Flash memory: Wikis

  
  

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Computer memory types
Volatile
Non-volatile
.
A USB flash drive.
^ What types of USB flash drives are available?
  • USB Flash Drives and Memory | Custom USB Flash Drives | JustFlashDrives.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC justflashdrives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USB flash drives (6385) .

^ Multifunction USB flash drives manufacturers .

.The chip on the left is the flash memory.^ Flash memory chips can either be NOR or NAND. .
  • flash memory,What is flash memory? - EE Times-Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash Memory Chips, Cards & nvRAM .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Flash memory has no moving parts and is non-volatile, which means that no outside power is needed to maintain the data stored in the chip.
  • memory.com | Computer RAM Memory Upgrade|Flash Memory Cards|USB Flash Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memory.com [Source type: General]

The microcontroller is on the right.
.Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.^ Flash Memory / Storage oems .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Category: Flash memory Category:Solid-state computer storage media.
  • Search results for "Flash memory" - Wikimedia Commons 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous flash memory with non-volatile mode register .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products.^ Flash memory card (137) USB flash drive (34) More .
  • 256 MB - 511 MB Flash Memory - Shopper.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC shopper.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ What types of USB flash drives are available?
  • USB Flash Drives and Memory | Custom USB Flash Drives | JustFlashDrives.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC justflashdrives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash Memory / Storage oems .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

.It is a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks; in early flash the entire chip had to be erased at once.^ The erasing and reading voltages of the new flash memory are as low as 6V and ...
  • Flash Memory Drives - Flash Memory, Hardware 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC techblips.dailyradar.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks; in early flash the entire chip had to be erased at once.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is a non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

.Flash memory costs far less than byte-programmable EEPROM and therefore has become the dominant technology wherever a significant amount of non-volatile, solid state storage is needed.^ The announcement underlines NAND flash memory's position as the storage technology of...
  • nand flash Resources | BNET 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Flash memory is a solid game.
  • Hexterity, Bix, Meteor, Flash Memory Quick Reviews | TouchGen 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.iphonegamenetwork.com [Source type: General]

^ Non-Volatile Memory combines RAM and Flash properties.
  • Flash Memory Card offers 16 Gb capacity., Kingston Technology Co., Inc. 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

.Example applications include PDAs (personal digital assistants), laptop computers, digital audio players, digital cameras and mobile phones.^ Flash memory is often used in MP3 players, digital cameras and mobile phones.
  • Flash Memory Card 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CompactFlash cards are commonly used in portable applications such as digital cameras, digital music players, and personal digital assistants (PDAs).
  • Flash Memory Card 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Example applications include PDAs (personal digital assistants), laptop computers, mp3 players, digital cameras and mobile phones.
  • Flash Memory - Camera memory, Phone memory and more | MemoryCom.com.au 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memorycom.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has also gained popularity in console video game hardware, where it is often used instead of EEPROMs or battery-powered static RAM (SRAM) for game save data.^ Memory cards for video game consoles: Flash memory is also popular in the game consoles, where it is often used instead of EEPROMs or battery-powered SRAM for game save data.
  • Flash Memory - Camera memory, Phone memory and more | MemoryCom.com.au 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memorycom.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has also gained popularity in the game console market, where it is often used instead of EEPROMs or battery-powered SRAM for game save data.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is also used in the game console market for game save data.
  • Flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC it.toolbox.com [Source type: Reference]

.Since flash memory is non-volatile, no power is needed to maintain the information stored in the chip.^ Non-Volatile Memory combines RAM and Flash properties.
  • Flash Memory Card offers 16 Gb capacity., Kingston Technology Co., Inc. 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Since flash memory is non-volatile, no power is needed to maintain the information stored in the chip.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

^ Please review flash memory pricing information: Flash Memory Chips – Prices .
  • Why You Should Not Buy Flash Memory On eBay. Great Bargains? « Flashchiptutor’s Flash Drive Facts 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC flashdrivefacts.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, flash memory offers fast read access times (although not as fast as volatile DRAM memory used for main memory in PCs) and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks.^ Time Remaining: 4 days flash memory 1.
  • Wholesale flash memory - Buy Low Price flash memory Lots on Alibaba.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory Vs Hard disk\\ .
  • //Flash memory Vs Hard disk\\ 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.us-experts.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory Vs Hard disk .
  • //Flash memory Vs Hard disk\\ 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.us-experts.com [Source type: General]

.These characteristics explain the popularity of flash memory in portable devices.^ Flash memory storage device comparison .
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ NAND flash memory is quickly becoming the...software applications to access flash memory and increases overall device responsiveness...
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the Electronics Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What makes these memory cards different from the RAM memory in your computer is that flash will maintain its data without any external source of power.
  • Flash Memory Cards - Allmemoryupgrades.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.allmemoryupgrades.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another feature of flash memory is that when packaged in a "memory card," it is extremely durable, being able to withstand intense pressure, extremes of temperature, and even immersion in water.^ Flash Memory Card 2005 .
  • Flash Memory Card 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: flash memory card , compact flash memory card , Memory Card .
  • Flash Memory — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Posts Tagged ‘flash memory packaging’ .
  • Sunrise Packaging Blog » flash memory packaging 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sunpack.com [Source type: General]

.A trawlerman attempted to trace the owner of a digital camera after it was hauled from the Atlantic seabed in his nets with the photos still intact.^ Latter are also utilized by digital cameras, both photo and video.
  • The Magic of Memory Sticks & USB Pen Drives|DT´s Flash Drive Blog 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.usbmemorysticks.net [Source type: General]

^ Repair of digital images such as USB Memory Stick Recovery, eProvided provides photo recovery for all digital media and digital cameras.
  • Digital Image Recovery Data Recovery Memory Stick Recovery Compact Flash Memory Card 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eprovided.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, flash memory is commonly used with portable digital music players, handhelds/PDAs, digital cameras, and for storing digital still pictures in digital camcorders.

[1]
.Although technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is generally used to refer specifically to non-flash EEPROM which is erasable in small blocks, typically bytes.^ The terms refer to different memory types.
  • Flash drive or memory stick? - CNET Storage Forums 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC forums.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is generally used to refer specifically to non-flash EEPROM which is erasable in small blocks, typically bytes.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory costs far less than byte-programmable EEPROM and therefore has become the dominant technology wherever a significant amount of non-volatile, solid state storage is needed.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

.Because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over old-style EEPROM when writing large amounts of data.^ Writing data to Flash memory is not simply a matter of writing data to the memory address.
  • Flash memory - Embedded Xinu 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC xinu.mscs.mu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash memory gets its name because the manner in which data is erased is in a single action or “flash”.
  • memory.com | Computer RAM Memory Upgrade|Flash Memory Cards|USB Flash Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memory.com [Source type: General]

^ Because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over old-style EEPROM when writing large amounts of data.
  • PromoKeychain.com - Articles - Glossary - flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.promokeychain.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Contents

History

Flash memory (both NOR and NAND types) was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba circa 1980.[2][3] According to Toshiba, the name "flash" was suggested by Dr. Masuoka's colleague, Mr. Shoji Ariizumi, because the erasure process of the memory contents reminded him of the flash of a camera. Dr. Masuoka presented the invention at the IEEE 1984 International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) held in San Francisco, California.
.Intel Corporation saw the massive potential of the invention and introduced the first commercial NOR type flash chip in 1988.[4] NOR-based flash has long erase and write times, but provides full address and data buses, allowing random access to any memory location.^ A flash-memory based file system.
  • An energy-efficient virtual memory system with flash memory as the secondary storage 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What flash memory types do you support?

^ Hitachi makes AND-based flash memory.
  • Flash Memory Defined 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This makes it a suitable replacement for older Read-only memory (ROM) chips, which are used to store program code that rarely needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes.^ Read Only Memory is just that… READ ONLY. It's usually hardwired on a chip.

^ The "ROM" refers to "read only memory", which definitely does NOT apply.

^ We can make your data read-only; So that it can NOT be erased or replaced by the user.

.Its endurance is 10,000 to 1,000,000 erase cycles.^ Erase cycles range from 1,000 to 1,000,000.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like most NOR flash, the endurance is 100,000 erase cycles per sector with a 20-year data retention.
  • Chipcenter : Spansion Flash Memory Takes Technology Leadership with Sampling of World's First 512 Megabit NOR Flash-Memory Device 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC archive.chipcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this example, it would take about 2.74 years to cycle that one erase sector 1,000 times.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media; CompactFlash was originally based on it, though later cards moved to less expensive NAND flash.^ South Korea Nand flash card .
  • Nand Flash buy offer Nand Flash deal - Alibaba.com 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash is used in almost all removable memory cards.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SmartMedia uses NAND based flash.
  • Flash Memory Defined 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Toshiba announced NAND flash at the 1987 International Electron Devices Meeting.^ Toshiba launches largest density NAND flash memory device .
  • Tag: flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.qj.net [Source type: General]

^ NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has faster erase and write times, and requires a smaller chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage densities and lower costs per bit than NOR flash; it also has up to ten times the endurance of NOR flash.^ This erases the targeted area of the chip, which can then be rewritten.

^ Up to 1000 times faster than current flash memory?
  • Goodbye flash memory, hello "phase-change" memory? -- Engadget 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cells are denser, and erasing and writing are faster.
  • Video/Imaging DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.videsignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Mobile Handset DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mobilehandsetdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Programmable Logic DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.pldesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Flash memory Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]
  • Flash Memory: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.However, the I/O interface of NAND flash does not provide a random-access external address bus.^ Flash memory DOES provide random access.

^ NAND flash memory is quickly becoming the...software applications to access flash memory and increases overall device responsiveness...
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the Electronics Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AND structure offers both serial access to a sector and byte-addressed random access.
  • Flash Memory Defined 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits.^ NOR memory has much better endurance than NAND (typically > 100K cycles) and much smaller block size.
  • Virident Makes Flash Memory Go Green – GigaOM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC gigaom.com [Source type: General]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This made NAND flash unsuitable as a drop-in replacement for program ROM since most microprocessors and microcontrollers required byte-level random access.^ NAND flash memory at the aggregate level.
  • The 2009-2014 World Outlook for NAND Flash Memory 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.electronics.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash memory is quickly becoming the...software applications to access flash memory and increases overall device responsiveness...
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the Electronics Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AND structure offers both serial access to a sector and byte-addressed random access.
  • Flash Memory Defined 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.simmtester.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this regard NAND flash is similar to other secondary storage devices such as hard disks and optical media, and is thus very suitable for use in mass-storage devices such as memory cards.^ The announcement underlines NAND flash memory's position as the storage technology of...
  • nand flash Resources | BNET 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Flash Memory / Storage oems .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Electronic flash memory external storage method and device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.The first NAND-based removable media format was SmartMedia in 1995, and many others have followed, including MultiMediaCard, Secure Digital, Memory Stick and xD-Picture Card.^ Lexar Media - Memory Stick - 256 MB 256 MB - of Memory Stick - Flash memory card .
  • Memory Stick Flash Memory: Compare Prices, Reviews & Buy Online @ Yahoo! Shopping 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC shopping.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ How many digital photos can a memory card store?

^ Memory Stick is a digital storage device which makes use of the removable flash memory card format.

.A new generation of memory card formats, including RS-MMC, miniSD and microSD, and Intelligent Stick, feature extremely small form factors.^ Formatted memory cards .
  • Flash Memory Data Recovery 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.vitaldata.ca [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is extremely small, fast, lightweight, and makes no noise or have any moving parts, unlike hard drives.
  • Newegg.ca - Flash Memory, SD Card, SD Memory Card, USB Flash Memory, Flash Memory Card, Compact Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newegg.ca [Source type: General]
  • Newegg.com - Flash Memory, SD Card, SD Memory Card, USB Flash Memory, Flash Memory Card, Compact Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newegg.com [Source type: General]

^ By: SlipperyBrick 2-Pack Supermedia Handy 6 in 1 USB 2.0 Flash Memory Card Reader Blue - Reta 2008-03-01 09:52:00 Purchase a Supermedia 6 in 1 Flash Memory Card Reader today and take advantage of what it has to offer: Built-in 6 in 1 card reader/with memory expansion slot supporting cards in SD/MMC/miniSD*/microSD*/RS-MMC*-/Mobile MMC* formats (* Adaptor required).
  • Flash Memory - Blog Toplist 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

For example, the microSD card has an area of just over 1.5 cm², with a thickness of less than 1 mm; microSD capacities range from 64 MB to 16 GB, as of August 2009.[6]

Principles of operation

A flash memory cell.
.Flash memory stores information in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors.^ NAND flash memory uses floating-gate transistors to create arrays of memory cells.
  • The Best Flash Memory News, Reviews, Features, and Forums | MaximumPC - All of the Best Software and Hardware Reviews | Maximum PC 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash Memory Store.com .
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the IT Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the Electronics Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In traditional single-level cell (SLC) devices, each cell stores only one bit of information.^ Multi-level cell A Multi-level cell (MLC) stores two bits per cell, versus traditional SLCs that can only store one bit.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Single-cell flash memory stores one bit of information in each memory cell, while multicell flash memory stores two.
  • EMC Puts Flash Memory in High-End Storage Arrays - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

^ Some bits of data are lost during this process, and only those bits of data are stored on the Axxana system.
  • How flash is changing storage … - Network World 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.networkworld.com [Source type: General]

.Some newer flash memory, known as multi-level cell (MLC) devices, can store more than one bit per cell by choosing between multiple levels of electrical charge to apply to the floating gates of its cells.^ Multi-level cell A Multi-level cell (MLC) stores two bits per cell, versus traditional SLCs that can only store one bit.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ System and method for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One product per store Flash Memory Articles .
  • Flash Memory: Compare Prices, Reviews & Buy Online @ Yahoo! Shopping 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC shopping.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The floating gate may be conductive (typically polysilicon in most kinds of flash memory) or non-conductive (as in SONOS flash memory).^ Flash memory has no moving parts and is non-volatile, which means that no outside power is needed to maintain the data stored in the chip.
  • memory.com | Computer RAM Memory Upgrade|Flash Memory Cards|USB Flash Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memory.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip.
  • 128MB Flash Memory Cards - HiTechVendors.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.hitechvendors.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the IT Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Floating-gate transistor

.In flash memory, each memory cell resembles a standard MOSFET, except the transistor has two gates instead of one.^ NAND flash memory uses floating-gate transistors to create arrays of memory cells.
  • The Best Flash Memory News, Reviews, Features, and Forums | MaximumPC - All of the Best Software and Hardware Reviews | Maximum PC 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ Single-cell flash memory stores one bit of information in each memory cell, while multicell flash memory stores two.
  • EMC Puts Flash Memory in High-End Storage Arrays - CIO.com - Business Technology Leadership 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.cio.com [Source type: General]

^ The recently-concluded Flash Memory Summit brought a range of opinions on the state of the NAND industry, scaling, 3-bit-per-cell and solid-state drives (SSDs).
  • flash memory,What is flash memory? - EE Times-Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On top is the control gate (CG), as in other MOS transistors, but below this there is a floating gate (FG) insulated all around by an oxide layer.^ The two transistors are separated from each other by a thin oxide layer.

^ One of the transistors is known as a floating gate , and the other one is the control gate .

^ By replacing the floating gate with nanocrystals, explains Barnetson, engineers can reduce the amount of insulating material needed and shorten the cells, eliminating the interference.
  • Technology Review: Higher-Capacity Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

The FG is interposed between the CG and the MOSFET channel. .Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, any electrons placed on it are trapped there and, under normal conditions, will not discharge for many years.^ Higher vulnerability to certain conditions - SSD's are more vulnerable to magnetic fields and electric/static discharges than conventional hard drives.

^ There are many types of solid state memory, which is based on electronics (no moving parts) as opposed to traditional hard disks (with moving parts).
  • Physical flash memory failures 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC wwww.z-a-recovery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the common TSOP-1 package has been used for many years, this feature lets customers migrate to higher-density NAND devices on the same pcb.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.When the FG holds a charge, it screens (partially cancels) the electric field from the CG, which modifies the threshold voltage (VT) of the cell.^ Barnetson says that metal nanocrystals can hold more charge per memory cell than nanocrystals made of silicon.
  • Technology Review: Higher-Capacity Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ The electrons in the cells of a flash-memory chip can be returned to normal ("1") by the application of an electric field, a higher-voltage charge.

.During read-out, a voltage intermediate between the possible threshold voltages is applied to the CG, and the MOSFET channel will become conducting or remain insulating, depending on the VT of the cell, which is in turn controlled by charge on the FG. The current flow through the MOSFET channel is sensed and forms a binary code, reproducing the stored data.^ This code is read during nand_scan.

^ When the data is read out, the ECC code is also read, and the reverse operation is applied to check that the data is correct.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To store/read an ECC (Error Correction Code) for data reliability.
  • SEGGER Microcontroller - NAND flash driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.segger.com [Source type: Reference]

In a multi-level cell device, which stores more than one bit per cell, the amount of current flow is sensed (rather than simply its presence or absence), in order to determine more precisely the level of charge on the FG.

NOR flash

NOR flash memory wiring and structure on silicon
.In NOR gate flash, each cell has one end connected directly to ground, and the other end connected directly to a bit line.^ Technical innovations in NAND flash memory design are key enablers of MLC flash memories, especially 3 and 4 bit-per-cell technologies.
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Support for devices not in this list Most other NAND flash devices are compatible with one of the supported devices.
  • SEGGER Microcontroller - NAND flash driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.segger.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash memory refers to micro memory chips housed in removable drives that connect directly to a computer, camera, PDA, or other peripheral without the need for a cable.
  • Flash Memory: Drives, Flash Memory Cards, Information | Business.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.This arrangement is called "NOR flash" because it acts like a NOR gate: when one of the word lines is brought high, the corresponding storage transistor acts to pull the output bit line low.^ This is accomplished by placing the command on I/O bits 7:0, driving CE# low and CLE high while issuing a WE# clock.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The companies are calling the thin film selector an Ovonic Threshold Switch (OTS), which acts like a resistor between the stacked layers of PCM chips.
  • Intel plans flash memory replacement - Techworld.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.techworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The two transistors are known as floating gate and control gate.When the floating gate is tied to the line of cellular stores edin'1 "bit logic.
  • Flash Memory - Blog Toplist 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]


Programming

Programming a NOR memory cell (setting it to logical 0), via hot-electron injection.
.A single-level NOR flash cell in its default state is logically equivalent to a binary "1" value, because current will flow through the channel under application of an appropriate voltage to the control gate.^ NAND Controller supports multi-level cell Flash market.
  • NAND Flash Memory Controllers are U.DMA6-compatible., TDK Corporation of America 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Super Talent is offering five different CFast storage cards, 8GB and 16GB based on SLC (Single Level Cell) flash and 8GB, 16GB and 32GB based on MLC (Multi Level Cell) flash.

^ The controllers support SLC (single-level cell) and MLC (multi-level cell) NAND Flash memories and make possible high-speed Flash storage ranging from 128 MByte to 16 GByte in the case of SLC and 256 MByte to 32 GByte in the case of MLC. As a result, these controllers are ideal for a wide range of applications.
  • NAND Flash Memory Controllers are U.DMA6-compatible., TDK Corporation of America 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

A NOR flash cell can be programmed, or set to a binary "0" value, by the following procedure:
  • an elevated on-voltage (typically >5 V) is applied to the CG
  • the channel is now turned on, so electrons can flow from the source to the drain (assuming an NMOS transistor)
  • the source-drain current is sufficiently high to cause some high energy electrons to jump through the insulating layer onto the FG, via a process called hot-electron injection

Erasing

Erasing a NOR memory cell (setting it to logical 1), via quantum tunneling.
.To erase a NOR flash cell (resetting it to the "1" state), a large voltage of the opposite polarity is applied between the CG and source, pulling the electrons off the FG through quantum tunneling.^ The recently-concluded Flash Memory Summit brought a range of opinions on the state of the NAND industry, scaling, 3-bit-per-cell and solid-state drives (SSDs).
  • flash memory,What is flash memory? - EE Times-Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash memory offers non-volatile data storage and thus is capable of retaining it's data even when it's power source has been turned off.
  • Newegg.ca - Flash Memory, SD Card, SD Memory Card, USB Flash Memory, Flash Memory Card, Compact Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newegg.ca [Source type: General]
  • Newegg.com - Flash Memory, SD Card, SD Memory Card, USB Flash Memory, Flash Memory Card, Compact Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newegg.com [Source type: General]

^ USB Flash Drives can be purchased off the shelf at any electronics or office supply store.
  • NLS/BPH: Technical Writings, Flash Memory Distribution of Digital Talking Books, February 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern NOR flash memory chips are divided into erase segments (often called blocks or sectors).^ NAND flash devices are divided into physical blocks and physical pages.
  • SEGGER Microcontroller - NAND flash driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.segger.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash Memory Chips, Cards & nvRAM .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

.The erase operation can only be performed on a block-wise basis; all the cells in an erase segment must be erased together.^ Erase is done on a per block basis.

^ Only whole blocks (all sectors in the block) can be erased.
  • SEGGER Microcontroller - NAND flash driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.segger.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The memory system of claim 1 wherein the query memory stores data defining a number of erase block regions the flash memory device is capable of erasing.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Programming of NOR cells, however, can generally be performed one byte or word at a time.^ In addition, the devices include a one-time programmable secure ID area, consisting of a 64-bit factory programmed unique ID and a 192-bit user programmable block.
  • Serial quad I/O (SQI) flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.silicavalley.com [Source type: General]

^ NAND cells can be rewritten about 100,000 times; however, "wear leveling" distributes the writing across all the cells and can greatly improve the chip's longevity.
  • EETimes Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetimes.com [Source type: General]
  • Flash Memory: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ If the parameter DAVINCI_UBL_DESCRIPTOR_MAGIC is set to non-zero value then programming of the file image is relocated with one NAND Flash page (512 or 2048 bytes).
  • Ronetix - TI DM644x DaVinci NAND Flash Programming 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.ronetix.at [Source type: Reference]


Internal charge pumps

.Despite the need for high programming and erasing voltages, virtually all flash chips today require only a single supply voltage, and produce the high voltages via on-chip charge pumps.^ Apple has asked Korean semiconductor makers to produce a certain amount of chips for its digital products, only to actually purchase a smaller volume eventually.
  • Apple Accused Of Manipulating Flash Memory Market - Tech Trader Daily - Barrons.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blogs.barrons.com [Source type: General]

^ Because Quantum Well would be able to take advantage of AMD's current chip manufacturing technology, the company could produce it for about the same cost as today's flash chips.
  • Wanted: Successor to flash memory - CNET News 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Ironically, this block erasing is one of its least desired features and one the industry is trying to eliminate through the development of newer technologies (see charge trap flash and future memory chips ).
  • Flash Memory: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

NAND flash

NAND flash memory wiring and structure on silicon
.NAND flash also uses floating-gate transistors, but they are connected in a way that resembles a NAND gate: several transistors are connected in series, and only if all word lines are pulled high (above the transistors' VT) is the bit line pulled low.^ NAND flash uses an 8-bit data bus and 7 control lines.
  • Dual NAND Flash hack 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC hackmii.com [Source type: General]

^ File supports the use of NAND flashes.
  • SEGGER Microcontroller - NAND flash driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.segger.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NAND flash is used in almost all removable memory cards.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.These groups are then connected via some additional transistors to a NOR-style bit line array.^ The two transistors are known as floating gate and control gate.When the floating gate is tied to the line of cellular stores edin'1 "bit logic.
  • Flash Memory - Blog Toplist 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

^ The two transistors are known as the floating gate and the control gate.When the floating gate is connected to the row, the cell stores a '1' logic bit.
  • Flash Memory - Blog Toplist 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

.To read, most of the word lines are pulled up above the VT of a programmed bit, while one of them is pulled up to just over the VT of an erased bit.^ Programming is necessary to change erased bits from a 1 to a 0.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ So it's sitting on a Win98 machine, networked to my Win2000 one, and I just put up with crummy transfer rates.
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ The UISMC4, or FMSM-MSCF, or whatever, is considerably bigger than most single-card readers; it has to be a fair bit wider, just to accommodate the three card slots.
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

.The series group will conduct (and pull the bit line low) if the selected bit has not been programmed.^ If you don't want to program a bit, keep it in its erased state by setting that particular bit (or group of bits) to 1.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.Despite the additional transistors, the reduction in ground wires and bit lines allows a denser layout and greater storage capacity per chip.^ Densities for flash memory devices have increased exponentially since the late 1980s, with vendors now offering as much as 8Gb of storage capacity in a single chip.
  • Embedded.com - Program flash memory using parallel flash loaders and CPLDs 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.embedded.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The two transistors are known as floating gate and control gate.When the floating gate is tied to the line of cellular stores edin'1 "bit logic.
  • Flash Memory - Blog Toplist 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early days of CF cards, microdrives had higher capacity than solid state cards, plus the cost per MB of storage was lower.
  • Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD) and SDHC Memory Cards for Digital Cameras 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.bobatkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, NAND flash is typically permitted to contain a certain number of faults (NOR flash, as is used for a BIOS ROM, is expected to be fault-free).^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

^ Today, use of NAND flash in consumer electronics devices and computing platforms is hampered by the lack of sufficient standardization.
  • New Group simplifies NAND Flash integration 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.letsgodigital.org [Source type: General]

^ The second flash profile (CORE0_FLASH1) will program the U-BOOT. Depends on the UBL the U-BOOT may contain or may not contain a descriptor, the DAVINCI_ECC should be used.
  • Ronetix - TI DM644x DaVinci NAND Flash Programming 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.ronetix.at [Source type: Reference]

.Manufacturers try to maximize the amount of non-faulty storage by shrinking the size of the transistor below the size where they can be made reliably, to the size where further reductions would increase the number of faults faster than it would increase the total storage available.^ It has profited from having a good cost to memory size ratio relative to other formats for much of its life as well as larger capacities available than smaller formats.

^ TransFlash Card The exceptionally small size of TransFlash cards (11mm x 15mm x1mm) allows mobile phone manufacturers to incorporate significant amounts of removable storage capacity into their smaller handsets without changing the physical size of the phone.

^ This may cause a higher number of blocks to be rendered useless at a faster rate than if both static and dynamic wear-leveling scheme were available.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.NAND flash uses tunnel injection for writing and tunnel release for erasing.^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, use of NAND flash in consumer electronics devices and computing platforms is hampered by the lack of sufficient standardization.
  • New Group simplifies NAND Flash integration 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.letsgodigital.org [Source type: General]

.NAND flash memory forms the core of the removable USB storage devices known as USB flash drives and most memory card formats available today.^ The announcement underlines NAND flash memory's position as the storage technology of...
  • nand flash Resources | BNET 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: News]

^ SanDisk reigns in flash card, USB drive market .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash Memory / Storage oems .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]


Limitations

Block erasure

.One limitation of flash memory is that although it can be read or programmed a byte or a word at a time in a random access fashion, it must be erased a "block" at a time.^ Time Remaining: 4 days flash memory 1.
  • Wholesale flash memory - Buy Low Price flash memory Lots on Alibaba.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ If the page was succesfully erased this byte in the first page of a block is programmed to 0x00.

^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.This generally sets all bits in the block to 1. Starting with a freshly erased block, any location within that block can be programmed.^ Program operations Program operations can only program bits to 0, and assume that you started with a previously-erased block.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Erasing a block sets all bits to "1" (all bytes to FFh).
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Once all the data has been input, we issue the confirm command (10h) and start the programming operation.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, once a bit has been set to 0, only by erasing the entire block can it be changed back to 1. In other words, flash memory (specifically NOR flash) offers random-access read and programming operations, but cannot offer arbitrary random-access rewrite or erase operations.^ Programming is necessary to change erased bits from a 1 to a 0.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On a NOR flash device, the write command can only change 1 bits into 0 bits.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read Reviews about Flash Memory!
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

.A location can, however, be rewritten as long as the new value's 0 bits are a superset of the over-written value's.^ Consequently, bit errors can exist in these “not written to” pages for a long time before they are detected.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a nibble value may be erased to 1111, then written as 1110. Successive writes to that nibble can change it to 1010, then 0010, and finally 0000. Filesystems designed for flash devices can make use of this capability to represent sector metadata.^ May require the use of a specific flash memory device for compatibility.
  • Flash Memory: Drives, Flash Memory Cards, Information | Business.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ On a NOR flash device, the write command can only change 1 bits into 0 bits.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read-write capability is possible using flash-oriented filesystems such as JFFS2.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Although data structures in flash memory cannot be updated in completely general ways, this allows members to be "removed" by marking them as invalid.^ Dynamic data structures for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While using digital camera, listening to MP3 player or doing presentation to your clients, you always need a reliable flash memory for your data storage needs.
  • MicroSD,Micro SD,SDHC,Compact Flash,CF Card,Memory Stick Pro Duo,SanDisk,Kingston,4GB,8GB,16GB 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.meritline.com [Source type: General]

^ Although you cannot control how and when Flash Lite performs garbage collection, it is a good practice to free unneeded memory through code.
  • Memory management and optimizations in Flash Lite | Adobe Developer Connection 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.adobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This technique may need to be modified for Multi-level Cell devices, where one memory cell holds more than one bit.^ Or you may have more than one flash with non-adjacent memory mappings.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By accelerating process migration and integrating multi level cell technologies, and through continued advances in productivity, Toshiba intends to enhance its competitiveness in the memory business.
  • Toshiba to Launch World's First 32nm Process NAND Flash Memory 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.design-reuse.com [Source type: General]

.Unfortunately common flash devices such as USB keys and memory cards provide only a block-level interface, or FTL (Flash Translation Layer), which writes to a different cell each time to wear-level the device.^ Flash Translation Layer Figure 35.
  • Learn About the Solid State Drives Market 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.marketwire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SanDisk 16GB Flash Memory Cards .
  • Flash Memory Cards - Compare Prices and Deals, Shop & Buy Online in Australia at MyShopping.com.au - Christmas 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.myshopping.com.au [Source type: General]
  • Flash Memory Cards - Page 3 - Compare Prices and Deals, Shop & Buy Online in Australia at MyShopping.com.au - Christmas 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.myshopping.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a NOR flash device, the write command can only change 1 bits into 0 bits.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This prevents incremental writing within a block, however it does help the device from being prematurely worn out by abusive and/or poorly designed hardware/software.^ The agency is working with its hardware suppliers and encryption software vendors -- GuardianEdge Technologies Inc.and Trust Digital -- to sort out the problems that have prevented the encryption software from being installed on the remaining… 29 September 2006 Tags: Laptops • Assessment • Owned • Breach • Agency • Organization .
  • Flash memory articles - Techworld.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC search.techworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A method of executing a multiblock erase operation of a flash memory device comprising: alerting a software driver of an erase parameter of the flash memory device stored in a query memory residing within the flash memory device, the alerting performed in response to a query command decoded by a command interface; erasing multiple blocks of flash memory; and changing an output of a status register to indicate a status of a particular operation being executed.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Home » Directory » Computers & Software » Hardware & Accessories » Memory » Flash Memory Check out flash memory vendor info, including suppliers of flash memory cards and flash drives.
  • Flash Memory: Drives, Flash Memory Cards, Information | Business.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.For example, nearly all consumer devices ship formatted with MS-FAT filesystem, which predates flash memory, having been designed for DOS, and disk media.^ USB Flash memory format.
  • Flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC forum.hddguru.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash memory storage device comparison .
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ Semiconductor disk system having a plurality of flash memories .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

Memory wear

.Another limitation is that flash memory has a finite number of erase-write cycles.^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since many EEPROM devices only allow a finite number of write cycles, some of these cards incorporate wear levelling algorithms to spread the wear and to avoid wearing out specific places which are often written to.

.Most commercially available flash products are guaranteed to withstand around 100,000 write-erase-cycles, before the wear begins to deteriorate the integrity of the storage.^ Erase cycles range from 1,000 to 1,000,000.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This kind of write is slow and causes many extra erase cycles on the flash - typically a flash sector is rated for 100K – 1 million erase cycles over the device lifetime, so it is wise to limit erase cycles.
  • Embedded Linux - Managing Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.ssiembedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this example, it would take about 2.74 years to cycle that one erase sector 1,000 times.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] Micron Technology and Sun Microsystems announced an SLC flash memory chip rated for 1,000,000 write-erase-cycles on December 17, 2008.[9]
.The guaranteed cycle count may apply only to block zero (as is the case with TSOP NAND parts), or to all blocks (as in NOR).^ In this case UBIFS will treat all NAND pages starting from the fourth one as free, and will write data there.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Erase cycles are cumulative and affect only those erase blocks being cycled.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The page address portion (the low order 6 bits of the third address cycle) is ignored, and only the block address portion of the three most significant bytes is used.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.This effect is partially offset in some chip firmware or file system drivers by counting the writes and dynamically remapping blocks in order to spread write operations between sectors; this technique is called wear levelling.^ The operating system can use any file system or block addressing scheme.
  • Silicon Mountain Memory- USB & Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.smmdirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effect of Block-level and Page-level Write Buffer Figure 47.
  • Learn About the Solid State Drives Market 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.marketwire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

.Another approach is to perform write verification and remapping to spare sectors in case of write failure, a technique called Bad Block Management (BBM).^ CYGSEM_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BBM_REPAIR + + Simple bad block management.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have the ECC and bad block management code integrated with the > package.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For portable consumer devices, these wearout management techniques typically extend the life of the flash memory beyond the life of the device itself, and some data loss may be acceptable in these applications.^ System and method for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ May require the use of a specific flash memory device for compatibility.
  • Flash Memory: Drives, Flash Memory Cards, Information | Business.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Free sector manager for data stored in flash memory devices .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.For high reliability data storage, however, it is not advisable to use flash memory that would have to go through a large number of programming cycles.^ Flash Memory / Storage oems .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bespoke USB Flash Drive is fully customisable from design and logo, through to memory size, you can take a break from the norm and go for a Bespoke Recycled USB that reflects your unique company identity.
  • BabyUSB.com - USB Flash Drives, USB Memory Sticks, USB Pen Drives, Express USB Drives, Customised mp3 mp4 players, Digital Photo Frames 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.babyusb.com [Source type: General]

.This limitation is meaningless for 'read-only' applications such as thin clients and routers, which are only programmed once or at most a few times during their lifetime.^ While the time required to duplicate a book onto a USB Flash Drive depends on a number of factors, the most limiting will be the speed at which information can be transferred into flash memory.
  • NLS/BPH: Technical Writings, Flash Memory Distribution of Digital Talking Books, February 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in practice, most of the chips will have only few bad PEBs which is far less than the maximum.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applications involving products with life times in the 10 year range need to consider such limitations.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Low-level access

.The low-level interface to flash memory chips differs from those of other memory types such as DRAM, ROM, and EEPROM, which support bit-alterability (both zero to one and one to zero) and random-access via externally accessible address buses.^ SRAM, flash memory, ROM or PSRAM .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compare with other Flash Memory .

^ Method for wear leveling in a flash EEPROM memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.While NOR memory provides an external address bus for read and program operations (and thus supports random-access); unlocking and erasing NOR memory must proceed on a block-by-block basis.^ Flash memory DOES provide random access.

^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As more mobile phones and mobile equipment provide support for video and movies, demand for larger density, small sized memory products is growing stronger.
  • Toshiba to Launch World's First 32nm Process NAND Flash Memory 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.design-reuse.com [Source type: General]

.With NAND flash memory, read and programming operations must be performed page-at-a-time while unlocking and erasing must happen in block-wise fashion.^ Time Remaining: 4 days flash memory 1.
  • Wholesale flash memory - Buy Low Price flash memory Lots on Alibaba.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ LSI that are compatible with 2KByte/page and 4KByte/page NAND flash memories .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash sub-pages .
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

NOR memories

.Reading from NOR flash is similar to reading from random-access memory, provided the address and data bus are mapped correctly.^ Flash memory DOES provide random access.

^ While using digital camera, listening to MP3 player or doing presentation to your clients, you always need a reliable flash memory for your data storage needs.
  • MicroSD,Micro SD,SDHC,Compact Flash,CF Card,Memory Stick Pro Duo,SanDisk,Kingston,4GB,8GB,16GB 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.meritline.com [Source type: General]
  • MicroSD,Micro SD,SDHC,Compact Flash,CF Card,Memory Stick Pro Duo,SanDisk,Kingston,4GB,8GB,16GB 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.meritline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other technologies beyond PCM being researched as an alternative to flash memory, including MRAM ( magnetoresistive random access memory ) and RRAM (resistive random access memory).
  • Samsung pushing flash memory replacement for mobile - Techworld.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.techworld.com [Source type: News]

.Because of this, most microprocessors can use NOR flash memory as execute in place (XIP) memory, meaning that programs stored in NOR flash can be executed directly from the NOR flash without needing to be copied into RAM first.^ But it's actually using flash RAM .

^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It must be loaded into RAM memory and executed from there.

.NOR flash may be programmed in a random-access manner similar to reading.^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other technologies beyond PCM being researched as an alternative to flash memory, including MRAM ( magnetoresistive random access memory ) and RRAM (resistive random access memory).
  • Samsung pushing flash memory replacement for mobile - Techworld.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.techworld.com [Source type: News]

^ It describes flaws in the intrinsic technology which lead to data corruption (similar in concept to read-disturb errors in flash - although completely different physically).
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

.Programming changes bits from a logical one to a zero.^ Programming is necessary to change erased bits from a 1 to a 0.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

Bits that are already zero are left unchanged. .Erasure must happen a block at a time, and resets all the bits in the erased block back to one.^ Erasing a block sets all bits to "1" (all bytes to FFh).
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Reset operation As discussed previously, CE# must be low for all NAND activities.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, the GBDriver RA8 series incorporates a new and original static wear leveling algorithm that averages the number of erased times of each memory block.
  • NAND Flash Memory Controllers are U.DMA6-compatible., TDK Corporation of America 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

.Typical block sizes are 64, 128, or 256 Kilobytes.^ Capacity   32 GB and more 16 GB 8 GB 4 GB 2 GB 1 GB 512 MB 256 MB 128 MB 64 MB See all...
  • Memory Cards - Find great deals, lowest prices, and buy Memory Cards at Shopping.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.shopping.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time Remaining: 13 days crastal flash memory disk Memory sizes available: 16/32/64/128/256/512MB / 1/2/4/8GB/16GB crastal flash memory disk...
  • Wholesale flash memory - Buy Low Price flash memory Lots on Alibaba.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Time Remaining: 13 days usb flash memory drive Memory sizes available: 16/32/64/128/256/512MB / 1/2/4/8GB/16GB usb flash memory drive...
  • Wholesale flash memory - Buy Low Price flash memory Lots on Alibaba.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.aliexpress.com [Source type: General]

.Bad block management is a relatively new feature in NOR chips.^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

^ Previously programmed data should be moved out of the bad block into a new (good) block.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The software managing the device is responsible for mapping the bad blocks and replacing them with good blocks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.In older NOR devices not supporting bad block management, the software or device driver controlling the memory chip must correct for blocks that wear out, or the device will cease to work reliably.^ The software managing the device is responsible for mapping the bad blocks and replacing them with good blocks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CYGSEM_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BBM_REPAIR + + Simple bad block management.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

.The specific commands used to lock, unlock, program, or erase NOR memories differ for each manufacturer.^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ May require the use of a specific flash memory device for compatibility.
  • Flash Memory: Drives, Flash Memory Cards, Information | Business.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that if the previous operation was an Erase or Program command, issuing a Reset aborts the command prematurely, and the desired operation doesn't complete.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.To avoid needing unique driver software for every device made, a special set of CFI commands allow the device to identify itself and its critical operating parameters.^ A method of executing a multiblock erase operation of a flash memory device comprising: alerting a software driver of an erase parameter of the flash memory device stored in a query memory residing within the flash memory device, the alerting performed in response to a query command decoded by a command interface; erasing multiple blocks of flash memory; and changing an output of a status register to indicate a status of a particular operation being executed.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A method of executing a multibyte write operation to a flash memory device comprising: alerting a software driver of a write parameter of the flash memory device stored in a query memory residing within the flash memory device, the alerting performed in response to a query command decoded by a command interface; transferring a plurality of bytes of write data to the flash memory device based on the write parameter of the device; and changing an output of a status register to indicate a status of a particular operation being executed.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A computer readable media having stored thereon a sequence of commands which when executed by a computer system cause the computer system to perform the following: alerting a software driver of an erase parameter of the flash memory device stored in a query memory residing within the flash memory device, the alerting performed in response to a query command decoded by a command interface; erasing multiple blocks of flash memory; and changing an output of a status register to indicate a status of a particular operation being executed.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Apart from being used as random-access ROM, NOR memories can also be used as storage devices by taking advantage of random-access programming.^ Flash memory storage device comparison .
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ We do not take trade-ins of used memory.
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some devices offer read-while-write functionality so that code continues to execute even while a program or erase operation is occurring in the background.^ Some NOR Flash memory can perform read-while-write operations (Fig.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_ECC + + + NAND devices are subject to data failures that occur during + device operation.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For sequential data writes, NOR flash chips typically have slow write speeds compared with NAND flash.^ Typically read speeds are a little faster than write speeds.
  • Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD) and SDHC Memory Cards for Digital Cameras 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.bobatkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once it's been transferred to the cache register, the data register is available and can start to load the next sequential page from the NAND array.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Application: The device collects and stores the past 24 hours of field data by simply writing and rewriting the data to the same location on the flash.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

NAND memories

.NAND flash architecture was introduced by Toshiba in 1989. These memories are accessed much like block devices such as hard disks or memory cards.^ SanDisk 16GB Flash Memory Cards .
  • Flash Memory Cards - Page 3 - Compare Prices and Deals, Shop & Buy Online in Australia at MyShopping.com.au - Christmas 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.myshopping.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamming codes for NAND flash memory devices .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingston 8GB Flash Memory Cards .
  • Flash Memory Cards - Page 3 - Compare Prices and Deals, Shop & Buy Online in Australia at MyShopping.com.au - Christmas 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.myshopping.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each block consists of a number of pages. .The pages are typically 512[10] or 2,048 or 4,096 bytes in size.^ This driver support only small page (256 > > > or 512 bytes), but can be modified to support large page in the future > > > (device with large page has other command set).
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Associated with each page are a few bytes (typically 1/32 of the data size) that can be used for storage of an error correcting code (ECC) checksum.^ It's possible for the ECC algorithm to correct data errors.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While using digital camera, listening to MP3 player or doing presentation to your clients, you always need a reliable flash memory for your data storage needs.
  • MicroSD,Micro SD,SDHC,Compact Flash,CF Card,Memory Stick Pro Duo,SanDisk,Kingston,4GB,8GB,16GB 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.meritline.com [Source type: General]
  • MicroSD,Micro SD,SDHC,Compact Flash,CF Card,Memory Stick Pro Duo,SanDisk,Kingston,4GB,8GB,16GB 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.meritline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its used as primary storage memory on various portable devices due to its low cost, compact size, great physical endurance and low power consumption.
  • Flash Memory - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

Typical block sizes include:
  • 32 pages of 512+16 bytes each for a block size of 16 KB
  • 64 pages of 2,048+64 bytes each for a block size of 128 KB[11]
  • 64 pages of 4,096+128 bytes each for a block size of 256 KB[12]
  • 128 pages of 4,096+128 bytes each for a block size of 512 KB
.While reading and programming is performed on a page basis, erasure can only be performed on a block basis.^ If this statement is true the ECC and bad block management algorithms > > depend of NAND page size only.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The page address portion (the low order 6 bits of the third address cycle) is ignored, and only the block address portion of the three most significant bytes is used.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The read / write access to data is on a per page basis.

.Another limitation of NAND flash is data in a block can only be written sequentially.^ Future roadmaps scale NAND flash to 20 nanometers, but physical limitations present a barrier to creating anything more dense than that.
  • Intel plans flash memory replacement - Techworld.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.techworld.com [Source type: General]

^ JFFS2 and YAFFS include bad block management, wear leveling, error correction and provide reliable filesystems for industrial use on top of NAND Flash.

^ The memory system of claim 1 wherein the query memory stores data defining a number of erase block regions the flash memory device is capable of erasing.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Number of Operations (NOPs) is the number of times the sectors can be programmed.^ During a programming operation, the ECC unit calculates the error-correcting code based on the data stored in the sector.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since NLS will be duplicating DTBs numbering, over time, in the millions, it is important that each duplication operation not be overly time-consuming, even in an automated setting.
  • NLS/BPH: Technical Writings, Flash Memory Distribution of Digital Talking Books, February 2005 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because Erase and Program can be time-consuming operations, they can be aborted with a Reset and re-issued later.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.So far this number for MLC flash is always one whereas for SLC flash it is four.^ Multi-level cell A Multi-level cell (MLC) stores two bits per cell, versus traditional SLCs that can only store one bit.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The one big problem with flash memory has always been that it's too expensive.
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ Products are compatible with 2 and 4 Kb/page SLC and MLC NAND Flash memories and incorporate 15-bit ECC as well as auto-recovery function.
  • NAND Flash Memory Controllers are U.DMA6-compatible., TDK Corporation of America 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.NAND devices also require bad block management by the device driver software, or by a separate controller chip.^ The software managing the device is responsible for mapping the bad blocks and replacing them with good blocks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Software is needed to perform the NAND flash's block management.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.SD cards, for example, include controller circuitry to perform bad block management and wear leveling.^ Wear leveling is not performed for static data.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGSEM_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BBM_REPAIR + + Simple bad block management.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash includes extra storage on each page to store ECC code as well as other information for wear leveling, logical to physical block mapping, and other software overhead functions .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a logical block is accessed by high-level software, it is mapped to a physical block by the device driver or controller.^ This software is responsible for wear-leveling or logical-to-physical mapping.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NAND flash includes extra storage on each page to store ECC code as well as other information for wear leveling, logical to physical block mapping, and other software overhead functions .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method and system for providing user control of device driver configuration .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.A number of blocks on the flash chip may be set aside for storing mapping tables to deal with bad blocks, or the system may simply check each block at power-up to create a bad block map in RAM. The overall memory capacity gradually shrinks as more blocks are marked as bad.^ Good eraseblocks may also be marked as bad.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGSEM_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BBM_INIT + + Check only manufacturer marked bad blocks.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash Memory Chips, Cards & nvRAM .
  • Flash and other non volatile memory storage chips and cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.storagesearch.com [Source type: News]

.NAND relies on ECC to compensate for bits that may spontaneously fail during normal device operation.^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_ECC + + + NAND devices are subject to data failures that occur during + device operation.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A typical ECC will correct a one bit error in each 2048 bits (256 bytes) using 22 bits of ECC code, or a one bit error in each 4096 bits (512 bytes) using 24 bits of ECC code.^ NAND flashes usually have 512, 2048 or 4096 byte min.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Error Correcting Code (ECC) on the controller is used to correct these issues.
  • The Best Flash Memory News, Reviews, Features, and Forums | MaximumPC - All of the Best Software and Hardware Reviews | Maximum PC 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ This driver support only small page (256 > > > or 512 bytes), but can be modified to support large page in the future > > > (device with large page has other command set).
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .If ECC cannot correct the error during read, it may still detect the error.^ However, a major difficulty is brewing that involves how errors are introduced and the performance impact of detecting and correcting them.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has page buffer in RAM so application can read any part of page and doesn't worry about ECC (driver reads whole page and corrects data).
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGSEM_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_ECC_SOFT + + Use software error checking and correction algorithm which is + capable of single bit error correction and 2-bit random detection.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When doing erase or program operations, the device can detect blocks that fail to program or erase and mark them bad.^ It's important to take special care not to erase the bad-block marks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Toshiba NAND driver erases first ten blocks (and loses bad block marker in block #5) and writes data there.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due mostly to their large die size, NAND devices can ship from the factory with some bad blocks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.The data is then written to a different, good block, and the bad block map is updated.^ Move all data from the block to a good block.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Once all the data have arrived and have been written to the flash, the update marker is cleaned.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toshiba NAND driver erases first ten blocks (and loses bad block marker in block #5) and writes data there.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most NAND devices are shipped from the factory with some bad blocks which are typically identified and marked according to a specified bad block marking strategy.^ Due mostly to their large die size, NAND devices can ship from the factory with some bad blocks.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Software can check for bad blocks shipped from the factory, as is typical with NAND, and avoid writing to those blocks from the beginning.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The factory marks these blocks in such a way that the software can scan all the blocks to determine which are good and which aren't.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.By allowing some bad blocks, the manufacturers achieve far higher yields than would be possible if all blocks had to be verified good.^ Move all data from the block to a good block.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The factory marks these blocks in such a way that the software can scan all the blocks to determine which are good and which aren't.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This may cause a higher number of blocks to be rendered useless at a faster rate than if both static and dynamic wear-leveling scheme were available.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This significantly reduces NAND flash costs and only slightly decreases the storage capacity of the parts.^ In the early days of CF cards, microdrives had higher capacity than solid state cards, plus the cost per MB of storage was lower.
  • Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD) and SDHC Memory Cards for Digital Cameras 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.bobatkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased temperature ranges reduce the data retention period which further decrease as the flash memory is used at or near its specified operating temperatures.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the decrease in die area resulting from the small cell size, NAND provides the larger capacities required for today's low-cost consumer market.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.When executing software from NAND memories, virtual memory strategies are often used: memory contents must first be paged or copied into memory-mapped RAM and executed there (leading to the common combination of NAND + RAM).^ NAND flash includes extra storage on each page to store ECC code as well as other information for wear leveling, logical to physical block mapping, and other software overhead functions .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simple to use; logoed USB memory sticks plugs into PC or Macintosh via USB port.
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samsung, Harrison said the company's strategy is to achieve profitability through the efficiency and cooperation between Intel and ST to lead in flash memory industry .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A memory management unit (MMU) in the system is helpful, but this can also be accomplished with overlays. .For this reason, some systems will use a combination of NOR and NAND memories, where a smaller NOR memory is used as software ROM and a larger NAND memory is partitioned with a file system for use as a non-volatile data storage area.^ Non-volatile memory control .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transactional file system for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory system having non-volatile data storage structure for memory control parameters and method .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.NAND is best suited to systems requiring high capacity data storage.^ They hold data without power, just like disk storage systems, but they don't have the same limitations.
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, like a hard disk, NAND devices have bad blocks, and require error-correcting code (ECC) to maintain data integrity.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to the decrease in die area resulting from the small cell size, NAND provides the larger capacities required for today's low-cost consumer market.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.This type of flash architecture offers higher densities and larger capacities at lower cost with faster erase, sequential write, and sequential read speeds, sacrificing the random-access and execute in place advantage of the NOR architecture.^ Typically read speeds are a little faster than write speeds.
  • Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD) and SDHC Memory Cards for Digital Cameras 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.bobatkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher density, lower cost, and faster write and erase times, and a longer re-write life expectancy make NAND especially well suited for consumer media applications in which large files of sequential data need to be loaded into memory quickly and replaced with new files repeatedly.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Host Interface: The GBDriver RA8 is compatible with PIO0-6, Multiword DMA0-4, and Ultra DMA0-6 and supports read access speeds up to 50 MB/sec and write access speeds up to 35 MB/s (15 MB/s in the case of MLC).
  • NAND Flash Memory Controllers are U.DMA6-compatible., TDK Corporation of America 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

Standardization

.A group called the Open NAND Flash Interface Working Group (ONFI) has developed a standardized low-level interface for NAND flash chips.^ Cos flash API doesn't have methods to works with NAND speciality (write > > to spare area, check bad blocks and etc.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some SLC NAND flashes allow for smaller I/O units, which are called sub-pages in MTD terminology.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the developers in the Flash world also don't have the formal programming backgrounds to successfully deal with memory management and other low level tasks.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

.This allows interoperability between conforming NAND devices from different vendors.^ Moreover, > Linux NAND driver doesn't distinguish between different manufacturers.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've not had time to review this, but how different is it from > > the existing Toshiba NAND device driver?
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decision between NAND and NOR memory will ultimately depend on both technical and pricing requirements of the device being built.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ONFI specification version 1.0[14] was released on December 28, 2006. It specifies:
  • a standard physical interface (pinout) for NAND flash in TSOP-48, WSOP-48, LGA-52, and BGA-63 packages
  • a standard command set for reading, writing, and erasing NAND flash chips
  • a mechanism for self-identification (comparable to the Serial Presence Detection feature of SDRAM memory modules)
.The ONFI group is supported by major NAND Flash manufacturers, including Hynix, Intel, Micron Technology, and Numonyx, as well as by major manufacturers of devices incorporating NAND flash chips.^ Intel, Micron debut 34nm NAND flash .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ One important decision in designing such devices is what kind of flash memory to use: NAND or NOR? .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.A group of vendors, including Intel, Dell, and Microsoft formed a Non-Volatile Memory Host Controller Interface (NVMHCI) Working Group.^ Non-volatile memory control .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Non-volatile memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous flash memory with non-volatile mode register .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

[16] .The goal of the group is to provide standard software and hardware programming interfaces for nonvolatile memory subsystems, including the "flash cache" device connected to the PCI Express bus.^ The goals of flash memory management software include: .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Program/erase selection for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

Distinction between NOR and NAND flash

NOR and NAND flash differ in two important ways:
  • the connections of the individual memory cells are different
  • the interface provided for reading and writing the memory is different (NOR allows random-access for reading, NAND allows only page access)
.These two are linked by the design choices made in the development of NAND flash.^ One important decision in designing such devices is what kind of flash memory to use: NAND or NOR? .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drawbacks of this design are poor scalability and relatively high overhead on NAND flashes (e.g., the overhead is 1.5%-3% of flash space in case of a NAND flash with 2KiB NAND page and 128KiB eraseblock).
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YAFFS (Yet Another Flash File System) was designed to solve some of the performance issues suffered by JFFS2 on NAND flash .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A goal of NAND flash development was to reduce the chip area required to implement a given capacity of flash memory, and thereby to reduce cost per bit and increase maximum chip capacity so that flash memory could compete with magnetic storage devices like hard disks.^ Electronic flash memory external storage method and device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NAND is similar to a hard-disk drive.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash memory storage device comparison .
  • Flash memory storage comparison - Datafab KECF-USB versus JMTek USBDrive versusTriple Reader! 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dansdata.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.NOR and NAND flash get their names from the structure of the interconnections between memory cells.^ NAND flash memory downturn to continue .
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory is used in some of the world's most innovative electronic products such as laptop computers, MP3 players, PDAs and cell phones.
  • Canon FS10 Flash Memory Camcorder - 1/6" CCD Sensor, 37x Optical Zoom, 2000x Digital Zoom, 8GB Internal Flash Drive, 2.7" LCD, Refurbished at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

[17] .In NOR flash, cells are connected in parallel to the bitlines, allowing cells to be read and programmed individually.^ I/O unit size of 1 byte, because NOR flashes usually allow reading and writing single bytes (in fact, it is even be possible to change individual bits).
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The parallel connection of cells resembles the parallel connection of transistors in a CMOS NOR gate. .In NAND flash, cells are connected in series, resembling a NAND gate.^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ NAND flash cell size is smaller than NOR, 4F 2 verses 10F 2 , due to the fact that NOR cells require a separate metal contact for each cell.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The NAND flash array is grouped into a series of 128-kbyte blocks, which are the smallest erasable entity in a NAND device.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.The series connections consume less space than parallel ones, reducing the cost of NAND flash.^ One important decision in designing such devices is what kind of flash memory to use: NAND or NOR? .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the decrease in die area resulting from the small cell size, NAND provides the larger capacities required for today's low-cost consumer market.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I have an iPhone 3G with a corporate discount and it costs me less than 60 bucks a month.

It does not, by itself, prevent NAND cells from being read and programmed individually.
.When NOR flash was developed, it was envisioned as a more economical and conveniently rewritable ROM than contemporary EPROM, EAROM, and EEPROM memories.^ Shop for more Flash Memory from 'Shopping Warehouse'...
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash EEPROM main memory in a computer system .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Thus random-access reading circuitry was necessary.^ Posted By Matt Eagar, Belmont, MA: February 19, 2009 12:27 PM Flash can be read but not written in a random access fashion.

^ NOR is well suited to use for code storage because of its reliability, fast read operations, and random access capabilities.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was expected that NOR flash ROM would be read much more often than written, so the write circuitry included was fairly slow and could only erase in a block-wise fashion.^ Unlike other memory devices that provide a single access time for both reading and writing, flash memory is read much faster than it is programmed .
  • Flash Memory news and hot articles - EE Times Asia 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The memory system of claim 1 wherein the query memory stores data defining a number of erase block regions the flash memory device is capable of erasing.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The computer readable media of claim 26 wherein erasing multiple blocks of flash memory further comprises queuing erase block addresses.
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.On the other hand, applications that use flash as a replacement for disk drives do not require word-level write address, which would only add to the complexity and cost unnecessarily.^ In other words, this would introduce a lot of complexity.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m using a 35MB/sec flash drive.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents, presentations and any other form of data can be stored on a USB Flash Drives, and has proved a far more effective way of transferring data than burning CD's, and superseded old floppy disks.
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Because of the series connection and removal of wordline contacts, a large grid of NAND flash memory cells will occupy perhaps only 60% of the area of equivalent NOR cells[18] (assuming the same CMOS process resolution, e.g.^ NAND flash memory).
  • The 2009-2014 World Outlook for NAND Flash Memory 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.electronics.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash memory at the aggregate level.
  • The 2009-2014 World Outlook for NAND Flash Memory 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.electronics.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samsung is not the only flash memory maker.

130nm, 90 nm, 65 nm). .NAND flash's designers realized that the area of a NAND chip, and thus the cost, could be further reduced by removing the external address and data bus circuitry.^ The main difference between NAND and NOR flash is the multiplexed address and data bus.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Take the data you need with you anywhere you travel, with this imprinted compact flash memory with USB (univeral serial bus) connector!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, external devices could communicate with NAND flash via sequential-accessed command and data registers, which would internally retrieve and output the necessary data.^ NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_ECC + + + NAND devices are subject to data failures that occur during + device operation.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This design choice made random-access of NAND flash memory impossible, but the goal of NAND flash was to replace hard disks, not to replace ROMs.^ NAND is similar to a hard-disk drive.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NAND flash memory downturn to continue .
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

Write Endurance

.The write endurance of SLC Floating Gate NOR flash is typically equal or greater than that of NAND flash, while MLC NOR & NAND Flash have similar Endurance capabilities.^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ At Datalight, we are focused on easing many of the problems of MLC NAND. For more information on our intelligent flash management solutions , please visit our resources page.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cos flash API doesn't have methods to works with NAND speciality (write > > to spare area, check bad blocks and etc.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Example Endurance cycle ratings listed in datasheets for NAND and NOR Flash are provided.^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ But JFFS2 cannot use eCos flash API, because it must have access to NAND special functions (for example, it writes to spare area).
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND { + alias { "NAND FLASH memory support" nand_flash } + directory devs/flash/nand + script nand_flash.cdl + hardware + description " + This package provides a NAND FLASH memory device support."
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • SLC NAND Flash is typically rated at about 100K cycles (Samsung OneNAND KFW4G16Q2M)
  • MLC NAND Flash is typically rated at about 5K-10K cycles (Samsung K9G8G08U0M)
  • SLC Floating Gate NOR Flash has typical Endurance rating of 100K to 1,000K cycles (Numonyx M58BW 100K; Spansion S29CD016J 1000K)
  • MLC Floating Gate NOR Flash has typical Endurance rating of 100K cycles (Numonyx J3 Flash)
.However, by applying certain algorithms and design paradigms such as wear-levelling and memory over-provisioning, the endurance of a storage system can be tuned to serve specific requirements.^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ One important decision in designing such devices is what kind of flash memory to use: NAND or NOR? .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea system would use both kinds of wear leveling.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Flash file systems

.Because of the particular characteristics of flash memory, it is best used with either a controller to perform wear-levelling and error correction or specifically designed flash file systems, which spread writes over the media and deal with the long erase times of NOR flash blocks[citation needed].^ This is because Reliance provides a 100% reliable file system that provides fast performance.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Write reduction in flash memory systems through ECC usage .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The idea system would use both kinds of wear leveling.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The basic concept behind flash file systems is: When the flash store is to be updated, the file system will write a new copy of the changed data to a fresh block, remap the file pointers, then erase the old block later when it has time.^ System and method for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transactional file system for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Documents, presentations and any other form of data can be stored on a USB Flash Drives, and has proved a far more effective way of transferring data than burning CD's, and superseded old floppy disks.
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, flash file systems are only used for "Memory Technology Devices" ("MTD")[citation needed], which are embedded flash memories that do not have a controller.^ System and method for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transactional file system for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Used with permission of the Embedded Systems Conference.
  • CommsDesign - Flash memory 101: An Introduction to NAND flash 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.commsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.Removable flash memory cards and USB flash drives have built-in controllers to perform wear-levelling and error correction[citation needed] so use of a specific flash file system does not add any benefit[citation needed].^ Mb USB Flash USB 2.0 Flash Memory keychain drive 2 Gb .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

^ MyMemory 2GB USB Flash Drive .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea system would use both kinds of wear leveling.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These removable flash memory devices use the FAT file system to allow universal compatibility with computers, cameras, PDAs and other portable devices with memory card slots or ports[citation needed].^ System and method for tracking data stored in a flash memory device .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Flash EEPROM main memory in a computer system .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transactional file system for flash memory .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

Capacity

.Multiple chips are often arrayed to achieve higher capacities for use in consumer electronic devices such as multimedia players or GPS.^ Even if they are have the capacity, they will use very low quality chips and be very slow, so this will defeat part of the object of this exercise.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One important decision in designing such devices is what kind of flash memory to use: NAND or NOR? .
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flash memory has become the preferred format for storing larger quantities of data on devices such as USB Flash drives, digital cameras and MP3 players.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capacity of flash chips generally follows Moore's Law because they are manufactured with many of the same integrated circuits techniques and equipment.^ You are suggesting that IT directors block Flash simply because the content is annoying, but that they wouldn't think of blocking it if it caused system stability issues.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the UBI requirements was simplicity of the on-flash format, because UBI authors had to read UBI volumes from the boot-loader and they had very tough constraints on the boot-loader code size.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Programmable power generation circuit for flash EEPROM memory systems .
  • Interface for flash EEPROM memory arrays - Google Patent Search 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Consumer flash drives typically have sizes measured in powers of two (e.g.^ Over the past fifteen years, flash memory has been widely adopted in mainstream consumer grade products having short lifetimes, often measured in months.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He uses a USB flash drive for two different purposes.

^ Kingstons colorful, mini-sized USB Flash drive is big news in mobile storage.
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

512MB, 8GB). .This includes SSDs as hard drive replacements[citation needed], even though traditional hard drives tend to use decimal units.^ Meanwhile, This is much faster than using a DVD, gigabit Ethernet, or possibly even some external USB 2.0 hard drives, due to differences in access speed & transfer rate.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Super fast performance, use instead of SSD for flash hard drive setup.

^ We have had customers use Reliance on hard drives before and I want to share some requirements for Reliance to provide high reliability on rotating media.
  • ‘’ Flash Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, a 64GB SSD is actually 64×10243 bytes. .In reality, most users will have slightly less capacity than this available, due to the space taken by filesystem metadata.^ UBI user-space tools are available from the the following git repository: .
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in practice, most of the chips will have only few bad PEBs which is far less than the maximum.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UBI uses some amount of flash space for its own purposes, thus reducing the amount of flash space available for UBI users.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2005, Toshiba and SanDisk developed a NAND flash chip capable of storing 1GB of data using Multi-level Cell (MLC) technology, capable of storing 2 bits of data per cell.^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I’m trying to create a partion on a flash drive, 1gb sandisk.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In September 2005, Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed the world’s first 2GB chip.[20]
.In March 2006, Samsung announced flash hard drives with a capacity of 4GB, essentially the same order of magnitude as smaller laptop hard drives, and in September 2006, Samsung announced an 8GB chip produced using a 40 nanometer manufacturing process.^ This is a USB flash drive with a capacity of 8GB....

^ MyMemory 4GB USB Flash Drive .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MyMemory 8GB USB Flash Drive .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.In January 2008 Sandisk announced availability of their 16 GB MicroSDHC and 32 GB SDHC Plus cards.^ SanDisk 8GB SDHC Memory Card .

^ SanDisk 4GB SDHC Memory Card .

^ SanDisk is proud to announce our microSD High Capacity (microSDHC) 4GB flas...

[22][23]
.Recently, in 2009, Kingston announced a 256GB Flash Drive that is currently available only in the UK and other parts of Europe.^ Buy Kingston 8GB Data Traveler 410 USB Flash Drive Kingston 8GB Data Traveler 410 USB Flash Drive Information Play Video for Kingston 8GB Data Traveler 410 USB Flash Drive   .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingston 4GB DataTraveler 101 USB Flash Drive - Yellow .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingston 16GB DataTraveler 101 USB Flash Drive - Yellow .
  • Memory Sticks, USB Memory Stick , USB Memory Pen , USB Flash Drive, USB Flash Drives 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.mymemory.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are still flash-chips manufactured with capacities under or around 1MB, e.g., for BIOS-ROMs and embedded applications.^ Toshiba to ship higher capacity flash chips from July .
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

Transfer rates

.NAND flash memory cards are much faster at reading than writing so it is the maximum read speed that is commonly advertised.^ Mb Ultra 300 Speed Compact Flash Compact Flash Memory Card 300+x .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

^ Read Reviews about Flash Memory!
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ NAND flash memory downturn to continue .
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

.As a chip wears out, its erase/program operations slow down considerably, requiring more retries and bad block remapping.^ Toshiba NAND driver erases first ten blocks (and loses bad block marker in block #5) and writes data there.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversely, if the LEB is mapped to a PEB, there is one more PEB for the wear-leveling sub-system to care about, and one more LEB to re-map to another PEB if the erase counter of the current PEB becomes too low (then the LEB is re-mapped to a PEB with higher erase counter and the old PEB is used for other operations).
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a new 256MiB Samsung OneNAND chip is guaranteed to have not more than 40 128KiB PEBs (but of course, more physical eraseblock will become bad over time).
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Transferring multiple small files, each smaller than the chip-specific block size, could lead to much a lower rate.^ Meanwhile, This is much faster than using a DVD, gigabit Ethernet, or possibly even some external USB 2.0 hard drives, due to differences in access speed & transfer rate.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Access latency also influences performance, but less so than with their hard drive counterpart.^ Meanwhile, This is much faster than using a DVD, gigabit Ethernet, or possibly even some external USB 2.0 hard drives, due to differences in access speed & transfer rate.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Super fast performance, use instead of SSD for flash hard drive setup.

^ That is why I went online and bought him a new USB flash drive for less than the standard retail price.

.The speed is sometimes quoted in MB/s (megabytes per second), or as a multiple of that of a legacy single speed CD-ROM, such as 60x, 100x or 150x.^ Minimum 4 MB per second write performance.
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ Mb UltraSpeed Secure Digital Memory (SD) Secure Digital Memory Card (SD) Ultra Speed 2 Gb 120x - 150x .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

^ Mb High Speed Secure Digital Memory (SD) Secure Digital Memory Card (SD) High Speed 2 Gb 50x - 100x .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

Here 1x is equivalent to 150 kilobytes per second. .For example, a 100x memory card gives 150KB x 100 = 15,000KB/s = 14.65MB/s.^ Mb High Speed Secure Digital Memory (SD) Secure Digital Memory Card (SD) High Speed 2 Gb 50x - 100x .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

Performance also depends on the quality of memory controllers. Even when the only change to manufacturing is die-shrink, the absence of an appropriate controller can result in degraded speeds.[24]

Applications

Serial flash

.Serial flash is a small, low-power flash memory that uses a serial interface, typically SPI, for sequential data access.^ Automatically back up files to a personal online cloud and access your files from any computer connected to the Internet using a simple, search-engine style interface.
  • Memory Upgrades, Portable Hard Drives, Flash Cards, & Flash Drives from EDGE Tech Corp 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.edgetechcorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take the data you need with you anywhere you travel, with this imprinted compact flash memory with USB (univeral serial bus) connector!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives as solid state storage and its main purpose is an inexpensive way of storing or transferring data between computers and other digital products.
  • Flash Memory - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

.When incorporated into an embedded system, serial flash requires fewer wires on the PCB than parallel flash memories, since it transmits and receives data one bit at a time.^ Take the data you need with you anywhere you travel, with this imprinted compact flash memory with USB (univeral serial bus) connector!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash memory maker Micron today said that it has been able to boost the write endurance of its multi-level cell and single-level cell NAND flash chips by as much as six times.
  • flash memory | ITworld 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It sound a bit rare to hear people install Windows Vista on Flash Memory ya.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may permit a reduction in board space, power consumption, and total system cost.^ Its used as primary storage memory on various portable devices due to its low cost, compact size, great physical endurance and low power consumption.
  • Flash Memory - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

There are several reasons why a serial device, with fewer external pins than a parallel device, can significantly reduce overall cost:
.
  • Many ASICs are pad-limited, meaning that the size of the die is constrained by the number of wire bond pads, rather than the complexity and number of gates used for the device logic.^ Secondly, you need to get the HP USB format tool available from HP’s website and format the USB drive using that utility rather than the formatter that comes with Vista or XP. I have had many cases where this formatter worked but the internal did not.
    • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Count of records in the volume table is limited by the LEB size, but cannot be greater than 128.
    • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ P - total number of physical eraseblocks on the MTD device; S P - physical eraseblock size; S L - logical eraseblock size; B - number of PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling; it is 1% of P for NAND by default, and 0 for NOR and other flash types which do not have bad PEBs; O - the overhead related to storing EC and VID headers in bytes, i.e.
    • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Eliminating bond pads thus permits a more compact integrated circuit, on a smaller die; this increases the number of dies that may be fabricated on a wafer, and thus reduces the cost per die.
  • Reducing the number of external pins also reduces assembly and packaging costs. A serial device may be packaged in a smaller and simpler package than a parallel device.
  • Smaller and lower pin-count packages occupy less PCB area.
  • Lower pin-count devices simplify PCB routing.

Firmware storage

.With the increasing speed of modern CPUs, parallel flash devices are often much slower than the memory bus of the computer they are connected to.^ Take the data you need with you anywhere you travel, with this imprinted compact flash memory with USB (univeral serial bus) connector!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samsung Electronics and Numonyx have announced they are jointly developing market specifications for phase change memory (PCM) products, which feature faster read and write speeds at lower power than conventional NOR and NAND flash memory and allow for bit alterability normally seen in RAM. Read more .
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND { + alias { "NAND FLASH memory support" nand_flash } + directory devs/flash/nand + script nand_flash.cdl + hardware + description " + This package provides a NAND FLASH memory device support."
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conversely, modern SRAM offers access times below 10 ns, while DDR2 SDRAM offers access times below 20 ns. .Because of this, it is often desirable to shadow code stored in flash into RAM; that is, the code is copied from flash into RAM before execution, so that the CPU may access it at full speed.^ One of the UBI requirements was simplicity of the on-flash format, because UBI authors had to read UBI volumes from the boot-loader and they had very tough constraints on the boot-loader code size.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type in command to start copying all the content from the Windows Vista DVD to your newly formatted high speed flash drive.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAND flashes store per-NAND page ECC codes in the OOB area, which means that whole NAND page has to be written at once to calculate the ECC code, and whole NAND page has to be read at once to check the ECC code.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Device firmware may be stored in a serial flash device, and then copied into SDRAM or SRAM when the device is powered-up.^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BLOCKMANAGE + + + The NAND Flash devices may contain bad blocks, that shouldn't be + used.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bad block management + cdl_component CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BLOCKMANAGE { + display "Bad block management" + flavor none + description " + The NAND Flash devices may contain bad blocks, that shouldn't be + used.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, from UBI's point of view the flash (or MTD device) consists of eraseblocks, which may be good or bad.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Using an external serial flash device rather than on-chip flash removes the need for significant process compromise (a process that is good for high speed logic is generally not good for flash and vice-versa).^ Take the data you need with you anywhere you travel, with this imprinted compact flash memory with USB (univeral serial bus) connector!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, This is much faster than using a DVD, gigabit Ethernet, or possibly even some external USB 2.0 hard drives, due to differences in access speed & transfer rate.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stabilizing NAND flash price trend seen recently is clouding with uncertainties, as leading NAND flash players are progressing to next-generation production process.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

.Once it is decided to read the firmware in as one big block it is common to add compression to allow a smaller flash chip to be used.^ The one opportunity to use Linux compatible driver in eCos is using JFFS2 (it knows about bad blocks).
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bad block management + cdl_component CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND_BLOCKMANAGE { + display "Bad block management" + flavor none + description " + The NAND Flash devices may contain bad blocks, that shouldn't be + used.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buffer also allows to read data from one page several times without > access to chip.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical applications for serial flash include storing firmware for hard drives, Ethernet controllers, DSL modems, wireless network devices, etc.^ A Custom Printed Flash Drive or a logoed USB Memory Stick is a promotional item that is sure to be used over and over to store music, presentations, documents, digital photos!
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The validated Silicon Motion products include SM2682/SM2682LT SD controllers, SM2232/SM2234 CF controllers, SM2235/SM2242 SSD controllers and SM3251/SM3252 USB flash drive controllers, all of which are in mass production.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash Drives SD Memory Cards Digital Picture Frame Portable Hard Drive RAM Memory .
  • Memory Upgrades, Portable Hard Drives, Flash Cards, & Flash Drives from EDGE Tech Corp 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.edgetechcorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flash memory as a replacement for hard drives

.An obvious extension of flash memory would be as a replacement for hard disks.^ Suggested categories for "Memory Flash Disk" .

^ Added between the hard disk drive and the main memory, flash memory ranging from 25GB to 50GB is said by Sun to allow the system to bypass I/O bottlenecks for rapid processing of table sorting, for instance, and fast bootup.
  • Sun boosts new servers with flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Actually, The concept is simple by using flash memory drive to act as the Windows Vista installation DVD disk only.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flash memory does not have the mechanical limitations and latencies of hard drives, so the idea of a solid-state drive, or SSD, is attractive when considering speed, noise, power consumption, and reliability.^ MB to 8GB Memory Flash Drive .

^ And since when are flash drives limited to 4 gb?
  • Paramount and Kingston team up for movies on flash memory -- Engadget 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows Vista with usb 2.0 flash memory drive now.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flash drives are considered serious candidates for mobile device secondary storage; they are not yet competitors for hard drives in desktop computers or servers with RAID and SAN architectures.^ Stores flush against HP Mini 1000 series (Solid State hard drive option required) FY825AA 4 gb Hewlett Packard .
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ Super fast performance, use instead of SSD for flash hard drive setup.

^ They need to bring the $/GB price down for thumb drives to make them a practical competitor to DVDs.
  • Paramount and Kingston team up for movies on flash memory -- Engadget 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There remain some aspects of flash-based SSDs that make the idea unattractive.^ I will try to make some testings and I will inform you guys out there.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

.Most important, the cost per gigabyte of flash memory remains significantly higher than that of platter-based hard drives.^ MB to 8GB Memory Flash Drive .

^ The replacement from traditional hard drives to solid state drives (SSDs) will not take off in 2009, as the ratio of SSDs used in PCs remains low due to higher per GB costs, according to memory module makers.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows Vista with usb 2.0 flash memory drive now.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although this ratio is decreasing rapidly for flash memory, it is not yet clear that flash memory will catch up to the capacities and affordability offered by platter-based storage.^ Micron Technology has announced mass production of high-capacity 34nm NAND flash, which has been adopted by Lexar Media for its new flash memory cards.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ USB Flash Drive with Capacity of 16MB to 16GB Flash Memory , Available in Various Designs .

^ Leather USB Flash Drive with > 10 Years Data Retention, Supports Up to 16GB Memory Capacity .

.Still, research and development is sufficiently vigorous that it is not clear that it will not happen, either.^ Either way, it's still definitely a good caveat to be aware of when developing.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

.There is also some concern that the finite number of erase/write cycles of flash memory would render flash memory unable to support an operating system.^ Flash Voyager drives are fully Plug and Play with most operating systems and are backward compatible with USB 1.1.
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ Toshiba NAND driver erases first ten blocks (and loses bad block marker in block #5) and writes data there.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYGPKG_DEVS_FLASH_NAND { + alias { "NAND FLASH memory support" nand_flash } + directory devs/flash/nand + script nand_flash.cdl + hardware + description " + This package provides a NAND FLASH memory device support."
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This seems to be a decreasing issue as warranties on flash-based SSDs are approaching those of current hard drives.^ PNY Attaché 4GB USB 2.0 Flash Drive - 3 Pack (Black) Part # PNY-4GB-3PK Condition: New Warranty: 1 Year .
  • USB Flash Memory, Compact Flash Memory, Flash Card Readers, Compact Flash Memory Cards, 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.evertek.com [Source type: General]

^ In summary, my issue is that after about 10 minutes of watching content with the Adobe Flash player, it seems to use ~17GB of my hard drive space and I need to reboot to get my system back to its normal operating state.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

^ All DiskGO! flash drives are password protected by SecureGuard and backed by a lifetime warranty.
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

[26][27]
.In June, 2006, Samsung Electronics released the first flash-memory based PCs, the Q1-SSD and Q30-SSD, both of which used 32 GB SSDs, and were at least initially available only in South Korea.^ The replacement from traditional hard drives to solid state drives (SSDs) will not take off in 2009, as the ratio of SSDs used in PCs remains low due to higher per GB costs, according to memory module makers.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Simple to use; logoed USB memory sticks plugs into PC or Macintosh via USB port.
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just to let everyone know, the version of the memory leak I reported has been FIXED in the latest 8.5 alpha release (8.5.0.212) that is available here: .
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

[28] .Dell Computer introduced a 32GB SSD option on its Latitude D420 and D620 ATG laptops in April 2007—at $549 more than a hard-drive equipped version.^ Then your computer will boot the windows vista CD first after your computer hard drive.
  • Install Windows Vista from Bootable USB Flash Memory Drive 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.techmixer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have huge range of memory card, USB drive, SD card, flash drive, micro SD card, SDHC Card, Compact Flash Cards, Micro SDHC, Laptop Computer Memory, RAM Memory, Photo Books, Digital Photo Frames and more!
  • Memory Cards, SD Cards, Micro SD, SDHC Cards, Compact Flash Card, Computer Memory, SanDisk 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.cheapchips.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Laptop IDE Hard Drives .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

[29]
.At the Las Vegas CES 2007 Summit Taiwanese memory company A-DATA showcased SSD hard disk drives based on Flash technology in capacities of 32 GB, 64 GB and 128 GB.[30] Sandisk announced an OEM 32 GB 1.8" SSD drive at CES 2007.[31] The XO-1, developed by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) association, uses flash memory rather than a hard drive.^ Mb USB Flash USB 2.0 Flash Memory keychain drive 2 Gb .
  • Cellphones, PDAs, Flash Memory, Secure Digital Cards At CanadaRAM 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.canadaram.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a USB flash drive with a capacity of 8GB....

^ USB drives can have massively more memory than disks 5.
  • Paramount and Kingston team up for movies on flash memory -- Engadget 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of June 2007, a South Korean company called Mtron claims the fastest SSD with sequential read/write speeds of 100 MB/80 MB per second.^ Minimum 4 MB per second write performance.
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ SanDisk Extreme III SD memory card offers turbocharged read/write speeds of...

^ With up to 60 MB/s* read/write speeds,...
  • Memory Cards, SD Cards, Micro SD, SDHC Cards, Compact Flash Card, Computer Memory, SanDisk 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.cheapchips.com.au [Source type: General]

[32]
.Rather than entirely replacing the hard drive, hybrid techniques such as hybrid drive and ReadyBoost attempt to combine the advantages of both technologies, using flash as a high-speed cache for files on the disk that are often referenced, but rarely modified, such as application and operating system executable files.^ The replacement from traditional hard drives to solid state drives (SSDs) will not take off in 2009, as the ratio of SSDs used in PCs remains low due to higher per GB costs, according to memory module makers.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ In theory flash drive sounds cool, as we all picture in high-tech and future-esque, but in practice, not so much.
  • Paramount and Kingston team up for movies on flash memory -- Engadget 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SanDisk Ultra II Compact Flash CF 8GB**NEW High Speed 30MB/Sec** RRP: $69.95 Only: $49.95 .
  • Memory Cards, SD Cards, Micro SD, SDHC Cards, Compact Flash Card, Computer Memory, SanDisk 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.cheapchips.com.au [Source type: General]

.Also, Addonics has a PCI adapter for 4 CF cards,[33] creating a RAID-able array of solid-state storage that is much cheaper than the hardwired-chips PCI card kind.^ While it’s 4x more in storage, it does lag a little when reading/wiring data compared to the Kingston card, but not by terribly much.

.The ASUS Eee PC uses a flash-based SSD of 2 GB to 20 GB, depending on model.^ UBI uses an abstract model of flash.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The replacement from traditional hard drives to solid state drives (SSDs) will not take off in 2009, as the ratio of SSDs used in PCs remains low due to higher per GB costs, according to memory module makers.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Rectangular Bamboo USB Flash Drive 1 GB As low as $11.20 .
  • Printed USB Memory Stick, Custom Imprinted Flash Drive, Memory Stick Giveaways 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.motivators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Apple Inc. Macbook Air has the option to upgrade the standard hard drive to a 128 GB Solid State hard drive. .The Lenovo ThinkPad X300 also features a built-in 64 GB Solid State Drive.^ The replacement from traditional hard drives to solid state drives (SSDs) will not take off in 2009, as the ratio of SSDs used in PCs remains low due to higher per GB costs, according to memory module makers.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Stores flush against HP Mini 1000 series (Solid State hard drive option required) FY825AA 4 gb Hewlett Packard .
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

The Apple iPad will hit the market with flash-based SSD's of 16, 32, and 64 GB.
.Sharkoon has developed a device that uses six SDHC cards in RAID-0 as an SSD alternative; users may use more affordable High-Speed 8GB SDHC cards to get similar or better results than can be obtained from traditional SSDs at a lower cost.^ Transcend 8GB SDHC Memory Card .

^ Kingston 8GB SDHC Memory Card .

^ SanDisk 8GB SDHC Memory Card .

Industry

.One source states that, in 2008, the flash memory industry includes about US$9.1 billion in production and sales.^ Read Reviews about Flash Memory!
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn about Flash memory!
  • Compare prices on Flash Memory - Shop & find the lowest prices 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: General]

^ MemoryTen provides many Flash Memory solutions, including digital and video camera, mobile phones, MP3 player as well as other consumer electronics, industrial and communications market products that take flash memory cards or modules.
  • Flash Memory Digital Camera Memory CompactFlash MMC MultiMedia SD Cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memoryx.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Apple Inc. is the third largest purchaser of flash memory, consuming about 13% of production by itself.[34] .Other sources put the flash memory market at a size of more than US$20 billion in 2006, accounting for more than eight percent of the overall semiconductor market and more than 34 percent of the total semiconductor memory market.^ Compare with other Flash Memory .

^ MemoryTen provides many Flash Memory solutions, including digital and video camera, mobile phones, MP3 player as well as other consumer electronics, industrial and communications market products that take flash memory cards or modules.
  • Flash Memory Digital Camera Memory CompactFlash MMC MultiMedia SD Cards 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.memoryx.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samsung Electronics and Numonyx have announced they are jointly developing market specifications for phase change memory (PCM) products, which feature faster read and write speeds at lower power than conventional NOR and NAND flash memory and allow for bit alterability normally seen in RAM. Read more .
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

[35]

Flash scalability

The aggressive trend of process design rule shrinks in NAND Flash memory technology effectively accelerates Moore's Law.
.Due to its relatively simple structure and high demand for higher capacity, NAND flash memory is the most aggressively scaled technology among electronic devices.^ NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: NAND Flash device driver .
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relatively high NAND flash inventory among memory makers that also make memory cards, such as Samsung Electronics and SanDisk, has prompted them to clear their chip inventory this quarter, spurring corresponding sales at packaging and testing houses, according to industry players, as cited in a Chinese-language Commercial Times report.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

The heavy competition among the top few manufacturers only adds to the aggressiveness. .Current projections show the technology to reach approximately 20 nm by around 2010. While the expected shrink timeline is a factor of two every three years per original version of Moore's law, this has recently been accelerated in the case of NAND flash to a factor of two every two years.^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peak season for NAND flash this year will only last for the month of October, and prices for 16Gb and 32Gb chips are expected to fall again next month, according to industry players.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Hynix Semiconductor's 41nm NAND flash has passed the validation process for Apple's iPhone 3GS amid recent reports that Micron Technology has also become a NAND flash supplier for the popular smartphone, according to industry sources.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

.As the feature size of flash memory cells reach the minimum limit (currently estimated ~20 nm), further Flash density increases will be driven by greater levels of MLC, possibly 3-D stacking of transistors, and process improvements.^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently it supports 8-bit NAND flash with 256/512 page size and has > > > > > implemented software ECC and simple bad block management algorithms.
  • Nabble - Sourceware - ecos-patches - NAND Flash device driver 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.nabble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even with these advances, it may be impossible to economically scale Flash to smaller and smaller dimensions.^ However, new software may benefit from the advanced UBI features and let UBI solve many issues which the flash technology imposes.
  • Memory Technology Device (MTD) Subsystem for Linux. 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.linux-mtd.infradead.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many promising new technologies (such as FeRAM, MRAM, PMC, PCM, and others) are under investigation and development as possible more scalable replacements for Flash.^ Micron Technology has announced mass production of high-capacity 34nm NAND flash, which has been adopted by Lexar Media for its new flash memory cards.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Intel and Micron Technology have jointly announced the development of a new 3-bit per cell multi-level cell (MLC) NAND technology for consumer storage devices such as flash cards and USB drives, with mass production slated for the fourth quarter of 2009.
  • News tagged NAND flash at DIGITIMES 12 September 2009 15:26 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the developers in the Flash world also don't have the formal programming backgrounds to successfully deal with memory management and other low level tasks.
  • gskinner.com: gBlog: Major Flash Player 8 Memory Leak 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.gskinner.com [Source type: General]

[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cruise photos intact after camera hauled from seabed". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/8509619.stm. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  2. ^ Fulford, Benjamin (24 June 2002). "Unsung hero". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/global/2002/0624/030.html. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  3. ^ US patent 4531203 Fujio Masuoka
  4. ^ Tal, Arie (February 2002). "NAND vs. NOR flash technology: The designer should weigh the options when using flash memory". http://www2.electronicproducts.com/NAND_vs_NOR_flash_technology-article-FEBMSY1-FEB2002.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  5. ^ Bez, R.; Camerlenghi, E.; Modelli, A.; Visconti, A. (2003). "Introduction to flash memory". Proceedings of the IEEE 91 (4): pp. 489–502. 2003-04. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2003.811702. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/5/26994/01199079.pdf?tp=&arnumber=1199079&isnumber=26994. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  6. ^ "SANDISK ANNOUNCES WORLD’S LARGEST MOBILE PHONE MEMORY CARD CAPACITY WITH 16 GB MICROSDHC AND M2". Sandisk. September 29, 2008. http://www.sandisk.com/Corporate/PressRoom/PressReleases/PressRelease.aspx?ID=4398. 
  7. ^ "PSoC Designer(TM) Device Selection Guide - AN2209": "... The PSoC ... utilizes a unique Flash process: SONOS"
  8. ^ Jonathan Thatcher, Fusion-io; Tom Coughlin, Coughlin Associates; Jim Handy, Objective-Analysis; Neal Ekker, Texas Memory Systems (April 2009) (pdf). NAND Flash Solid State Storage for the Enterprise, An In-depth Look at Reliability. Solid State Storage Initiative (SSSI) of the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA). http://www.snia.org/forums/sssi/knowledge/education/SSSI_NAND_Reliability_White_Paper.pdf. 
  9. ^ Micron Technology, Inc. (2008-12-17). "Micron Collaborates with Sun Microsystems to Extend Lifespan of Flash-Based Storage, Achieves One Million Write Cycles". Press release. http://www.micron.com/about/news/pressrelease.aspx?id=5F432D92EFA2B68E. 
  10. ^ Kim, Jesung; Kim, John Min; Noh, Sam H.; Min, Sang Lyul; Cho, Yookun (2002-05). "A Space-Efficient Flash Translation Layer for CompactFlash Systems". Proceedings of the IEEE 48 (2): pp. 366–375. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/30/21778/01010143.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=1010143. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  11. ^ TN-29-07: Small-Block vs. Large-Block NAND Flash Devices Explains 512+16 and 2048+64-byte blocks
  12. ^ AN10860 LPC313x NAND flash data and bad block management Explains 4096+128-byte blocks.
  13. ^ "Samsung ECC algorithm" (PDF). Samsung. 2008-06. http://www.elnec.com/sw/samsung_ecc_algorithm_for_256b.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  14. ^ "Open NAND Flash Interface Specification" (PDF). Open NAND Flash Interface. 28 December 2006. http://www.onfi.org/docs/ONFI_1_0_Gold.pdf. Retrieved {{subst:#time:Y-m-d}}. 
  15. ^ A list of ONFI members is available at http://onfi.org/membership/.
  16. ^ "Dell, Intel And Microsoft Join Forces To Increase Adoption Of NAND-Based Flash Memory In PC Platforms". REDMOND, Wash: Intel. May 30, 2007. http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20070530corp.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  17. ^ See pages 5-7 of Toshiba's "NAND Applications Design Guide" under External links.
  18. ^ Pavan, Paolo; Bez, Roberto; Olivo, Piero; Zononi, Enrico (1997). "Flash Memory Cells — An Overview". Proceedings of the IEEE 85 (8): pp. 1248–1271. 1997-08. doi:10.1109/5.622505. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel3/5/13533/00622505.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=622505. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  19. ^ [1] Western Digital White Paper describing calculation and effects of SSD endurance
  20. ^ Shilov, Anton (September 12 2005). "Samsung Unveils 2GB Flash Memory Chip". X-bit labs. http://www.xbitlabs.com/news/memory/display/20050912212649.html. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  21. ^ Gruener, Wolfgang (September 11, 2006). "Samsung announces 40 nm Flash, predicts 20 nm devices". TG Daily. http://www.tgdaily.com/content/view/28504/135/. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  22. ^ 12 GB MicroSDHC
  23. ^ 32 GB SDHC Plus
  24. ^ Samsung Confirms 32nm Flash Problems, Working on New SSD Controller
  25. ^ Many serial flash devices implement a bulk read mode and incorporate an internal address counter, so that it is trivial to configure them to transfer their entire contents to RAM on power-up. When clocked at 50 MHz, for example, a serial flash could transfer a 64 Mbit firmware image in less than two seconds.
  26. ^ "Flash Memory vs. HDD - Who Will Win?". STORAGEsearch. http://www.storagesearch.com/semico-art1.html. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  27. ^ "Flash Solid State Disks - Inferior Technology or Closet Superstar?". STORAGEsearch. http://www.storagesearch.com/bitmicro-art1.html. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  28. ^ "Samsung Electronics Launches the World’s First PCs with NAND Flash-based Solid State Disk". Press Release. Samsung. May 24, 2006. http://www.samsung.com/he/presscenter/pressrelease/pressrelease_20060524_0000257996.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  29. ^ "Dell joins the fray, offers SSD in Latitude D420, D620". Engadget. April 24, 2007. http://www.engadget.com/2007/04/24/dell-joins-the-fray-offers-ssd-in-latitude-d420-d620/. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  30. ^ "Future of Flash revealed". http://www.theinquirer.net/default.aspx?article=36841. 
  31. ^ "SanDisk SSD Solid State Drives". http://www.sandisk.com/Oem/Default.aspx?CatID=1477. 
  32. ^ MTRON | Home
  33. ^ "Addonics PCI adapter for 4 CF cards". http://www.addonics.com/products/flash_memory_reader/ad4cfprj.asp. 
  34. ^ Deffree, Suzanne (April 2008). "Apple sneezes, flash industry gets sick". EDN 2008 (7): 74. http://www.edn.com/index.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA6544754. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  35. ^ Yinug, Christopher Falan (July 2007). "The Rise of the Flash Memory Market: Its Impact on Firm Behavior and Global Semiconductor Trade Patterns" (PDF). Journal of International Commerce and Economics. http://www.usitc.gov/journal/Final_falan_article1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  36. ^ Kim, Kinam; Koh, Gwan-Hyeob (2004-05-16). Future Memory Technology including Emerging New Memories. Serbia and Montenegro: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Microelectronics (published 2004-05). pp. 377–384. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/9193/29143/01314646.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=1314646. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. .Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity.^ Apparently, the maze of choices has expanded so much that some flash-memory vendors have created some very nice utilities for helping with the decision process.

.If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ Do you need help?
  • Flash Memory, RAM, Laptop, Notebook, Server Memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.upgradeable.com.au [Source type: General]

^ How much memory you need?

^ See how you can help.
  • Flash Memory: Pick a Card - Solutions by PC Magazine 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

.Please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects.^ Simply copy and paste the code below into your web site (Ctrl+C to copy) It will look like this: Tranformers Ravage – The USB Flash Memory Transformer .
  • Tranformers Ravage - The USB Flash Memory Transformer | jsonvLOG 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC blog.jsonvega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close Please copy/paste the following text to properly cite this HowStuffWorks article: Tyson, Jeff.

Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Flash memory at Wikipedia.^ Flash memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the IT Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flash Memory Results Product Details from the Electronics Industry 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Search the web for flash memory .
  • Yahoo! Tech Q and A Search: flash memory 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC tech.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Profile pages: Flash memory , Wikipedia .
  • Flash memory Defined at Obsessable 16 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.obsessable.com [Source type: General]

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See also


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|An opened USB Flash drive. The chip on the left (with Samsung) contains the flash memory. The chip on the right is the controller chip]] Flash memory is a memory storage device for computers and electronics. It is most often used in devices like digital cameras, USB flash drives, and video games. It is quite similar to EEPROM.

Flash memory is different from RAM because RAM is volatile (not permanent). When power is turned off, RAM loses all its data. Flash can keep its data intact, with no power at all. A hard drive also is permanent (non-volatile) storage, but it is bulky and fragile. Flash memory is much slower than RAM or hard drives. But it is great for small electronics because it is small and it has no moving parts.

The main weakness of flash memory is the number of times that data can be written to it. Data can be read from flash as many times as desired, but after a certain number of "write" operations, it will stop working. Most flash devices are designed for about 100,000 - 1,000,000 write operations (or "write cycles").

EEPROM has the same limitation that flash does: it can only survive about 100,000 write cycles. But it is more expensive than flash, so it is usually not used for storage greater than 128kB. The main difference between EEPROM and flash memory is that EEPROM can "write" to any byte of memory, at any time. Flash memory can only write to an entire chunk, or "sector", of memory at a time. That means that if the user wants to change only one byte, flash must also re-write all the bytes in that sector. This means that flash memory can wear out faster than EEPROM.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Flash memory, which are similar to those in the above article.








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