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First Battle of St Albans
Part of the Wars of the Roses
Roses-York victory.svg
Date 22 May 1455
Location St Albans in Hertfordshire, England
Result Decisive Yorkist victory
Belligerents
Yorkshire rose.svg House of York Lancashire rose.svg House of Lancaster
Commanders
Richard, Duke of York,
Richard, Earl of Warwick
Edmund, Duke of Somerset 
Strength
3,000 2,500
Casualties and losses
Unknown 300

The First Battle of St Albans was the first battle of the Wars of the Roses and was fought on 22 May 1455 in the town of St Albans[1], 22 miles (35 km) north of London. Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeated the Lancastrians under Edmund, Duke of Somerset, who was killed. York also captured Henry VI and had himself appointed Constable of England.

The Lancastrian army of 2,500 troops arrived at St Albans first, and proceeded to defend it by placing troops along the Tonman Ditch and at the bars in Sopwell Lane and Shropshire Lane. The 3,000 strong Yorkist army arrived and camped in Keyfield to the east. Lengthy negotiations ensued with heralds moving back and forth between the rival commanders. After several hours, Richard, despairing of a peaceful solution, decided to attack. The bulk of Henry's forces were surprised by the speed of Richard's attack; most of the army was expecting a peaceful resolution similar to the one at Blackheath in 1452. However, two frontal assaults down the narrow streets against the barricades made no headway and resulted in heavy casualties for the Yorkists.

Warwick took his reserve troops through an unguarded part of the town's defences, through back lanes and gardens. Suddenly the Earl appeared in the Market Square where the main body of Henry's troops were talking and resting. There is evidence they were not yet expecting to be involved in the fighting, as many were not even wearing their helmets. Warwick charged instantly with his force, routing the Lancastrians and killing the Duke of Somerset[2].

The Earl then ordered his archers to shoot at the men around the King, killing several and injuring the King and the Duke of Buckingham. The Lancastrians manning the barricades realised the Yorkists had ouflanked them, and fearing an attack from behind abandoned their positions and fled the town.

The First Battle of St Albans was relatively minor in military terms, but politically was a complete victory for York: he had captured the King and returned himself to complete power; his rival Somerset was dead; and Warwick's arch-enemies Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland and Lord de Clifford both fell during the rout.

Shakespeare's play Henry VI, Part 2 ends with the result of this battle.

See also

References

  • Burley, Elliott & Watson, The Battles of St Albans, Pen & Sword, 2007, ISBN 9781844155699
  • Burne, A.H. The Battlefields of England, Classic Penguin, 2002, ISBN 0-141-39077-8

Notes

  1. ^ St Albans was a town at the time of the battle. It did not become a city until 1877.
  2. ^ Popular legend has it that he was killed outside an inn called The Castle fulfilling a soothsayer's warning years earlier to beware of castles.


Coordinates: 51°45′18″N 0°20′9.6″W / 51.755°N 0.336°W / 51.755; -0.336

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