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Republic of Finland
Suomen tasavalta  (Finnish)
Republiken Finland  (Swedish)
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemMaamme  (Finnish)
Vårt land  (Swedish)
"Our Land"

Location of  Finland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E / 60.167°N 24.933°E / 60.167; 24.933
Official language(s) Finnish, Swedish
Recognised regional languages Saami
Demonym Finns, Finnish
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Tarja Halonen (SDP)
 -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen (CP)
 -  Parliament's speaker Sauli Niinistö (NCP)
Independence from Russian Empire 
 -  Autonomy March 29, 1809 
 -  Declared December 6, 1917 
 -  Recognized January 4, 1918 
EU accession January 1, 1995
Area
 -  Total 338,424 km2 (64th)
130,596 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 10
Population
 -  2009 estimate 5,352,000[1] (111th)
 -  2000 census 5,180,000 
 -  Density 16/km2 (201st)
40/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $191.406 billion[2] (52nd)
 -  Per capita $36,320[2] (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $271.867 billion[2] (34th)
 -  Per capita $51,588[2] (11th)
Gini (2000) 26.9 (low
HDI (2007) 0.959[3] (very high) (12th)
Currency Euro ()¹ (EUR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .fi, .ax ²
Calling code 358
1 Before 2002: Finnish markka
2 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
Finland (pronounced en-us-Finland.ogg /ˈfɪnlənd/ ), officially the Republic of Finland[4]About this sound Finnish: Suomi; Swedish: Finland , is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden on the west, Norway on the north and Russia on the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. The capital city is Helsinki.
Around 5.4 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern part of the country.[1] It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The native language of nearly all of the population is Finnish, which is part of the Finno-Ugric language family and is most closely related to Estonian. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. The second official language of Finland – Swedish – is the native language of 5.5% of the population.[5] Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in Helsinki and local governments in 342 municipalities.[6] A total of about one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (which includes Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa), and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other major cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Kuopio, and Lahti.
Finland was historically a part of Sweden and from 1809 an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. Finland's declaration of independence from Russia in 1917 was followed by a civil war, wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and a period of official neutrality during the Cold War. Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the OECD in 1969, the European Union in 1995, and the eurozone since its beginning. Finland has been ranked the second most stable country in the world, in a survey based on social, economic, political, and military indicators.[7]
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. Thereafter, economic development was rapid, and the country reached the world's top income levels in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1990, Finland built an extensive welfare state. In the aftermath of the country's severe depression in the early 1990s, successive governments have changed the Finnish economic system through some privatisation, deregulation, and tax cuts.
Finland is well placed in many international comparisons of national performance such as the share of high-technology manufacturing and health care.[8] The country is ranked 1st in the 2009 Legatum Prosperity rating, which is based on economical performance and quality of life.[9]

Contents

Etymology

The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *zeme, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Baltic-Finnic languages), this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. According to an earlier theory the name was derived from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape).
The Swedish-language name Finland has resemblance with the Scandinavian placenames Finnmark, Finnveden and hundreds of other toponyms starting with Fin(n) in Sweden and Norway. Some of these names are obviously derived from finnr, a Germanic word for a wanderer/finder and thus supposedly meaning nomadic "hunter-gatherers" or slash and burn agriculturists as opposed to the Germanic sedentary farmers and seafaring traders and pirates. The term "Finn" often refers to Sami people, too. Finn was used to refer to the people of Finland Proper after the 15th century, when the church appointed a bishop — who became one of the most powerful men in the province — over the whole area corresponding roughly to today's Finland. The fact that there was no other ecclesiastical authority of the same level, coupled with the bishop's temporal authority, engendered a sense of "the Finns" belonging to one geographical area over which the name spread from the 15th century onwards to refer to the people of the entire country.
Among the first documents to mention "a land of the Finns" are two rune-stones. There is one in Söderby, Sweden, with the inscription finlont (U 582) and one in Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, with the inscription finlandi (G 319), dating from the 11th century.[10]

History

Astuvansalmi rock paintings at Saimaa, the oldest dating from 3000-2500 BC.

Prehistory

According to archaeological evidence, the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice shield of the last ice age receded. The artifacts the first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia, Russia and Norway.[11] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. There is also evidence of carved stone animal heads.[12] The first pottery appeared in 3000 BCE when settlers from the East brought in the Comb Ceramic culture.[13] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000–2500 BCE coincided with the start of agriculture.[14] Even with the introduction of agriculture, hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy.
The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. There is no consensus on when Finno-Ugric languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.
In the beginning of 9th century[15] the inhabited area of Finnish tribes was bordered by:

Swedish era

The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.      Sweden proper      Kexholm County      Swedish Ingria      Swedish Estonia      Livonia      German dominions      Scania, Gotland, Bohuslän      Trondheim      Härjedalen
Swedish-speaking settlers arrived in the coastal regions during the medieval time. Swedish kings established their rule in 1249.[16] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom. Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry, clergy and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.
During the Protestant Reformation, the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. The first university in Finland, The Royal Academy of Turku, was established in 1640. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–1697, and almost one third of the population died.[17] In the 18th century, wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces, wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–1721) and the Lesser Wrath (1742–1743).[18] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border.

Russian Empire era

On March 29, 1809, after being taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War, Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. During the Russian era, the Finnish language started to gain recognition. From the 1860s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennoman movement grew. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835, and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population, making it one of the worst famines in European history. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid.[19] The GDP per capita was still a half of United States and a third of Great Britain.[19]
In 1906, universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals[20] and socialists.

Civil war and early independence

Background

Soviet approval of Finland's independence in Russian.
After the February Revolution the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned, mainly by Social Democrats. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia, it was not clear who was the chief executive of Finland after the revolution. The parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Law, which would give the highest authority to the parliament. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government and by the right wing parties in Finland. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force, which the social democrats considered illegal, since the right to do so was stripped from the Russians by the Power Law.[citation needed]
New elections were conducted, in which right wing parties won a slim majority. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized.[citation needed]
The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as radical socialists took power in Russia. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier, the right-wing government declared independence.

War

On January 27, 1918, the official starting shots to the war were fired in two simultaneous events. The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa , and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki, but the legal government continued in exile from Vaasa. As the awaited war of independence materialized, the stage was set for a brief but bitter civil war. The Whites, who were supported by Imperial Germany, prevailed over the Reds, supported by Bolshevist Russia.[21] After the war tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps, where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The civil war and activist expeditions to the Soviet Union strained Eastern relations.

New republic

After a brief flirtation with monarchy, Finland became a presidential republic, with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. Finnish democracy did not see any more Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Germany's relations with Finland were also not good. Military was trained in France instead, and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened.
In 1917 the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.[19] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry.[22] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. The Great Depression in the early 1930s was relatively light in Finland.

World War II

Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and the Continuation War in 1944. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–40 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland; and in the Continuation War of 1941–44, following Operation Barbarossa, in which Germany invaded the Soviet Union. After fighting a major Soviet offensive to a stand still, Finland made peace with the Soviet Union through the Moscow Armistice. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45, when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland.
The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations – as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia, Salla, and Petsamo, which amounted to ten percent of its land area and twenty percent of its industrial capacity, including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and ice-free Liinakhamari (Liinahamari). Some 400,000 evacuees, mainly women and children, fled these areas.
Finland had to reject Marshall aid. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.[23] Establishing trade with the Western powers, such as the United Kingdom, and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. For example, the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. Even after the reparations had been paid off, Finland – poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil) – continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

Cold War

In 1950 half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas.[24] The new jobs in manufacturing, services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3.5 in 1947 to 1.5 in 1973.[24] When baby-boomers entered the workforce, the economy did not generate jobs fast enough, and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden, with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.[24] The 1952 Summer Olympics brought international visitors. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
Urho Kekkonen, 8th President of Finland
Officially claiming to be neutral, Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. This was extensively exploited by President Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on, which was crucial for his continued popularity. In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandisation" by the German press (fi. suomettuminen). Self-censorship vis-à-vis anything negative associated with the Soviet Union was prevalent in the media. Public libraries pulled from circulation thousands of books that were considered anti-Soviet, and the law made it possible for the authorities to directly censor movies with supposedly anti-Soviet content. Asylum-seeking Soviet citizens were frequently returned to the Soviet Union by the Finnish authorities.[citation needed]
Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland remained a Western European market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. In the 1970s and 1980s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977, although Finland did not fully join. In 1981, President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.[citation needed]
Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis, the collapse of a primary trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. The depression bottomed out in 1993, and Finland has seen steady economic growth ever since.[citation needed]

Recent history

Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and the Eurozone in 1999.
The population is aging with the birth rate at 10.42 births per 1,000 population, or a fertility rate of 1.8.[24] With a median age of 41.6 years, Finland is one of the oldest countries;[25] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. Like most European countries, without further reforms or much higher immigration, Finland is expected to struggle with demographics, even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries.

Politics and government

Republic of Finland

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Eduskuntatalo, the main building of the Parliament of Finland (Eduskunta) in Helsinki.
The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. Finland is a representative democracy with a semi-presidential parliamentary system. Aside from state-level politics, residents use their vote in municipal elections and in the European Union elections.
According to the Constitution, the President of Finland is the head of state and responsible for foreign policy (which excludes affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with the cabinet. Other powers include Commander-in-Chief, decree, and appointive powers. Direct vote is used to elect the president for a term of six years and maximum two consecutive terms. The current president is Tarja Halonen (SDP).
The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises the supreme legislative authority in Finland. The parliament may alter laws and the constitution, bring about the resignation of the Council of State, and override presidential vetoes. Its acts are not subject to judicial review. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Proportional vote in multi-seat constituencies is used to elect the parliament for a term of four years. The Speaker of Parliament is currently Sauli Niinistö (National Coalition Party). The cabinet (the Finnish Council of State) exercises most executive powers. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland and includes other ministers and the Chancellor of Justice. Parliament majority decides its composition, and a vote of no confidence can be used to modify it. The current prime minister is Matti Vanhanen (Centre Party).
Since equal and common suffrage was introduced in 1906, the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union), National Coalition Party, and Social Democrats, which have approximately equal support and represent 65–80% of voters. After 1944 Communists were a factor to consider for a few decades. The relative strengths of the parties vary only slightly in the elections because of the proportional election from multi-member districts, but there are some visible long-term trends. The autonomous Åland islands has separate elections, where Liberals for Åland was the largest party in 2007 elections.
After the parliamentary elections on March 18, 2007, the seats were divided among eight parties as follows:
Party Seats Net Gain/Loss  % of seats  % of votes
Centre Party 51   –4 25.5 23.1
National Coalition Party 50 +10 25.0 22.3
Social Democratic Party 45   –8 22.5 21.4
Left Alliance 17   –2 8.5 8.8
Green League 14   +1 7.5 8.5
Swedish People's Party 9   +1 4.5 4.5
Christian Democrats 7     0 3.5 4.9
True Finns 5   +2 2.5 4.1
Others  1*     0 0.5 2.4
* Province of Åland representative.

Foreign relations

According to the latest constitution of 2000, the president (currently Tarja Halonen) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government (currently Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen and Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb), except that the government leads EU affairs.[26]
In 2008, President Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[27] Finland was considered a cooperative model state, and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.[28] This was reversed in the 2000s, when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defense.[28]

Geography

Topography and geology

Detailed map of Finland. See also atlas of Finland
Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland.
Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands – 187,888 lakes (larger than 500 m²) and 179,584 islands.[29] Its largest lake, Saimaa, is the fourth largest in Europe. The Finnish landscape is mostly flat with few hills, and its highest point, the Halti at 1,324 metres, is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway.
The landscape is covered mostly (seventy-five percent of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens, with little arable land. The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas. The greater part of the islands are found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea, part of the archipelago of the Åland Islands, and along the southern coast in the Gulf of Finland.
Finland is one of the few countries in the world whose surface area is still expanding. Owing to the post-glacial rebound that has been taking place since the last ice age, the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2.70 sq mi) annually.[30]
The distance from the southernmost – Hanko – to the northernmost point in the country – Nuorgam – is 1,445 kilometres (898 miles).

Wildlife

Spruce forest in southern Finland
Phytogeographically, Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Actual tundra with permafrost is not found in Finland except for a narrow area in the extreme north.
The Whooper Swan, national bird of Finland
Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 248 breeding bird species, over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.[citation needed]
Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal), gray wolf, elk (moose) and reindeer. Two of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan, a large European swan and the national bird of Finland, and the Capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation.[31] The most common breeding birds are the willow warbler, chaffinch and redwing.[32] Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch and others are plentiful. Atlantic salmon remains the favorite of fly rod enthusiasts.
The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.[33]

Climate

Viinikkala
The Finnish climate is suitable for grain farming in the southernmost regions but not further north.[citation needed]
Finland has a humid and cool semi continental climate. The climate type in southern Finland is north temperate climate. Winters of southern Finland (average temperature of day is below 0 °C) are usually 4 months long, and the snow typically covers the land from middle of December to early April. In the southern coast, it can melt many times during early winter, and then come again. The coldest winter days of southern Finland are usually under −20 °C (−4 °F), and the warmest days of July and early August can be over 30 °C (86 °F). Summers in the southern Finland lasts 4 months (from the mid of May to mid of September). In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, a subarctic climate dominates, characterized by cold – occasionally severe – winters and relatively warm, short summers. Winters in north Finland are nearly 7 months long, and snow covers the lands almost 6 months, from October to early may. Summers in the north are quite short, only 2–3 months.[citation needed]
The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone, which shows characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate, depending on the direction of air flow. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream, which explains the unusually warm climate considering the absolute latitude.[citation needed]
A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced – for more days, the farther north one travels. At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Demographics

Population of Finland, 1750–2000[34]
Year Population Year Population
1750 421,000 1880 2,060,800
1760 491,000 1890 2,380,100
1770 561,000 1900 2,655,900
1780 663,000 1910 2,943,400
1790 705,600 1920 3,147,600
1800 832,700 1930 3,462,700
1810 863,300 1940 3,695,617
1820 1,177,500 1950 4,029,803
1830 1,372,100 1960 4,446,222
1840 1,445,600 1970 4,598,336
1850 1,636,900 1980 4,787,778
1860 1,746,700 1990 4,998,478
1870 1,768,800 2000 5,181,000

Population

Finland currently numbers 5,350,156 inhabitants. It has an average population density of 17 inhabitants per square kilometre.[1] This makes it, after Norway and Iceland, the third most sparsely populated country in Europe. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon even more pronounced after 20th century urbanisation. The largest and most important cities in Finland are the cities of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan areaHelsinki, Espoo and Vantaa. Other large cities include Tampere, Turku and Oulu.
The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 2.5%, among the lowest in the European Union.[35] Most of them are from Russia, Estonia and Sweden.[35]

Languages

Most of the Finnish people (92%)[36] speak Finnish as their mother language. Finnish is a member of the Baltic-Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.
The largest minority language and the second official language is Swedish spoken by 5.6% of the population.[36] Other minority languages are Russian (0.8%),[36] Estonian (0.3%),[36] Finnish Romani, and Finnish Sign Language (used as a first language by 4,000–5,000 people).[37] To the north, in Lapland, are also the Sami people, numbering around 7,000[38] and recognized as an indigenous people. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother language.[5] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami.[39] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami, Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) to cherish their culture and language is protected by the constitution.[40]
In a 2005 Eurobarometer survey studying languages of the European Union, 60% of adult residents claimed to know English, 38% claimed to know Swedish as a second language (41% in 2008), and 17% claimed to know German.[41]

Religion

Religion in Finland [42]
year Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Finnish Orthodox Church Other Not religious
1950 95.7% 1.7% 0.4% 2.7%
1980 90.3% 1.1% 0.7% 7.8%
1990 87.9% 1.1% 0.9% 10.2%
2000 85.1% 1.1% 1.1% 12.7%
2005 83.1% 1.1% 1.1% 14.7%
2006 82.5% 1.1% 1.2% 15.1%
2007 81.8% 1.1% 1.2% 15.9%
2008 80.7% 1.1% 1.3% 16.9%
2009 79.7% [43]
Most Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (79.7%).[43] With approximately 4.3 million members,[43] the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world, although its membership has recently been on the decline.[44] The second largest group - and a rather quickly growing one - of 16.9%[45] of the population has no religious affiliation. A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1.1%). Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller, as are the Muslim, Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1.2%).
The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are constitutional national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools. A university degree in theology is compulsory for Lutheran priests. Representatives at Lutheran Church assemblies are selected in church elections every four years.
Most Finnish children are baptized (79,9% in 2009) and confirmed (87.6% in 2008) at the age of 15, and nearly all funerals are Christian. However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings and funerals.[46] According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 41% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God"; 41% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force"; and 16% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".[47]

Family structure

Finnish family life is centered on the nuclear family. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant, and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans, tribes or similar structures. According to UNICEF, Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being.[48]

Health

Finland maintains a high level of health care and standard of living. Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men.[49]

Administrative divisions

Municipalities and regions map of Finland (2009).
Thin borders refer to municipalities and thicker ones to regions.
The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities, which may also call themselves towns or cities. They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. There are 342 municipalities,[6] and most have fewer than 6,000 residents. People often identify with their municipality.
In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined. Municipalities co-operate in seventy-four sub-regions and twenty regions. These are governed by the member municipalities but have only limited powers. The Åland region has a permanent democratically elected regional council as a part of the autonomy. In the Kainuu region, there is a pilot project underway with regional elections. Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture.
In the following chart, the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun), not just in the built-up area. The land area is given in km², and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). The figures are as of 31 December 2009. The capital region — comprising Helsinki, Vantaa, Espoo and Kauniainen— forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e.g. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council.
City Population[50] Land area[51] Density
Helsinki 583,484 213 2,739.36
Espoo 244,353 312.22 782.63
Tampere 211,544 524.97 402.96
Vantaa 197,663 238.38 829.19
Turku 176,157 245.63 717.16
Oulu 139,151 1,410.13 98.68
Jyväskylä 129,634 1,171.23 110.68
Lahti 100,861 135.06 746.79
Kuopio 92,642 1,124.03 82.42
Kouvola 88,193 2,560.06 82.42
Pori 76,641 517.14 148.2
Joensuu 72,718 2,381.84 30.53
Lappeenranta 70,447 1,072.54 65.68
Hämeenlinna 66,643 1,820.1 36.62
Rovaniemi 59,831 7,582.28 7.89

Law

The courtroom of Raasepori District Court
The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus), regional appellate courts (hovioikeus), and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus). The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus). In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.
The local court of first instance (käräjäoikeus) for civil and criminal cases consists of professional judges, or, in complex cases, 1–2 professional judges and 3–4 lay judges (lautamies) appointed by municipal councils. Administrative courts, appellate courts and supreme courts consist of professional judges only. Like the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Finland has no constitutional court, and courts may not strike down laws or pronounce on their constitutionality. In principle, the constitutionality of laws in Finland is verified by Parliament's constitutional law committee and a simple vote in the parliament.[citation needed]
Around 92% of residents are confident in Finland's security institutions.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Some crime types are above average, notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[53] Crime is prevalent among lower educational groups and is often committed by intoxicated persons. A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offences such as speeding. Jail sentences tend to be among the world's lowest, with an official emphasis on rehabilitation.[citation needed]
Finland has successfully fought against the corruption which was larger in the 1970s and 1980s.[54] For instance, economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished.[54] Today Finland has a very low number of corruption charges; Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupted countries. Also, Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent.

Military

Finnish Leopard 2A4 at the Independence Day Parade.
The Finnish Defence Forces consists of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel), currently serving conscripts and a large reserve. The standard readiness strength is 34,700 people in uniform, of which 25% are professional soldiers. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. Alternative non-military service and volunteer service by women (chosen by around 500 annually)[55] are possible. Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. Finland's official policy states that the 350,000 reservists, armed mostly with ground weaponry are a sufficient deterrent.[citation needed]
The Finnish Defense Forces favor partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO, WEU and the EU, but are careful to avoid politics.[56] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1.4–1.6% of the GDP. Finnish defense expenditure is around the third highest in the EU.[57] Voluntary overseas service is popular, and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU peace-keeping missions. Residents claim around 80% homeland defense willingness, one of the highest rates in Europe.[58] The Finnish Defence Forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently Ari Puheloinen), who is directly subordinate to the President of the Republic in matters related to military command. The branches of the military are the Finnish Army, Finnish Navy and Finnish Air Force. The Border Guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.

Economy

Headquarters of Nokia, the largest Finnish company.
Finland has a highly industrialized free-market economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France, Germany, Belgium or the UK. The largest sector of the economy is services at 65.7%, followed by manufacturing and refining at 31.4%. Primary production is 2.9%.[59] With respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing. The largest industries[60] are electronics (21.6%), machinery, vehicles and other engineered metal products (21.1%), forest industry (13.1%), and chemicals (10.9%). Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. In a 2004 OECD comparison, high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland.[61] Overall short-term outlook was good, and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Inflation has been low, averaging 1.8% between 2004 and 2006.
Real GDP growth, 1998–2007.
Finland is highly integrated in the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Netherlands and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agriculture. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone.
Aleksanterinkatu, a commercial street.
In 2002 Finland introduced the single European currency, the euro. With 16 other EU member states it forms the Eurozone.
Private sector employees amount to 1.8 million, out of which around a third with tertiary education. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25.1 euros in 2004.[62] As of 2008 average purchasing power-adjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy, Sweden, Germany, and France.[63] In 2006, 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth .[64] The female employment rate is high. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.[65] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999.[65]
Employment rate 68% and unemployment rate was 6.8% in early 2008.[66] 18% of residents are outside job market at the age of 50 and less than a third working at the age of 61.[67] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominate future liability, though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany.[68] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007.[69] In 2007, the average household savings rate was -3.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income, a typical level in Europe.[70] Home ownership rate is 60%.
As of 2006, 2.4 million households reside in Finland. The average size is 2.1 persons; 40% of households consist of a single person, 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons. Residential buildings total 1.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person. The average residential property without land costs 1,187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.6 euro per sq metre. 74% of households had a car. There are 2.5 million cars and 0.4 million other vehicles.[71] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 58% Internet connection at home. The average total household consumption was 20,000 euro, out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro, transport about 3000 euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic at around 2500 euro, recreation and culture at around 2000 euro.[72] Purchasing power-adjusted average household consumption is about the same level as it is in Germany, Sweden and Italy.[63] According to Invest in Finland, private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables, high quality products, and spending on well-being.[73]

Education and science

Auditorium in the Helsinki University of Technology's main building located in Espoo, designed by Alvar Aalto.
Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3% students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK), many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.[74] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries. Formal education is usually started at the age of 7. The primary school takes normally 6 years, the lower secondary school 3 years, and most schools are managed by municipal officials. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. According to PISA assessments of 15 year olds, Finnish students had a high average score and a low variation among schools and students.[75] McKinsey has attributed the result distribution to high teacher education (Master's degree), high continuing teacher training, and emphasis on laggards.[76] After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). Trade schools prepare for professions. Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education.
In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities. Finns used to take student loans and scholarships, but for the past decades the financial risk has been moved solely to the government. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. Helsinki University is 108 in the Top University Ranking of 2009.[77] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.[78] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree, similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%), United States (38%) and Japan(37%).[79] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments, one of the lowest in OECD, while in advanced programs it is 7.3%, still below OECD average 16.5%.[80]
More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. Finnish researchers are leading contributors to such fields as forest improvement, new materials, the environment, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology and communications.[81]
Finland is highly productive in scientific research. In 2005, Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.[82] In 2007, 1801 patents were filed in Finland.[83]

Energy

Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant with two existing units. On the far left is a visualization of the third unit, which will be Finland's fifth nuclear reactor when completed in 2011.
Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned Nordic energy market traded in Nord Pool exchange, which has provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[84]
In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[85][86] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood, while neighboring Norway has oil and Estonia oil shale. Finland has little hydropower capacity compared to Sweden or Norway. Most energy demand is satisfied with fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[87] one research reactor in Otaniemi campus, and the fifth AREVA-Siemens-built reactor – the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry – is scheduled to be operational by 2011. Renewable energy forms (industry-burned wood, consumer-burned wood, peat, industrial residue, garbage) make high 25% compared to the EU average 10%. A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. A new submarine power cable from Russia has been considered a national security issue, and one permit application has already been rejected. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They are causing a sharp increase in energy prices and 1-2 billion euro annual cost, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[88] Energy companies are ready to increase nuclear power production, if parliament granted permits for new reactors.[89]

Transportation

Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.
The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.
Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Greater Helsinki and Finland
The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with over 13 million passengers in 2008. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[90] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally, and there are many others offering direct flights around the world. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, taxpayers spend annually around 350 million euro in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) railway tracks even to many rural towns. Only one rail company operates in Finland, VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[91] Helsinki has an urban rail network.
The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world[citation needed], has also been served by a helicopter line.

Industry

Finland has developed greatly since 1945, when it was a primarily agricultural nation, and created major firms in telecommunications like Nokia, electronics, metalworking, forestry and construction like Pöyry. Shipbuilding industry is important for the Finnish economy, and the world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards.

Public policy

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model.[92] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century, though in Finland immigration is relatively new. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.[92]
Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas, although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. Finland is ranked 16th (ninth in Europe) in the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom.[93] Recently, Finland has topped the patents per capita statistics, and overall productivity growth has been strong in areas such as electronics. While the manufacturing sector is thriving, OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements.[94] Finland is one of the most fiscally responsible EU countries.
IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007 ranked Finland 17th most competitive.[95] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive.[96] In both indicators, Finland's performance was next to Germany, and significantly higher than most European countries. In the Business competitiveness index 2007-08 Finland ranked third in the world.
Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. According to OECD, only four EU-15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.[92] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries.[97] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honored.[93] Finland is rated the 6th corrupted countries in Corruption price index.[98] Finland is rated 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. It indicates exceptional ease to trade across borders (5th), enforce contracts (7th), and close a business (5th), and exceptional hardship to employ workers (127th) and pay taxes (83rd).[99]
Finnish job market regulation is a remaining example of Nordic neocorporatist model. In the 1990s, Denmark liberalized its job market, Sweden moved to more flexible decentralized contracts, and Finnish trade unions blocked most reforms. Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it, in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. The unionization rate is high (70%), especially in the middle class (AKAVA – 80%). A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. More flexibility is generally recommended by economists for various reasons.[61][92]

Numismatics

In Finland, the euro was introduced in 2002. As a preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999; this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them, instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. Three different designs (one for €2 coin, one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins. In 2007, in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries, Finland changed the common side of their coins.
Finland also has a rich collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from 5 to 100 euro. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone; for instance, a €5 Finnish commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.

Tourism

The M/S Silja Symphony leaving from Helsinki. Cruises are a popular tourist activity throughout Finland.
In 2005, Finnish tourism grossed over €6.7 billion with a five percent increase from the previous year. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to the globalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 35 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku, Tallinn, Stockholm and Travemünde, play a significant role in the local tourism industry. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus, living in the northern Lapland region. Above the Arctic Circle, there is a polar night, a period when the sun doesn't rise for days or weeks, or even months. Lapland, the extreme north of Finland, is so far north that the Aurora Borealis, atmospheric fluorescence, is seen regularly in winter. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing, golf, fishing, yachting, lake cruises, hiking, kayaking among many others. At Finland's northernmost point, in the heart of summer, the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of flying fauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk, reindeer and hare are all common game in Finland. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival.

Culture

Literature

Though Finnish written language could be said to exist since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish in the sixteenth century as a result of the Protestant Reformation, few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century, which saw the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish, notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino.
After Finland became independent there was a rise of modernist writers, most famously Mika Waltari. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. The second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna. Literature in modern Finland is in a healthy state, with detective stories enjoying a particular boom of popularity. Ilkka Remes, a Finnish author of thrillers, is very popular.

Visual arts

The National Museum of Finland is located in Helsinki
Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen, remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. Alvar Aalto, who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, is also famous for his work in furniture and glassware.

Music

Folk and Sami music

Much of the music of Finland is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence, in contrast to Finland's position between the East and the West. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music.
The people of northern Finland, Sweden and Norway, the Sami, are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect.

Classical and opera

The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957), a significant figure in the history of classical music.
The first Finnish opera was written by the German composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. Pacius also wrote Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country), Finland's national anthem. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. In 1899 he composed Finlandia, which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation.
Today, Finland has a very lively classical music scene. Finnish classical music has only existed for about a hundred years, and many of the important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg, Kaija Saariaho, Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Sakari Oramo, Mikko Franck, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Osmo Vänskä, Jukka-Pekka Saraste, Susanna Mälkki and Leif Segerstam. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila, Soile Isokoski, Kari Kriikku, Pekka Kuusisto, Réka Szilvay and Linda Brava.

Popular music

Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, and dance music acts such as HIM, Bomfunk MCs and Darude. Finnish electronic music such as the Sähkö Recordings record label enjoys underground acclaim. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager, meaning hit) is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music; tango, a style of Argentine music, is also popular. One of the most productive composers of popular music was Toivo Kärki, and the most famous singer Olavi Virta (1915–1972). Among the lyricists, Sauvo Puhtila (born 1928), Reino Helismaa (1913–1965) and Veikko "Vexi" Salmi are the most remarkable authors. The composer and bandleader Jimi Tenor is well known for his brand of retro-funk music.

Dance and rock music

Notable Finnish dance and electronic music artists include Jori Hulkkonen, Darude, JS16, DJ Proteus and DJ Orkidea.
Apocalyptica's Perttu Kivilaakso playing metal music live.
The Finnish rock-music scene emerged in 1960s with pioneers such as Blues Section and Kirka. In the 1970s Finnish rock musicians, such as Juice Leskinen, and a pop rock group called Kaseva started to write their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. During the decade some progressive rock groups, such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam, gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. This was also the fate of the rock and roll group Hurriganes. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that left perhaps a deeper mark in the history of popular music than any other Finnish group, giving inspiration for Guns N' Roses. In the 1980s some of the first Finnish metal bands were constituted including power metal band Stratovarius (1984) inspiring greatly among other things Sonata Arctica, Stone (1985), Tarot (1986), and Amorphis (1989). 1985 also saw the popular band CMX form, originally as a hardcore punk band, and later experimenting with various genres including progressive, metal and hard rock. In the 90s many successful modern metal bands were founded, such as Nightwish, Sonata Arctica, Children of Bodom, Ensiferum, Norther and Impaled Nazarene.
In the 2000s, other Finnish rock bands started to sell well internationally. The Rasmus became more known in Europe (and other places, like South America) in the 2000s. Their 2003 album Dead Letters sold 1.5 million units worldwide and garnered them eight gold and five platinum album designations. So far the most successful Finnish band in the United States has been HIM and The 69 Eyes; they were the first bands from Finland to ever sell an album that was certified gold by the RIAA. Other notable Finnish rock and metal acts include Apocalyptica, The 69 Eyes, the folk inspired Finntroll, the Battle Metal band Turisas, the monster rockers Lordi, and folk metal forest clan (translation) Korpiklaani.

Cinema

In film industry, notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki, Mauritz Stiller, Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin.

Media and communications

Linus Torvalds, a famous Finnish software engineer, best known for creating the kernel of the Linux operating system.
Today there are 200 newspapers; 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines and 67 commercial radio stations, with one nationwide, five national public service radio channels, three digital radio channels. Each year around twelve feature films are made, 12,000 book titles published and 12 million records sold.[100]
Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (the circulation of 412,000[101] making it the largest newspaper), the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat, the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat, and the television channel Nelonen. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines, including newspaper Aamulehti, tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Finns, along with other Nordic people and the Japanese, spend the most time in the world reading newspapers. The National Broadcasting Company YLE has five television channels and 13 radio channels in two national languages. YLE is funded through a mandatory license for television owners and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally, both terrestrially and on cable. The most popular television channel MTV3 and the most popular radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). International newspapers such as Aftonbladet or Financial Times are available, but according to the sole importer the readership is only around 600,000 copies per year or around 2,000 on average day.[102]
Around 79 percent of the population use the Internet.[103] Finland had around 1.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1,000 inhabitants.[104] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers. Most residents have a mobile phone. It's used mostly for contact and value-added services are rare.[105] In October 2009, Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland will be able to access the internet at a minimum speed of one megabit-per-second beginning July, 2010.[106]

Cuisine

Traditional Finnish cuisine is a combination of European, Fennoscandian and Western Russian elements; table manners are European. The food is generally simple, fresh and healthy. Fish, meat, berries and ground vegetables are typical ingredients; spices, which were not available in the past, have not become common. In years past, Finnish food often varied from region to region, most notably between the west and east. In coastal and lakeside villages, fish was a main feature of cooking, whereas in the eastern and also northern regions, vegetables and reindeer were more common. The prototypical breakfast is oatmeal or other continental-style foods such as bread. Lunch is usually a full warm meal, served by a canteen at workplaces. Dinner is eaten at around 16.00 to 18.00 at home.
Modern Finnish cuisine combines country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental cooking style. Today, spices are a prominent ingredient in many modern Finnish recipes, having been adopted from the east and west in recent decades.

Public holidays

A Midsummer bonfire ("kokko") in Mäntsälä
All official holidays in Finland are established by acts of Parliament. The official holidays can be divided into Christian and secular holidays. The main Christian holidays are Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension Day, Pentecost, and All Saints Day. The secular holidays are New Year's Day, May Day, Midsummer Day, and the Independence Day. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated holiday: usually at least 23rd to 26 December are holidays. Also in the region of Bothnia (usually referred at the city of Kokkola) there is an celebration called Venetsialaiset, the celebration of water and fire.
In addition to this, all Sundays are official holidays, but they are not as important as the special holidays. The names of the Sundays follow the liturgical calendar and they can be categorised as Christian holidays. When the standard working week in Finland was reduced to 40 hours by an act of Parliament, it also meant that all Saturdays became a sort of de facto public holidays, though not official ones.[citation needed]

Sports

Ice hockey in Finland.
Various sporting events are popular in Finland. Pesäpallo (reminiscent of baseball) is the national sport of Finland, although the most popular sports in Finland in terms of media coverage are Formula One, rallying, ice hockey and football. Finland won the ice-hockey world championship once in 1995. Jari Kurri and Teemu Selänne are the two Finnish-born ice hockey players to have scored 500 goals in their NHL careers. Other prominent NHL players from Finland include Miikka Kiprusoff, the starting goaltender for the Calgary Flames, Mikko Koivu and Niklas Bäckström of the Minnesota Wild, Kimmo Timonen of the Philadelphia Flyers, Antti Niemi of the Chicago Blackhawks, Antero Niittymaki of the Tampa Bay Lightning, Saku Koivu of the Anaheim Ducks, Olli Jokinen of the New York Rangers, Joni Pitkanen, Tuomo Ruutu, and Jussi Jokinen of the Carolina Hurricanes and Valtteri Filppula of the Detroit Red Wings. The Finland national football team has never qualified for a finals tournament of the World Cup or the European Championships. Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä are the most internationally renowned of the Finnish football players. Snowboarding is also very popular in Finland, and there are many Finnish professional snowboarders such as Antti Autti, Heikki Sorsa, Jussi Oksanen, Eero Ettala, Peetu Piiroinen and Joni Malmi.
Relative to its population, Finland has been a top country in the world in automobile racing, measured by international success. Finland has produced three Formula One World ChampionsKeke Rosberg (Williams, 1982), Mika Häkkinen (McLaren, 1998 and 1999) and Kimi Räikkönen (Ferrari, 2007). Following Räikkönen's departure from the sport, the only Finnish Formula One driver currently active is Heikki Kovalainen (Lotus). Rosberg's son, Nico Rosberg (Williams), is also currently driving, but under his mother's German nationality. Other notable Finnish Grand Prix drivers include Leo Kinnunen, JJ Lehto and Mika Salo. Finland has also produced most of the world's best rally drivers, including the ex-WRC World Champion drivers Marcus Grönholm, Juha Kankkunen, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Timo Salonen, and Ari Vatanen. The only Finn to have won a road racing World Championship, Jarno Saarinen, was killed in 1973 while racing.
Among winter sports, Finland has been the most successful country in ski jumping, with former ski jumper Matti Nykänen being arguably the best ever in that sport. Most notably, he won five Olympic medals (four gold) and nine World Championships medals (five gold). Among currently active Finnish ski jumpers, Janne Ahonen has been the most successful. Kalle Palander is a well-known alpine skiing winner, who won the World Championship and Crystal Ball (twice, in Kitzbühel). Tanja Poutiainen has won an Olympic silver medal for alpine skiing, as well as multiple FIS World Cup races.
Some of the most outstanding athletes from the past include Hannes Kolehmainen (1890–1966), Paavo Nurmi (1897–1973) and Ville Ritola (1896–1982) who won eighteen gold and seven silver Olympic medals in the 1910s and 1920s.
They are also considered to be the first of a generation of great Finnish middle and long-distance runners (and subsequently, other great Finnish sportsmen) often named the "Flying Finns". Another long-distance runner, Lasse Virén (born 1949), won a total of four gold medals during the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics.
Riku Kiri, Jouko Ahola and Janne Virtanen have been the greatest strength athletes in the country, participating in the World's Strongest Man competition between 1993 and 2000.
The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics, among others.
Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball, Nordic walking, running, cycling and skiing.

International Rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [37] Global Peace Index [107] 9 out of 144
United Nations Development Program Human Development Index 12 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 6 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 6 out of 133

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c "The current population of Finland". Population Register Center. http://www.vaestorekisterikeskus.fi/vrk/home.nsf/pages/index_eng. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Finland". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=172&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=19&pr.y=20. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  4. ^ "Republic of Finland", or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish and "Republiken Finland" in Swedish, is the long protocol name, which is however not defined by law. Legislation only recognizes the short name.
  5. ^ a b "The population of Finland in 2006". Statistics Finland. 2006-12-31. http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/vaerak/2006/vaerak_2006_2007-03-23_tie_001_en.html. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  6. ^ a b "Local Finland – Front page". Local Finland. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. http://www.kunnat.net/k_etusivu.asp?path=1;161;279. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  7. ^ The Failed States Index 2008
  8. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. http://www.worldaudit.org/countries/finland.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  9. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". Prosperity.com. http://prosperity.com/country.aspx?id=FI. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  10. ^ "National Archives Service, Finland (in English)". http://www.narc.fi/Arkistolaitos/eng/. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  11. ^ PEOPLE, MATERIAL CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE NORTH Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference, University of Oulu, 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva GUMMERUS KIRJAPAINO
  12. ^ Dr. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities for ThisisFinland – Prehistory: The ice recedes — man arrives. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  13. ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  14. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  15. ^ Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, ed (1910). "Map No. 6: Europe at the death of Charles the Great, 814" (PDF). A School Atlas of English History. London: Longmans, Green, and co.. http://www.archive.org/download/rsschoolatlasofe00garduoft/rsschoolatlasofe00garduoft.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-25. 
  16. ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia, page 67. University of Minnesota Press, 1993
  17. ^ History of Finland. Finland chronology
  18. ^ "Finland and the Swedish Empire". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  19. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland, World Bank
  20. ^ Mickelsson, Rauli. Suomen puolueet – Historia, muutos ja nykypäivä. Vastapaino 2007.
  21. ^ "A Country Study: Finland — The Finnish Civil War". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/fitoc.html. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  22. ^ From slash-and-burn fields to post-industrial society – 90 years of change in industrial structure
  23. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic, Helsingin Sanomat
  24. ^ a b c d Population development in independent Finland – greying Baby Boomers
  25. ^ "People Living with HIV/AIDS (Adults and Children)". GlobalHealthFacts.org. http://www.globalhealthfacts.org/topic.jsp?i=GlobalHealthFacts.org. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  26. ^ Finnish constitution, Section 93.
  27. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2008". The Nobel Foundation. Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2008/. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  28. ^ a b "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"), Risto E. J. Penttilä, 2008
  29. ^ "Statistics Finland". http://www.stat.fi/index_en.html. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  30. ^ "Trends in sea level variability". Finnish Institute of Marine Research. 2004-08-24. http://www.fimr.fi/en/tutkimus/fysikaalinen-tutkimus/vedenkorkeuden-vaihteluiden-ajalliset-muutokset.html. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  31. ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". Oulu University Library (2000). http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514259904/html/x288.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  32. ^ "BirdLife Finland". BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12). http://www.birdlife.fi/lintuharrastus/faq-muut.shtml#pesimalinnut. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  33. ^ "SOS:Save our seals". thisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). http://finland.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=170517&contentlan=2&culture=en-US. 
  34. ^ Aunesluoma, Juhana; Heikkonen, Esko; Ojakoski, Matti (2006) (in Finnish). Lukiolaisen yhteiskuntatieto. WSOY. 
  35. ^ a b "Population (Foreigners in Finland)". Statistics Finland. http://www.stat.fi/tup/suoluk/suoluk_vaesto_en.html#Foreigners. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Population". Statistics Finland. http://www.stat.fi/tup/vaesto/index_en.html. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  37. ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken — Teckenspråken i Finland" (in (Swedish)). http://www.kotus.fi/index.phtml?l=sv&s=206. 
  38. ^ According to the Finnish Population Registry Center and the Finnish Sami parliament, the Sami population living in Finland was 7,371 in 2003. See Regional division of Sami people in Finland by age in 2003 (in Finnish).
  39. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami), Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). See [1].
  40. ^ "The Constitution of Finland, 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). FINLEX Data Bank. http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  41. ^ Europeans and languages, 2005
  42. ^ (English)Statistics Finland with adherence of the Finnish population by religious communities, 1900 en 2000–2008
  43. ^ a b c Church 2009 member statistics Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
  44. ^ overview membership 1920–2004
  45. ^ "Finland in Figures". Statistics Finland. http://tilastokeskus.fi/tup/suoluk/suoluk_vaesto_en.html. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  46. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". U.S. Department of State. 2004-09-15. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35453.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  47. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  48. ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/13_02_07_nn_unicef.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  49. ^ "Finland Life expectancy at birth - Demographics". Indexmundi.com. 2009-09-17. http://indexmundi.com/finland/life_expectancy_at_birth.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  50. ^ "Population by municipality as of 31 December 2009" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Information System. Population Register Center of Finland. http://www.vrk.fi/vrk/files.nsf/files/4AD425C09E8E9093C22576AA001D7112/$file/091231.htm. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  51. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2009" (in Finnish and Swedish) (PDF). Land Survey of Finland. http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/Pintaalat_kunnittain_1.1.2009.pdf. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  52. ^ Policing corruption, International Perspectives.
  53. ^ The Burden of Crime in the EU. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005
  54. ^ a b The History of Corruption in Central Government By Seppo Tiihonen, International Institute of Administrative Sciences
  55. ^ Women's voluntary service (in Finnish)
  56. ^ Hägglund, Gustav. Leijona ja kyyhky.
  57. ^ Työvoimakustannukset puuttuvat puolustusmenoista , Statistics Finland (in Finnish): Eurostat ranking is 6th. It is 3rd when conscription is accounted.
  58. ^ Jane's World Armies: Finland
  59. ^ "Finland in Figures – National Accounts". Statistics Finland. http://www.stat.fi/tup/suoluk/suoluk_kansantalous_en.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  60. ^ "Finland in Figures – Manufacturing". Statistics Finland. http://www.stat.fi/tup/suoluk/suoluk_teollisuus_en.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  61. ^ a b Finland Economy 2004, OECD
  62. ^ Tehdyn työtunnin hinta 23-27 euroa, Statistics Finland
  63. ^ a b Suomalaisten tulot Euroopan keskitasoa. Hyvinvointipalvelut eivät paranna sijoitusta
  64. ^ Small enterprises grow faster than the big ones
  65. ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal, by Niels Finn Christiansen
  66. ^ Statistics Finland: Labour Market
  67. ^ OECD recommends Finland to do more to help older people stay in work
  68. ^ Ikääntymisen taloudelliset vaikutukset ja niihin varautuminen
  69. ^ CIA Factbook: Public Debt
  70. ^ [2] (in Finnish)
  71. ^ Statistics Finland: Transport and Tourism
  72. ^ Own-account worker households' consumption has grown most in 2001-2006
  73. ^ Retail growth best in Finland for five years, Invest in Finland
  74. ^ Summary sheets on education systems in Europe
  75. ^ PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Volume 1 – Analysis
  76. ^ "What works in education", McKinsey
  77. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2009: University of Helsinki". http://www.topuniversities.com/university/258/university-of-helsinki. 
  78. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". World Economic Forum. http://www.weforum.org/en/fp/gcr_2006-07_highlights/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  79. ^ Tilastokeskus
  80. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland, OECD
  81. ^ Kari Sipilä, D.Sc.(Tech)h.c. "A country that innovates". Virtual Finland. Ministry for Foreign Affairs/Department for Communication and Culture/Unit for Promotion and Publications. http://virtual.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=25818. 
  82. ^ "Scientific publication — Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in (Finnish)). Research.fi. 2007-11-15. http://www.research.fi/en/performance/scientific_publication. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  83. ^ "Patents with numbers — Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in (Finnish)). Research.fi. 2009-12-08. http://www.research.fi/en/performance/patents/patents_with%20numbers. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  84. ^ Electricity prices – industrial users
  85. ^ Statistics Finland
  86. ^ Total energy consumption
  87. ^ "Energy Consumption in 2001" (PDF). Statistics Finland. http://tilastokeskus.fi/tk/yr/yeenergiakuviot_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  88. ^ Päästökaupasta voi tulla miljardilasku teollisuudelle
  89. ^ Finland to decide on new nuclear reactors in 2010
  90. ^ "Airport operations". Annual report 2008. Vantaa: Finavia. 2009-03-17. http://www.finavia.fi/files/finavia/vuosikertomukset_pdf/Finavia_vsk_2008_GB_LR.pdf. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
  91. ^ Transport and communications ministry – Rail
  92. ^ a b c d The Nordic Model by Torben M. Andersen, Bengt Holmström, Seppo Honkapohja, Sixten Korkman, Hans Tson Söderström, Juhana Vartiainen
  93. ^ a b Economic freedom: Finland
  94. ^ Kilpailuvirasto
  95. ^ World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007
  96. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008". World Economic Forum. http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/gcp/Global%20Competitiveness%20Report/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  97. ^ Finland economy
  98. ^ http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table
  99. ^ Economy Rankings, Doing Business Report 2008, World Bank
  100. ^ "Media moves". ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). http://finland.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=162833&contentlan=2&culture=en-US. 
  101. ^ "Circulation Statistics". The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). http://www.levikintarkastus.fi/english/statistics.php. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  102. ^ Swedish tabloids most popular foreign newspapers in Helsinki, Helsingin Sanomat.
  103. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". Statistics Finland. http://www.stat.fi/til/sutivi/2007/sutivi_2007_2007-09-28_tie_001_en.html. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  104. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). 2007-08-31. http://www.ficora.fi/attachments/englanti/5ruZDB5VP/Files/CurrentFile/Market_review_2_2007.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  105. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life, Statistics Finland
  106. ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". YLE. 2009-10-14. http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/news/2009/10/1mb_broadband_access_becomes_legal_right_1080940.html. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
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Further reading

  • Chew, Allen F. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2)
  • Engle, Eloise and Paananen, Pauri,The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939-1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6)
  • Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1)
  • Jakobson, Max. Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1)
  • Jutikkala, Eino; Pirinen, Kauko. A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1)
  • Klinge, Matti. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9)
  • Lavery, Jason. The History of Finland (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations), Greenwood Press 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4) (ISSN 1096-2905)
  • Lewis, Richard D. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X)
  • Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5)
  • Mann, Chris. Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway, Finland, and the USSR 1940-1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1)
  • Rusama, Jaakko. Ecumenical Growth in Finland. (ISBN 951-693-239-8)
  • Singleton, Fred. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0)
  • Subrenat, Jean-JacquesListen, there's music from the forest; a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3)
  • Swallow, Deborah. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8)
  • Trotter, William R.. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939-1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Finland
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:fi-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Helsinki
Government republic
Currency euro (EUR)
Area 337,030 sq km
Population 5,231,372 (July 2006 est.)
Language Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.5% (official), small Sámi- and Russian-speaking minorities
Religion Evangelical Lutheran 82.5%, Russian Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.2%, none 15.1%[1]
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +358
Internet TLD .fi
Time Zone UTC +2
Finland (Finnish: Suomi, Swedish: Finland) [2] is in Northern Europe and has borders with Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and Sweden to the west. The country is thoroughly modern with well-planned and comfortable small towns and cities, but still offers vast areas of unspoiled nature. Finland has approximately 188,000 lakes (about 10% of the country) and a similar number of islands. In the northernmost part of the country the Northern Lights can be seen in the winter and midnight sun in the summer. Finns also claim the mythical mountain of Korvatunturi as the home of Santa Claus, and a burgeoning tourist industry in Lapland caters to Santa fans. Despite living in one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, the Finns love to head to their summer cottages in the warmer months to enjoy all manner of relaxing pastimes including sauna, swimming, fishing and barbecuing.
St. Olaf's Castle, the world's northernmost medieval castle, built in Savonlinna by Sweden in 1475
St. Olaf's Castle, the world's northernmost medieval castle, built in Savonlinna by Sweden in 1475
Not much is known about Finland's early history, with archaeologists still debating when and where a tribe of Finno-Ugric speakers cropped up. Roman historian Tacitus mentions a tribe primitive and savage Fenni in 100 AD, even the Vikings chose not to settle, trading and plundering along the coasts.
In the mid-1150s Sweden started out to conquer and Christianize the Finnish pagans in earnest, with Birger Jarl incorporating most of the country into Sweden in 1249. Finland stayed an integral part of Sweden until the 19th century, although there was near-constant warfare with Russia on the eastern border and two brief occupations. After Sweden's final disastrous defeat in the Finnish War of 1808-1809, Finland became an autonomous grand duchy under Russian rule after 1809.
Russian rule alternated between tolerance and repression, and there was already a significant independence movement when Russia plunged into war and revolutionary chaos in 1917. Parliament seized the chance and declared independence in December, quickly gaining Soviet assent, but the country promptly plunged into a brief but bitter civil war between the conservative Whites and the Socialist Reds, eventually won by the Whites.
.During World War II, Finland was attacked by the Soviet Union in the Winter War, but fought them to a standstill that saw the USSR conquer 12% of Finnish territory.^ The Soviet Union was one of the first states to recognize Finland, and the two maintained good relations; the former was the market for 25 per cent of Finland’s exports in the 1980s.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ Russians who settled in Finland from the eighteenth century to the aftermath of the First World War are often referred to as Old Russians.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Finland then allied with Germany in an unsuccessful attempt to repel the Soviets and regain the lost territory, was defeated and, as a condition for peace, had to turn against Germany instead. Thus Finland fought three separate wars during World War II. In the end, Finland lost much of Karelia and Finland's second city Vyborg, but Soviets paid a heavy price for them with over 300,000 dead.
After the war, Finland fell into the Soviet sphere of influence and toed the Russian line on foreign policy, but maintained a studied policy of official neutrality and managed to retain a free market economy and multi-party elections, building close ties with its Nordic neighbors. This balancing act of Finlandization was humorously defined as "the art of bowing to the East without mooning to the West". While there were some tense moments, Finland pulled it off: in the subsequent half century, the country made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy featuring high-tech giants like Nokia, and per capita income is now on par with Western European countries.
After the implosion of the USSR, Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
Map of Finland
Map of Finland
.Unlike craggy Norway and Sweden, Finland consists mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills, with mountains (of a sort) only in the extreme north and Finland's highest point, Mount Halti, rising only to a modest 1,328 m.^ Finland is located in northern Europe and shares land borders with Sweden, Norway and Russia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Finland has 187,888 lakes according to the Geological Survey of Finland, making the moniker Land of a Thousand Lakes actually an underestimation. Along the coast and in the lakes are—according to another estimate—179,584 islands, making the country an excellent boating destination as well.
Finland is not located on the Scandinavian peninsula, so despite many cultural and historical links, it is technically not considered a part of Scandinavia. Even Finns rarely bother to make the distinction, but a more correct term that includes Finland is the "Nordic countries" (Pohjoismaat).

Climate

Finland has a cold but temperate climate, which is actually comparatively mild for the latitude because of the moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current. Winter, however, is just as dark as everywhere in these latitudes, and temperatures can (very rarely) reach -30°C in the south and even dip below -50°C in the north. The brief Finnish summer is considerably more pleasant, with average temperatures around +20°C, and is generally the best time of year to visit. July is the warmest month with temperatures up to +30°C. Early spring (March-April) is when the snows start to melt and Finns like to head north for skiing and winter sports, while the transition from fall to winter in October-December — wet, rainy, dark and generally miserable — is the worst time to visit.
Due to the extreme latitude, Finland experiences the famous Midnight Sun near the summer solstice, when (if above the Arctic Circle) the sun never sets during the night and even in southern Finland it never really gets dark. The flip side of the coin is the Arctic Night (kaamos) in the winter, when the sun never comes up at all in the North. In the South, daylight is limited to a few pitiful hours with the sun just barely climbing over the trees before it heads down again.
Väinämöinen defending the Sampo, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1896)
Väinämöinen defending the Sampo, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1896)
Buffeted by its neighbors for centuries and absorbing influences from west, east and south, Finnish culture as a distinct identity was only born in the 19th century: "we are not Swedes, and we do not wish to become Russian, so let us be Finns."
The Finnish founding myth and national epic is the Kalevala, a collection of old Karelian stories and poems collated in 1835 that recounts the creation of the world and the adventures of Väinämöinen, a shamanistic hero with magical powers. Kalevalan themes such as the Sampo, a mythical horn of plenty, have been a major inspiration for Finnish artists, and figures, scenes and concepts from the epic continue to color their works.
.While Finland's state religion is Lutheranism, a version of Protestant Christianity, the country has full freedom of religion and for the great majority everyday observance is lax or nonexistent.^ Main religions: Evangelical Lutheran Christianity, Finnish Orthodox .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Still, Luther's teachings of strong work ethic and a belief in equality remain strong, both in the good (women's rights, non-existent corruption) and the bad (conformity, high rates of depression and suicide). The Finnish character is often summed up with the word sisu, a mixture of admirable perseverance and pig-headed stubbornness in the face of adversity.
Finnish music is best known for classical composer Jean Sibelius, whose symphonies continue to grace concert halls around the world. Finnish pop, on the other hand, has only rarely ventured beyond the borders, but heavy metal bands like Nightwish and HIM have garnered some acclaim and latex monsters Lordi hit an exceedingly unlikely jackpot by taking home the Eurovision Song Contest in 2006.
In the other arts, Finland has produced noted architect and designer Alvar Aalto, authors Mika Waltari (Sinuhe) and Väinö Linna (The Unknown Soldier), and painter Akseli Gallen-Kallela, known for his Kalevala illustrations.
Street reference chart
Finnish Swedish English
-katu -gatan street
-tie -vägen road
-kuja -gränden alley
-väylä -leden highway
-polku -stig path
-tori -torget market
-kaari -bågen crescent
-puisto -parken park
-ranta -kajen quay
-rinne -brinken bank (hill)
-aukio -platsen square
Finland has a 5.6% Swedish-speaking minority and is officially a bilingual country, so maps nearly always bear both the Finnish and Swedish names for eg. cities and towns. For example, Turku and Åbo are the same city, even though the names differ totally. Roads can be especially confusing: what first appears on a map to be a road that changes its name is, in most cases, one road with two names. This is common in the Swedish-speaking areas on the southern and western coasts, whereas in the inland Swedish names are far less common. In far north Lapland, you'll almost never see Swedish, but you will occasionally see signage in Sámi instead.

Holidays

Finns aren't typically very hot on big public carnivals; most holidays are spent at home with family. The most notable exception is Vappu on May 1, as thousands of people (mostly the young ones) fill the streets. Important holidays and similar happenings include:
  • New Year's Day (Uudenvuodenpäivä), January 1.
  • Epiphany (Loppiainen), January 6.
  • Easter (Pääsiäinen), variable dates, Good Friday and Easter Monday are public holidays. Tied to this are laskiainen 40 days before Easter, nominally a holy day that kicks off the Lent, practically a time for children and university students to go sliding down snowy slopes, and Ascension Day (helatorstai) 40 days after, just another day for the shops to be closed.
  • Walpurgis Night or more often Vappu, May 1, although festivities start the day before (Vappuaatto). A spring festival that coincides with May Day. Originally a pagan tradition that coincides with the more recent workers' celebration, it has become a giant festival for students, who wear colorful signature overalls and roam the streets. Many people also use their white student caps between 6PM at April 30 and the end of May 1st. Even though drinking alcohol in public places is prohibited in Finland, the police have absolutely no resources to control thousands of people in the streets and parks! The following day, people gather to nurse their hangovers at open-air picnics, even if it's raining sleet.
  • Midsummer Festival (Juhannus), Saturday between June 20 and June 26. Held to celebrate the summer solstice, with plenty of bonfires, drinking and general merrymaking. Cities become almost empty as people rush to their summer cottages. Might be a good idea to visit one of the bigger cities just for the eerie feeling of an empty city.
  • Independence Day (Itsenäisyyspäivä), December 6. A fairly somber celebration of Finland's independence from Russia. The President holds a ball for the important people that the less important watch on TV.
  • Little Christmas (Pikkujoulu), people go pub crawling with their workmates throughout December. Not an official holiday, just a Viking-strength version of an office Christmas party.
  • Christmas (Joulu), December 24 to 26. The biggest holiday of the year, when pretty much everything closes for three days. Santa (Joulupukki) comes on Christmas Eve on December 24, ham gets eaten and everyone goes to sauna.
  • New Year's Eve (Uudenvuodenaatto), December 31. Fireworks time!
Typical vacation time is in July, unlike elsewhere in Europe, where it is in August. The midsummer time is also vacationing time. During these days, cities are likely to be less populated, as Finns head for their summer cottages.
Regions of Finland
Regions of Finland
Southern Finland
The southern stretch of coastline up to the Russian border, including the capital Helsinki and the historical province of Uusimaa (Nyland)
Western Finland
The coastal areas, the old capital Turku, Finland's number two city Tampere and the southern parts of the historical province of Ostrobothnia (Pohjanmaa, Österbotten)
Eastern Finland
Forests and lakes by the Russian border, including Savonia (Savo) and the Finnish side of Karelia (Karjala)
Oulu
Kajanaland (Kainuu) and northern Ostrobothnia, named after the technology city of Oulu.
Finnish Lapland
Tundra and reindeer above the Arctic Circle.
The Åland Islands
an autonomous and monolingually Swedish group of islands off the southwestern coast of Finland
While a convenient and unambiguous bureaucratic division, the provinces do not really correspond to geographical or cultural boundaries very well. Other terms you may hear include Tavastia (Häme), covering a large area of central Finland around Tampere, and Karelia (Karjala) to the far east, the bulk of which was lost to the Soviet Union in World War II (still a sore topic in some circles).
.
  • Helsinki — the "Daughter of the Baltic", Finland's capital and largest city by far
  • Jyväskylä — a university town located in Central Finland
  • Kuopio — a university town in central Finland , lakeland area.
  • Oulu — a technology city at the end of the Gulf of Bothnia
  • Pori — an industrial city at the western coast, known from its annual Pori Jazz festival.
  • Rovaniemi — gateway to Lapland, largest city in Europe measured from the surface area
  • Savonlinna — a small town with a big castle and a popular opera festival.
  • Tampere — an industrial town, home to the Lenin Museum and Spy Museum, in the middle of other big cities in Southern Finland
  • Turku — the former capital on the western coast.^ Roma/Gypsies of the eastern Kale group settled in Finland at the end of the sixteenth century and mostly live in urban areas.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Finland has implemented a number of commendable measures in the area of minority protection.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Finland is located in northern Europe and shares land borders with Sweden, Norway and Russia.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

    Medieval castle and cathedral.
  • Vaasa — a city with strong Swedish influences on the west coast located near the UNESCO world natural site Kvarken Archipelago

Get in

Finland is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

Finland's main international hub is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport near Helsinki. Finnair [3] , Blue1 [4], Air Finland [5] and Finncomm Airlines [6] are based there. Around 30 foreign airlines fly to Helsinki-Vantaa, including low-cost carrier Easyjet from London, Manchester and Paris.
Ryanair's Finland hub is in Tampere, with flights around Europe. Other airlines have limited regional services to other cities, mostly just to Sweden, and, in the winter high season, occasional direct charters (especially in December) and seasonal scheduled flights (Dec-Mar) to Lapland. It may also be worth your while to get a cheap flight to Tallinn and follow the boat instructions below to get to Finland.

By train

VR [7] and Russian Railways have two direct train services daily from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg and one daily to Moscow in Russia. There are no direct trains between Sweden or Norway and Finland (the rail gauge is different), but the bus over the gap from Boden/Luleå (Sweden) to Kemi (Finland) is free with an Eurail/Inter Rail pass, and you can also get a 50% discount from most ferries with these passes.

By bus

Buses are the cheapest but also the slowest and least comfortable way of traveling between Russia and Finland.
  • Regular scheduled buses run between St. Petersburg, Vyborg and major southern Finnish towns like Helsinki, Lappeenranta, Jyväskylä and all the way west to Turku, check Matkahuolto [8] for schedules. Helsinki-St. Petersburg is served three times daily, costs €38 and takes 9 hours during the day, 8 hours at night.
  • Various direct minibuses run between St. Petersburg's Oktyabrskaya Hotel (opp Moskovsky train station) and Helsinki's Tennispalatsi (Eteläinen Rautatiekatu 8, one block away from Kamppi). At €15 one-way, this is the cheapest option, but the minibuses leave only when full. Departures from Helsinki are most frequent in the morning (around 10 AM), while departures from St. Petersburg usually overnight (around 10 PM).
Inside a Silja passenger ferry
Inside a Silja passenger ferry
One of the best ways to travel to and from Finland is by sea. The boats to Estonia and Sweden, in particular, are giant, multi-story floating palaces and department stores, with cheap prices subsidized by sales of tax-free booze: a return trip to Tallinn including a cabin for up to four people can go as low as €50. If travelling by Inter Rail, you can get 50% off deck fares. The best way to arrive in Helsinki is standing on the outside deck with a view ahead.

Estonia and the Baltic states

Helsinki and Tallinn are only 80 km apart, making this the busiest route in the country. Viking Line [9], Eckerö [10] and Tallink Silja [11] operate full-service car ferries all year round. Depending on the ferry type travel times are from slightly over two hours (Viking Line and Tallink Silja's Star, Superstar and Superfasts) to three and a half hours (Eckerö and Tallink Silja's biggest cruise ships). Some services travel overnight and park outside the harbor until morning. Linda Line [12] offers fast services that complete the trip in 1.5 hours, but charge quite a bit more, have comparatively little to entertain you on board and suspend services in bad weather and during the winter. If the weather is looking dodgy and you're prone to sea sickness, it's best to opt for the big slow boats.
There are no scheduled services to Latvia or Lithuania, but some of the operators above offer semi-regular cruises in the summer, with Riga being the most popular destination.

Germany

Finnlines [13] operates from Helsinki to Travemünde near Lübeck and Hamburg, taking 27-36 hours one way. Tallink Silja [14] runs ferries from Helsinki to Rostock.

Poland

Finnlines [15] operates between Helsinki and Gdynia 3x/week. The trip takes 19 hours and fares start from €102.

Russia

Scheduled ferry services to Russia are stop-and-go, being at the moment stopped once again. Kristina Cruises [16] still offer occasional cruises from Helsinki.

Sweden

Silja Serenade leaving Helsinki
Silja Serenade leaving Helsinki
Both Silja [17] and Viking [18] offer overnight cruises from Helsinki and overnight as well as daytime cruises from Turku to Stockholm, usually stopping in the Åland islands along the way. These are some of the largest and most luxurious passenger ferries in the world, with as many as 14 floors and a whole slew of restaurants, bars, discos, pool and spa facilities, etc. The cheaper cabin classes below the car decks are rather Spartan, but the higher sea view cabins can be very nice indeed.
Note that, due to crowds of rowdy youngsters aiming to get thoroughly hammered on cheap tax-free booze, both Silja and Viking do not allow unaccompanied youth under 23 to cruise on Fridays or Saturdays. (The age limit is 20 on other nights, and only 18 for travellers not on same-day-return cruise packages.) In addition, Silja does not offer deck class on its overnight services, while Viking does.
In addition to the big two, Seawind [19] operates car ferries on the Turku-Stockholm route, and FinnLink [20] offers the cheapest car ferry connection of all from Naantali to Kapellskär (from €60 for a car with driver).
.Car ferries usually stop for a few minutes at Mariehamn in the Åland Islands, which are outside the EU tax area and thus allow the ferries to operate duty-free sales.^ What is now Finland belonged to the Kingdom of Sweden from the twelfth century to 1809, when the area, including the Åland Islands, was ceded to Russia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

By car

Sweden

As mentioned above, one of the easiest ways to get by car from Sweden to Finland is a car ferry. The European Route E12 (Finnish national highway 3) includes a ferry line between Umeå and Vaasa. Another route that includes a car ferry is E18, from Stockholm to Turku.
There are also land border crossings up in Lapland at Tornio, Ylitornio, Pello, Kolari, Muonio and Kaaresuvanto.

Norway

European Routes E8 and E75 connect Finland and Norway. There are border crossings at Kilpisjärvi, Kivilompolo, Karigasniemi, Utsjoki, Nuorgam and Näätämö.

Russia

European route E18, as Russian route M10, goes from St. Petersburg via Vyborg to Vaalimaa/Torfyanovka border station near Hamina. From there, E18 continues as Finnish national highway 7 to Helsinki, and from there, along the coast as highway 1 to Turku. In Vaalimaa, trucks will have to wait in a persistent truck queue. This queue does not directly affect other vehicles. There are border control and customs checks in Vaalimaa and passports and Schengen visas if applicable will be needed.
From south to north, other border crossings can be found at Nuijamaa/Brusnichnoye (Lappeenranta), Niirala (Tohmajärvi), Vartius (Kuhmo) Kelloselkä (Salla) and Raja-Jooseppi (Sodankylä). All except the first are very remote.

Estonia

As mentioned above, there is a car ferry between Tallinn and Helsinki. It forms a part of European route E67 Via Baltica.
The Finnish rail network (passenger lines in green)
The Finnish rail network (passenger lines in green)
Finland's a large country and traveling is relatively expensive. Public transportation is well organized and the equipment is always comfortable and often new. The domestic Journey Planner [21] helps to search for the best connections between any two locations covering all domestic coach and train lines.

By plane

Flights are the fastest but generally also the most expensive way of getting around. Finnair and some smaller airlines operate regional flights from Helsinki to all over the country, including Kuopio, Pori, Rovaniemi and Ivalo. It's worth booking in advance if possible: on the Helsinki-Oulu sector, the country's busiest, a fully flexible return economy ticket costs a whopping €251 but an advance-purchase non-changeable one-way ticket can go as low as €39, less than a train ticket. You may also be able to get discounted domestic tickets if you fly into Finland on Finnair. Another possibility is Air Baltic which also flies the sector Turku-Oulu for very competitive prices, far less than the train.
There are three competing airlines selling domestic flights:
  • Finnair [22], the biggest by far, services to most bigger cities.
  • Blue1 [23], a division of SAS, competes on the busiest routes.
  • Air Baltic [24], the national carrier of Latvia is also competing on the sector Turku Oulu.
There are some smaller airlines which fly flights for Finnair, their tickets can be bought from Finnair. FinnComm Airlines [25], however, also sell some seats on their own website cheaper than through Finnair.
A Pendolino train, the fastest in VR's fleet (220 km/h)
A Pendolino train, the fastest in VR's fleet (220 km/h)
VR [26] (Finnish Railways) operates the fairly extensive railroad network. .The train is the method of choice for travel from Helsinki to Tampere, Turku and Lahti, with departures at least once per hour and faster speeds than the bus.^ Old Russian communities in and around Helsinki, Turku and Tampere are mostly the descendants of civil servants, officers and merchants who settled during the nineteenth century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

The following classes of service are available, with example prices and durations for the popular Helsinki-Tampere service in parenthesis.
  • Pendolino tilting trains (code S), the fastest option (€32, 1:26)
  • InterCity (IC) and InterCity2 (IC2) express trains, with IC surcharge (€26.9, 1:46)
  • Ordinary express (pikajuna, P), with express surcharge, only slow night trains for this connection (€24.6, 2:12-2:16)
  • Local and regional trains (lähiliikennejuna, lähijuna or taajamajuna), no surcharge, quite slow (€21, 2:03)
The trains are generally very comfortable, especially the express services. Pendolino and IC trains have restaurant cars, family cars (IC only, with a playpen for children), power sockets and smoking sections. Other trains, including some short-distance IC2 services, do not. Additional surcharges apply for travel in first class, branded "Business" on some trains, which gets you more spacious seating, newspapers and possibly a snack.
Overnight sleepers are available for long-haul routes and very good value at €11/21/43 for a bed in a three/two/one-bed compartment, but one-bed compartments are only available in first class.
One child under 17 can travel for free with each fare-paying adult, and seniors over 65 years old and students with Finnish student ID (ISIC cards etc not accepted) get 50% off. Groups of 3 or more get 15% off.
Finland participates in the Inter Rail and Eurail systems. Residents of Europe can buy InterRail Finland passes offering 3-8 days of unlimited travel in one month for €109-229 (adult 2nd class), while the Eurail Finland pass for non-residents is €178-320 for 3-10 days. VR's own Holiday Pass (LomaPassi), at €145 for 3 days including up to 4 free seat reservations, is available to all but only valid in summer. You would have to travel a lot to make any of these pay off though: for comparison, a full-fare InterCity return ticket across the entire country from Helsinki to Rovaniemi and back is €162.

By bus

Matkahuolto [27] offers long-distance coach connections to practically all parts of Finland. Bus is also the only way to travel in Lapland, since the rail network doesn't extend to the extreme north.
Buses are generally slightly higher than trains, but sometimes lower (from Helsinki to Turku). Speeds are usually slower than trains, sometimes very slow (from Helsinki to Oulu), sometimes even faster (from Helsinki to Kotka and Pori). However, unlike the trains, student discounts are available also for foreign students by showing a valid ISIC card at Matkahuolto offices (in every bus station) and getting a Matkahuolto student discount card (€5).
Local transport networks are well-developed in Greater Helsinki, but to a lesser degree in other places.

By ferry

In summertime, lake cruises are a great way to see the scenery of Finland, although most of them only do circular sightseeing loops and aren't thus particularly useful for getting from point A to point B. Most cruise ships carry 100-200 passengers (book ahead on weekends!), and many are historical steam boats. Popular routes include Turku-Naantali and various routes in and around Saimaa.
Moose on the loose
Moose on the loose
Car rental is possible in Finland but generally expensive, with rates generally upwards of €80/day, although rates go down for longer rentals. Foreign-registered cars can only be used in Finland for a limited time and registering it locally involves paying a substantial tax to equalize the price to Finnish levels. If you opt to buy a car in Finland instead, make sure it has all annual taxes paid and when its next annual inspection is due: the deadline is the same day as the car's first date of use unless the registration form says 00.00.xx in first date of use. In that case the inspection date is determined by the last number of the license plate. All cars must pass emissions testing and precise tests of brakes etc. Police may remove the plates of vehicles that have not passed their annual inspections in time and give you a fine.
Traffic drives on the right, and there are no road tolls in Finnish cities or highways so far. Roads are well maintained and extensive, although expressways are limited to the south of the country. Note that headlights or daytime running lights must be kept on at all times when driving, in and outside cities, whether it's dark or not. Drivers must stay very alert, particularly at dawn and dusk, for wild animals. Collisions with moose (frequently lethal) are common countrywide, deer (mostly survivable) cause numerous collisions in South and South West parts of the country, and half-domesticated reindeer are a common cause of accidents in Lapland. Bear collisions happen sometimes in eastern parts of the country. VR's overnight car carrier trains [28] are popular for skipping the long slog from Helsinki up to Lapland and getting a good night's sleep instead: a Helsinki-Rovaniemi trip (one way) with car and cabin for 1-3 people starts from €215.
Winter driving can be somewhat hazardous, especially for drivers unused to cold weather conditions. Winter tires (M+S) are mandatory from 1 December through the end of February. The most dangerous weather is in fact around the zero degree mark (C), when slippery but near-invisible black ice forms on the roads. Finnish cars often come equipped with an engine block heater (lohkolämmitin) used to preheat the engine and possibly the interior of the car beforehand, and many parking places have electric outlets to feed them. Liikenneturva, the Finnish road safety agency, maintains a Tips for winter driving page [29] in English.
Finnish speeding tickets are based on your income, so be careful: a Nokia VP who'd cashed in some stock options the previous year was once hit for $204,000! Fortunately, the police have no access to tax records outside Finland, and will just fine non-residents a flat €100-200 instead. A blood alcohol level of over 0.05% is considered drunk driving, so think twice before drinking that second beer.
If you are driving at night when the gas stations are closed (they usually close at 9 PM), always remember to bring some money for gas. Automated gas pumps in Finland in rare occasions do not accept foreign visa/credit cards, but you can pay with Euro notes.

By taxi

Finnish taxis are heavily regulated by the government, so they're comfortable, safe and expensive. No matter where you go in the country, the starting fee is fixed at €5.10, rising up to €8 at night and on Sundays. The per-kilometer charge starts at €1.33/km for 1 or 2 passengers, rising up to €1.87/km for 7+ passenger minivans. A 20-25 km journey (say, airport to central Helsinki) can thus easily cost €30-40.
Taxis can come in any color or shape, but they will always have a yellow "TAXI" sign on the roof. Hailing cabs off the street is difficult to impossible, so either find a taxi rank or order by phone. Taxi companies around the country can be found at the Taksiliitto [30] site.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is possible, albeit unusual, in Finland, as the harsh climate and sparse traffic don't exactly encourage standing around and waiting for cars. The most difficult task is getting out of Helsinki. Summer offers long light hours, but in the fall/spring you should plan your time. The highway between Helsinki and Saint Petersburg has very high percentage of Russian drivers. See Hitchhiking Club Finland liftari.org [31] or the Finland article [32] on Hitchwiki for further details if interested.
See also: Finnish phrasebook
Finland is officially bilingual in Finnish and Swedish, but in practice Finland is largely (93%) monolingual in Finnish. .Finnish is not related to the Scandinavian languages (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese), Russian, or English.^ Main languages: Finnish, Swedish, Sami .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1932 it was decided that the language of instruction at the Jewish school in Helsinki should be Finnish instead of Swedish.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ The Swedish language remains protected under the provisions of the Finnish Constitution and the language legislation as an official language alongside Finnish.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

In fact, it is not even an Indo-European language, instead belonging in the Uralic group of languages which includes Hungarian and Estonian, making it hard for speakers of most other European languages to learn. Reading signboards can also be difficult as Finnish has relatively few loan words from common European languages, and as a result it is very hard to guess what words in Finnish mean.
Swedish is the mother tongue for 5.6% of the Finns, and in continental Finland the Swedish-speaking communities are mainly in smaller rural municipalities and along the Southwest coast. There are no large cities with a Swedish majority. Many towns and road signs on the coast use alternate Finnish and Swedish names, so road signs can be confusing. The small autonomous province of Åland is exclusively Swedish-speaking, as are the municipalities of Närpes, Korsnäs and Larsmo, where most people speak nothing but Swedish and English. Because Swedish is mandatory subject in schools, everyone is supposed to speak and understand it. In reality, this only applies to larger coastal cities like Helsinki, Turku and Vaasa (where the vast majority is bilingual), and municipalities with a majority of native Swedish-speakers. Workers in many hotels and restaurants in such places are usually required to be capable of communicating in Swedish and in Helsinki in particular, there is almost always at least one person who knows how to speak German so don't be afraid to ask!
63 % of the Finns also speak English. In larger cities, nearly all people you could possibly meet as a tourist speak English very well, and with the younger people even in the rural locations. Finns may be shy to speak English, even though they might understand it quite well. Besides English, some Finns can speak German or French, other secondary languages (Spanish, Russian) being rare.
TV programs and movies are nearly always subtitled. Only children's programmes and movies get dubbed into Finnish.

See

A selection of top sights in Finland:
  • Central Helsinki, the Daughter of the Baltic, on a warm and sunny summer day
  • The historical sites of Turku and the vast archipelago around it, best viewed from the deck of a giant car ferry
  • Pottering around the picturesque wooden houses of Porvoo, Finland's second-oldest city
  • Olavinlinna Castle in Savonlinna, Finland's most atmospheric castle, especially during the yearly Opera Festival
  • Hämeenlinna Castle in Hämeenlinna is Finland's oldest castle. Built in 13th century.
  • Relaxing at a sauna-equipped cottage in the lake country of Eastern Finland
  • Icebreaker cruising and the world's biggest snow castle in Kemi
  • Seeing the Northern Lights and trying your hand sledding down a mile-long track at Saariselkä

Do

Sports

Notably lacking in craggy mountains or crenellated fjords, Finland is not the adrenalin-laden winter sports paradise you might expect: the traditional Finnish pastime is cross-country skiing through more or less flat terrain. If you're looking for downhill skiing, snowboarding etc, you'll need to head up to Lapland and resorts like Levi and Saariselkä.
During the short summer you can swim, fish or canoe in the lakes. They are usually warmest around 20th July. Local newspapers usually have the current surface temperatures, and a map of the surface temperatures can also be found from the Environment Ministry website [33]. During the warmest weeks, late at night or early in the morning the water can feel quite pleasant when the air temperature is lower than the water's. Most towns also have swimming halls with slightly warmer water, but these are often closed during the summer. Fishing permits, if needed, can be easily bought from any R-Kioski although they take a small surcharge for it.
For hikers, fishermen and hunters, the Ministry of Forestry maintains an online Excursion Map map [34] with trails and huts marked. The best season for hiking is early fall, after most mosquitoes have died off and the autumn colors have come out.
And if you'd like to try your hand at something uniquely Finnish, don't miss the plethora of bizarre sports contests in the summer, including:
  • Air Guitar World Championships [35], August, Oulu.
  • Mobile Phone Throwing Championship [36], August, Savonlinna. Recycle your Nokia!
  • Swamp Soccer World Championship [37], July, Hyrynsalmi. Probably the messiest sporting event in the world.
  • Wife Carrying World Championship [38], July, Sonkajärvi. The grand prize is the wife's weight in beer.

Festivals

Finland hosts many music festivals (festari) during the summer. Some of the most notable include:
  • Provinssirock [39], rock, Seinäjoki, mid-June
  • Nummirock [40], heavy metal, Nummijärvi (near Kauhajoki), late June (Midsummer)
  • RMJ [41], pop/disco music, Pori, late June (Midsummer)
  • Tuska Open Air [42] , heavy metal, Helsinki, late June
  • Sauna Open Air [43], heavy metal, Tampere, early June
  • Ruisrock [44], rock, Turku, July
  • Konemetsä [45], electronic music, Ollila (near Turku), July
  • Pori Jazz [46], jazz/world music, Pori, mid-July
  • Ankkarock [47], rock, Korso (near Helsinki), August
  • Flow [48], indie/electronic/urban, Helsinki, mid-August
Most of the festivals last 2-4 days and are very well organized, with many different bands playing, with eg. Foo Fighters and Linkin Park headlining at Provinssi 2008. The normal full ticket (all days) price is about €60-100, which includes a camp site where you can sleep, eat and meet other festival guests. The atmosphere at festivals is great and probably you'll find new friends there. Of course drinking a lot of beer is a part of the experience.

Northern Lights

Spotting the eerie Northern Lights (aurora borealis, or revontulet in Finnish) glowing in the sky is on the agenda of many visitors, but even in Finland it's not so easy. During the summer, it's light all day along and the aurora become invisible, and they're rarely seen in the south. The best place to spot them is during the winter in the far north, when the probability of occurrence is over 50% around the magnetic peak hour of 11:30 PM — if the sky is clear, that is. The ski resort of Saariselkä, easily accessible by plane and with plenty of facilities, is particularly popular among aurora hunters.

Buy

Finland adopted the euro (€) on January 1st 2002 and the Finnish mark (FIM) is now obsolete. Finland does not use the 1 and 2 cent coins; instead all sums are rounded to the nearest 5 cents. The coins are, however, still legal tender and there are even small quantities of Finnish 1c and 2c coins, highly valued by collectors. It is common to omit cents and the euro sign from prices, and use the comma as a decimal separator: "5,50" thus means five euros and fifty cents.
Getting or exchanging money is rarely a problem, as ATMs ("Otto") are common and they can be operated with international credit and debit cards (Visa, Visa Electron, Mastercard, Maestro). Currencies other than the euro are generally not accepted, although the Swedish krona may be accepted in Åland and northern border towns like Tornio. Pre-2002 Finnish mark notes may be accepted on an ad-hoc basis and can be exchanged into euros at Bank of Finland [49] branches until 2012. Money changers are common in the bigger cities (the Forex chain [50] is ubiquitous) and typically have better rates, longer opening hours and faster service than banks. Credit cards are widely accepted, but you will be asked for identification if you purchase more than €50 (and may be asked to show it even for smaller purchases).
As a rule, tipping is never necessary in Finland and restaurant bills already include service charges. That said, taxi fares and other bills paid by cash are often rounded up to the next convenient number. Cloakrooms (narikka) in nightclubs and better restaurants often have non-negotiable fees (usually clearly signposted, €2 is standard) and hotel porters will expect around the same per bag.

Costs

Declared the world's most expensive country in 1990, prices have since abated somewhat but are still steep by most standards. Rock-bottom traveling if staying in hostel dorms and self-catering costs at least €25/day and it's well worth doubling that amount. Even the cheapest hotels cost closer to €100 per night. Instead of hotels or hostels, look for holiday cottages, especially when travelling in a group and off-season, you can find a full-equipped cottage for €10-15 per person a night.
Note that a VAT of 22% is charged for nearly everything, but by law this must be included in the displayed price. Non-EU residents can get a tax refund for purchases above €40 at participating outlets, just look for the Tax-Free Shopping logo.

Shopping

As you might expect given the general price level, souvenir shopping in Finland isn't exactly cheap. .Traditional buys include Finnish puukko knives, handwoven ryijy rugs and every conceivable part of a reindeer.^ Prospects for Finnish Sami, as for all Sami, involve the struggle to maintain their culture as their traditional northern reindeer grazing lands are increasingly exploited by modern industry.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

For any Lappish handicrafts, look for the "Sámi Duodji" label that certifies it as authentic.
Popular brands for modern (or timeless) Finnish design include Marimekko [51] clothing, Iittala [52] glass, Arabia [53] ceramics, Kalevala Koru [54] jewelry, Pentik [55] interior design and, if you don't mind the shipping costs, Artek [56] furniture by renowned architect and designer Alvar Aalto. Kids and not a few adults love Moomin [57] characters, which fill up souvenir store shelves throughout the country.
Beware of limited Finnish shopping hours. For smaller shops, normal weekday opening hours are 9 AM to 6 PM, but most shops close early on Saturday and are closed entirely on Sundays. Larger shops and department stores are generally open until 9 PM on weekdays and 6 PM on Saturdays. During the summer months and the month before Christmas, stores are allowed to stay open on Sundays until as late as 9 PM. From December 2009 onwards, large stores are allowed to stay open until 6 PM on Sundays year round (9 PM around Christmas), and smaller stores have no limitations. During national holidays, almost all stores are closed.
Convenience stores like the ubiquitous R-Kioski [58] keep somewhat longer hours, but still tend to be closed when you most need them. If in desperate need of basic supplies, gas station convenience stores are usually open on weekends and until late at night (some of the gas station convenience stores are open 24/7). Supermarkets in Helsinki's Asematunneli, underneath the Central Railway Station), are open until 10 PM every day of the year, except on Christmas Day (December 25th).
A typical Finnish meal. Clockwise from bottom: warm smoked salmon, boiled potatoes, cream sauce with chantarelles, lightly pickled cucumbers with dill
A typical Finnish meal. Clockwise from bottom: warm smoked salmon, boiled potatoes, cream sauce with chantarelles, lightly pickled cucumbers with dill
Finnish cuisine is heavily influenced by its neighbors, the main staples being potatoes and bread with various fish and meat dishes on the side. Milk or cream is traditionally considered an important part of the diet and is often an ingredient in foods and a drink, even for adults. Various milk products such as cheeses are also produced. While traditional Finnish food is famously bland, the culinary revolution that followed joining the EU has seen a boom in classy restaurants experimenting with local ingredients, often with excellent results.

Seafood

With tens of thousands of lakes and a long coastline, fish is a Finnish staple, and there's a lot more on that menu than just salmon (lohi). Specialities include:
  • Baltic herring (silakka), a small, fatty and quite tasty fish available pickled, marinated, smoked, grilled and in countless other varieties
  • Gravlax ("graavilohi"), a pan-Scandinavian appetizer of raw salted salmon
  • Smoked salmon (savulohi), not just the cold, thinly sliced, semi-raw kind but also fully cooked "warm" smoked salmon
  • Vendace (muikku), a speciality in eastern Finland, a small fish served fried, heavily salted and typically with mashed potatoes
Other local fish to look out for include zander (kuha), an expensive delicacy, pike (hauki) and perch (ahven).
Reindeer stew (poronkäristys), a Lappish favorite
Reindeer stew (poronkäristys), a Lappish favorite
Meatballs (lihapullat), served with mashed potatoes and lingonberry jam
Meatballs (lihapullat), served with mashed potatoes and lingonberry jam
  • Karelian stew (karjalanpaisti), a heavy stew usually made from beef and pork (and optionally, lamb), carrots and onions, usually served with potatoes
  • Liver casserole (maksalaatikko), consisting of chopped liver, rice and raisins cooked in an oven; it tastes rather different from what you'd expect (and not liver-y at all)
  • Loop sausage (lenkkimakkara), a large, mildly flavored sausage; best when grilled and topped with a dab of sweet Finnish mustard (sinappi), and beer
  • Meat balls (lihapullat, lihapyörykät) are as popular and tasty as in neighboring Sweden
  • Reindeer (poro) dishes, especially sauteed reindeer shavings (poronkäristys, served with potato mash and lingonberries), not actually a part of the everyday Finnish diet but a tourist staple and common in the frigid North
  • Swedish hash ("pyttipannu"), (originally from Sweden, Swedish: "pytt i panna") a hearty dish of potatoes, onions and any meaty leftovers on hand fried up in a pan and topped with an egg

Milk products

Cheese and other milk products are very popular in Finland. The most common varieties are mild hard cheeses like Edam and Emmental, but local specialities include:
  • Aura cheese (aurajuusto), a local variety of blue cheese, also used in soups, sauces and as a pizza topping.
  • Breadcheese (leipäjuusto or juustoleipä), a type of very mild-flavored grilled curd that squeaks when you eat it, best enjoyed warm with a dab of cloudberry jam
  • Piimä, a type of buttermilk beverage, thick and sour
  • Viili, a gelatinous, stretchy and sour variant of yoghurt
Carelian pie (karjalanpiirakka), a signature Finnish pastry
Carelian pie (karjalanpiirakka), a signature Finnish pastry
  • Pea soup (hernekeitto), usually but not always with ham, traditionally eaten with a dab of mustard and served on Thursdays; just watch out for the flatulence!
  • Karelian pies (karjalanpiirakka), an oval 7 by 10 cm baked pastry, traditionally baked with rye flour, containing rice porridge or mashed potato, ideally eaten topped with butter and chopped egg
  • Porridge (puuro), usually made from oats (kaura), barley (ohra), rice (riisi) and rye (ruis) and most often served for breakfast

Bread

Bread (leipä) is served with every meal in Finland, and comes in a vast array of varieties. Rye bread is the most popular bread in Finland. Typically Finnish ones include:
  • hapankorppu, dry, crispy and slightly sour flatbread, occasionally sold overseas as "Finncrisp"
  • limppu, catch-all term for big loaves of fresh bread
  • näkkileipä, another type of dark, dried, crispy rye flatbread
  • ruisleipä (rye bread), can be up to 100% rye and much darker, heavier and chewier than American-style rye bread; unlike in Swedish tradition, Finnish rye bread is typically unsweetened and thus sour and even bitter.
  • rieska, unleavened bread made from wheat or potatoes, eaten fresh
Attack of the killer mushrooms
The false morel (korvasieni) has occasionally been dubbed the "Finnish fugu", as like the infamous Japanese pufferfish, an improperly prepared false morel can kill you. Fortunately, it's easily rendered safe by boiling (just don't breathe in the fumes!), and prepared mushrooms can be found in gourmet restaurants and even canned.
From the end of July until early September it's worthwhile to ask for crayfish (rapu) menus and prices at better restaurants. It's not cheap, you don't get full from the crayfish alone and there are many rituals involved, most of which involve large quantities of ice-cold vodka, but it should be tried at least once. Or try to sneak onto a corporate crayfish party guestlist, places are extremely coveted at some. Around Christmas, baked ham is the traditional star of the dinner table, with a constellation of casseroles around it.
There are also regional specialties, including Eastern Finland's kalakukko (a type of giant fish pie) and Tampere's infamous blood sausage (mustamakkara). Around Easter keep an eye out for mämmi, a type of brown sweet rye pudding which is eaten with cream and sugar. It looks famously unpleasant but actually tastes quite good.
An assortment of pulla straight from the oven
An assortment of pulla straight from the oven
For dessert or just as a snack, Finnish pastries abound and are often taken with coffee (see Drink) after a meal. Look for cardamom coffee bread (pulla), a wide variety of tarts (torttu), and donuts (munkki). In summer, a wide range of fresh berries are available, including the delectable but expensive cloudberry (lakka), and berry products are available throughout the year as jam (hillo), soup (keitto) and a type of gooey pudding or porridge known as kiisseli.
Finnish chocolate is also rather good, with Fazer [59] products including their iconic Sininen ("Blue") bar exported around the world. A more Finnish speciality is licorice (lakritsi), particularly the strong, salty kind known as salmiakki, which gets its unique (and acquired) taste from ammonium chloride.
Cold fish buffet at Liekkilohi, Savonlinna
Cold fish buffet at Liekkilohi, Savonlinna
Finns tend to eat out only on special occasions, and restaurant prices are correspondingly expensive. The one exception is lunchtime, when thanks to a government-sponsored lunch coupon system company cafeterias and nearly every restaurant in town offers set lunches for around €8-9, usually consisting of a main course, salad bar, bread table and a drink. University cafeterias, many of which are open to all, are particularly cheap with meals in the €2-4 range for students, although without local student ID you will usually need to pay more.
For dinner, you'll be limited to generic fast food (pizza, hamburgers, kebabs and such) in the €5-10 range, or you'll have to splurge over €20 for a meal in a "nice" restaurant. For eating on the move, look for grill kiosks (grilli), which serve sausages, hamburgers and other portable if not terribly health-conscious fare late into the night at reasonable prices. In addition to the usual hamburgers and hot dogs, look for meat pies (lihapiirakka), akin to a giant savoury doughnut stuffed with minced meat and your choice of sausage, fried eggs and condiments. Hesburger [60] is the local fast-food equivalent of McDonald's, with a similar menu. They have a "Finnish" interpretation of a few dishes, such as a sour-rye chicken sandwich. Of course most international fast food chains are present, especially McDonald's, which offers many of their sandwich buns substituted with a sour-rye bun on request.
The Finnish word for buffet is seisova pöytä ("standing table"), and while increasingly used to refer to all-you-can-eat Chinese or Italian restaurants, the traditional meaning is akin to Sweden's smörgåsbord: a good-sized selection of sandwiches, fish, meats and pastries. It's traditionally eaten in three rounds — first the fish, then the cold meats, and finally warm dishes — and it's usually the first that is the star of the show. Though expensive and not very common in a restaurant setting, if you are fortunate enough to be formally invited to a Finn's home, they will likely have prepared a spread for their guest, along with plenty of coffee. Breakfast at better hotels is also along these lines and it's easy to eat enough to cover lunch as well!
If you're really on a budget, you can save a considerable amount of money by self-catering. Ready-to-eat casseroles and other basic fare that can be quickly prepared in a microwave can be bought for a few euros in any supermarket. Note that you're usually expected to weigh and label any fruits or vegetables yourself (bag it, place it on the scale and press the numbered button. The correct number can be found from the price sign), and green signs mean possibly tastier but certainly more expensive organic (luomu) produce.

Dietary restrictions

Traditional Finnish cuisine relies heavily on meat and fish, but vegetarianism (kasvissyönti) is increasingly popular and well-understood, and will rarely pose a problem for travellers. Practically all restaurants offer vegetarian options, often marked with a "V" on menus.
Two ailments commonly found among Finns themselves are lactose intolerance (laktoosi-intoleranssi, inability to digest the milk sugar lactose) and coeliac disease (keliakia, inability to digest gluten). In restaurants, lactose-free selections are often tagged "L" (low-lactose products are sometimes called "Hyla"), while gluten-free options are marked with "G". However, hydrolyzed lactose (HYLA brand) milk for the lactose intolerant is widely available, which also means that a lactose-free dish is not necessarily milk-free. Allergies are quite common among Finnish people, too, so restaurant workers are usually quite knowledgeable on what goes into each dish and often it is possible to get the dish without certain ingredients if specified.
Kosher and halal food are rare in Finland and generally not available outside very limited speciality shops and restaurants catering to the tiny Jewish and Islamic communities. Watch out for minced meat dishes like meatballs, which very commonly use a mix of beef and pork. The Jewish Community of Helsinki [61] runs a small kosher deli in Helsinki.

Drink

Thanks to its thousands of lakes, Finland has plenty of water supplies and tap water is always potable. The usual soft drinks and juices are widely available, but look out for a wide array of berry juices (marjamehu), especially in summer, as well as Pommac, an unusual soda made from (according to the label) "mixed fruits", which you'll either love or hate.

Coffee and tea

Finns are the world's heaviest coffee (kahvi) drinkers, averaging 3-4 cups per day. Most Finns drink it strong and black, but sugar and milk for coffee are always available and the more European variants such as espresso and cappuccino are becoming all the more common especially in the bigger cities. Oddly, Starbucks hasn't arrived in Finland yet, but all the biggest towns have had French-style fancy cafés for quite some time and modern competitors are springing up in the mix. For a quick caffeine fix, you can just pop into any convenience store, which will pour you a cuppa for €2 or so. Tea hasn't quite caught on in quite the same way, although finding hot water and a bag of Lipton Yellow Label won't be a problem. For brewed tea, check out some of the finer downtown cafés or tea rooms.

Dairy

In Finland it is quite common for people of all ages to drink milk (maito) as an accompaniment to food. Another popular option is piimä, or buttermilk. Viili, a type of curd, acts like super-stretchy liquid bubble gum but is similar to plain yogurt in taste. Fermented dairy products help stabilize the digestion system, so if your system is upset, give them a try.
Chilling out at the Arctic Icebar, Helsinki
Chilling out at the Arctic Icebar, Helsinki
Alcohol is very expensive in Finland compared to most countries (though not to its Nordic neighbours Sweden and Norway), although low-cost Estonia's entry to the EU has forced the government to cut alcohol taxes a little. Still, a single beer will cost you closer to €5 in any bar or pub, or €1 and up in a supermarket. While beer and cider are available in any supermarket or convenience store (until 9 PM), the state monopoly Alko [62] is your sole choice for wine or anything stronger. The legal drinking age is 18 for milder drinks, while to buy hard liquor from Alko you need to be 20. ID is usually requested from all young-looking clients. Some restaurants have higher age requirements, up to 30 years, but these are their own policies and are not always followed, especially at more quiet times.
Surprisingly enough, the national drink is not Finlandia Vodka, but its local brand Koskenkorva [63] or Kossu in common speech. However, the two drinks are closely related: Kossu is 38% while Finlandia is 40%, and Kossu also has a small amount of added sugar, which makes the two drinks taste somewhat different. There are also many other vodkas (viina) on the market, most of which taste pretty much the same, but look out for Ström, "The Spirit of Santa", a Finnish attempt at a super-premium vodka.
A local speciality is Salmiakki-Kossu or Salmari, prepared by mixing in salty black salmiakki licorice, whose taste masks the alcohol behind it fearfully well. Add in some Fisherman's Friend menthol cough drops to get Fisu ("Fish") shots, which are even more lethal. In-the-know hipsters opt for Pantteri ("Panther"), which is half and half Salmari and Fisu. Other classic shots are Jaloviina (Jallu) cut brandy and Tervasnapsi "tar schnapps" with a distinctive smoke aroma.
Beer (olut or kalja) is also very popular, but Finnish beers are mostly nearly identical, mild lagers: common brands are Lapin Kulta, Karjala, Olvi, Koff and Karhu. Pay attention to the label when buying: beers branded "I" are inexpensive but has low alcohol content, while "III" and "IV" are stronger and more expensive. In normal shops you will not find any drinks with more than 4.7% alcohol. You may also encounter kotikalja (lit. "home beer"), a dark brown beer-like but very low-alcohol beverage. Imported beers are available in bigger grocery stores, most pubs and bars, and Czech beers in particular are popular and only slightly more expensive.
The latest trend is ciders (siideri). Most of these are artificially flavored sweet concoctions which are quite different from the English or French kinds, although the more authentic varieties are gaining market share. The ever-popular gin long drink or lonkero (lit. "tentacle"), a prebottled mix of gin and grapefruit soda, tastes better than it sounds and has the additional useful property of glowing under ultraviolet light.
During the winter don't miss glögi, a type of spiced mulled wine served with almonds and raisins which can easily be made at home. The bottled stuff in stores is usually alcohol free, although it was originally made of old wine and Finns will very often mix in some wine or spirits. In restaurants, glögi is served either alcohol-free, or with 2cl vodka added. Fresh, hot glögi can, for example, be found at the Helsinki Christmas market.
Finally, two traditional beverages worth looking for are mead (sima), an age-old wine-like brew made from brown sugar, lemon and yeast and consumed particularly around May's Vappu festival, and sahti, a type of unfiltered, usually very strong beer often flavored with juniper berries (an acquired taste). Like kotikalja, sima and sahti sometimes include marinated raisins.
Inside a Finnish sauna
Inside a Finnish sauna
Sauna
The sauna is perhaps Finland's most significant contribution to the world (and the world's vocabulary). The sauna is essentially a room heated to 70–120°C; according to an oft-quoted statistic this nation of 5 million has no less than 2 million saunas, in apartments, offices, summer cottages and even Parliament. In ancient times, saunas (being the cleanest places around) were the place to give birth and heal the sick, and the first building constructed when setting up a new household.

If invited to visit a Finnish home, you may be invited to bathe in the sauna as well — this is an honor and should be treated as such, although Finns do understand that foreigners may not be keen about the idea. Enter the sauna nude after taking a shower, as wearing a bathing suit or any other clothing is considered a bit of a faux pas, although if you are feeling shy, you can wrap yourself in a bath towel. (When there are guests, men and women usually bathe separately.) The temperature is regulated by throwing water onto the stove (kiuas): the resulting rush of heat, known as löyly, is considered the key to the sauna experience. Some sauna-goers also like to flagellate themselves with leafy branches of birch (vihta in western Finland, vasta in eastern Finland), which creates an enjoyable aroma and improves blood circulation.

If the heat is too much, cup your hands in front of your mouth or move down to a lower level to catch your breath. After you've had your fill, you can cool off by heading outside for a dip in the lake or, in winter, a roll in the snow — and then head back in for another round. Repeat this a few times, then cork open a cold beer, roast a sausage over a fire, and enjoy total relaxation Finnish style.

These days the most common type of sauna features an electrically heated stove, which is easy to control and maintain. In the countryside you can still find wood-fired saunas, but purists prefer the (now very rare) traditional chimneyless smoke saunas (savusauna), where the sauna is heated by filling it with hot smoke and then ventilated well before entering.

Anyone elderly or with a medical condition (especially high blood pressure) should consult their physician before using a sauna.
Accommodation in Finland is expensive, but many large hotels are cheaper during the summer. In addition to the usual international suspects, check out local chains Cumulus [64], Scandic [65] and Sokos [66]. The small but fast-growing Omena [67] chain offers cheap self-service hotels, where you book online and get a keycode for your room, with no check-in of any kind needed.
One of the few ways to limit the damage is to stay in youth hostels (retkeilymaja), as the Finnish Youth Hostel Association [68] has a fairly comprehensive network throughout the country and and a dorm bed usually costs less than €20 per night. Many hostels also have private rooms for as little as €30, which are a great deal if you want a little extra privacy.
An even cheaper option is to take advantage of Finland's right to access, or Every Man's Right (jokamiehenoikeus), which allows camping, hiking, and berry and mushroom picking as well as simple (rod and hook) fishing on uncultivated land. Note that making a fire requires landowner's permission.
For a taste of the Finnish countryside, an excellent option is to stay at a cottage (mökki), thousands of which dot the lake shores. These are generally best in summer, but there are also many cottages around Lapland's ski resorts. Prices vary widely based on facilities and location: simple cottages can go for as little as €20/night, while luxurious multistory mansions can go for 10 times that. Beware that, while all but the most basic ones will have electricity, it's very common for cottages to lack running water: instead, the cottage will have an outhouse (pit toilet) and you're expected to bathe in the sauna and lake. Renting a car is practically obligatory since there are unlikely to be any facilities (shops, restaurants, etc) within walking distance. The largest cottage rental services are Lomarengas [69] and Nettimökki [70], both of which have English interfaces.
Virtually every lodging in Finland includes a sauna (see box) for guests — don't miss it! Check operating hours though, as they're often only heated in the evenings and there may be separate shifts of men and women.

Learn

Finland's universities are generally well-regarded and offer many exchange programs, but the high cost of living and the prospect of facing the long, cold Finnish winter mean that the country is not a particularly popular choice. However, there are no tuition fees for regular degree students, including international exchange students, and it's fairly easy to get in. While lectures are usually conducted in Finnish, most universities offer the option to complete all courses through assignments and exams in English. Many universities also offer the option to study Finnish at various levels.
A reasonable monthly budget (excluding rent) would be €600 to €900. Rents vary depending on location such that in Greater Helsinki and particularly Helsinki proper prices may be two times that of cheaper locations or student housing. Many exchange programs fully or partly subsidize accommodation in student dorms. However, the state does not provide student accommodation and dorms are usually owned by student unions and foundations. Student union membership at around €70-100/year is obligatory, but this includes free access to student health services.
EU citizens can simply enter the country and register as a student after arrival, while students from elsewhere will need to arrange their residence permit beforehand. CIMO [71] (Centre for International Mobility) administers exchange programs and can arrange scholarships and traineeships in Finland, while the Finnish National Board of Education [72] offers basic information about study opportunities.

Work

There is little informal work to be found and many jobs require at least a remedial level of Finnish. Citizens of European Union countries can work freely in Finland, but acquiring a work permit from outside the EU means doing battle with the infamous Directorate of Immigration (Ulkomaalaisvirasto) [73]. However, students permitted to study full-time in Finland are allowed work part-time (up to 25 h/week) or even full-time during holiday periods.
For jobs, you might want to check out the Ministry of Labour [74]. Most of the posted jobs are described in Finnish so you may need some help in translation, but some jobs are in English.
A rapidly growing trend in Finland, especially for the younger generation, is to work for placement agencies. Although there has been a massive surge of public companies going private in the last ten years, this trend seems to be fueled by the increased demand for more flexible work schedules as well as the freedom to work seasonally or sporadically. Due to the nature of these types of agencies as well as the types of work they provide, it is common for them to hire non-Finns. Some agencies include Adecco, Staff Point [75], Manpower and Biisoni [76].

Stay safe

Finland enjoys a comparatively low crime rate and is, generally, a very safe place to travel. Use common sense at night, particularly on Friday and Saturday when the youth of Finland hit the streets to get drunk and in some unfortunate cases look for trouble. It is statistically more likely that your home country is less safe than Finland, so heed whatever warnings you would do in your own country and you will have no worries.
Racism is a generally minor concern, especially in the cosmopolitan major cities, but there have been a few rare but highly publicized incidents of black or Arab people getting beaten up by gangs. The average visitor, though, this is highly unlikely to encounter any problems.
Pickpockets are rare, but not unheard of, especially in the busy tourist months in the summer. Most Finns carry their wallets in their pockets or purses and feel quite safe while doing it. Parents often leave their sleeping babies in a baby carriage on the street while visiting a shop, and in the countryside cars and house doors are often left unlocked.
On the other hand, you have to be careful if you buy or rent a bicycle. Bicycle thieves are everywhere, never leave your bike unlocked even for a minute.

In case of emergency

112 is the national phone number for all emergency services, including police, and it does not require an area code, regardless of what kind of phone you're using. The number works on any mobile phone, whether it is keylocked or not, and with or without a SIM card. If a cellphone challenges you with a PIN code, you can simply type in 112 as a PIN code - most phones will give a choice to call the number.

Stay healthy

There are few serious health risks in Finland. Your primary enemy especially in wintertime will be the cold, particularly if trekking in Lapland. Finland is a sparsely populated country and, if heading out into the wilderness, it is imperative that you register your travel plans with somebody who can inform rescue services if you fail to return. Always keep your mobile phone with you if you run into trouble. Dress warmly in layers and bring along a good pair of sunglasses to prevent snow blindness, especially in the spring and if you plan to spend whole days outdoors.
A serious nuisance in summer are mosquitoes (hyttynen), hordes of which inhabit Finland (particularly Lapland) in summer, especially after rains. While they carry no malaria or other nasty diseases, Finnish mosquitoes make a distinctive (and highly irritating) whining sound while tracking their prey, and their bites are very itchy. As usual, mosquitoes are most active around dawn and sunset — which, in the land of the Midnight Sun, may mean most of the night in summer. There are many different types of mosquito repellants available which can be bought from almost any shop. Another summer nuisance are gadflies (paarma), whose bites can leave a mark lasting for days, even for month. A more recent introduction to Finnish summers are deer keds (hirvikärpänen), that can be particularly nasty if they manage to shed their wings and burrow into hair (although they rarely bite as humans are not their intended targets, and mainly exist in deep forests). Use repellent, ensure your tent has good mosquito netting and consider prophylaxis with cetirizine (brand names include Zyrtec), an anti-allergen that (if taken in advance!) will neutralize your reaction to any bites. Topical anti-allergens in the form of gels and creams are also available as over-the-counter medication. A flea comb can be useful for removing deer keds.
In southern Finland, especially Åland, the Lappeenranta-Parikkala-Imatra-axis and areas near Turku's coast, there are ticks (punkki) which appear on summertime and can transmit Lyme's disease (borreliosis) and viral encephalitis through a bite. Although these incidents are relatively rare and not all ticks carry the disease, it's advisable to wear dark trousers rather than shorts if you plan to walk through dense and/or tall grass areas (the usual habitat for ticks). You can buy special tick tweezers from the pharmacy (punkkipihdit) which can be used to remove a tick safely if you happen to get bitten. You should remove the tick from your skin as quickly as possible and preferably with the tick tweezers to reduce the risks of getting an infection. If the tick bite starts to form red rings on the skin around it or if you experience other symptoms relating to the bite, you should visit a doctor as soon as possible.
The only poisonous insects in Finland are wasps (ampiainen), bees (mehiläinen) and bumblebees (kimalainen). Their stings can be painful, but are not dangerous, unless you receive several stings or if you are allergic to it.
There's only one type of poisonous snake in Finland, the European adder (kyy or kyykäärme), which has a distinct zig-zag type of figure on its back, although some individuals are almost completely black. The snake occurs across Finland all the way from the south to up north in Lapland. Although their bites are extremely rarely fatal (except for small children and allergic persons), one should be careful in the summertime especially when walking in the forests or on open fields at the countryside. Walk so that you make the ground vibrate and snakes will go away, they attack people only when somebody frightens them. If you are bitten by a snake, always get medical assistance. If you are planning to travel in the nature on summertime, it's advisable to buy a kyypakkaus ("Adder pack", a medicine set which contains a couple of hydrocortisone pills). It can be bought from any Finnish pharmacy. It is used to reduce the reactions after an adder bite, however it's still advisable to see a doctor even after you've taken the hydrocortisone pills. The kyypakkaus can also be used to relieve the pain, swelling and other allergic reactions caused by bee stings. If you see an ant nest, ants have quite likely taken care of all snakes nearby.
As for other dangerous wildlife, there's not much more than a few extremely rare encounters with brown bears (karhu) and wolves (susi) in the wilderness. Both of these animals are listed as endangered species. Contrary to popular belief abroad, there are no polar bears in Finland, let alone polar bears walking on the city streets. The brown bear, which occurs across Finland has been spotted on a few very exceptional occasions even in the edges of the largest Finnish cities, but normally bears try to avoid humans whenever possible. The brown bear hibernates during the winter. In the least densely populated areas near the Russian border, there has been some rare incidents of wolf attacks - mainly lone, hungry wolves attacking domestic animals and pets. During the past 100 years there has been one recorded case of a human killed by a large predator. In general, there's no need to worry about dangerous encounters with wild beasts in Finland.
Fishing Finnish style
It was a beautiful summer day, and Virtanen and Lahtinen were in a little rowboat in the middle of a lake, fishing. Two hours passed, both men sitting quietly, and then Lahtinen said "Nice weather today." Virtanen grunted and stared intently at his fishing rod.

Two more hours passed. Lahtinen said, "Gee, the fish aren't biting today." Virtanen shot back: "That's because you blabber too much."

Drinking Finnish style

Virtanen and Lahtinen decided to go drinking at their lakeside cottage. For a couple hours, both men sat silently and emptied their bottles. After a few more hours, Lahtinen decided to break the ice: "Isn't it nice to have some quality time?" Virtanen glared at Lahtinen and answered: "Are we here to drink or talk?"
Finns generally have a relaxed attitude towards manners and dressing, and a visitor is unlikely to offend them by accident. Common sense is quite enough in most situations, but there are a couple of things one should keep in mind:
Finns are a famously taciturn people who have little time for small talk or social niceties, so don't expect to hear phrases like "thank you" or "you're welcome" too often. The Finnish language lacks a specific word for "please", so Finns sometimes forget to use it when speaking English, even when they don't mean to be rude. Also lacking in Finnish is the distinction between "he" and "she", which may lead to confusing errors. Loud speaking and loud laughing is not normal in Finland and may irritate some Finns. Occasional silence is considered a part of the conversation, not a sign of hostility or irritation.
All that said, Finns are generally helpful and polite, and glad to help confused tourists if asked. The lack of niceties has more to do with the fact that in Finnish culture, honesty is highly regarded and that one should open one's mouth only when it is really to mean what one is about to say. Do not say "maybe later" when there is no later time to be expected. A visitor is unlikely to receive many compliments from Finns, but conversely, they can be fairly sure that the compliments they do receive are genuine.
Another highly regarded virtue in Finland is punctuality. A visitor should apologize even for being late for a few minutes. Being late for longer usually requires a short explanation. 15 minutes is usually considered the threshold between being "acceptably" late and very late. Some will leave arranged meeting points after 15 minutes or 30 minutes (maximum). With the advent of mobile phones, sending a text message even if you are only a few minutes late is nowadays a norm. Being late for a business meeting, even by 1-2 minutes, is considered bad form.
The standard greeting is a handshake. Hugs and kisses, even on the cheek, are only exchanged between family members and close friends.
If you are invited to a Finnish home, the only bad mistake visitors can make is not to remove their shoes. For much of the year shoes will carry a lot of snow or mud, and therefore it is customary to remove them, even during the summer. During the wet season you can ask to put your shoes somewhere to dry during your stay. Very formal occasions at private homes, such as a baptism (often conducted at home in Finland) or somebody's 50th birthday party, are an exception to these rules. In the wintertime, this sometimes means that the guests bring separate clean shoes and put them on while leaving outdoor shoes to the hall. Bringing gifts such as pastry, wine, or flowers to the host is appreciated, but not required.
In Finland there is little in the way of a dress code. The general attire is casual and even in business meetings dressing is somewhat more relaxed than in some other countries. Topless sunbathing is accepted but not very common on beaches in the summer, while going au naturel is common in lakeside saunas and dedicated nudist beaches.

Contact

By mail

Finland's mail service, run by Itella [77], is fast, reliable and pricy. As of 2008, a postcard to anywhere in the world costs €0.80.
Not many of these left
Not many of these left
As you'd expect from Nokia's home country, mobile phones are ubiquitous in Finland. In 2005 Finns had the highest number of mobile phones per capita. GSM and WCDMA (3G) networks blanket all of the country, although it's still possible to find wilderness areas with poor signal, typically in Lapland and the outer archipelago. The largest operators are Sonera [78] and Elisa [79], a Vodafone partner, but travellers who want a local number may wish to opt for DNA's [80] Prepaid package (€17, including €10 call time). Asking in one of the many R-Kiosks might be a good idea, since they usually have lists of prices and special offers of various phone companies.
Public telephones are close to extinction in Finland, although a few can still be found at airports, major train/bus stations and the like. It's best to bring along a phone or buy one - a simple GSM model can cost less than €40.

By net

Internet cafes are sparse on the ground in this country where everybody logs on at home and in the office, but nearly every public library in the country has free Internet access, although you will often have to register for a time slot in advance or queue. Wifi hotspots are also increasingly common.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project
Scale of justice 2 new.jpeg Subject classification: this is a law resource .
Mattyb2024 13:37, 4 December 2009 (UTC)

Contents

Basic Information

Map of Finland.
Finland is a European Country located in northern Europe. The country is bordered by Sweden to the west, Russia to the East, and by the Baltic Sea to the south. Finland as a whole is 338,145 sq km, 34,330 sq km of which are bodies of water.[1] As of July 2009, there were approximately 5,250,275 people in inhabiting Finland. When compared to other known landmasses, Finland is slightly smaller then the size as Montana.[2] which is located in the United States. The Country has 1,250 miles of coastline and its national boundaries extend 12 nautical miles from the coast. [3]The sub-arctic country stays relatively cool, but does not drop as low as many of the surrounding countries. The Temperature in Finland stay more mild because because of the mass amounts of lakes scattered throughout the country, as well as the Baltic Sea, and the north Atlantic current. [4] The Approximate average temperature in the winter is around ten degrees Celsius.. [5] Currently, there are environmental problems with air pollution, acid rain, and water pollution from industrial wastes that are threatening the wildlife. [6]The national animal of Finland is the Brown bear, the national bird is the Whooper swan, and the national fish is the european perch.[7]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_national_animals
The Finnish National Flag.
Helsinki- Helsinki is the capital city of Finland and is located on the southern coast of Finland, just north of the Gulf of Finland. Helsinki is home to around 560,000 residents and is quickly gorwing. [8] Helsinki is also noted for being the most northern capital on the European continent.[9]

Age & Gender

Out of 5,250,275 inhabitants In Finland, the median age is about 42 years old. For males, the age is slightly younger then 42 years and for females, the age is slightly older. When broken into age brackets, a majority of the inhabitants, 66.8%, fall in to ages 15-64. The ratio of males to females is very close to equal until you get up into the older ages.[10]
  • 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 438,425/female 422,777)
  • 15-64 years: 66.8% (male 1,773,495/female 1,732,792)
  • 65 years and over: 16.8% (male 357,811/female 524,975)[11]

Religions, Ethnicities & Languages

.Religions-In Finland as of 1923, the citizens have had a right to choose which ever religion they desired.^ In 1918, after Finland gained independence, Jews were granted full rights as citizens.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

There are two national churches of Finland. [12]The two most popular churches in Finland are actually the two national churches of the country, the Lutheran Church of Finland and the Orthodox Church of Finland. Other notable religions that are practiced in Finland are Catholicism, Judaism, Anglican, and Islam.[13]
  • Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%
  • Orthodox Church 1.1%
  • Other Christian 1.1%
  • Other 0.1%
  • None 15.1% [14]

Ethnicities-The citizens of Finland are referred to as Finns, and they make up a large majority of the Country's population. [15]There is a relatively small percentage of the neighboring nation's peoples inhabiting the land. The Sweden boarders Finland in the north and is just across the Gulf of Bothnia. Russians share a boarder with Finland on the eastern portion of the country and they account for a relatively small portion of the population. Estonians are from the south of Finland, across the Gulf of Finland. The Romani people (gypsies) first came to Finland from Sweden. The Sami people are the native people of northern Europe. [16]Sami people are mostly located in Norway and Sweden, while a small portion are located in Finland and Russia. With in the last 15 years, the Sami people have taken big steps with the Finnish government to help establish certain rights, such as the right to develop and maintain their own language and culture.[17]
  • Finn 93.4%
  • Swede 5.6%
  • Russian 0.5%
  • Estonian 0.3%
  • Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%
  • Sami 0.1% [18]

.Languages-There are two official languages of Finland, Finnish and Swedish.^ Main languages: Finnish, Swedish, Sami .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1932 it was decided that the language of instruction at the Jewish school in Helsinki should be Finnish instead of Swedish.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ The Swedish language remains protected under the provisions of the Finnish Constitution and the language legislation as an official language alongside Finnish.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

Within the last 15 years the Indigenous Sami people have established the right maintain their own language. There are a few other minority languages that are spoken and recognized in Finland including Estonian, Russian, Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language. [19]

Health & Education

Health-When compared to other thriving nations like the United States and The United Kingdom, Finland is a considerably healthy country. The average age of the total population is approximately 79 years old which ranks among the top 40 countries in the world. [20][21]
  • About 22 % of the citizens are daily smokers which ranks 25th most of the top 30 countries.
  • There is a high rate of heart disease (143.8 per 100,000) which ranks 5th most of the top 26 countries.
  • About 13 % of the population in Finland is obese which ranks 15th most of the top 28 countries.
  • There is a high rate of suicides (43.4 per 100,000) which ranks 9th most of the top 80 countries.
  • There is .1% of the population that is living with HIV/AIDS which ranks 33rd lowest out of the top 170 countries.[22]
There are some categories the Finland ranks very well among the world and there are others that they do not rank so high. For the most part Finland is in the middle to top of most of the health statistics that are reported.

Education-There is a section of the Finnish constitution devoted to education.
Section 16 - Educational rights-"Everyone has the right to basic education free of charge. Provisions on the duty to receive education are laid down by an Act. The public authorities shall, as provided in more detail by an Act, guarantee for everyone equal opportunity to receive other educational services in accordance with their ability and special needs, as well as the opportunity to develop themselves without being prevented by economic hardship. The freedom of science, the arts and higher education is guaranteed."[23]
This section of the constitution devoted to education allows Finland to rank in the top countries when it comes to education. After the age of 15, the Literacy rate is 100% and everyone can read and write. [24]Having a 100% literacy rate is the highest of the world, and only several other countries have accomplished this. .Finland Ranks 9th among the top 100 countries in the world by having an average of 10 years of school for adults in the country.^ According to government documents in 2007, Tatars number about 800, although the total number of Muslims in Finland (many of them recent immigrants from various countries in the Islamic world) is unofficially estimated to be between 10,000 and 20,000.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[25]
The basic education in Finland begins at age seven and ends at age sixteen and the students can attend any school in their designated district. [26] Finland has two national languages, which means that the people who speak Swedish as a first language have the right to learn in the schooling system in Swedish. [27] The main goal of the Finnish schooling system is to provide a high level education for everyone. The key terms of the Finnish school system are: quality, efficiency, equity and internationalization. [28]The focus and emphasis that Finland puts on the schooling system allows the country to remain at the top the ranks in the world for being and intelligent country.[29]

Colleges & Universities-Finland Offers 20+ Colleges and Universities[30]
  • Åbo Akademi University
  • Häme Polytechnic
  • Helsinki Business Polytechnic
  • Helsinki School of Economics
  • Helsinki University of Technology
  • Lahti Polytechnic
  • Lappeenranta University of Technology
  • Oulu Institute of Tecnology
  • Satakunta Polytechnic
  • Sibelius Academy
  • Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland
  • Tampere Institute of Technology
  • Tampere University of Technology
  • University of Art and Design Helsinki
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Joensuu
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • University of Kuopio
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Tampere
  • University of Turku
  • University of Vaasa

Brief History

The Finnish Coat of Arms.
Finland is a province that up until the 19th century was under Swedish rule. The Sami and Romani (gypsy) people are the indigenous people of Finland. .The Sami and Romani originally migrated over from Sweden when Finland was still part of the kingdom of Sweden.^ What is now Finland belonged to the Kingdom of Sweden from the twelfth century to 1809, when the area, including the Åland Islands, was ceded to Russia.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

[31] .In 1917, Finland became a completely independent country.^ Finland declared independence in 1917, and its 1919 Constitution gave it a parliamentary system with a strong presidency.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

During World War II Finland declared its neutrality and was able to hold off a soviet invasion. Several years after the end of World War II, Finland and the Soviet Union signed a peace treaty. In 1995 Finland became a member of the European Union. [32] The the last century, Finland has really excelled as a country.

Crime Rates & Public Opinion

Crime rates in Finland are in the high to middle rankings when compared with countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. [33]Finland has open boarders which allow terrorists, fugitives, and organized crime can freely move in and out of the country.[34] The typical crimes that occur in Finland range from anything like Vandalism to theft of personal property. Drug Crimes are also on the rise in Finland, and alcohol being one of the major problems. In Finland, one of the major contributors to crimes is alcohol. Finland has the lowest number of law enforcement officers among all European nations, and the total amount of crimes could be a direct result of that. [35][36]
  • Ranked 3rd most of the top 50 countries with 101.5 total crimes per 1,000 people.
  • Ranked 16th highest drug offences with 13, 857 per 100,000 people.
  • Ranked 58th highest in murders with only 132.
  • Ranked 53rd highest in robberies with a little over 2,000
  • Ranked 6th highest percentage of Assault victims with about 2.1%[37]
These statistics are some of the highlights and low points of the Finland. The part of policing that needs to be focused on the most is recruiting. Finland has the lowest number of law enforcement and the total number of crimes is correlated with that. There are not many problems with robberies and murders when compared to other countries, but assault and drug crimes should be the main concern for law enforcement and the country as a whole.[38]

Common Crimes in Finland can be anything from Vandalism to Theft of personal property. Like any other country, there are some violent crimes. Drug Crimes are also on the rise in Finland, and alcohol being one of them, is a large problem. As stated, the crimes that are usually committed in Finland are non-violent, and alcohol is a major contributor to the violent crimes.
In terms of reporting crimes, there may be numbers that are not truly accurate because they are not reported. For example, sexual assault is a crime that maybe some people are ashamed to report so it will go unreported. Small cases of theft might go unreported because they are small and insignificant. Crime rates will never truly be completely accurate because not everything is reported.
  • 112 is the Finnish Equivalent to the U.S. "911" [39]

Elections

Finland is constitutional Republic which is mainly run by the Prime Minister. The Prime minister’s job is to oversee everything that happens with the government.
Parliment- Finland's Parliament is home to 200 parliamentary seats, each of which is elected one time every fours years. They are the Legislative branch of the goverment. When the elections for the members of parliament are held, each citizen of Finland has one vote that they are allowed to cast for any candidate that they feel is worthy of the position. The Voters vote for specific candidates, rather then their affiliated party. Everyone who is a citizen of Finland and of age to vote is eligible to become a candidate for parliament.[40]
The Current President of The Republic, Tarja Halonen.
President of the Republic- The President of the Republic is the executive branch of the government. He/she is voted into office very similarly to the way that the parliament members are. There is a direct vote, meaning that each of the citizens has one vote to cast for whichever candidate they feel is best qualified. A majority of 50% is required to win the presidency and if that percentage is not reached, there is a second election between the two top candidates. In the second election, the candidate who accumulates the most votes will become the next president. In the situation that there is only one candidate, there is no election held and that person is appointed to the position without and election. To become president of the republic the candidate must be a natural born citizen, and must have the right to vote. The presidential term last for six years compared to the four year term of the parliamentary members. Each president is allowed to have no more then two consecutive presidential terms in office.[41]

The Prime Minister- The Goal of the Prime Minister is to run the government. The Prime minister is selected by parliament and then appointed by the president of the republic. In order for the nominee to be approved, at least half of parliament must vote for the nominee. If the nominee does not get half of the votes, then another person will be nominated. In the event that the second nominee does not get more then half of the votes from parliament, then there is an open vote, and the member of parliament who receives the most votes is then appointed Prime Minister.[42]

Political Parties-[43] During the elections, even thought the voters are voting for certain candidates, there still are a handful of political parties.
  • Social Democratic Party
  • Center Party
  • National Coalition (Conservative) Party
  • Leftist Alliance
  • Swedish People's Party
  • Green League
  • Christian Democrats
  • True Finns

Judicial Review

There are two courts that are in charge of Judicial Review, The Supreme Court, and the Supreme Administrative court. These are the two highest courts in the country and their goal is to make sure that the rights of the individual are being honored as well as if the laws are correctly being enforced. The supreme administrative court deals with administrative issues, and the Supreme Court deals with everything else. There is one other form for judicial Review in Finland, and that is the President of the Republic can grant a pardon for any crimes charged to a defendant.[44]

Courts and Criminal Law

In Finland there are seven different type of courts:
  • The Supreme Court
  • The Supreme Administrative Court
  • The District Courts
  • The Courts of Appeal
  • The Administrative Courts
  • The Market Court
  • The Labour Court
  • The Insurance Court [45]

The Supreme Court is responsible for civil, commercial, and criminal issues that arise to the Supreme Court. The Administrative Supreme Court is responsible for administrative matters that arise at the highest level. The other courts that are listed are the highest level of their expertise and are specially designated to focus on one area of law. In the highest court rooms, the Supreme and Supreme Administrative courts; there is a president of the court with a handful of justices present. There is a minimum of five justices that need to be present to hear a case and make a decision about what will happen to the defendant.[46]
The job of the prosecutors in criminal cases is to make sure that the defendant is being charged with a penalty that is equivalent to the crime that he committed. On the other side of the court room, there are defense lawyers both private and public. If the defendant can not afford a lawyer, a public one will be issued. The defense lawyers are trying to aid the defendant in any way they can. The sole purpose of the judges is to enforce the laws. When prosecutors are examining the police evidence, they determine if there are ground to try the defendant on any charges. [47]
The Constitution contains several personal rights that citizens are entitled to when it comes to the courts system.
  • A fair trial
  • Good public administration
  • Open proceedings
  • The right to be heard
  • The right to receive a reasoned decision
  • The right to appeal against the decision [48]
Inquisitorial-Finland's style of procedural law is Inquisitorial. There are police investigations that are carried out when a crime occurs. Depending on the severity of the crime different prosecutors will deeply examine the evidence to decide if there is even enough to try the defendant on any charges. In some circumstances, if there is not enough evidence, the defendant will not even be tried. The prosecutors depend on careful investigations to determine the guilt.

Punishment

In a court case, the prosecutors are trying to establish if is enough evidence to make a case. While the case is being heard, the judges are trying to enfore the law as well as they can. There are several punishments that are given out during court cases.
  • Imprisonment
  • Fine(s)
  • Fixed-sum fine
  • Community service
In some cases, community service can take the place of imprisonment for anything up to 8 months. The community service is helping with various non-profit organizations. In the cases of juveniles where they can not afford to pay a fine, and the community service being too much for them, they are supervised while worked and put onto an education plan. This shows how committed that Finland is to education, by trying to get troubled young individuals back on track and in school.[49]
For imprisonment, there is a minimum time of 14 days and a maximum time of 12 years that you can stay in prison. After the fixed sentences, there are lifetime sentences. There are chances for parole under some circumstances, and the only way that a person with a life time sentence can be released is by a presidential pardon. [50]
  • Corporal Punishment was abolished in Finland because it was deemed Unlawful by the constitution.[51][52]

Prisoners- Finland ranks on the lower end of total number of prisoners.
  • Ranked 108th out of 160 countries with a little over 3,000 inmates
  • Ranked 113th out of 164 countries with 71 inmates per 100,000 citizens.

Legal Personnel

Judges-Judges are appointed by the president of the republic and the must be tenured before they can be voted it. They must also have a Degree in law from a university. Like the Supreme Court judges, the Prosecutors in the Supreme Court are also appointed by the President of the Republic. The prosecution team is lead by the "prosecutor-general" or the highest prosecutor.[54][55]
Prosecutors- Like the judges, the Prosecutors in the Supreme Court are also appointed by the President of the Republic. The prosecution team is lead by the "prosecutor-general" or the highest prosecutor. Under The prosecutor-general, there are state prosecutors that sort through evidence and decided whether the country has grounds to pursue a court case. Local Prosecutors of selected by the Prosecutor-general. The local prosecutors Examine evidence from prior police investigation and determine whether to pursue the case or decide not to prosecute.[56]
Advocates & Legal Aid-There are public defenders that are provided by the state, however The defendants in the cases are not required to have legal aid and are able to defend themselves. The amount the defendant has to pay the public defenders is determined by a percentage of the total income that the defendant earns. They defendant also has the choice to provided his/her own private legal aid.[57]
When the judges are elected, they are a judge for life with a forced retirement age of 70. [58] The Lawyers are required to attend a school for a formal degree and they are also required to pass a BAR exam which licenses them to be a lawyer. [59]

Law Enforcement

The Finnish law enforcement system can easily be broken down; there is the Police Department of the Ministry of the Interior functions which is the main source of authority in Finland. That department is in command of the National Bureau of Investigation, the National Traffic Police, the Security Police, the Police College of Finland, the Police Technical Center, the Helsinki Police Department, and the 24 local police departments are under the command of The Police Department of the Ministry of the Interior functions.[60] [61] This group of Law Enforcement teams can be categorized as Centralized Multiple Coordinated system under the taxonomy of police structures. Each of the groups has a specific task and category of law enforcement to deal with.
  • The National Bureau of Investigation- This task force focuses on organized crime and professional crime. [62]
  • The National Traffic Police- This Task force focuses on.. well.. traffic.
  • The Security Police- This task force focuses on all and any criminal activity that is a threat to the national
security of Finland. [63]
  • The Police College of Finaland- This task force is responsible recruiting, researching, and training Police candidates. [64]
  • The Police Technical Center- This task force is responsible for acquiring new equipment and supplying the police with better technology. [65]
  • The Helsinki Police Department- This Task Force is directly under the Police Department of the Ministry of the Interior functions and along with being a local police department, has a few other duties. [66]

The Police officers use badges to distinguish their rank. These badges can be located on their collar, hat, or shoulder.[67]
OVERALL POLICE DUTIES
  • "Under the Police Act, the function of the police is to secure judicial and social order, to maintain public order and security, to prevent and investigate crimes, and to submit cases to prosecutors for decision (consideration of charges)."[68]
The Military is a fairly new concept for finland. It was formed during the 1917 revolution in Russia to calm the situation. The Finnish military consists of an Army, Navy, and Air force. [69]

Family Law

Who can marry?
  • Anyone over the age of 18 who is not already presently married.
  • There are also exceptions for parties under the age of 18 that only can be granted by the ministry of justice[70]
Marriage-There are both Civil marriage ceremonies as well as religious ceremonies. Before a marriage takes place, a request for and examination for impediments must be place and carried out by the local register office, or by the church that you plan on being married in. The examination for impediments is simply like a background check to make sure that the two applicants for marriage do not have a parent-child relationship, a sibling relationship, a half sibling relationship, uncle/aunt-niece/nephew relationship, or an adoptive parent-child relationship.[71]
  • In some cases with permission from the ministry of justice, there can be a marriage with the uncle/aunt-niece/nephew relationship, or an adoptive parent-child relationship.[72]
Divorce-The two parties must first approach divorce in district court. After they first approach of divorce, the case is postponed until an undetermined date called a reconsideration period. They courts are giving the two parties the chance to think things over. After this reconsideration period of at least six months, a divorce can be granted it both parties want dissolve the marriage. Another way that the two parties can be divorced is if they live separated for two straight years. During the divorce hearings, there are also talks about child support payments or payments to spouse to survive, the custody of the children as well as visiting rights of the child, also which spouse is allowed to stay in the current house.[73]
Inheritance-Inheritances are items that can be taxed if the decedent or a beneficiary lived in Finland at the time of death. The tax is determined by how much the estate that is inherited is valued. In terms are marriages, there are special agreements that you can make that determine that if you one spouse passes away, the other is not entitled to everything that that the deceased spouse owned. [74]

Social Inequality

The Sami Flag.
The Social Inequality in Finland is present with the Sami and Romani (gypsy) people. These two groups of people are the indigenous people of the land and are not treated fairly. The Sami have just recently made strides in the last 15 years to get the rights that they deserve. Section 17 of the Finnish Constitution states that "The Sami, as an indigenous people, as well as the Roma and other groups, have the right to maintain and develop their own language and culture. Provisions on the right of the Sami to use the Sami language before the authorities are laid down by an Act. The rights of persons using sign language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation aid owing to disability shall be guaranteed by an Act.[75] [76]

Human Rights

Finland's fundamental rights are protected by their own constitution. As of the latest update in 2007, their constitution is comprised of 13 chapters, each of which goes into the rights and rules of the citizens as well as the government.[77]
Chapter two of the Finnish Constitution is about basic rights and liberties and 23 sections of that deal with individual rights and liberties of the citizens.[78]
Rights and Civil Liberties: The Right to equality, The right to life, personal liberty and integrity, The principle of legality in criminal cases, Freedom of movement, The right to privacy, Freedom of religion and conscience, Freedom of expression and right of access to information, Freedom of assembly and freedom of association, Electoral and participatory rights, Protection of property, Educational rights, Right to one's language and culture, The right to work and the freedom to engage in commercial activity, The right to social security, Responsibility for the environment, Protection under the law, Protection of basic rights and liberties, and Basic rights and liberties in situations of emergency.[79] By making observations and comparisons the rights look as if many of them are paralleled with those of the United States Bill Of Rights. There is one right that the citizens have that sounds a little obscure, Responsibility for the environment.
  • "Nature and its biodiversity, the environment and the national heritage are the responsibility of everyone.
The public authorities shall endeavour to guarantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and for everyone the possibility to influence the decisions that concern their own living environment." [80]
This idea may sound a little strange but if you look at it closely, the country is trying to promote a clean environment that everyone can enjoy. This right is something that should be taken into consideration by the world as a whole in an effort to have better living conditions.
Equality
  • "Everyone is equal before the law. No one shall, without an acceptable reason, be treated differently from other persons on the ground of sex, age, origin, language, religion, conviction, opinion, health, disability or other reason that concerns his or her person. Children shall be treated equally and as individuals and they shall be allowed to influence matters pertaining to themselves to a degree corresponding to their level of development. Equality of the sexes is promoted in societal activity and working life, especially in the determination of pay and the other terms of employment, as provided in more detail by an Act." [81]
Equality is the first thing that is noted in the right and civil liberties chapter and it is obviously very important to the Finnish citizens. It is interesting to note, that they even give equality rights in some circumstances to children. An important thing that is noted in this act is that there is equality of the sexes especially when it comes to pay rate and job opportunities. Looking back again it seems that these rights parallel those of the United States.

Travel Info

For travel information visit

Works Cited

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  2. The Central Itelligence agencey. 2009. "Finland." The World Fact Book,12/02/2009 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fi.html
  3. The Central Itelligence agencey. 2009. "Finland." The World Fact Book,12/02/2009 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fi.html
  4. Finnish Meteorological Institute. “Finlands Climate”. Weather and Climate, 12/02/2009 http://www.fmi.fi/weather/climate.html
  5. Finnish Meteorological Institute. “Finlands Climate”. Weather and Climate, 12/02/2009 http://www.fmi.fi/weather/climate.html
  6. The Central Itelligence agencey. 2009. "Finland." The World Fact Book,12/02/2009, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fi.html
  7. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. 11/30/2009. “List of National Animals”. Finland, 12/02/2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_national_animals
  8. The Central Itelligence agencey. 2009. "Finland." The World Fact Book,12/02/2009, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fi.html
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.^ FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa ), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.

^ Finland is governed under the constitution of 2000.
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ RussIA) the constitutional conflict became acute, and the " February manifesto " (February 15th, 1899) virtually abrogated the legislative power of the Finnish diet.

.It is situated between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large.^ In 1920 Finland joined the League of Nations, which achieved one of its few successes in resolving the dispute with Sweden over sovereignty of the Åland Islands in the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its area includes the autonomous territory of Åland , an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Finland -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

territory in Lapland. .It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.^ It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga , and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.

^ A civil war broke out in 1918 between southern Finnish communists and the army of the fledgling government, who was trying to disarm them and some Russians after the Russian revolution had spilled over into Finland.
  • Finland@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga ( Finnish : Petsamo ) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the north of the Gulf of Bothnia it is separated from Sweden and Norway by a broken line which takes the course of the valley of the Tornea river up to its sources, thus falling only 21 m.^ It is bounded by Norway on the north, Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia on the west, and Russia on the east.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north of the Gulf of Bothnia it is separated from Sweden and Norway by a broken line which takes the course of the valley of the Tornea river up to its sources, thus falling only 21 m.

^ In 1920 Finland joined the League of Nations, which achieved one of its few successes in resolving the dispute with Sweden over sovereignty of the Åland Islands in the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

short of reaching the head of .Norwegian Lyngen-fjord; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.^ Norwegian Lyngen- fjord ; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.

^ It borders Sweden on the west, Russia on the east, and Norway on the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It borders on the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden in the west, on Norway in the north, on Russia in the east, and on the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea in the south.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

from the .Varanger-fjord it turns southwards.^ Varanger-fjord it turns southwards.

.Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.^ Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.

^ Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes.

^ Cattle production is the main form of production in Central Finland and Ostrobothnia, and pig and poultry production is mainly concentrated in the west and south.

from the .Swedish coast - as well as the islands of the Gulf of Finland, Hogland, Tytars, &c.^ Swedish coast - as well as the islands of the Gulf of Finland, Hogland, Tytars, &c.

^ In 1920 Finland joined the League of Nations, which achieved one of its few successes in resolving the dispute with Sweden over sovereignty of the Åland Islands in the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.

.Its utmost limits are: 59° 48'-70° 6' N., and 19° 2'-32° 50' E. The area of Finland, in square miles, is as follows (Alias de Finlande, 1899): - Orography.^ Its utmost limits are: 59° 48'-70° 6' N., and 19° 2'-32° 50' E. The area of Finland, in square miles, is as follows ( Alias de Finlande, 1899): - Orography .

^ Area: 130,558 square miles; about the size of New England, New Jersey, and New York combined.
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The Atlas de Finlande, published in 1899 by the Geographical Society of Finland, is a remarkably well executed and complete work.

- .A
line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.^ A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.

^ Lake Enare, or Inari, and the valleys of its tributaries are deeply sunk, and which take the character of a mountain region in the Saariselka (highest summit, 2360 ft.

^ The Naantali Spa Hotel, located in the Salo region of southwest Finland, is a five-star pool paradise with a surprising view of a tall, white luxury liner modernized into a first-class crib.
  • Turku and Helsinki, Finland: A Tale of Two Cities in a Young Republic 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

.At the head-waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow strip into the heart of the highlands of Kjolen (the Keel), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft.^ At the head-waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow strip into the heart of the highlands of Kjolen (the Keel ), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft.

^ This will bring you directly into the heart of Little Finland, and may make access possible (in good conditions, and with care) by a regular passenger car.
  • Evanescent Light : Little Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC parkerlab.bio.uci.edu [Source type: General]

^ In the s and w , on the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, is a low, narrow coastal strip, where most Finns live.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea, and is surrounded by other fjalls, or flat-topped summits, of from 3300 to 3750 ft. of altitude. .Extensive plateaus (1500-1750 ft.^ Extensive plateaus (1500-1750 ft.

), into which .Lake Enare, or Inari, and the valleys of its tributaries are deeply sunk, and which take the character of a mountain region in the Saariselka (highest summit, 2360 ft.^ Lake Enare, or Inari, and the valleys of its tributaries are deeply sunk, and which take the character of a mountain region in the Saariselka (highest summit, 2360 ft.

), occupy the remainder of Lapland. .Along the eastern border the dreary plateaus of Olonets reach on Finnish territory altitudes of from 700 to moo ft.^ Along the eastern border the dreary plateaus of Olonets reach on Finnish territory altitudes of from 700 to moo ft.

^ After the Peace Treaty of Turku (Åbo) in 1743 the eastern border against Russia was drawn along the River of Kymi, considerably to the west of the previous one.
  • History of Finland: Aselection of events and documents 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.histdoc.net [Source type: Original source]

.Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ulea and Piellis.^ It is situated between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large.

^ Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ulea and Piellis.

^ A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.

.The"meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the country appears on the hypsometrical map in the Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft.^ The"meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the country appears on the hypsometrical map in the Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft.

^ At the head-waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow strip into the heart of the highlands of Kjolen (the Keel ), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft.

^ Their cottages in the country side (well, usually lake side) are almost as important as their main houses as they spend a good part of their summers (the best time of the year here, believe me) there.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

of average altitude, covered with countless lakes, lying at altitudes of from 250 to 300 ft. .The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.^ The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.

^ The"meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the country appears on the hypsometrical map in the Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft.

^ Norwegian Lyngen- fjord ; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.

of altitude. .A regular gentle slope leads from these hills to the Gulf of Bothnia (Osterbotten), forming vast prairie tracts in its lower parts.^ A regular gentle slope leads from these hills to the Gulf of Bothnia (Osterbotten), forming vast prairie tracts in its lower parts.

^ A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.

.A notable feature of Finland are the asar or narrow ridges of morainic deposits, more or less reassorted on their surfaces.^ A notable feature of Finland are the asar or narrow ridges of morainic deposits, more or less reassorted on their surfaces.

.Some of them are relics of the longitudinal moraines of the ice-sheet, and they run north-west to south-east, parallel to the striation of the rocks and to the countless parallel troughs excavated by the ice in the hard rocks in the same direction; while the Lojo As, which runs from HangOudd to Vesi-jarvi, and is continued farther east under the name of Salpausellia, parallel to the shore of the Gulf of Finland, are remainders of the frontal moraines, formed at a period when the ice-sheet remained for some time stationary during its retreat.^ Some of them are relics of the longitudinal moraines of the ice - sheet , and they run north-west to south-east, parallel to the striation of the rocks and to the countless parallel troughs excavated by the ice in the hard rocks in the same direction; while the Lojo As, which runs from HangOudd to Vesi-jarvi, and is continued farther east under the name of Salpausellia, parallel to the shore of the Gulf of Finland, are remainders of the frontal moraines, formed at a period when the ice-sheet remained for some time stationary during its retreat.

^ The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.

^ Norwegian Lyngen- fjord ; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.

.As a rule these forest-clothed asar rise from 30 to 60 and occasionally 120 ft.^ As a rule these forest-clothed asar rise from 30 to 60 and occasionally 120 ft.

above the level of the surrounding country, largely adding to the already great picturesqueness of the lake region; railways are traced in preference along them.
Table of contents

Lakes and Rivers

.A labyrinth of lakes, covering 11% of the aggregate territory, and connected by short and rapid streams Warden), covers the surface of South Finland, offering great facilities for internal navigation, while the connecting streams supply an enormous amount of motive-power.^ A labyrinth of lakes, covering 11% of the aggregate territory, and connected by short and rapid streams Warden ), covers the surface of South Finland, offering great facilities for internal navigation, while the connecting streams supply an enormous amount of motive-power.

^ Finland is rightly known as a land of forests, which cover roughly three quarters of the country's surface area of 338,000 sq.
  • Uusi sivu 1 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.uku.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lakes and other bodies of water cover 10% of the national territory.
  • Uusi sivu 1 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.uku.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.^ Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.

^ The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo- elf , flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.

^ The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.

.Two large rivers, Kemi and Tornea, enter the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while the Ulea is now navigable throughout, owing to improvements in its channel.^ Two large rivers, Kemi and Tornea, enter the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while the Ulea is now navigable throughout, owing to improvements in its channel.

^ In the north of the Gulf of Bothnia it is separated from Sweden and Norway by a broken line which takes the course of the valley of the Tornea river up to its sources, thus falling only 21 m.

^ It is situated between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large.

Geology

.Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.^ Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.

^ Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream , which explains the unusually warm climate considering the absolute latitude .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea ( Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.

.Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (syenite).^ Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (syenite).

^ Alpine plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula.

.The remainder of Finland is built up of the oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period.^ The remainder of Finland is built up of the oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period.

.The most ancient of these seem to be the granites of East Finland.^ The most ancient of these seem to be the granites of East Finland.

^ These early Finlanders seem to have been both brave and troublesome to their neighbours, and their repeated attacks on the coast of Sweden drew the attention of the kings of that country.

^ Finally, in the North-east we have Finland, where, one of the most interesting autonomist movements of our time has been steadily going on for more than sixty years.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The denudation and destruction of the granites gave rise to the Ladoga schists and various deposits of the same period, which were subsequently strongly folded.^ The denudation and destruction of the granites gave rise to the Ladoga schists and various deposits of the same period, which were subsequently strongly folded.

^ The constitutional conflict, gave rise to a host of books and pamphlets in various languages.

^ New masses of granites protruded next from underneath, and the Bothnian deposits underwent foldings in their turn, while denudation was again at work on a grand scale.

.Then the country came once more under the sea, and the debris of the previous formations, mixed with fragments from the volcanoes then situated in West Finland, formed the so-called Bothnian series. New masses of granites protruded next from underneath, and the Bothnian deposits underwent foldings in their turn, while denudation was again at work on a grand scale.^ Then the country came once more under the sea, and the debris of the previous formations, mixed with fragments from the volcanoes then situated in West Finland, formed the so-called Bothnian series.

^ New masses of granites protruded next from underneath, and the Bothnian deposits underwent foldings in their turn, while denudation was again at work on a grand scale.

^ The most recent group of Russians in Finland (so-called New Russians) immigrated from the 1960s onwards and especially since 1991.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.A new series of Jatulian deposits was formed and a new system of foldings followed; but these were the last in this part of the globe.^ A new series of Jatulian deposits was formed and a new system of foldings followed; but these were the last in this part of the globe.

^ A regular gentle slope leads from these hills to the Gulf of Bothnia (Osterbotten), forming vast prairie tracts in its lower parts.

^ New masses of granites protruded next from underneath, and the Bothnian deposits underwent foldings in their turn, while denudation was again at work on a grand scale.

.The Jotnian series, which were formed next, remain still undisturbed.^ The Jotnian series, which were formed next, remain still undisturbed.

.It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs.^ It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs.

.No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.^ No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.

^ Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea ( Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.

^ But the most fearsome religion has been found from all across Finland with terrible growth to hole Europe (Germany is allredy fallen to this religion and as the center of Europe the other countries WILL FALL)wich is called as the Loordism.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The whole of Finland is covered with Glacial and post-Glacial deposits.^ The whole of Finland is covered with Glacial and post-Glacial deposits.

^ The 13th edition of the GT Roadatlas Finland includes accurate information of the roads and streets covering the whole country.
  • Finland maps from Omnimap.com, world leader in map supply. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The former of these, representing the bottommoraine of the ice-sheet, are covered with Glacial and post-Glacial clays (partly of lacustrine and partly of marine origin) only in the peripheral coast-region - or in separate areas in the interior depressions.^ The former of these, representing the bottommoraine of the ice-sheet, are covered with Glacial and post-Glacial clays (partly of lacustrine and partly of marine origin) only in the peripheral coast-region - or in separate areas in the interior depressions.

^ Owing to the post-glacial rebound that has been taking place since the last ice age , the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2.70 sq mi) a year.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole of Finland is covered with Glacial and post-Glacial deposits.

.Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.^ Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea ( Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.

^ The country of Estonia sits across the Baltic Sea from Sweden and Finland.
  • Finland: News & Videos about Finland - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ A Neutral Finland Although during the late 1950s and early 1960s the USSR exercised some influence over internal Finnish politics (forcing, for example, the withdrawal of a candidate for president in 1962), during this period Finland began to follow a more neutral course in relation to the Soviets.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conclusive proofs, however, of a later submergence under a post-Glacial Littorina sea (containing shells now living in the Baltic) are found up to 150 ft.^ Conclusive proofs, however, of a later submergence under a post-Glacial Littorina sea (containing shells now living in the Baltic) are found up to 150 ft.

^ However, the Finnish secret police SuPo found out about these plans and the plotters were arrested, tried and later executed.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

along the .Gulf of Finland, and up to 260, or perhaps 330 ft., in Osterbotten.^ Gulf of Finland, and up to 260, or perhaps 330 ft., in Osterbotten.

.Traces of a large inner post-Glacial lake, similar to Lake Agassiz of North America, have been discovered.^ Traces of a large inner post-Glacial lake, similar to Lake Agassiz of North America , have been discovered.

.The country is still continuing to rise, but at an unequal rate; of nearly 3.3 ft.^ The country is still continuing to rise, but at an unequal rate; of nearly 3.3 ft.

in a century in the .Gulf of Bothnia (Kvarken), from 1.4 to 2 ft.^ Gulf of Bothnia (Kvarken), from 1.4 to 2 ft.

in the south, and nearly zero in the Baltic provinces.

Climate

.Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes.^ Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes.

^ Finally, in the North-east we have Finland, where, one of the most interesting autonomist movements of our time has been steadily going on for more than sixty years.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The amount is also adjusted for the length of residence in Finland, with the full amount payable after 40 years of residence; a reduced pension is paid for residence of less than 40 years.
  • Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2004 - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.ssa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2006 - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.ssa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country lies thus between the annual isotherms of 41 ° and 28° Fahr., which run in a W.N.W.-E.S.E. direction.^ The benefit is equal to 70% of daily earnings for annual earnings up to €28,403, plus 40% of daily earnings for annual earnings between €28,404 and €43,698 and 25% of daily earnings for annual earnings of €43,699 or more.
  • Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2006 - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.ssa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sickness benefit: 70% of daily earnings if annual earnings are €26,720 or less, plus 40% of daily earnings for annual earnings between €26,721 and €41,110, plus 25% of daily earnings for annual earnings of €41,110 or more.
  • Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2004 - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.ssa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maternity benefit: 70% of daily earnings if annual earnings are €26,720 or less, plus 40% of daily earnings for annual earnings between €26,721 and €41,110, plus 25% of daily earnings for annual earnings of €41,110 or more.
  • Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Europe, 2004 - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.ssa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In January the average monthly temperature varies from 9° Fahr.^ In January the average monthly temperature varies from 9° Fahr.

about .Lake Enare to 30° along the south coast; while in July the difference between the monthly averages is only eight degrees, being 53° in the north and 61 ° in the south-east.^ Lake Enare to 30° along the south coast; while in July the difference between the monthly averages is only eight degrees, being 53° in the north and 61 ° in the south-east.

^ The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.

^ Norwegian Lyngen- fjord ; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.

.Everywhere, and especially in the interior, the winter lasts very long, and early frosts (June 12-14 in 1892) often destroy the crops.^ Everywhere, and especially in the interior, the winter lasts very long, and early frosts (June 12-14 in 1892) often destroy the crops.

.The amount of rain and snow is from 251 in.^ The amount of rain and snow is from 251 in.

along the south coast to 13.8 in. in the interior of southern Finland.
Government.
Continent.
Islands
in Lakes.
Islands
in Seas.
Lakes.
Total.
Nyland .
4,062
24
210
286
4,582
Abo-Bjorneborg
7,594
8
1331
400
9,333
Tavastehus
6,837
97
..
1,400
8,334
Viborg
11,630
362
130
4,502
16,624
St Michel. .
5,652
1018
..
2,149
8,819
Kuopio .
13,160
64
2,696
16,499
Vasa .
14,527
62
203
1,313
16,105
Uleaborg .
60,348
171
94
3,344
63,957
Total. .
123,810
2385
1968
16,090
144,253

Flora, Forests, Fauna

.The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.^ The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.

^ Administratively the country is divided into six provinces.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia , Salla , and Pechenga , which amounted to ten percent of its land area and twenty percent of its industrial capacity, including the ice free port of Vyborg (Viipuri).
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the total for all Finland attains 1132 species.^ These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the total for all Finland attains 1132 species.

^ This trip to Finland was originally concieved to pick up all the Owls and Scandinavian specialities at a time in the year that would not interfere with the British birding scene but which would give us a good chance of seeing these species.
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: General]

^ Finland is wonderfully rich in periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable.

.Alpine plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula.^ Alpine plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula.

^ These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the total for all Finland attains 1132 species.

^ Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (syenite).

.The chief forest trees of Finland are the Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris, L.), the fir (Picea excelsa, Link.^ The chief forest trees of Finland are the Scotch fir ( Pinus sylvestris, L. ), the fir ( Picea excelsa, Link.

); two species of .birch (B. verrucosa, Ehrh., and B. odorata, Bechst.^ B. verrucosa, Ehrh., and B. odorata, Bechst.

), as well as the birch-bush .(B. nana); two species of Alnus (glutinosa and incana); the oak (Q. pedunculata, Ehrh.^ B. nana); two species of Alnus (glutinosa and incana); the oak ( Q. pedunculata, Ehrh.

), which grows only on the south coast; the .poplar (Populus tremula); and the Siberian larch, introduced in culture in the 18th century.^ Populus tremula); and the Siberian larch , introduced in culture in the 18th century.

.Over 6,000,000 trees are cut every year to be floated to thirty large saw-mills.^ Over 6,000,000 trees are cut every year to be floated to thirty large saw-mills.

^ Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy .

^ As to the timber trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually.

and about .1,000,000 to be transformed into paper pulp.^ The Finnish pulp and paper industry will be threatened if these duties are put into place in 2008 and 2009, and the matter is now being handled by the European Union.

^ The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather , &c.

^ Export Amount in USD : $67,880,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp   .
  • Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: Original source]

.The total export of timber was valued in 1897 at 82,160,000 marks.^ The total export of timber was valued in 1897 at 82,160,000 marks.

^ The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather , &c.

^ The total value of U.S. exports to Finland in 2003 was $2.1 billion.

.It is estimated, however, that the domestic use of wood (especially for fuel) represents nearly five times as many cubic feet as the wood used for export in different shapes.^ It is estimated, however, that the domestic use of wood (especially for fuel) represents nearly five times as many cubic feet as the wood used for export in different shapes.

^ While a preference for domestic emission cutting measures is planned, Finland will also explore the use of international mechanisms, especially emissions trading.
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total area under forests is estimated at 63,050,000 acres, of which 34,662,000 acres belong to the state.^ The total area under forests is estimated at 63,050,000 acres, of which 34,662,000 acres belong to the state.

^ Terrain: Low but hilly, more than 70% forested; 188,000 lakes and 179,584 islands, 98,050 of which are in the lakes.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total area lost was 35,000 sq.km (ab.
  • History of Finland: Aselection of events and documents 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.histdoc.net [Source type: Original source]

The fauna has been explored in great detail both as regards the vertebrates and the invertebrates, and specialists will find the necessary bibliographical indications in Travaux geographiques en Finlande, published for the London Geographical Congress of 1895.
1904.
Population.
Density per
sq. kilometre.
Abo-BjOrneborg.
447,098
20.3
Kuopio. .. .
313,951
8.9
Nyland. .
297,813
29.3
St Michel
189,360
Tavastehus... .
301,272
17.7
Uleaborg. .. .
280,899
1.9
Viborg
421,610
14.6
Vasa
460,460
12.5
Total. .
2,712,562
8.6

Population

.The population of Finland, which was 429,912 in 1751, 832,659 in 1800, 1,636,915 in 1850, and 2,520,437 in 1895, was 2,712,562 in 1904, of whom 1,370,480 were women and 1,342,082 men.^ The population of Finland, which was 429,912 in 1751, 832,659 in 1800, 1,636,915 in 1850, and 2,520,437 in 1895, was 2,712,562 in 1904, of whom 1,370,480 were women and 1,342,082 men.

.Of these only 341,602 lived in towns, the remainder in the country districts.^ Of these only 341,602 lived in towns, the remainder in the country districts.

^ But elsewhere, in the interior of the country, they constitute only the population of the towns, the land-owning class, and the personnel of the Administration.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The distribution of population in various provinces was as follows: - The number of births in 1904 was 90,253 and the deaths 50,227, showing an excess of births over deaths of 40,026. Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy.^ Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy .

^ The distribution of population in various provinces was as follows: - The number of births in 1904 was 90,253 and the deaths 50,227, showing an excess of births over deaths of 40,026.

^ The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga ( Finnish : Petsamo ) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1899 the emigrants numbered 12 ,357; 10,642 in 1900; 12,659 in 1901; and 10,952 in 1904.
.The bulk of the population are Finns (2,352,990 in 1904) and Swedes (349,733).^ The bulk of the population are Finns (2,352,990 in 1904) and Swedes (349,733).

.Of Russians there were only 5939, chiefly in the provinces of Viborg and Nyland.^ Of Russians there were only 5939, chiefly in the provinces of Viborg and Nyland.

.Both Finns and Swedes belong to the Lutheran faith, there being only 46,466 members of the Greek Orthodox Church and 755 Roman Catholics.^ There are two state churches: the Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Orthodox Church.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Finns and Swedes belong to the Lutheran faith, there being only 46,466 members of the Greek Orthodox Church and 755 Roman Catholics.

^ Seventy-seven percent (69 percent in 1999) held positive views about the Lutheran Church, 65 percent (56 percent in 1999) held positive views of the Salvation Army, and 62 percent (51 percent in 1999) held positive views of the Orthodox Church.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).^ The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors , capital of the grand-duchy and of the province ( Ian ) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo , capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors , the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa , or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio , capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus , capital of province of the same name (5545).

^ Helsinki is Finland's capital and its largest city.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Industries

.Agriculture gives occupation to the large majority of the population, but of late the increase of manufactures has been marked.^ Agriculture gives occupation to the large majority of the population, but of late the increase of manufactures has been marked.

^ The population of its towns has doubled during the same period, and the agricultural produce increased in the ratio of 3 to 2.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Dairy-farming is also on the increase, and the foreign exports of butter rose from 1930 cwt.^ Dairy -farming is also on the increase, and the foreign exports of butter rose from 1930 cwt.

in 1900 to 3130 cwt. in .1905. Measures have been taken since 1892 for the improvement of agriculture, and the state keeps twenty-six agronomists and instructors for that purpose.^ Measures have been taken since 1892 for the improvement of agriculture, and the state keeps twenty-six agronomists and instructors for that purpose.

.There are two high schools, one experimental station, twenty-two middle schools and forty-eight lower schools of agriculture, besides ten horticultural schools.^ There are two high schools, one experimental station, twenty-two middle schools and forty-eight lower schools of agriculture, besides ten horticultural schools.

^ Courses from one to five days and a longer training in organic farming are given by agricultural schools all around the country.

^ In 1881 Finland had sixty-eight papers, out of which forty-two were Finnish and twenty-six Swedish; of the latter, seventeen appeared at Helsingfors.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

Agricultural societies exist in each province.
.Fishing is an important item of income.^ Fishing is an important item of income.

.The value of exports of fish, &c., was £140,000 in 1904, but fish was also imported to the value of £61,300. The manufacturing industries (wood-products, metallurgy, machinery, textiles, paper and leather) are of modern development, but the aggregate production approaches one and a half millions sterling in value.^ The manufacturing industries (wood-products, metallurgy , machinery, textiles, paper and leather) are of modern development, but the aggregate production approaches one and a half millions sterling in value.

^ Primary Industries : metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing   .
  • Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A strong ratio of export revenues to the cost of imports indicate good terms of trade and a low raw material concentration points toward a heavily industrialised nation, focused on high value-added products and services.
  • The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.prosperity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes.^ Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes.

.There is also a small output of silver, copper and iron.^ There is also a small output of silver , copper and iron .

^ Natural Resources : timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone   .
  • Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: Original source]

.The last is obtained partly from mines, but chiefly from the lakes.^ The last is obtained partly from mines, but chiefly from the lakes.

.In 1904 22,050 tons of cast iron were obtained.^ In 1904 22,050 tons of cast iron were obtained.

.The textile industries are making rapid progress, and their produce, notwithstanding the high duties, is exported to Russia.^ The textile industries are making rapid progress, and their produce, notwithstanding the high duties, is exported to Russia.

.The fabrication of paper out of wood is also rapidly growing.^ The fabrication of paper out of wood is also rapidly growing.

.As to the timber trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually.^ As to the timber trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually.

^ The main imports are: cereals and flour (to an annual value exceeding £3,000,000), metals, machinery, textile materials and textile products.

^ Some 200,000 U.S. citizens visit Finland annually, and about 5,000 U.S. citizens are resident there.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Communications

.The roads, attaining an aggregate length of 27,500 m., are kept as a rule in very good order.^ The roads, attaining an aggregate length of 27,500 m., are kept as a rule in very good order.

.The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 1870 (cost only £4520 per mile).^ The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 1870 (cost only £4520 per mile).

^ All this has been done at surprisingly moderate expense, each mile of the Finnish railways having cost, on the average, only one-third of the average cost in Russia.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Railways of a lighter type began to be built since 1877, and now Finland has about 2100 m.^ Railways of a lighter type began to be built since 1877, and now Finland has about 2100 m.

^ Considerable researches have been accomplished since about 1850 in the ethnology and archaeology of Finland, on a scale which has no parallel in any other country.

^ One of the big stories in Finland just now is about Russian overflights of Finnish territory, sharply protested by the Finnish government.

of railway, mostly belonging to the state. .The gross income from the state railways is 26,607,622, and the net income 4,684,856 marks.^ The gross income from the state railways is 26,607,622, and the net income 4,684,856 marks.

.Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.^ Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.

^ Finland has an extensive network of highways throughout the country, as well as excellent public transportation services.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland's 60,000 lakes are linked by short rivers, sounds, or canals to form busy waterways.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It permits ships navigating the Baltic to penetrate 270 m.^ It permits ships navigating the Baltic to penetrate 270 m.

inland, and is passed every year by from 4980 to 5200 vessels. .Considerable works have also been made to connect the different lakes and lake-basins for inland navigation, a sum of £1,000,000 having been spent for that purpose.^ Considerable works have also been made to connect the different lakes and lake-basins for inland navigation, a sum of £1,000,000 having been spent for that purpose.

.The telegraphs chiefly belong to Russia.^ The telegraphs chiefly belong to Russia.

.Telephones have an enormous extension both in the towns and between the different towns of southern Finland; the cost of the yearly subscription varies from 40 to 60 marks,' and is only Io marks in the smaller towns.^ Telephones have an enormous extension both in the towns and between the different towns of southern Finland; the cost of the yearly subscription varies from 40 to 60 marks,' and is only Io marks in the smaller towns.

^ Attempts to establish stores specialised in organic food have not been successful in Finland, and even today only the biggest cities have one or two organic food stores, although even smaller towns have outlets, especially in market halls.

^ Posiva Oy was set up in 1995 as Finland's joint-venture company for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - 60% TVO and 40% Fortum.
  • Nuclear Energy in Finland: WNA 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From or to
From or to
Russia.
other Countries.
Totals.
Imports
£4,036,000
£6,488,000
£10,524,000
Exports .
2,332,000
6,292,000
8,624,000

Commerce

.The foreign trade of Finland increases steadily, and reached in 1904 the following values: - The chief trade of Finland is with Russia, and next with Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, France and Sweden.^ The foreign trade of Finland increases steadily, and reached in 1904 the following values: - The chief trade of Finland is with Russia, and next with Great Britain , Germany , Denmark , France and Sweden.

^ While France, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and others are stumbling, Finland prospers, both economically and psychologically.

^ Sweden accepted throught this treaty the de facto situation of having already lost Finland to Russia.
  • History of Finland: Aselection of events and documents 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.histdoc.net [Source type: Original source]

.The main imports are: cereals and flour (to an annual value exceeding £3,000,000), metals, machinery, textile materials and textile products.^ A strong ratio of export revenues to the cost of imports indicate good terms of trade and a low raw material concentration points toward a heavily industrialised nation, focused on high value-added products and services.
  • The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.prosperity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and some components for its manufactured products.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leading exports are forest products (which account for about 50% of exports), machinery and equipment, metals, ships, clothing, and processed foods.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c.^ Owing to its extensive forests paper, timber, and wood-pulp are significant exports.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief manufactures are wood and paper products.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: Original source]

.The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.^ The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.

^ The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.

Education

.Great strides have been made since 1866, when a new education law was passed.^ Great strides have been made since 1866, when a new education law was passed.

^ The Finnish economy has made enormous strides since the severe recession of the early 1990s.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government, seeing it can’t control access to people’s news, passes laws banning private internet access.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rudimentary teaching in reading, occasionally writing, and the first principles of Lutheran faith are given in the maternal house, or in " maternal schools," or by ambulatory schools under the control of the clergy, who make the necessary examination in the houses of every parish.^ Rudimentary teaching in reading , occasionally writing, and the first principles of Lutheran faith are given in the maternal house, or in " maternal schools," or by ambulatory schools under the control of the clergy, who make the necessary examination in the houses of every parish.

^ We estimate that it will take you about 30 minutes to read the instructions, gather the necessary facts, and write down the information to request a certificate of coverage.
  • Description of the U.S.-Finnish Social Security Agreement 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.socialsecurity.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Lucian Perkins - The Washington Post) Himanen, who says he reads a new book every day, told me this was a unique new generation, raised on Finnish rock music and "the first to go to school with some people who are not Finns."

.All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these expenses Boo marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each female teacher, or 25% of the total cost in urban communes.^ All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these expenses Boo marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each female teacher, or 25% of the total cost in urban communes.

^ These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the total for all Finland attains 1132 species.

^ Nearly all female ministers in the diocese met with opposition from certain male colleagues and superiors.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondary education, formerly instituted on two separate lines, classical and scientific, has been reformed so as to give more prominence to scientific education, even in the classical (linguistic) lyceums or gymnasia.^ Secondary education, formerly instituted on two separate lines, classical and scientific, has been reformed so as to give more prominence to scientific education, even in the classical (linguistic) lyceums or gymnasia.

^ In tertiary education, two, mostly separate and non-interoperating below OECD average 16.5%.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.^ For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.

^ The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.

^ A university dissertation of Niclas Wasström, a local student in the Academy of Åbo, 1749.
  • History of Finland: Aselection of events and documents 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.histdoc.net [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools.^ Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools.

^ There are two high schools, one experimental station, twenty-two middle schools and forty-eight lower schools of agriculture, besides ten horticultural schools.

^ For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.

.Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.^ Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.

^ Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696-1697 and almost one third of the population died.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At winter they use their two stukas, one stolen tri-plane and the only flying penquin in the world, R0kk4.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.All of these, as also the Finnish Geological Survey, the Forestry Administration, &c., issue publications well known to the scientific world.^ All of these, as also the Finnish Geological Survey, the Forestry Administration, &c., issue publications well known to the scientific world.

^ Finnish glassware and Arabia pottery , Marimekko fabrics and modern furniture, and its great modern architecture are all famous around the world.

^ Kalle Palander is a well-known alpine skiing winner, who won the World Championship and Crystal Ball (twice, in Kitzbühel ).
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The numerous local branches of the Friends of the Folk-School and the Society for Popular Education display great activity, the former by aiding the smaller communes in establishing schools, and the latter in publishing popular works, starting their own schools as well as free libraries (in nearly every commune), and organizing lectures for the people.^ The numerous local branches of the Friends of the Folk-School and the Society for Popular Education display great activity, the former by aiding the smaller communes in establishing schools, and the latter in publishing popular works, starting their own schools as well as free libraries (in nearly every commune ), and organizing lectures for the people.

^ Realizing that carrying knives has no place in modern society, the Finnish authorities have resolved to eradicate the archaic custom by educating school-goers.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The earliest writer in the Finnish vernacular was Michael Agricola (1506-1557), who published an A B C Book in 1544, and, as bishop of Abo, a number of religious and educational works.

.The university students take a lively part in this work.^ The university students take a lively part in this work.

Government and Administration

.From the time of its union with Russia at the Diet of Borga in 1809 till the events of 1899 (see History) Finland was practically a separate state, the emperor of Russia as grand-duke governing by means of a nominated senate and a diet elected on a very narrow franchise, and meeting at distant and irregular intervals.^ On March 29, 1809, after being conquered by the armies of Russian Emperor Alexander I, Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.

^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True, there are plenty of men in Finland ready to Bay that their country is already quite independent, being only 'united' with Russia in the person of the Emperor; butthe masses understand pretty well what a union means of which the weaker party is unprotected against the caprices of the stronger.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses." The government of the country was practically carried on by the senate, which communicated with St Petersburg through a Finnish secretary attached to the Russian government. .War and foreign affairs were entirely in the hands of Russia, and a Russian governor had his residence in Helsingfors.^ War and foreign affairs were entirely in the hands of Russia, and a Russian governor had his residence in Helsingfors.

^ The military department is in the hands of the Russian Minister of War, and the Foreign Affairs in those of the Russian Chancellor.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

The senate also controlled the administration of the law. .The constitutional conflict of 1899-1905 brought about something like a revolution in Finland.^ The constitutional conflict of 1899-1905 brought about something like a revolution in Finland.

^ RussIA) the constitutional conflict became acute, and the " February manifesto " (February 15th, 1899) virtually abrogated the legislative power of the Finnish diet.

^ Indeed, an American in Finland is repeatedly struck by scenes, faces, body language and behavior that look like something American.

.For some years the country was subject to a practically arbitrary form of government, but the disasters of the Russo-Japanese War and the growing anarchy in Russia resulted in 1905 in a complete and peaceful victory for the defenders of the Finnish constitution.^ For some years the country was subject to a practically arbitrary form of government, but the disasters of the Russo-Japanese War and the growing anarchy in Russia resulted in 1905 in a complete and peaceful victory for the defenders of the Finnish constitution.

^ RussIA) the constitutional conflict became acute, and the " February manifesto " (February 15th, 1899) virtually abrogated the legislative power of the Finnish diet.

^ With some exceptions, however, the whole country united in defence of its constitution; " Fennoman " and " Svecoman," recognizing that their common liberties were at stake, suspended their feud for a season.

.As a Finnish writer puts it: " just as the calamities which had befallen Finland came from Russia, so was her deliverance to come from Russia."^ Publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, The Kalevala--a collection of traditional myths and legends--first stirred the nationalism that later led to Finland's independence from Russia.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Soviet invasion (November 1939) resulted in the Russo-Finnish War and, in March 1940, Finland ceded part of Karelia and Lake Ladoga to Russia.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the big stories in Finland just now is about Russian overflights of Finnish territory, sharply protested by the Finnish government.

The status quo ante was restored, the diet met in extraordinary session, and proceeded to the entire recasting of the Finnish government. Freedom of the press was voted, and the diet next proceeded to reform its own constitution.
.1 The Finnish mark, markka, of loo penni, equals about 92d.^ The Finnish mark , markka, of loo penni, equals about 92d.

Far-reaching changes were voted. .The new diet, instead of being composed of four estates sitting separately, consists of a single chamber of 200 members elected directly by universal suffrage, women being eligible.^ The chambers consist now of 121 nobles (this number varying with the number of separate noble families); 35 deputies of the clergy, university, and primary schools; 44 representatives of towns; and 59 ofr the peasants, elected in two degrees.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Kai Mykkanen, 25, sitting next to Ollila at the dinner party, is already in elected politics, as a member of the city council in Espoo, a suburb of Helsinki.

^ Under terms obtained in 1906, a unicameral parliament (whose members were elected by universal suffrage) was established, but it was given little authority by the czar.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the new constitution the grand-duchy was to be divided into not less than twelve and not more than eighteen constituencies, electing members in proportion to population.^ By the new constitution the grand-duchy was to be divided into not less than twelve and not more than eighteen constituencies, electing members in proportion to population.

^ FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa ), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.

^ The inconveniences, however, which arise from this double character of the population are much less ethnographic than political.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A scheme of " proportional representation," the votes being counted in accordance with the system invented by G. M. d'Hondt, a Belgian, was also adopted.^ A scheme of " proportional representation," the votes being counted in accordance with the system invented by G. M. d'Hondt, a Belgian, was also adopted.

^ Legislation is enacted by the unicameral Parliament ( Eduskunta ), whose 200 members are elected to four-year terms by a system of proportional representation.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland's proportional representation system encourages a multitude of political parties and has resulted in many coalition governments.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The executive was to consist of a minister-secretary of state and of the members of the senate, who were entitled to attend and address the diet and who might be the subject of interpellations.^ The executive was to consist of a minister- secretary of state and of the members of the senate, who were entitled to attend and address the diet and who might be the subject of interpellations.

^ The Council of State is made up of the prime minister and ministers for the various departments of the central government as well as an ex officio member, the Chancellor of Justice.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If new taxes cannot be levied thus without the approbation of the Seim, the expenditure is apportioned by the Emperor-that is to say, by the Finnish Committee, which sits at St. Petersburg, and consists of the State's Secretary and four members nominated by the Crown (two of them being proposed by the Senate).
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The members of the senate were made responsible to the diet as well as to the emperor-grand-duke for their acts.^ The members of the senate were made responsible to the diet as well as to the emperor-grand-duke for their acts.

^ From the time of its union with Russia at the Diet of Borga in 1809 till the events of 1899 (see History ) Finland was practically a separate state, the emperor of Russia as grand-duke governing by means of a nominated senate and a diet elected on a very narrow franchise , and meeting at distant and irregular intervals.

^ The executive was to consist of a minister- secretary of state and of the members of the senate, who were entitled to attend and address the diet and who might be the subject of interpellations.

.The diet has power to consider and decide upon measures proposed by the government.^ The diet has power to consider and decide upon measures proposed by the government.

^ The Imperial government insisted that the decision in all Finnish questions affecting the Empire must rest with them; and a renewed attempt was made to curtail the powers of the Finnish Diet.

^ After a measure has been approved by the diet it is the duty of the senate to report upon it to the sovereign.

.After a measure has been approved by the diet it is the duty of the senate to report upon it to the sovereign.^ After a measure has been approved by the diet it is the duty of the senate to report upon it to the sovereign.

^ The diet has power to consider and decide upon measures proposed by the government.

^ But the senate is not obliged to accept the decision of the majority of the diet, nor, apparently, is the sovereign bound to accept the advice of the senate.

But the senate is not obliged to accept the decision of the majority of the diet, nor, apparently, is the sovereign bound to accept the advice of the senate. .The first elections, April 1907, resulted in the election to the diet of about 40% representatives of the Social Democratic party, and nineteen women members.^ The Center Party (Keskusta), traditionally representing rural interests, gained a slight plurality in Finland's parliament in the general election of March 2003, narrowly defeating the ruling Social Democratic Party (SDP) by a 24.7% to 24.5% margin.

^ Since equal and common suffrage was introduced in 1906, the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union), National Coalition Party , and Social Democrats , which have approximately equal support, and represent 65–80 percent of voters.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1994, Martti Ahtisaari, a Social Democrat and diplomat, became Finland's first president elected by direct popular vote (election was previously by an electoral college).
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The budget of Finland in 1905 was £4,273,970 of " ordinary " revenue. The " ordinary " expenditure was L3, 595,3 oo. The public debt amounted at the end of 1905 to X5,611,170.

History

.It was probably at the end of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century that the Finns took possession of what is now Finland, though it was only when Christianity was introduced, about 1157, that they were brought into contact with civilized Europe.^ Unfortunately, they're not exactly military geniuses, so it took them until the 1920s to figure something out: "Finland-style Gorilla Warfare".
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the average foreigner believes that Polar Bears inhabit and terrorize Finland they are wrong.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From all that precedes it is easy to see that Europe has only to gain from the admission of Finland into its family.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They probably found the Lapps in possession of the country.^ Lapps who lived in central and S Finland and who were forced to move to the far north of the country, where they live today.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early Finlanders do not seem to have had any governmental organization, but to have lived in separate communities and villages independent of each other.^ Finland is an active participant in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and in early 1995 assumed the co-chairmanship of the OSCE's Minsk Group on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A question in a 1999 opinion poll concerned especially the opinion of the inhabitants living in those municipalities that were the candidate host communities for a spent fuel repository in Finland.
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The religious communities will decide independently whether or not their members can belong to other religious communities as well.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their mythology consisted in the deification of the forces of nature, as " Ukko," the god of the air, " Tapio," god of the forests, " Ahti," the god of water, &c.^ Finland's defense forces consist of 35,000 persons in uniform (26,000 army; 5,000 navy; and 4,000 air force).
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These early Finlanders seem to have been both brave and troublesome to their neighbours, and their repeated attacks on the coast of Sweden drew the attention of the kings of that country.^ Finland's nearly 700-year association with the Kingdom of Sweden began in 1154 with the introduction of Christianity by Sweden's King Eric.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The European food scares of the late 1990s and early 2000s do not seem to have increased awareness among people in Finland the way they did abroad.

^ When Finland joined the European Union together with Austria and Sweden in early 1995, it also became a member of the European Atomic Energy Community, Euratom.
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King Eric IX. (St Eric), accompanied by the bishop of Upsala, Henry (an Englishman, it is said), and at the head of a considerable army, invaded the country in 1157, when the people were conquered and baptized.^ Despite considerable Finnish resistance, Russia conquered the country and annexed it in 1809.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

King Eric left Bishop Henry with his priests and some soldiers behind to confirm the conquest and complete the conversion. .After a time he was killed, canonized, and as St Henry became the patron saint of Finland.^ Finland became a full member of the EU in January 1995, at the same time acquiring observer status in the Western European Union.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.As Sweden had to attend to her own affairs, Finland was gradually reverting to independence and paganism, when in 1209 another bishop and missionary, Thomas (also an Englishman), arrived and recommenced the work of St Henry.^ Although still dominated by Sweden, Finland was allowed its own Diet and granted a degree of autonomy.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bishop Thomas nearly succeeded in detaching Finland from Sweden, and forming it into a province subject only to the pope.^ Finland's nearly 700-year association with the Kingdom of Sweden began in 1154 with the introduction of Christianity by Sweden's King Eric.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ And during the nearly seventy years which have elapsed since their separation, Finland has done so much for the development of her own national individuality that she can never again be a mere Swedish province.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From all that precedes it is easy to see that Europe has only to gain from the admission of Finland into its family.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The famous Birger Jarl undertook a crusade in Finland in 12 4 9, compelling the Tavastians, one of the subdivisions of the Finlanders proper, to accept Christianity, and building a castle at Tavestehus.^ Historically (more documented), the union began upon Birger Jarl's expedition to Finland in 1249.

.It was Torkel Knutson who conquered and connected the Karelian Finlanders in 1293, and built the strong castle of Viborg.^ In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.

.Almost continuous wars between Russia and Sweden were the result of the conquest of Finland by the latter.^ During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice--in the Winter War of 1939-40 and again in the Continuation War of 1941-44.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ When PzIVs arrived in Finland, the Continuation War was about to end and were modified to meet the needs of Finland.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Continuation War (1941-1944) Finland was a co-belligerent with Germany.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1323 it was settled that the river Rajajoki should be the boundary between Russia and the Swedish province. .After the final conquest of the country by the Swedes, they spread among the Finlanders their civilization, gave them laws, accorded them the same civil rights as belonged to themselves, and introduced agriculture and other beneficial arts.^ Under the Swedes, Finland enjoyed considerable independence, its political sophistication grew, commerce increased, and the Swedish language and culture were spread.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common love for the mother-country concludes this line piece, which expresses in poetry the feelings of at least the best Swedes in Finland.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Reformed religion was introduced into Finland by Gustavus Vasa about 1528, and King John III.^ Returning to Nicholas I's time, they long to introduce into Finland the obligatory circulation of Russian paper roubles.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

raised the country to the dignity of a grand-duchy. .It continued to suffer, sometimes deplorably, in most of the wars waged by Sweden, especially with Russia and Denmark.^ One of the most powerful Finnish weapons in late continuation war was German StuG III Ausf.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany 15.6%, Russia 14%, Sweden 13.7%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.5% (2006) .

.His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.^ The national representation, consisting of four chambers--nobility, clergy, towns, and peasants--is convoked by the Emperor every four or five years, but only for four months.
  • Finland: A Rising Nationality 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Noble titles : Greve = Count, Friherre = Baron, Jarl = Earl.

Gustavus and his successor did much for Finland by founding schools and gymnasia, building churches, encouraging learning and introducing printing. During the reign of Charles XI. .(1692-1696) the country suffered terribly from famine and pestilence; in the diocese of Abo alone 60,000 persons died in less than nine months.^ Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696-1697 and almost one third of the population died.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Low but hilly, more than 70% forested, with more than 60,000 lakes.

^ North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland - SPAMfighter 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finland has been visited at different periods since by these scourges; so late as 1848 whole villages were starved during a dreadful famine.^ Finland's declaration of independence from Russia in 1917 was followed by a civil war , wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany , and a period of official neutrality during the Cold War .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Peter the Great cast an envious eye on Finland and tried to wrest it from Sweden; in 1710 he managed to obtain possession of the towns of Kexholm and Villmanstrand; and by 1716 all the country was in his power.^ All the Nordic countries, including Finland, joined the Schengen area in March 2001.

^ Despite the great success of the export products, in Finland you won't get rich though you may die trying.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All European countries have adopted their culture from Finland, for example its language, which everyone speaks.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Meantime the sufferings of the people had been great; thousands perished in the wars of Charles XII. .By the peace of Nystad in 1721 the province of Viborg, the eastern division of Finland, was finally ceded to Russia.^ After 1997 reforms the provinces have been Southern Finland , Western Finland , Eastern Finland , Oulu , Lapland , Åland .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.

^ Slavic roots, which was part of the Finnish life [Finland was a province of Russia for more than a century until 1917].

.But the country had been laid very low by war, pestilence and famine, though it recovered itself with wonderful rapidity.^ Today Finland has a very low number of corruption charges; Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupted countries.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1741 the Swedes made an effort to recover the ceded province, but through wretched management suffered disaster, and were compelled to capitulate in August 1742, ceding by the peace of Abo, next year, the towns of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn. .Nothing remarkable seems to have occurred till 1788, under Gustavus III., who began to reign in 1771, and who confirmed to Finland those " fundamental laws " which they have succeeded in maintaining against kings and tsars for over two centuries.^ (See Language of Finland ) It is a little known fact that Finland exports vowels to Poland , but looking at the currant affairs, it seems the trade dissolved in around the thirteenth century after a dispute between two village woman over a group of chickens.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For those who value their freedom of expression as much as health, wealth, and prosperity, Finland is the place to be – according to recent studies: .
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944-45, when Finland fought against the Germans as they withdrew their forces from northern Finland.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The country was divided into six governments, a second superior court of justice was founded at Vasa, many new towns were built, commerce flourished, and science and art were encouraged.^ Below the provincial level, the country is divided into cities, townships, and communes administered by municipal and communal councils elected by proportional representation once every 4 years.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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Latin disappeared as the academic language, and Swedish was adopted. .In 1788 war again broke out between Sweden and Russia, and was carried on for two years without much glory or gain to either party, the main aim of Gustavus being to recover the lost Finnish province.^ Following Finland's incorporation into Sweden in the 12th century, Swedish became the dominant language, although Finnish recovered its predominance after a 19th-century resurgence of Finnish nationalism.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ On March 29, 1809, after being taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War , Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire started to gain recognition.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia .

.In 1808, under Gustavus IV., peace was again broken between the two countries, and the war ended by the cession in 1809 of the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands – 187,888 lakes (larger than 500 m²) and 179,584 islands.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Finland, however, did not enter Russia as a conquered province, but, thanks to the bravery of her people after they had been abandoned by an incompetent monarch and treacherous generals, and not less to the wisdom and generosity of the emperor Alexander I.^ Immigrants did not encounter difficulties in practicing their faiths; however, they sometimes encountered random discrimination and xenophobia.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, they also claim that they come from the future, a future where Finland is also the entirety of Europe.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Slavic roots, which was part of the Finnish life [Finland was a province of Russia for more than a century until 1917].

of .Russia, she maintained her free constitution and fundamental laws, and became a semi-independent grand-duchy with the emperor as grand-duke.^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 29, 1809, after being conquered by the armies of Russian Emperor Alexander I, Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.

^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.

.The estates were summoned to a free diet at Borg& and accepted Alexander as grand-duke of Finland, he on his part solemnly recognizing the Finnish constitution and undertaking to preserve the religion, laws and liberties of the country.^ In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ However, trade is only part of the totality: the 10 biggest Finnish companies in the United States have a combined turnover that is three times the value of Finland's total exports to the United States.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sep 1809                Part of the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.

A senate was created and a governor-general named. .The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827. The diet, which had not met for 56 years, was convoked by Alexander II.^ In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In 1918, the country experienced a brief but bitter civil war that colored domestic politics for many years.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Their allegedly neighboring country of Sweden was previously a province of Finland under the name Svedängen.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

at Helsingfors in 1863. Under Alexander II. Finland was on the whole prosperous and progressive, and his statue in the great square in front of the cathedral and the senate house in Helsingfors testifies to the regard in which his memory is cherished by his Finnish subjects. Unfortunately his successor soon fell under the influence of the reactionary party which had begun to assert itself in Russia even before the assassination of Alexander II. One of Alexander III.'s first acts was to confirm " the constitution which was granted to the grand-duchy of Finland by His Majesty the emperor Alexander Pavlovich of most glorious memory, and developed with the consent of the estates of Finland by our dearly beloved father of blessed memory the emperor Alexander Nicolaievich." But the Slavophil movement, with its motto, " one law, one church, one tongue," acquired great influence in official circles, and its aim was, in defiance of the pledges of successive tsars, to subject Finland to Orthodoxy and autocracy. .It is unnecessary to follow in detail the seven years' struggle between the Russian bureaucracy and the defenders of the Finnish constitution.^ The Finnish–Russian border was agreed upon in the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.

^ The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga ( Finnish : Petsamo ) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Politics in Finland were complicated by the rivalry between the Swedish party, which x.^ Finland's proportional representation system encourages a multitude of political parties and has resulted in many coalition governments.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ During the ensuing centuries, Finland played an important role in the political life of the Swedish-Finnish realm, and Finnish soldiers often predominated in Swedish armies.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Political parties: Social Democratic Party, Center Party, National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Leftist Alliance, Swedish People's Party, Green Party.

.13 had hitherto been dominant in Finland, and the Finnish " nationalist " party which, during the latter half of the 19th century, had been determinedly asserting itself linguistically and politically.^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands .

^ During the ensuing centuries, Finland played an important role in the political life of the Swedish-Finnish realm, and Finnish soldiers often predominated in Swedish armies.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With some exceptions, however, the whole country united in defence of its constitution; " Fennoman " and " Svecoman," recognizing that their common liberties were at stake, suspended their feud for a season. With the accession of Nicholas II. .(see RussIA) the constitutional conflict became acute, and the " February manifesto " (February 15th, 1899) virtually abrogated the legislative power of the Finnish diet.^ For additional information on national laws and regulations concerning nuclear power please see the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Analytical Study of Nuclear Legislation in OECD countries .
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 2009 Fortum submitted its application to the Finnish government for a decision-in-principle on the construction of the new nuclear power plant at Loviisa.
  • Nuclear Energy in Finland: WNA 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new military law, practically amalgamating the Finnish with the Russian forces, followed in July 1901; Russian officials and the Russian language were forced on Finland wherever possible, and in April 1903 the Russian governor, General Bobrikov, was invested with practically dictatorial powers.^ The Finnish–Russian border was agreed upon in the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.

^ A reserve force ensures that Finland can field 400,000 trained military personnel in case of need.

^ The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga ( Finnish : Petsamo ) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The country was flooded with spies, and a special Russian police force was created, the expenses being charged to the Finnish treasury. The Russian system was now in full swing; domiciliary visits, illegal arrests and banishments, and the suppression of newspapers, were the order of the day. .To all this the people of Finland opposed a dogged and determined resistance, which culminated in November 1905 in a " national strike."^ According to Conservapedia , Finland contains no people at all, only ducks .
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

The strike was universal, all classes joining in the movement, and it spread to all the industrial centres and even to the rural districts. The railway, steamship, telephone and postal services were practically suspended. Helsingfors was without tramcars, cabs, gas and electricity; no shops except provision shops were open; public departments, schools and restaurants were closed. After six days the unconstitutional government - already much shaken by events in Russia and Manchuria - capitulated. .In an imperial manifesto dated the 7th of November 1905 the demands of Finland were granted, and the status quo ante 1899 was restored.^ Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands .
  • Finland - SPAMfighter 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the reform did not rest here. .The old Finnish constitution, although precious to those whose only protection it was, was an antiquated and not very efficient instrument of government.^ In the whole, the operational career of the BT type in Finnish colors was very short, lasting only a year (most used only for 6 months or so).
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Popular feeling had been excited by the political conflict, advanced tendencies had declared themselves, and when the new diet met it proceeded as explained above to remodel the constitution, on the basis of universal suffrage, with freedom of the press, speech, meeting and association.^ Finns enjoy individual and political freedoms, and suffrage is universal at 18.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Examples are: freedom of speech, freedom of association and the right to bear arms.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The centennial focuses on the parliamentary reform of the early 20th century and the introduction of equal and universal suffrage and full political rights for women.

In 1908-10 friction with Russia was again renewed. .The Imperial government insisted that the decision in all Finnish questions affecting the Empire must rest with them; and a renewed attempt was made to curtail the powers of the Finnish Diet.^ During 2001, all the Finnish nuclear power units operated very reliably and produced more electricity than ever before.
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The operating licenses of all four Finnish power reactors were valid until the end of 1998.
  • Nuclear Energy Agency Country Profiles - Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And example for the this 1Mbits internet connection, that is just the slowest limit from government what internet operators must guarantee to all citizens where they then live.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

Ethnology

.The term Finn has a wider application than Finland, being, with its adjective Finnic or Finno-Ugric (q.v.^ Finland is believed to have a language, but observations of Finns in their natural habitat reveal their language to be no more than a series of nods and grunts.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finnish and Lappish--the language of Finland's small Lapp minority--both are Finno-Ugric languages and are in the Uralic rather than the Indo-European family.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no consensus on when Finno-Ugric languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) or .Ugro-Finnic, the collective name of the westernmost branch of the Ural-Altaic family, dispersed throughout Finland, Lapland, the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia, Curland), parts of Russia proper (south of Lake Onega), both banks of middle Volga, Perm, Vologda, West Siberia (between the Ural Mountains and the Yenissei) and Hungary.^ The name Suomi ( Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins but a strong candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *zeme, meaning "land".
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence, in contrast to Finland's position between the East and the West .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish and Lappish--the language of Finland's small Lapp minority--both are Finno-Ugric languages and are in the Uralic rather than the Indo-European family.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c.^ Some of these names are obviously derived from finnr , a Germanic word for a wanderer/finder and thus supposedly meaning nomadic " hunter-gatherers " or slash and burn agriculturists as opposed to the Germanic sedentary farmers and seafaring traders and pirates.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scandinavian placenames Finnmark, Finnveden and Finnskogen and all are thought to be derived from finn, a Germanic word for nomadic "hunter-gatherers" (as opposed to sedentary farmers).

^ After all the U.S. is pretty much living off other people’s money for decades now.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.^ The islands are further distinguished by the fact that they are entirely Swedish-speaking.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the other parties, the True Finns, the Green League, and the Swedish People's Party were able to gain seats in parliament.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Finns are morally upright, hospitable, faithful and submissive, with a keen sense of personal freedom and independence, but also somewhat stolid, revengeful and indolent. Many of these physical and moral characteristics they have in common with the so-called " Mongolian " race, to which they are no doubt ethnically, if not also linguistically, related.
.Considerable researches have been accomplished since about 1850 in the ethnology and archaeology of Finland, on a scale which has no parallel in any other country.^ Finland also has a rich collection of collectors' coins, with face in any other country.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cooperation with the other Scandinavian countries also is important to Finland, and it has been a member of the Nordic Council since 1955.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Especially the U.S., a country with a deficit so high that no one can really grasp that number anymore, is talking about socialists using other people’s money.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

The study of the prehistoric population of Finland - Neolithic (no Palaeolithic finds have yet been made) - of the Age of Bronze and the Iron Age has been carried on with great zeal. .At the same time the folklore, Finnish and partly Swedish, has been worked out with wonderful completeness (see L'Ouvre demi-seculaire de la Societe de Litterature finnoise et le mouvement national finnois, by Dr E. G. Palmen, Helsingfors, 1882, and K. Krohn's report to the London Folklore Congress of 1891).^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic, the Kalevala, in 1835; and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.

^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic , the Kalevala , in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The centennial will be celebrated nationally and internationally, as well as bilingually in Finnish and Swedish.

.The work that was begun by Porthan, Z. Topelius, and especially E. Ldnnrot (1802-1884), for collecting the popular poetry of the Finns, was continued by Castren (1813-1852), Europaeus (1820-1884), and V. Porkka (18J4-1889), who extended their researches to the Finns settled in other parts of the Russian empire, and collected a considerable number of variants of the Kalewala and other popular poetry and songs.^ Especially the U.S., a country with a deficit so high that no one can really grasp that number anymore, is talking about socialists using other people’s money.
  • Applause For Finland: First Country To Make Broadband Access A Legal Right 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the February Revolution the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned, mainly by the social democrats .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland was historically a part of Sweden and from 1809 an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas, Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott languages.^ A close linguistic relative to the Finnish language is Estonian , which, though similar in many aspects, is not mutually intelligible with it.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish and Lappish--the language of Finland's small Lapp minority--both are Finno-Ugric languages and are in the Uralic rather than the Indo-European family.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Baltic-Finnic languages ), this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ahlqvist (1826-1889), and a phalanx of linguists, continued their work among the Vogules, the Mordves and the Obi-Ugrians. And finally, the researches of Aspelin (Foundations of Finno-Ugrian Archaeology,,in Finnish, and Atlas of Antiquities) led the Finnish ethnologists to direct more and more their attention to the basin of the Yenisei and the Upper Selenga. .A series of expeditions (of Aspelin, Snellman and Heikel) were consequently directed to those regions, especially since the discovery by Yadrintseff of the remarkable Orkhon inscriptions (see I'vIONGOLIA), which finally enabled the Danish linguist, V. Thomsen, to decipher these inscriptions, and to discover that they belonged to the Turkish Iron Age.^ The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish reactors are remarkable in the extent to which they have been uprated since they were built.
  • Nuclear Energy in Finland: WNA 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Inscriptions de l'Ienissei recueillies et publiees par la Societe Finl. d'Archeologie, 1889, and Inscriptions de l'Orkhon, 1892.)/n==Authorities== - The general history of Finland is fully treated by Yrjo Koskinen (1869-1873) and M. G. Schybergson (1887-1889). Both works have been translated into German. The constitutional conflict, gave rise to a host of books and pamphlets in various languages. Mechelin, Danielson and Hermanson were the leading writers on the Finnish side, and M. Ordin on the Russian. Most of the political documents have been published and translated. .A finely illustrated book, Finland in the Nineteenth Century, by various Finnish writers, gives an excellent account of the country; also Reuter's Finlandia, a very complete work with an exhaustive bibliography.^ Not until the 16th century were the first written works published in Finnish by Mikael Agricola.

^ Following Finland's incorporation into Sweden in the 12th century, Swedish became the dominant language, although Finnish recovered its predominance after a 19th-century resurgence of Finnish nationalism.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finn started referring to the people of Finland Proper 15th century onwards to refer to the people of the entire country.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The constitutional question was fully discussed in English in Finland and the Tsars, by J. R. Fisher (2nd ed., 1900). The Atlas de Finlande, published in 1899 by the Geographical Society of Finland, is a remarkably well executed and complete work. The Statistical Annual for Finland - Statistisk Arsbok for Finland - published annually by the Central Statistical Bureau in Helsingfors, gives the necessary figures. .(P. A. K.; J. S. K.; J. R. F.*) Finnish Literature. The earliest writer in the Finnish vernacular was Michael Agricola (1506-1557), who published an A B C Book in 1544, and, as bishop of Abo, a number of religious and educational works.^ Not until the 16th century were the first written works published in Finnish by Mikael Agricola.

.A version of the New Testament in Finnish was printed by Agricola in 1548, and some books of the Old Testament in 1552. A complete Finnish Bible was published at Stockholm in 1642. The dominion of the Swedes was very unfavourable to the development of anything like a Finnish literature, the poets of Finland preferring to write in Swedish and so secure a wider audience.^ Finland has developed greatly since 1945, when it was a primarily agricultural nation, and created major firms like the electronics firm DICRO Oy , the 55 year old Media company Evia Oyj and the cell phone firm Nokia .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not until the 16th century were the first written works published in Finnish by Mikael Agricola.

^ Though Finnish written language could be said to exist since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish in the sixteenth century as a result of the Protestant Reformation , few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century, which saw the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was not until, in 1835, the national epos of Finland, the Kalewala (q.v.^ Publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, The Kalevala--a collection of traditional myths and legends--first stirred the nationalism that later led to Finland's independence from Russia.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic , the Kalevala , in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

),
was introduced to readers by the exertions of Elias Lonnrot, that the Finnish language was used for literary composition. LOnnrot also collected and edited the works of the peasant-poets P. Korhonen (1775-1840) and Pentti Lyytinen, with an anthology containing the improvisations of eighteen other rustic bards. .During the last quarter of the 19th century there was an ever-increasing literary activity in Finland, and it took the form less and less of the publication of Swedish works, but more and more that of examples of the aboriginal vernacular.^ There is one in Söderby, Sweden , with the inscription finlont ( U 582 ) and one in Gotland , a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, with the inscription finlandi ( G 319 ), dating from the 11th century.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Finland is uninhabitable during the winter and inhospitable during the summer, the Finns had to come up with a property of character, sisu , meaning an advanced form of self-deceit.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the present time, in spite of the political troubles, books in almost every branch of research are found in the language, mainly translations or adaptations. .We meet with, during the present century, a considerable number of names of poets and dramatists, no doubt very minor, as also painters, sculptors and musical composers.^ It stands as a symbol of the Red Army during WWII and was no doubt a war winning-vehicle.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the Paris International Exhibition of 1878 several native Finnish painters and sculptors exhibited works which would do credit to any country; and both in the fine and applied arts Finland occupied a position thoroughly creditable.^ Areas of particular interest for U.S. investors are specialized high-tech companies and investments that take advantage of Finland's position as a gateway to Russia and the Baltic countries.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An important contribution to a history of Finnish literature is Krohn's Suomenkielinen runollisuns ruotsinvallan aikana (1862). .Finland is wonderfully rich in periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable.^ Publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, The Kalevala--a collection of traditional myths and legends--first stirred the nationalism that later led to Finland's independence from Russia.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic , the Kalevala , in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland also has a rich collection of collectors' coins, with face in any other country.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A great work in the revival of an interest in the Finnish language was done by the Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura (the Finnish Literary Society), which from the year 1841 has published a valuable annual, Suomi. The Finnish Literary Society has also published a new edition of the works of the father of Finnish history, Henry Gabriel Porthan (died 1804).^ Not until the 16th century were the first written works published in Finnish by Mikael Agricola.

^ In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish Stuff Finland - History of Finland - Language of Finland - Politics of Finland - Culture of Finland - More articles on Finland .
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A valuable handbook of Finnish history was published at Helsingfors in 1869-1873, by Yrjo Koskinen, and has been translated into both Swedish and German.^ Following Finland's incorporation into Sweden in the 12th century, Swedish became the dominant language, although Finnish recovered its predominance after a 19th-century resurgence of Finnish nationalism.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1970s Finnish rock musicians, such as Juice Leskinen , started to write their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish and Swedish – but not Sami – were both designated national languages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Finland : Finland Overview 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

The author was a Swede, Georg Forsman, the above form being a Finnish translation. Other works on Finnish history and some inportant works in Finnish geography have also appeared. .In language we have Lonnrot's great Finnish-Swedish dictionary, published by the Finnish Literary Society.^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic , the Kalevala , in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Finland's incorporation into Sweden in the 12th century, Swedish became the dominant language, although Finnish recovered its predominance after a 19th-century resurgence of Finnish nationalism.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Languages: Finnish 90.9%, Swedish 5.4% (both official); small Lapp- (0.03%) and Russian-speaking (0.8%) minorities.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dr Otto Donner's Comparative Dictionary of the FinnoUgric Languages (Helsingfors and Leipzig) is in German. In imaginative literature Finland has produced several important writers of the vernacular. Alexis Stenwall (" Kiwi ") (1834-1872), the son of a village tailor, was the best poet of his time; he wrote popular dramas and an historical romance, The Seven Brothers (1870). Among recent playwrights Mrs Minna Canth (1844-1897) has been the most successful. Other dramatists are E. F. Johnsson (1844-1895), P. Cajander (b. .1846), who translated Shakespeare into Finnish, and Karl Bergbom (b.^ In the 1970s Finnish rock musicians, such as Juice Leskinen , started to write their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1843). Among lyric poets are J. H. Erkko (b. 1849), Arwi Jannes (b. 1848) and Yrjo Weijola (b. 1875). The earliest novelist of Finland, Pietari Paivarinta (b. 1827), was the son of a labourer; he is the author of a grimly realistic story, His Life. Many of the popular Finnish authors of our day are peasants. Kauppis Heikki was a wagoner; Alkio Filander a farmer; Heikki Mavilainen a smith; Juhana Kokko (Kyosti) a gamekeeper. .The most gifted of the writers of Finland, however, is certainly Juhani Aho (b.^ However, Finland maintained a democratic government and a market economy unlike most other countries bordering the Soviet Union.

^ After Finland became independent there was a rise of modernist writers, most famously Mika Waltari .
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1861), the son of a country clergyman. His earliest writings were studies of modern life, very realistically treated. Aho then went to reside in France, where he made a close study of the methods of the leading French novelists of the newer school. .About the year 1893 he began to publish short stories, some of which, such as Enris, The Fortress of Matthias, The Old Man of Korpela and Finland's Flag, are delicate works of art, while they reveal to a very interesting degree the temper and ambitions of the contemporary Finnish population.^ Finland's nearly 700-year association with the Kingdom of Sweden began in 1154 with the introduction of Christianity by Sweden's King Eric.
  • Finland (09/09) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, it is confirmed, that about 80% of the population appears to be 12 -year-olds, which makes the calculated mean age of an average finnish person 17,6 years.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finland's population seemingly consists mostly of 12 -year-old teenager cs players who swear a lot and make strange noises when they lose a match.
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

It has been well said that in the writings of Juhani Aho can be traced all the idiosyncrasies which have formed the curious and pathetic history of Finland in recent years. A village priest, Juho Reijonen (b. 1857), in tales of somewhat artless form, has depicted the hardships which poverty too often entails upon the Finn in his country life. Tolstoy has found an imitator in Arwid Jarnefelt (b. 1861). Santeri Ingman (b. 1866) somewhat naïvely, but not without skill, has followed in the steps of Aho. .It would be an error to exaggerate either the force or the originality of these early developments of a national Finnish literature, which, moreover, are mostly brief and unambitious in character.^ Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic , the Kalevala , in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892.
  • Top20Finland.com - Your Top20 Guide to Finland! 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC top20finland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But they are eminently sincere, and they have the great merit of illustrating the local aspects of landscape and temperament and manners.

Authorities

E. G. Palmen, L'Ouvre demi-seculaire de la Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1831-81 (Helsingfors, 1882); J. Krohn, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden waiheet (Helsingfors, 18 97); F. W. Pipping, Forteckning ofver bucker pd finska spretket (Helsingfors, 1856-1857); E. Brausewetter, Finland im Bilde seiner Dichtung and seiner Dichter (Berlin, 1899); C. J. Pinson, Popular Poetry of the Finns (London, 1900); V. Vasenius, Ofversigt of Finlands Litteraturhistoria for skolor (Helsingfors, 1893). For writers using the Swedish language, see SWEDEN: Literature. (E. G.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Finland
Plural
-
Finland
.
  1. One of the Nordic countries having borders with Sweden, Norway and Russia.^ Bordering Countries : Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km   .
    • Finland Facts | Republic of Finland Information | Finland Statistics | Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The capital city of Finland is Helsinki Finland has borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.
    • Finland webcams - View live web cams in the Nordic country of Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.camvista.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finland is located in the north of Europe, with Norway as neighbor in the north, Sweden in the West, Russia in the East, and Estonia in the South.
    • the GASTROLAB Home Page: Facts of Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.gastrolab.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Member state of the European Union since 1995. Official name: Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavalta in Finnish, Republiken Finland in Swedish).

Translations

Related terms

See also


Breton

Proper noun

Finland
  1. Finland

Danish

Proper noun

Finland
  1. Finland

Dutch

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Finland
  1. Finland

Norwegian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /fɪnlɑn/

Proper noun

Finland
  1. Finland

Related terms


Swedish

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Finland
  1. Finland

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.
Wikipedia has a page called:
Finland is a republic of about 5.3 million people north-east of the Baltic Sea.
^ Finland has a population of about 5 million people, and the population is still slightly growing.
  • the GASTROLAB Home Page: Facts of Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.gastrolab.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Nordic country, Finland is bordered on the west by Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia, on the north by Norway, on the east and southeast by Russia, on the south by the Gulf of Finland and on the south-west by the Baltic Sea.
  • Finland: A Very Brief Introduction 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Export To Finland | Export Consulting Services, Export Management Company Finland, The Baltic 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.exporttofinland.com [Source type: News]

^ History People have lived in what is now Finland since about 8000 BC. Throughout the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages, various peoples moved into the region.
  • fUSION Anomaly. Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC fusionanomaly.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. The region was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.^ Finland was finally detached from Sweden in 1809.

^ By 1809 Russia had occupied Finland and proclaimed it a grand duchy of the Russian Empire.
  • fUSION Anomaly. Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC fusionanomaly.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the area becomes part of the Swedish kingdom.
  • Uusi sivu 1 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.uku.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The catastrophic Finnish famine of 1866-1868 was followed by eased economic regulation and political development.
.In 1917, Finland declared independence.^ "In 1917, the Finnish parliament declared independence.
  • PHAS-Finland’s Tarnished Holocaust Record 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.jcpa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the Russian Revolution (1917), Finland declared independence.
  • Finland Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then on 6 December 1917 the Diet declared Finland an independent Republic.

.A civil war between the Russia-supported Red Guards and the Germanophile White Guard ensued a few months later with the "Whites" gaining the upper hand.^ The Finns aquired a few from Russia and used them in the 1918 Civil War.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC mailer.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 30, 1939 marks the 70th anniversary of one of the most misunderstood wars of the 20th Century, the “Winter War” between Stalin’s Red Army and Finland.
  • Hidden History of the Winter War 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.thenewamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the ensuing civil war (Jan.-May, 1918) between the leftist Red Guard (supported by some 40,000 Soviet troops and favoring close ties with the USSR) and the conservative Finnish-nationalist White Guard, led by Marshal Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim and aided by German troops, the White Guard emerged victorious.
  • Finland News - Breaking World Finland News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

After the internal affairs stabilized, the still mainly agrarian economy grew relatively fast. .Relations with the West, especially Sweden and the United Kingdom, were strong but the pre-World War II relations with the socialist Soviet Union remained weaker.^ Since the end of the war, Finland had been pursuing a policy of friendly relations with the U.S.S.R., which in practice led to a considerable amount of Soviet meddling in Finland's internal affairs.
  • Election Resources on the Internet: Elections to the Finnish Eduskunta (Parliament) 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC electionresources.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A period of internal and external struggles followed, including the Winter War against the Soviet Union in 1939 , such that during World War II , Finland was alone among the Scandinavian countries in siding with Germany , as protection against Soviet invasion.
  • Finland 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ Urho tried to protect Finland in a Cold War world by remaining as neutral as possible, but the Soviets really wanted to mess with Finland and wouldn't take no for an answer .
  • Finland@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Second World War, Finland fought twice against the Soviet Union, and had to cede most of Karelia to the USSR, but remained an independent democracy.^ To get back Karelia and defend itself against the Soviet Union, Finland allies itself with Germany against the Soviet Union.
  • Uusi sivu 1 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.uku.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the Second World War the main occupation in Finland was agriculture.

^ The Soviet Union pressured England to declare war against Finland.
  • History of Finland-Canada Relations - Embassy of Finland, Ottawa : Finland and Canada 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.finland.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geography

See also: List of cities and towns in Finland, Administrative divisions of Finland, Provinces of Finland, Historical provinces of Finland, Regions of Finland, Sub-regions of Finland, and Municipalities of Finland

External links

.This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).^ Content is available under a Creative Commons License .
  • Finland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virtual Tours This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
  • Finland Culture | Finland History 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.world66.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
  • BBC News - Gunman's body found after Finland shootings 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

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This article uses material from the "Finland" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Finland, which are similar to those in the above article.