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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Primum movens (Latin), in English usually referred to as the First Cause, is a term used in the philosophical and theological cosmological argument for the existence of God, and in thinking about cosmogony, the source of the cosmos or "all-being", and spontaneous generation of life.


Aristotle's ontology

In book 12 of his Metaphysics, Aristotle used the phrase τι ὃ οὐ κινούμενον κινεῖ ("something which moves [other things] without [itself] being moved [by anything]")[1] -- i.e., the unmoved mover. The question he worked on was the origin of existence and motion. "Being is motion" is the first thought. Motion is a caused change in the state of being. While motion itself is uncaused. When applied in his physics, this led to the view that all natural motions are uncaused and therefore self-explanatory.[2] Aristotle referred to motion as potential or dynamis. Causality is a logical concept and even more a concept of perception.

Structures versus objects

In modal logic this principle is based on a reduction, because causality is linear. Once started with such linear reduction, the causality/motion is finally reduced to the ultimate cause, which only by logic is unmoved, i.e. the unmoved mover. Since Aristotle is stating first cause is energy or energeia (in Greek) or actus (in Latin) he is stating that energy causes motion. That manifestation is the cause of motion this is the foundation for the theory of actualism which served as the foundation of an anti-informationist philosophy of nature, science, logic, and mathematics against Plato's theory of philosophy called informationist philosophy.[3] Aristotle's actualistic ontology is the denial of potential ontology or being as the first cause of the cosmos which is the position of Plato. Plato's theory of first cause being Potential ontology and is articulated in Plato's theory of forms. Potential or force in both theories is uncaused. Plato here treating forms of the Universe more like components that make up the constructs or structures of the Universe. Aristotle treating the Universe as a thing made up of Primary substances. Energy in both theories is uncaused. Aristotle using energeia or actus, Actuality as the first cause showing that this concept has sentience where as force or potential does not. As Plotinus and later Neoplatonist took as an essential task the reconciliation of Plato's philosophy and Aristotle's in the modal understanding of First Cause.

See also


  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics
  2. ^ Aristotle's Theory of Actuality By Zev Bechler State University of New York Press (August 1995) Language: English ISBN 0791422402 ISBN 978-0791422403 [1]
  3. ^ Aristotle's Theory of Actuality By Zev Bechler State University of New York Press (August 1995) Language: English ISBN 0791422402 ISBN 978-0791422403 [2]


  • Louis Pasteur, cf. f. i. René Dubos, "Louis Pasteur - Free Lance of Science", 1986, s. pg. 113
  • Andreä, Die chymische Hochzeit. Christiani Rosenkreutz", 1616


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