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Filoviridae
Marburg virus particles, ~100,000x magnification
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genera

Marburgvirus
Ebolavirus

Filoviridae is the family of viruses that belong to the order Mononegavirales. Filoviruses are single stranded negative sense RNA viruses that target primates. There are two genera: the Ebola virus and Marburg virus. These viruses cause viral hemorrhagic fevers, characterized by bleeding and coagulation abnormalities, often leading to death. The name is derived from the Latin word filum, alluding to the thread-like appearance of virus particles in electron microscope images.[1]

Contents

History

The filoviridae family was discovered in 1967 when 31 people were infected with the Marburg virus in Marburg, Germany after working with tissue from monkeys imported from Uganda.[2] Seven people who caught the disease died. All subsequent human outbreaks have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa The second genus of the filoviridae family, Ebola virus, was discovered in 1976 when outbreaks occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan. Years later, there was one outbreak near Washington, D.C. in 1989. The virus was Ebola Reston(REBOV), and it was eventually discovered that Reston has no effect on humans. On July 8, 2009, it was reported that Ebola-Reston had appeared again, this time in the Philippines, where it infected swine. There is ongoing concern that infection of swine could both infect the food supply or potentially lead to the emergence of a REBOV variant that affects humans. The existing human variants Ebola virus is potent, having a mortality rate of 20% to 90% reported in some of the Zaire Ebola outbreaks.

Structure

Filoviridae are branched or filamentous particles encompassed by an envelope structure, measuring 800-900nm in length by 80 nm. Contained within a helical nucleocapsid is a single molecule of negative sense ssRNA, roughly 19,000 nucleotides in length.

Infection

The infection is a zoonosis, which means that the virus is transmitted to humans from other animals, but the natural reservoirs of the Marburg virus and the Ebola virus are not known.[3] Bats have been suspected, because some species have been found asymptomatically and naturally infected with Ebola virus.[4]

The mechanisms through which filoviruses spread are not fully understood. The route of transmission from animals to humans is unknown. Person-to-person transmission occurs primarily through physical contact with infected bodily fluids, such as infected blood or vomit.

Bibliography

  • Kuhn, Jens H. (2008), Filoviruses - A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies. Archives of Virology Supplement, vol. 20, Vienna, Austria: SpringerWienNewYork, ISBN 978-3211206706  
  • Ryabchikova, Barbara B.; Price (2004), Ebola and Marburg Viruses - A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy, Columbus, Ohio, USA: Battelle Press, ISBN 978-1574771312  
  • Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004), EBOLA and MARBURG VIRUSES - Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wymondham, Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience, ISBN 978-0954523237  
  • Klenk, Hans-Dieter (1999), Marburg and Ebola Viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung, vol. 235, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3540647294  
  • Pattyn, S. R. (1978), EBOLA VIRUS HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER - Proceedings of an International Colloquium on Ebola Virus Infection and Other Haemorrhagic Fevers held in Antwerp, Belgium, December 6-8, 1977, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, ISBN 0-444-80060-3, http://www.itg.be/ebola/, retrieved 2009-05-31  
  • Martini, G. A.; Siegert, R. (1971), Marburg Virus Disease, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0387051994  

References

  1. ^ Netesov, SV; Feldmann, H; Jahrling, PB; Kiley, MP; Sanchez, A (2004-04-24), Filoviridae, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/fs_filov.htm, retrieved 2009-05-27  
  2. ^ Martini, Ga; Knauff, Hg; Schmidt, Ha; Mayer, G; Baltzer, G (Oct 1968). "A hitherto unknown infectious disease contracted from monkeys. "Marburg-virus" disease" (Free full text). German medical monthly 13 (10): 457–70. ISSN 0016-8785. PMID 4974179. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/animaldiseasesandyourhealth.html.   edit
  3. ^ Mwanatambwe M, Yamada N, Arai S, Shimizu-Suganuma M, Shichinohe K, Asano G (October 2001). "Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF): mechanism of transmission and pathogenicity". Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nihon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 68 (5): 370–5. PMID 11598619.  
  4. ^ Gonzalez JP, Pourrut X, Leroy E (2007). "Ebolavirus and other filoviruses". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 315: 363–87. PMID 17848072.  

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Marburg virus

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Regnum: Virus
Phylum: not divided
Classis: not divided
Ordo: Mononegavirales
Familia: Filoviridae
Genera: Ebolavirus - Marburgvirus

Name

Filoviridae

References

  • Elliott, L.H., Kiley, M.P. & McCormick, J.B. 1985: Descriptive analysis of Ebola virus proteins. Virology, 147: 169—176.
  • Feldmann, H. & Klenk, H.-D. 1996: Filoviruses: Marburg and Ebola. In: "Advances in Virus Research," Vol 47 (Maramorosch, K., Murphy, F. A., and Shatkin, A. J., Eds.). San Diego: Academic Press; San Diego, pp. 1-52.
  • Volchkov, V.E., Blinov, V.M. & Netesov, S.V. 1992: The envelope glycoprotein of Ebola virus contains an immunosuppressive-like domain similar to oncogenic retroviruses. FEBS Lett., 305: 181-184.
  • Sanchez, A., Kiley, M.P., Holloway, B.P. & Auperin, D.D. 1993: Sequence analysis of the Ebola virus genome: organization, genetic elements, and comparison with the genome of Marburg virus. Virus Res., 29: 215-240.
  • Pattyn, S.R. (Ed.) 1978: "Ebola Virus Hemorrhagic Fever." Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.

Vernacular names

English: Ebola & Marburg Viruses
中文: 纖維病毒科

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