the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B. Fox, a North American anthropologist of the National Museum.[19] Anthropologists who have examined these remains agreed that they belonged to modern human beings. These include the homo sapiens, as distinguished from the mid-Pleistocene homo erectus species. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Malagasy, parts of Vietnam as well as the non-Han Chinese Taiwanese Aboriginals.[20]

About 30,000 years ago, the Negritos settled in the islands. They were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the Aeta, Agta, Ayta, Ati, Dumagat and other tribes of the Philippines, today making up about .003% of the total Philippine population.[21] Approximately 2,000 years ago non-Chinese Taiwanese aborigines settled in what is now the Philippines by sailing by sea or traveling across then-existing land bridges. Much of the present-day Philippine peoples are descended from this group of immigrants. They were also in contact with other East Asian people, such as Chinese, Japanese, Malay, Indonesian, and other South East Asians. Various ethnic groups established several communities formed by the assimilation of various indigenous Philippine kingdoms.[21]

By the 13th century, Muslim traders from present-day Malaysia and Indonesia brought Islam to the Philippines, where it both replaced and was practiced together with indigenous religions. Most indigenous tribes of the Philippines practiced a mixture of Animism, Hindu-Budhist and Islam. Native villages, called barangays are populated by locals called Timawa (Middle Class) and Alipin (slaves) who are mostly of Malay-Austronesian, Australoid and Dravidian mix. They were ruled by Rajahs, Datus and Sultans, who are mostly a product of the Intermarriage of South Asian of Indo-Aryan, Middle Eastern & Greek Ancestry with the indigenous Malay-Austronesian and Chinese Mix.[21].

During the period of Spanish colonialism beginning in the 16th century, the Philippines was governed by Mexico City on behalf of the Spanish Empire. Early Spanish settlers were mostly explorers, soldiers, government official and religious missionaries born in Spain and Mexico. The Peninsulares (governors born in Spain), mostly of Castillan ancestry settled in the islands to govern the territory. Intermarriage between Spaniards and the indigenous people sometimes occurred, but was not as common as it was in the Americas. Some settlers married the daughters of rajahs and datus (chieftains) to reinforce the colonization of the islands, while some married only other Spaniards. The Spanish recruited thousands of Chinese male migrant workers called sangleys to build the colonial infrastructure in the islands. As the Chinese men married indigenous women, this gave rise to the largest mixed-ethnic group, called mestizo de sangley.

The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines attracted many Chinese male immigrants from China, and maritime trade flourished during the Spanish occupation. Most Chinese male immigrants converted to Catholicism, intermarried with indigenous women, and adopted Hispanized names and customs. The children of unions between indigenous Filipinos and Chinese were called Mestizos de Sangley or Chinese mestizos, while those between Spaniards and Chinese were called Tornatrás and were classified as blanco or white, together with the mixed-race Spanish mestizos and pure-blooded Spanish Filipinos. The Chinese mestizos were largely confined to the Binondo area. However, they eventually spread all over the islands, and became traders, moneylenders and landowners.[25]

A total of 110 Manila galleons set sail in the 250 years of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade (1565 to 1815). Until 1593, three or more ships would set sail annually from each port. European Criollos, Meztizos and Mullatos of Spanish, Portuguese, French descent from the Americas, mostly from Mexico and the Caribbean, came in contact with the Local Meztizos. Numerous Mexican land owners and Moorish sailors also settled in the islands during this period. Japanese and Korean Christians who fled from the religious persecution settled during the 1600s until the 1800s.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1867, Spain opened the Philippines for international trade. Europeans such as British, German, Portuguese and French were among those who settled in the islands as business increased. More Spaniards of Basque, Catalonian and Moorish ancestry arrived during the next century. Many of these European migrants intermarried with local Mestizos and some assimilated with the indigenous population. They became the precursors of the current Chinese-dominated major corporations and conglomerates of the country.

The name Filipino was derived from king Philip II of Spain, the Spanish name given to the Philippines in the 16th century, by Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos.[22]

After the defeat of Spain during the Spanish-American War in 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence on June 12 while General Wesley Merritt became the first American governors of the Philippines. On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris formally ended the war, with Spain ceding the Philippines and other colonies to the United States in exchange for $20 million dollars.[23][24] United States civil governance was established in 1901, with William Howard Taft as the first American Governor-General.[25] A number of Americans settled in the islands. During World War II, the United States built up military bases on the Philippines, increasing the American population there. In addition, numerous Filipino men enlisted in the US Navy and made careers in it, often settling with their families in the United States. The country gained independence from the United States in 1946.

Following independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving Chinese, Americans, British, and other Europeans, Japanese, and South Asians. More recent migrations into the country by Koreans and other Southeast Asian peoples have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape. Together, some of these recent immigrants have intermarried with the indigenous Filipinos, as well as with the previous immigrant groups, giving rise to Filipinos of mixed racial and/or ethnic origins also known as mestizos.

Genetic studies

A Stanford University study conducted during 2001 revealed that Haplogroup O3-M122 (labeled as "Haplogroup L" in this study) is the most common Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup found among Filipinos. This particular haplogroup is also predominant among Chinese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Another haplogroup, Haplogroup O1a-M119 (labeled as "Haplogroup H" in this study), is also found among Filipinos, and is shared with the indigenous peoples of Borneo and the rest of the Malay Archipelago. The rates of Haplogroup O1a are highest among the Taiwanese aborigines and Chamic-speaking people. Overall, the genetic frequencies found among Filipinos point to the Ami tribe of Taiwan as their nearest genetic ancestors. In addition, 3.6% of the Philippine population has varying degrees of European ancestry through paternal lineages from both Spanish and United States colonization. However, only 28 individuals from the Philippines were genotyped for this study, a sample size far below the minimum sample size needed to account for credible test results in a population of over 90 million individuals.[26]

Another 2009 study conducted by Oxford University, in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 423 Philippine samples is analyzed in the context of the genetic diversity of other Southeast Asian populations indicated that Filipinos and Taiwanese Aborigines shared with each other the majority of their mt-DNA. Analysis of mtDNA haplogroups indicates a general decrease in the diversity of the most frequent types (B4a1a, E1a1a, and M7c3c) from the Taiwanese aborigines to the Philippines and Sulawesi.[27].

These findings are consistent with the theory that ancestors of the Filipino people have originated on continental East or Southeast Asia before migrating to the Philippines via Taiwan, from both paternal and maternal lineages.

The Philippine Statistics Department does not account for the racial background or ancestry of an individual, and as result the official population of mixed-blood individuals in the Philippines remains unknown.

Languages

According to Ethnologue, there are about 180 languages spoken in the Philippines.[28] The Constitution of the Philippines designates Filipino (which is based on Tagalog) as the national language and designates both Filipino and English as official languages. Regional languages are designated as auxiliary official languages. The constitution also provides that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.[29]

Other major and minor languages in the country include Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Kapampangan, Bicol, Pangasinan, Tausug, Maguindanao, Maranao, Kinaray-a, Chavacano and Spanish. The 28-letter modern Filipino alphabet, adopted in 1987, is the official writing system.[30]

Diaspora

Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe, Oceania,[31][32] the Middle East and other countries in the world.

Filipinos make up about half of the entire population of the Northern Marianas Islands, an American territory in the North Pacific Ocean, and a large proportion of the populations of Guam, Palau, and the Malaysian state of Sabah. [33]

See also

Publications

References

  1. ^ Combination of Filipinos living in the Philippines and Filipinos living abroad (OFW)
  2. ^ Philippines U.S. Department of State.
  3. ^ Filipino Statistics: US US Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 June 2009
  4. ^ a b c d e f Stock Estimates of Overseas Filipinos 2007 Report. Philippine Oversea Employment Administration. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  5. ^ Filipinos in Malaysia. Office Press Secretary of the Philippines. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  6. ^ Filipino Canadian Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 June 2009
  7. ^ 平成20年末現在における外国人登録者統計について
  8. ^ Filipinos in Hong Kong Hong Kong Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  9. ^ Filipino Australian Australia Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 30 June 2009
  10. ^ Filipinos in South Korea. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOIS). Retrieved 21 July 2009.
  11. ^ "PGMA meets members of Filipino community in Spain". Philippines:Gov.Ph: The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines. http://www.gov.ph/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=8515. Retrieved 1 July 2006. 
  12. ^ Filipinos in New Zealand. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 2 July 2009
  13. ^ People: Filipino, The Joshua Project
  14. ^ "8 Folkemengde, etter norsk / utenlandsk statsborgerskap og landbakgrunn 1. januar 2009". Statistisk sentralbyra (Statistics Norway). http://www.ssb.no/emner/02/01/10/innvbef/tab-2009-04-30-08.html. Retrieved 2009. 
  15. ^ "A BRIEF HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE - NETHERLANDS RELATIONS". The Philippine Embassy in The Hague. http://philembassy.nl/default.asp?iId=KHKDG. 
  16. ^ "Philippines monitors condition of Filipino workers in Pakistan". 5 November 2007. http://www.monsterandcritics.com/news/southasia/news/article_1371134.php/Philippines_monitors_condition_of_Filipino_workers_in_Pakistan. Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  17. ^ Philippines Statistics National Statistics Office projection. Retrieved 30 June 2009
  18. ^ Yvette Collymore (June 2003). "Rapid Population Growth, Crowded Cities Present Challenges in the Philippines". Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/Articles/2003/RapidPopulationGrowthCrowdedCitiesPresentChallengesinthePhilippines.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-30. "An estimated 10 percent of the country's population, or nearly 8,000,000 people, are overseas Filipino workers distributed in 182 countries, according to POPCOM. That is in addition to the estimated 3,000,000 migrants who work illegally abroad" 
  19. ^ "Archaeology in the Philippines, the National Museum and an Emergent Filipino Nation". Wilhelm G. Solheim II foundation for Philippine Archaeology, Inc.. http://homepages.uni-tuebingen.de/alfred.pawlik/Solheim/philippine_archaeology.html. 
  20. ^ http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=215578
  21. ^ a b c "Background note:Philippines". U.S. Department of State Diplomacy in Action. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2794.htm. Retrieved April 2009. 
  22. ^ "Filipino". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Filipino&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2001. 
  23. ^ Article 3 of the treaty specifically associated the $20 million payment with the transfer of the Philippines.
  24. ^ "American Conquest of the Philippines - War and Consequences: Benevolent Assimilation and the 1899 PhilAm War". www.oovrag.com. http://www.oovrag.com/essays/essay2003b-3.shtml. Retrieved April 2003. 
  25. ^ "The Philippines/Philippines - A History of Resistance and Assimilation". voices.cla.umn.edu. http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Classroom/Student_writing/1301v-s2005/Group3/Philippines.htm. Retrieved 2005. 
  26. ^ Capelli, Cristian; James F. Wilson, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf, Fiona Gratrix, Stephen Oppenheimer, Peter Underhill, Vincenzo L. Pascali, Tsang-Ming Ko, David B. Goldstein1 (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania" (pdf). American journal of Human Genetics 68: 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2001_v68_p432.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ "Languages of the Philippines". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=PH. 
  29. ^ Article XIV, Section 6, The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.
  30. ^ Linda Trinh Võ; Rick Bonus (2002), Contemporary Asian American communities: intersections and divergences, Temple University Press, pp. 96, 100, ISBN 9781566399388, http://books.google.com/books?id=7xp4qZta2GYC 
  31. ^ "National Summary Tables". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/ABS@.NSF/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/371BAA6C21FEDC3CCA2570EC000BF4DD?opendocument. Retrieved 2001-06-06. 
  32. ^ "Population Composition: Asian-born Australians". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/ABS@.NSF/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/666a320ed7736d32ca2570ec000bf8f9!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2001-06-06. 
  33. ^ "Population Composition: Asian-born Australians". Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/ABS@.NSF/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/666a320ed7736d32ca2570ec000bf8f9!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2001-06-06. 







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