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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with phishing.
Stilts fishermen, Sri Lanka
Lake Pátzcuaro butterfly fishermen, Michoacán, Mexico

Fishing is the activity of catching fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping.

The term fishing may be applied to catching other aquatic animals such as mollusks, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching aquatic mammals, such as whales, where the term whaling is more appropriate, or to farmed fish. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a recreational sport.

According to FAO statistics, the total number of fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people.[1] In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.[2]

Contents

History

Fishing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)
Stone Age fish hook made from bone.

Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back at least to the Paleolithic period which began about 40,000 years ago.[3] Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000 year old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[4][5] Archaeology features such as shell middens,[6] discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.

Egyptians bringing in fish, and splitting for salting.

The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population.[7] The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. In India, the Pandyas, a classical Dravidian Tamil kingdom, were known for the pearl fishery as early as the 1st century BC. Their seaport Tuticorin was known for deep sea pearl fishing. The paravas, a Tamil caste centred in Tuticorin, developed a rich community because of their pearl trade, navigation knowledge and fisheries. Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. This is the earliest such work to have survived to the modern day. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics.[8] The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted fisherman in their ceramics.[9]

One of the world’s longest trading histories is the trade of dry cod from the Lofoten area of Norway to the southern parts of Europe, Italy, Spain and Portugal. The trade in cod started during the Viking period or before, has been going on for more than 1000 years and is still important.

Traditional fishing

Traditional fishing is a term used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices, using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc.

Recreational fishing

Recreational and sport fishing describe fishing for pleasure or competition. Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught; typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits or artificial lures such as spinners or 'dry flies'. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is generally known as angling. In angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish be returned to the water (catch and release). Recreational or sport fishermen may log their catches or participate in fishing competitions.

Big-game fishing describes fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin. Sport fishing (sometimes game fishing) describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial value of the fish's flesh. Fish sought after include marlin, tuna, tarpon, sailfish, shark and mackerel although the list is endless.

Techniques

Fishermen with traditional fish traps, Hà Tây, Vietnam

There are many fishing techniques or methods for catching fish. The term can also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine invertebrates.

Fishing techniques include hand gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure or sport, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Mostly, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use netting methods.

There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.[10]

Tackle

Man seated at the side of the water surrounded by fishing rods and tackle.
An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, with his tackle.

Fishing tackle is a general term that refers to the equipment used by fishermen when fishing.

Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels, baits, lures, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes.

Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle. This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders, swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures.

Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is used when fishing.

The fishing industry

Modern Spanish tuna purse seiner in the Seychelles Islands

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.

It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.[11] The commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input factors in other industrial processes.

There are three principal industry sectors:[12]

  • The commercial sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations of those resources into products for sale. It is also referred to as the "seafood industry", although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products.
  • The traditional sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions.
  • The recreational sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for sale.

Commercial fishing

Commercial fishing is the capture of fish for commercial purposes. Those who practice it must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and sea-going processing factories. Individual fishing quotas and international treaties seek to control the species and quantities caught.

A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day.

Commercial fishing gear includes weights, nets (e.g. purse seine), seine nets (e.g. beach seine), trawls (e.g. bottom trawl), dredges, hooks and line (e.g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, total world capture fisheries production in 2000 was 86 million tons (FAO 2002). The top producing countries were, in order, the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's production; China alone accounted for a third of the world's production. Of that production, over 90% was marine and less than 10% was inland.

A small number of species support the majority of the world’s fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species as well are fished in smaller numbers.

Fish farms

Intensive koi aquaculture facility in Israel

Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Fish species raised by fish farms include Atlantic salmon, carp, tilapia, catfish, trout and others.

Increased demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing has caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.

Fish products

Gyula Derkovits, still-life with fish (1928)

Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. With other seafoods, it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 14–16 percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide. Over one billion people rely on fish as their primary source of animal protein.[13][14]

Fish and other aquatic organisms are also processed into various food and non-food products, such as sharkskin leather, pigments made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish, isinglass used for the clarification of wine and beer, fish emulsion used as a fertilizer, fish glue, fish oil and fish meal.

Fish are also collected live for research or the aquarium trade.

Fish marketing

Fishing vessels

Crab boat from the North Frisian Islands working in the North Sea

A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.

According to the FAO, there are currently (2004) four million commercial fishing vessels.[15] About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked vessels are mechanised, and 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other extreme, two-thirds (1.8 million) of the undecked boats are traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail and oars.[15] These boats are used by artisan fishers.

Drawing of a sport fishing boat.gif

It is difficult to estimate how many recreational fishing boats there are, although the number is high. The term is fluid, since most recreational boats are also used for fishing from time to time. Unlike most commercial fishing vessels, recreational fishing boats are often not dedicated just to fishing. Just about anything that will stay afloat can be called a recreational fishing boat, so long as a fisher periodically climbs aboard with the intent to catch a fish. Fish are caught for recreational purposes from boats which range from dugout canoes, kayaks, rafts, pontoon boats and small dingies to runabouts, cabin cruisers and cruising yachts to large, hi-tech and luxurious big game rigs.[16] Larger boats, purpose-built with recreational fishing in mind, usually have large, open cockpits at the stern, designed for convenient fishing.

Issues

Fishing down the foodweb

Issues involving fishing include environmental effects of fishing and fish farms, overfishing and by-catch, marine pollution and mercury levels.

These conservation issues are part of marine conservation, and are addressed in fisheries science programs. There is a growing gap between how many fish are available to be caught and humanity’s desire to catch them, a problem that gets worse as the world population grows.

Similar to other environmental issues, there can be conflict between the fishermen who depend on fishing for their livelihoods and fishery scientists who realise that if future fish populations are to be sustainable then some fisheries must limit fishing or cease operations.

Fisheries management

Fisheries scientists sorting a catch of small fish and langoustine.

Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of (hopefully appropriate) management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance.

Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which draws on the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries. In some cases new disciplines have emerged, such as bioeconomics.

Cultural impact

Ona, a traditional fishing village in Norway
  • Semantic impact: The expression "fishing expedition" (usually used to describe a line of questioning), describes a case in which the questioner implies that he knows more than he actually does in order to trick the target into divulging more information than he wishes to reveal. Other examples of fishing terms that carry a negative connotation are: "fishing for compliments", "to be fooled hook, line and sinker" (to be fooled beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of Phishing in which a third party will duplicate a website where the user would put sensitive information (such as bank codes).

Notes

  1. ^ Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate Policy brief of the FAO for the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen, December 2009.
  2. ^ FAO: Fisheries and Aquaculture
  3. ^ African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human Evolution National Geographic News article.
  4. ^ Yaowu Hu Y, Hong Shang H, Haowen Tong H, Olaf Nehlich O, Wu Liu W, Zhao C, Yu J, Wang C, Trinkaus E and Richards M (2009) "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (27) 10971-10974.
  5. ^ First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
  6. ^ Coastal Shell Middens and Agricultural Origins in Atlantic Europe.
  7. ^ Fisheries history: Gift of the NilePDF.
  8. ^ Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman mosaic.
  9. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  10. ^ Keegan, William F (1986) New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1., pp. 92-107.
  11. ^ FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  12. ^ The wording of the following definitions of the fishing industry are based on those used by the Australian government
  13. ^ World Health Organization.
  14. ^ Tidwell, James H. and Allan, Geoff L.
  15. ^ a b FAO 2007
  16. ^ NOAA: Sport fishing boat
  17. ^ International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
  18. ^ African fishermen find way of conservation in the Koran The Christian Science Monitor
  19. ^ A Misunderstood Analogy for Evangelism Bible Analysis Article
  20. ^ American Bible Society Article American Bible Society
  21. ^ About Pices the Fish The Astrology Cafe Monitor
  22. ^ Peter: From Fisherman to Fisher of Men Profiles of Faith

Further reading

  • Schultz, Ken (1999). Fishing Encyclopedia: Worldwide Angling Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0028620577. 
  • Sahrhage, Dietrich; Johannes Lundbeck (1992). A History of Fishing. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0387553320. 

External links

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Fishing
by Paul Laurence Dunbar
Information about this edition
In the 1913 collection of his work, The Complete Poems of Paul Laurence Dunbar


                              FISHING

Wen I git up in de mo'nin' an' de clouds is big an' black,
Dey's a kin' o' wa'nin' shivah goes a-scootin' down my back;
Den I says to my ol' ooman ez I watches down de lane,
"Don't you so't o' reckon, Lizy, dat we gwine to have some rain?"

"Go on, man," my Lizy answah, "you cain't fool me, not a bit,
I don't see no rain a-comin', ef you's wishin' fu' it, quit;
Case de mo' you t'ink erbout it, an de mo' you pray an' wish,
W'y de rain stay 'way de longah, spechul ef you wants to fish."

But I see huh pat de skillet, an' I see huh cas' huh eye
Wid a kin' o' anxious motion to'ds de da'kness in de sky;
An' I knows whut she 's a-t'inkin', dough she tries so ha'd to hide.
She 's a-sayin', "Would n't catfish now tas'e monst'ous bully, fried?"

Den de clouds git black an' blackah, an' de thundah 'mence to roll,
An' de rain, it 'mence a-fallin'. Oh, I's happy, bless my soul!
Ez I look at dat ol' skillet, an' I 'magine I kin see
Jes' a slew o' new-ketched catfish sizzlin' daih fu' huh an' me.

'T ain't no use to go a-ploughin', fu' de groun' 'll be too wet,
So I puts out fu' de big house at a moughty pace, you bet,
An' ol' mastah say, "Well, Lishy, ef you t'ink hit 's gwine to rain,
Go on fishin', hit 's de weathah, an' I 'low we cain't complain."

Talk erbout a dahky walkin' wid his haid up in de aih!
Have to feel mine evah minute to be sho' I got it daih;
En' de win' is cuttin' capahs an' a-lashin' thoo de trees,
But de rain keeps on a-singin' blessed songs, lak "Tek yo' ease."

Wid my pole erpon my shouldah an' my wo'm can in my han',
I kin feel de fish a-waitin' w'en I strikes de rivah's san';
Nevah min', you ho'ny scoun'els, need n' swim erroun' an' grin,
I 'll be grinnin' in a minute w'en I 'mence to haul you in.

W'en de fish begin to nibble, an' de co'k begin to jump,
I 's erfeahed dat dey 'll quit bitin', case dey hyeah my hea't go "thump,"
'Twell de co'k go way down undah, an' I raise a awful shout,
Ez a big ol' yallah belly comes a gallivantin' out.

Need n't wriggle, Mistah Catfish, case I got you jes' de same,
You been eatin', I 'll be eatin', an' we needah ain't to blame.
But you need n't feel so lonesome fu' I 's th'owin' out to see
Ef dey ain't some of yo' comrades fu' to keep you company.

Spo't, dis fishin'! now you talkin', w'y dey ain't no kin' to beat;
I don' keer ef I is soakin', laigs, an' back, an' naik, an' feet,
It 's de spo't I 's lookin' aftah. Hit 's de pleasure an' de fun,
Dough I knows dat Lizy 's waitin' wid de skillet w'en I's done.

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to River Fishing article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Approaches, Techniques, and Tips for fishing Rivers in the Eastern United States

Conemaugh RiverFishing.jpg

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
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Pages in category "Fishing"

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B


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The art of fishing was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples (Mk 1:16-20), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves (Mt 8:26) and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and bread (Mt 14:19; 15:36). It was in the mouth of a fish that the tribute-money was found (Mt 17:27). And he "ate a piece of broiled fish" with his disciples after his resurrection (Lk 24:42, 43; comp. Acts 1:3). At the Sea of Tiberias (Jn 21:1-14), in obedience to his direction, the disciples cast their net "on the right side of the ship," and enclosed so many that "they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes."

Two kinds of fishing-nets are mentioned in the New Testament:

  1. The casting-net (Mt 4:18; Mk 1:16).
  2. The drag-net or seine (Mt 13:48).

Fish were also caught by the fishing-hook (Mt 17:27). (See NET.)

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Fishing games are games that require you to catch fish. These games try to simulate the fishing experience.



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Simple English

of Kochi, India.]]

Fishing is catching fish either for fun or so they can be eaten. There are many different types of fishing, the goal of fishing for money is to catch or harvest seafood (either fish or other sea life). Fishing can be done in the sea, or in a lake or river, and by boat or from the shore.

Contents

Fishing for money

Fishing for money is a very dangerous job, because people can die, but much money can be made in the process.[needs proof] Fishing gives a lot of food to many countries around the world, but those who take it as a job must often find fish far into the ocean under bad conditions. People who go fishing for money get almost all aquatic life, from tuna, cod, and salmon to shrimp, lobster, clams, and squid. Ways to fish for money have become very simple using large nets and machines to catch fish. Many countries have made rules limiting how much fish people can catch.

Raising fish in the forms of aquaculture and mariculture add to the free-range catch of fish.

Fishing for fun

Fishing for fun is normally done with a fishing rod and line with any number of hooks to get the fish. This is something called angling. There may be rules that say how many lines and hooks one fisherman can use and how many fish he can catch. Popular kinds of fish people get for fun in fresh water include Black Bass (Black Bass includes the entire range of Bass fish), Pike, Muskellunge, Perch, Carp, Trout, Salmon, and Sunfish. Fish people get in saltwater include Swordfish, Marlin, Tuna, and others.

Rules generally do not allow the use of nets and catching fish with hooks not in the mouth. However some kinds of fish can be taken with nets for bait and a few for food. Non-sport fish that are not said to be worth as much can sometimes be taken by many ways like snagging, bow and arrow, or even gun, because they are seen as competing with more valuable fish.

Recreational fishing laws also include other life that lives in water, such as frogs and turtles.

Sport fishing is a recent popular way of recreational fishing where fishermen try to get more fish than other fishermen. This sport came from local fishing contests into a large contest in the U.S.A. where skilled fishermen can compete and be helped out by companies giving money, and other large contests around the world.

Catch and release

Catch-and-release fishing is increasingly practiced especially by fly fishermen, as well as spin and bait casting fishermen, to increase conservation and to protect rare fish such as marlin. The practice is however disputed as it by some is considered unethical to perform painful actions to the fish for fun and not for the reason of food production. Because of this, catch-and-release practice is illegal in Norway.

Collection of live fish

Fish can also be collected in ways that do not injure them (such as in a seine net), for observation and study or for keeping in Aquarium. There is a substantial industry devoted to the collection, transport, export and farming of wild and domesticated live fish, usually freshwater or marine tropical fish.

Fishing with traps

Some fish such as lobster and crab are caught commercially in pots or traps. These traps can be made from wood or metal and hold many fish at once. They are baited with fresh fish such as tuna and cod, or raw meat. Fishing boats must have licences to catch these fish and quotas are rigorously enforced.

Too much fishing

In the past, fishing has been so good for getting money that people began overfishing (fishing too much) - a serious problem that does lots of damage (bad).[1] Overfishing does not always mean extinction, but simply that a fish type has been harvested so that there cannot be as many of that kind of fish as before. As more boats are sent out to catch the fish, many population levels of a type of fish can drop.[1] Then, there are not enough of that kind of fish left to have new kinds of fish.[1]

Many times, fishing boats catch fish they do not mean to catch, called bycatch. All kinds of fish can become bycatch, and they are usually thrown back into the sea after they have died. Drift net fishing sometimes catches creatures like seals, dolphins, whales, and sea turtles. This kind of fishing made people complain. In the 1980s, it was guessed that 18 miles (30 km) of nets were lost every night, tangling up boats and animals.[1]

Referencing

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Sherwin, Frank (2004). The Ocean Book. P.O. Box 726, Green Forest, AR 72638: Master Books. ISBN 0-89051-401-1. 

Other pages

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