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The First Triumvirate (Spanish: Primer Triunvirato) was the executive organ of government that replaced the Junta Grande, and governed Argentina from 1811 and 1812.

Contents

Members

Duration

It started its functions on December 22, 1811 and was removed from power on October 8, 1812.

Origin

After the defeat of the patriotic forces on the Battle of Huaqui that took place on June 20, 1811, the already wounded prestige of the Junta Grande had a great set-back.

Cornelio Saavedra's (the Junta's president) decision to take charge personally of the Army of the North (Spanish: Ejército del Norte), gave room for the faction that supported liberal Mariano Moreno, to take advantage of his absence to try to force the dissolution of the Junta. In its replacement a Triumvirate was named.

This Triumvirate was seconded by a Junta Conservadora (Spanish: Conservative Junta), which was formed by the recently dissolved Junta.

Actions

This government took actions of great transcendence. Some of which are:

  • Declaration of the Freedom of Press.
  • Approving of the Law of Individual Security.
  • Creation of the Chamber of Appeals.
  • Regulation of the Institution and Administration of Justice.
  • Created en January 13, 1812 the Intendency of the Buenos Aires Province.
  • Ordered Manuel Belgrano to lead troops to protect Rosario from naval attacks dispatched by Spaniards from Montevideo.
  • Approved the use of the White and Cerulean Blue Insignia by the Army on February 18, 1812.
  • On the same day ordered Belgrano to take charge of the Army of the North.
  • Ordered Lieutenant Colonel José de San Martín the formation of a special cavalry corp which would be known as Granaderos a Caballo.
  • Commission of Immigration: Founded on September 4, 1812 and constituted the first entablished entity to foment immigration and colonization of the territory (which wasn't clearly defined by the time). The Wars of Independence impeded its funcionality, but it was reactivated by Bernardino Rivadavia when in charge of the government of Buenos Aires, on 1824. Dissolved on August 20, 1830 by Juan Manuel de Rosas.

End

The actions of its members was limited by successive struggles of power. With this government the morenistas successfully neutralized their opposition, but the internal struggles, the menace of an invasion from Brazil and the military misadventures of Manuel Belgrano in the north undermined their power.

José de San Martín, with the members of the Logia Lautaro (Lautaro Lodge) and the Sociedad Patriótica (Patriotic Society) which was formed by morenistas coincided on giving privilege to the organization of a liberation army and declaration of Independence. It was then when the destitution of the Triumvirate members and to return to the line of action impulsed by the Society. The Lautaro Lodge, on the other hand, mobilized its troops and the Patriotic Society recurred to public petitions and mobilization of the population.

The triumvirate was then replaced by the Segundo Triunvirato.

Bibliography

  • (Spanish) Busaniche, José Luis (1969). Historia argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Solar.  
  • (Spanish) Lozier Almazán, Bernardo (1998). Martín de Álzaga. Buenos Aires: Ed. Ciudad Argentina.  
  • (Spanish) Mitre, Bartolomé (1968). Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana. Buenos Aires: Ed. Eudeba.  
  • (Spanish) Segreti, Carlos S. A. (1980). La aurora de la Independencia - Memorial de la Patria. Buenos Aires: Ed. La Bastilla.  
  • (Spanish) Sierra, Vicente D. (1973). Historia de la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Garriga.  
  • (Spanish) Ternavasio, Marcela (2007). Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Ed. Siglo Veintiuno.  
  • (Spanish) Bra, Gerardo, "El Motín de las Trenzas", Revista Todo es Historia (187)  
  • (Spanish) Fernández, Alejandro E.; Aníbal Jáuregui and Darío Roldán, "Un golpe militar en el camino hacia la independencia", Revista Todo es Historia (192)  
  • (Spanish) Heredia, Edmundo, "Expediciones reconquistadoras españolas al Río de la Plata (1811-1814)", Revista Todo es Historia (201)  
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