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Flax
The flax plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Linaceae
Genus: Linum
Species: L. usitatissimum
Binomial name
Linum usitatissimum
Linnaeus.
Capsules
.Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name: Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.^ Flax Seed and Its Benefits Biological Description Native to India and domesticated in Middle East, flax plant belongs to the Linaceae family and is also known as Linum Usitatissimum.

^ Flaxseeds are known as Linum usitatissimum with it species name meaning "most useful."
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flaxseed oil is derived from the seeds of the flax plant ( Linum usitatissimum , L.).
  • Flaxseed oil 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India and was probably first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent.^ Flax Seed Biological Description Native to India and domesticated in Middle East, flax plant belongs ...
  • Flax Seed and Flax Seed Oil: Where is the Difference? 22 September 2009 17:52 UTC www.chinese-herbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flax Seed and Its Benefits Biological Description Native to India and domesticated in Middle East, flax plant belongs to the Linaceae family and is also known as Linum Usitatissimum.

This is called as Agasi/Akshi in Kannada, Jawas/Javas (जवस) or Alashi (अळशी) in Marathi.[1] Flax was extensively cultivated in ancient Ethiopia and ancient Egypt.[2] In a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia dyed flax fibers have been found that date to 34,000 BC.[3][4] .New Zealand flax is not related to flax, but was named after it as both plants are used to produce fibers.^ CFF is a system that optimizes flax fiber yield and quality by identifying field preparation, planting date, and harvest techniques that producers in the southeastern U.S. can readily adopt.

^ Fiber flax varieties are planted closer together than seed flax varieties so that only the main stem develops and the plants grow tall with fewer branches and seeds, thus producing long, fine, and strong fibers.

^ Flax fiber production in cotton’s off-season permits more efficient use of labor, buildings, and some equipment.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Flax is an erect annual plant growing to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems.^ For the same reason it must be thickly seeded, the effect of this being to produce tall, slender stems, free from branches.

^ Flax Seed and Flax Seed Oil Flax Seed and Flax Seed Oil are herbal remedies, both made from an annual plant Linum ...

^ The seeding depth should be less than 0.6 cm, with a seeds closely planted to generated thin flax stems in close proximity.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm diameter, with five petals; they can also be bright red. .The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long.^ If you purchase whole flaxseeds, store them in an airtight container in a dark, dry and cool place where they will keep fresh for several months.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fruit or boll is round, containing five cells, each of which is again divided into two, thus forming ten divisions, each of which contains a single seed .

^ The seeds of the flax plant, well known as linseed , are heavy, smooth, glossy and of a bright greenish-brown colour.

.In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant.^ Again depending upon conditions additional fertilizer may be supplied for plant growth.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Growing The suitable habitat for the cultivation of the flax as a fiber plant is a cool damp climate.

^ Flax is very useful for the colon: rich fiber source and lubricate properties of the plant lower the risk of the constipation.

Contents

Uses

.Flax is grown both for its seeds and for its fibers.^ Parts Used As mentioned, flax is grown for its seeds and fiber.

^ Consuming to much of flax seed can impair the effectiveness of certain oral medications, due to its fiber content.
  • Flax Seed and Flax Seed Oil: Where is the Difference? 22 September 2009 17:52 UTC www.chinese-herbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiera’ fiber flax grown at the Pee Dee Experiment Station in Florence, South Carolina produced 7292 kg straw and 410 kg seed/ha (Loadholt 1965).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Various parts of the plant have been used to make fabric, dye, paper, medicines, fishing nets, hair gels, and soap.^ Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the fabric, dye, medicines, fishing nets and soap production.

^ The flax plant supplies both industrial oil (i.e., linseed oil) and bast fiber used to produce textiles, composites, and paper/pulp.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Health Benefits Flax seed possesses quite a number of health benefits which make the plant so popular in herbal medicine.

.It is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens.^ Moreover, blue flowers of the plant have been performing ornamental functions in gardens.

[citation needed]

Flax seed

Brown Flax Seeds
Golden Flax seed
Flax seed
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,234 kJ (534 kcal)
Carbohydrates 28.88 g
Sugars 1.55 g
Dietary fiber 27.3 g
Fat 42.16 g
Protein 18.29 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 1.644 mg (126%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.161 mg (11%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 3.08 mg (21%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.985 mg (20%)
Vitamin B6 0.473 mg (36%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 0 μg (0%)
Vitamin C 0.6 mg (1%)
Calcium 255 mg (26%)
Iron 5.73 mg (46%)
Magnesium 392 mg (106%)
Phosphorus 642 mg (92%)
Potassium 813 mg (17%)
Zinc 4.34 mg (43%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
.Flax seeds come in two basic varieties: (1) brown; and (2) yellow or golden.^ Golden Flax Seeds, 16 oz.

^ I’ve experienced this first-hand once (emphasis on ONCE, I learned my lesson) after supplementing my brown rice with crushed flax seeds in my rice cooker.
  • Replacing Eggs With … Flax? - Bitten Blog - NYTimes.com 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC bitten.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Differences exist between flax grown for fiber and flax grown for its seed due to variety differences as well as harvesting methods.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Most types have similar nutritional characteristics and equal amounts of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids.^ Effects of short-chain fatty acids on gastrointestinal motility.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flax seed is rich in a form of omega-3 fatty acids called ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women whose diets provided the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids had a 17% lower risk of dry eye syndrome compared with those consuming the least of these beneficial fats.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.The exception is a type of yellow flax called Linola or solin, which has a completely different oil profile and is very low in omega-3. Although brown flax can be consumed as readily as yellow, and has been for thousands of years, it is better known as an ingredient in paints, fiber and cattle feed.^ Flax seed is rich in a form of omega-3 fatty acids called ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’d say that healthy women can consume low to moderate amounts of flax without concern.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, he isn’t simply saying that fish oil is better than flax – what he’s saying is that he recommends fish oil as the best source of a good balance of omega 3s (out of all options, not just compared to flax).
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flax seeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed or linseed oil, which is one of the oldest commercial oils and solvent-processed flax seed oil has been used for centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.^ He began to use Flax oil.

^ Meanwhile she began using Flax oil heavily.

^ He began using flax oil and cottage cheese to the extent he could get it down and didn't seem to be getting any worse.

[citation needed]
.One hundred grams of ground flax seed supplies about 450 kilo-calories, 41 grams of fat, 28 grams of fiber, and 20 grams of protein.^ September 11th, 2008 Reply Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Think about it- who the heck would pay to study a link between flax seeds and prostate cancer?
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andre wrote on June 25th, 2009 Reply Worried about flax seed and cancer risks?
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.One tablespoon of ground flax seeds and three tablespoons of water may serve as a replacement for one egg in baking by binding the other ingredients together.^ September 11th, 2008 Reply Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good plan is using 1-2 TBSP of the ground flax seed and 1/2 TBSP Oil in the morning and before bed.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Peter Sklar wrote on September 11th, 2008 Reply Peter, you said: “Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer” .
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ground flax seeds can also be mixed in with oatmeal, yogurt or any other food item where a nutty flavor is appropriate.^ To give cooked vegetables a nuttier flavor, sprinkle some ground flaxseeds on top of them.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I add Go Lean Crunch in my plain yogurt/almond/flax seed/raisin mix.
  • Kashi : Our food : GOLEAN, Crunch! Honey Almond Flax 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.kashi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 11th, 2008 Reply Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flax seed sprouts are edible, with a slightly spicy flavor. .Excessive consumption of flax seeds with inadequate water can cause bowel obstruction.^ September 11th, 2008 Reply Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peter Sklar wrote on September 11th, 2008 Reply Peter, you said: “Ground flax seeds do NOT cause any sort of cancer” .
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] Flaxseed is called 'Tisi' in northern India, particularly in the Bihar region.[citation needed] Roasted 'Tisi' is powdered and eaten with boiled rice, a little water, and a little salt since ancient times in the villages.[citation needed] It is aromatic and considered soothing for the stomach, useful as a laxative, and good for health.[citation needed]
.Flax seeds are chemically stable while whole, and milled flax seed can be stored at least 4 months at room temperature with minimal or no changes in taste, smell, or chemical markers of rancidity.^ I have been taking flax seed for over 4 months daily.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ALA blood levels are higher in response to flax oil intake than they are with milled seed intake.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you purchase whole flaxseeds, store them in an airtight container in a dark, dry and cool place where they will keep fresh for several months.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Ground flaxseed can go rancid at room temperature in as little as one week.^ It will keep a year in a freezer, 4 months in a refrigerator but only 3 weeks at room temperature.

^ Likewise, if you either purchase ground flaxseeds or you grind them at home, it is important to keep them in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator or freezer to prevent them from becoming rancid.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This cannot be over emphasized I would be skeptical of any Flaxseed Oil that was kept on a store shelf at room temperature.

[8] .Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flax from becoming rancid for a longer period.^ Likewise, if you either purchase ground flaxseeds or you grind them at home, it is important to keep them in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator or freezer to prevent them from becoming rancid.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is highly recommended to purchase ground flaxseed that is in a vacuum-sealed package or has been refrigerated since once flaxseeds are ground, they are much more prone to oxidation and spoilage.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Just remember that flax oil goes rancid very quickly when you don’t keep it refridgerated.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Medical effect

.Flax seeds contain high levels of lignans and Omega-3 fatty acids.^ Flaxseeds are an excellent source of omega-3 essential fatty acids.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of calcium, vitamins, omega fatty acids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I do use and recommend an oil blend containing flax with sunflower and sesame oils from organically grown seeds, made with health in mind, and in the right n-3: n-6 ratio to prevent n-6 deficiency.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

.Lignans may benefit the heart, possess anti-cancer properties and studies performed on mice found reduced growth in specific types of tumors.^ Interestingly, a study done with flax grain has shown that flax inhibits the growth of prostate cancer .
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies done on cell cultures do not take into account the effects of fats on glands and organs, which can affect tumor development and tumor growth.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies show that women with breast cancer and women who are omnivores typically excrete much lower levels of lignans in their urine than vegetarian women without breast cancer.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Flax seed may also lower cholesterol levels, especially in women.^ Studies show that women with breast cancer and women who are omnivores typically excrete much lower levels of lignans in their urine than vegetarian women without breast cancer.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a recent double-blind randomized study, flaxseeds reduced total cholesterol levels in the blood of postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy by an average of 6%.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both almonds and flax seeds have been associated with lowering cholesterol and are rich sources of vitamins and minerals.
  • Kashi : Our food : GOLEAN, Crunch! Honey Almond Flax 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.kashi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Initial studies suggest that flaxseed taken in the diet may benefit individuals with certain types of breast[10][11] and prostate cancers.^ Interestingly, a study done with flax grain has shown that flax inhibits the growth of prostate cancer .
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal studies conducted to evaluate lignans' beneficial effect, supplementing a high-fat diet with flaxseed flour reduced early markers for mammary (breast) cancer in laboratory animals by more than 55%.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flaxseeds contain phyto-oestrogens so it makes sense that there would be a study examining any links with cancer.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .A study done at Duke suggests that flaxseed may stunt the growth of prostate tumors [13].^ Interestingly, a study done with flax grain has shown that flax inhibits the growth of prostate cancer .
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies done on cell cultures do not take into account the effects of fats on glands and organs, which can affect tumor development and tumor growth.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One study suggests that fish intake (rich in both DHA and EPA) actually reduces the risk for prostate cancer .
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recent meta-analysis found the evidence on this point to be mixed and inconclusive (Am J Clin Nutr (March 25, 2009).^ At this point, March 25, 1997, I want to add a few updates.

doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736Ev1). .Flax may also lessen the severity of diabetes by stabilizing blood-sugar levels.^ Mucilage helps stabilize blood sugar levels, and is a natural laxative.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ I am a Diabetic with uncontrolled sugar levels.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was told to stick to a diabetic diet, as steroids can raise blood sugar levels - I was given no info on exactly what a diabetic diet involved but I figured I should lower my sugar and carb intake and raise my riber and protein for starters.
  • Kashi : Our food : GOLEAN, Crunch! Honey Almond Flax 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.kashi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .There is some support for the use of flax seed as a laxative due to its dietary fiber content[6] though excessive consumption without liquid can result in intestinal blockage.^ Most importantly flax seed is a great source of dietary fiber.

^ Fiber Flax seeds are an excellent source of fiber.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ A good plan is using 1-2 TBSP of the ground flax seed and 1/2 TBSP Oil in the morning and before bed.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

[15] .Consuming large amounts of flax seed can impair the effectiveness of certain oral medications, due to its fiber content.^ Fiber Flax seeds are an excellent source of fiber.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Flax seeds are a great source of fiber, lignans, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Flax Seed Information and Product Listing! Flax Seed FAQ! 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Most importantly flax seed is a great source of dietary fiber.

[15] May have adverse effect due to its content of neurotoxic cyanogen glycosides and immuno-suppressive cyclic nonapeptides.[16]

Flax fibers

A Heckling Shop in Irvine, Ayrshire used to prepare flax fibers.
Flax fibers are amongst the oldest fiber crops in the world. .The use of flax for the production of linen goes back at least to ancient Egyptian times.^ This is the one who was at the edge of her life - who was just folded in bed and could not talk at the time she began to use the Flax.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She has been using Flax oil regularly since that time and today she appears to be well.

^ One of the first records of the culinary use of flaxseeds is from times of ancient Greece.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dyed flax fibers found in a cave in Dzudzuana (prehistoric Georgia) have been dated to 30,000 years ago.^ Did Grok eat grains 100,000 years ago?
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have looked up the research studies, and have added to what I've found, my own experience of working with flax and other oils for the past 20 years.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Day): T cell 470 (highest to date) VL undetectable (in November before the flax I had gone on a drug holiday for a month, the third so far over four years).
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

[17] Pictures on tombs and temple walls at Thebes depict flowering flax plants. .The use of flax fiber in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times.^ This is the one who was at the edge of her life - who was just folded in bed and could not talk at the time she began to use the Flax.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She has been using Flax oil regularly since that time and today she appears to be well.

^ The study was short-term, and therefore does not predict what would happen if flax grain was used as the sole source of fat for a long time, measured in years.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

.In North America, flax was introduced by the Puritans.^ It was not until the early colonists arrived in North America that flax was first planted in the United States.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While interest is increasing, currently little flax from the whole of North America is used in producing industrial fibers.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Currently most flax produced in the USA and Canada are seed flax types for the production of linseed oil or flax seeds for human nutrition.^ BUT the kicker in this is “Plain” flax seed oil.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This 7 Time Nobel Prize Nominee was responsible for developing an alternative cancer therapy that is based largely around flax oil and cottage cheese consumption, most people include the seeds in their regimen for a good lignan source.
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do use and recommend an oil blend containing flax with sunflower and sesame oils from organically grown seeds, made with health in mind, and in the right n-3: n-6 ratio to prevent n-6 deficiency.
  • UdoErasmus.com > ARTICLES > Flax Oil & Prostate Cancer 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.udoerasmus.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Flax fiber is extracted from the bast or skin of the stem of the flax plant. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde hair, hence the description "flaxen". It is stronger than cotton fiber but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope. .Flax fiber is also a raw material for the high-quality paper industry for the use of printed banknotes and rolling paper for cigarettes.^ Current technical data suggest that dew-retted flax fibers can compete with glass fibers in specific composite materials (Wittig 1994; Burger et al.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Flax fiber production in cotton’s off-season permits more efficient use of labor, buildings, and some equipment.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To develop and support a US flax fiber industry requires consist quality fibers for various industrial applications, an environmentally friendly fiber crop (no insecticides, low herbicide and fertilization needs) grown and harvested using traditional agricultural equipment, and an environmentally friendly enzyme-retting system.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

Flax mills for spinning flaxen yarn were invented by John Kendrew and Thomas Porthouse of Darlington in 1787.[18]

Cultivation

Linseed output in 2005
.The significant linseed producing countries are Canada (~34%), China (~25.5%) and India (~9%), though there is also production in USA (~8%), Ethiopia (~3.5%) and throughout Europe.^ In the 17th century, flax was first introduced and planted in Canada, the country that is currently the major producer of this extremely beneficial seed.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, raise nearly 100% of this plant.^ It was not until the early colonists arrived in North America that flax was first planted in the United States.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Top ten linseed producers — 2007
Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote
 Canada 633,500
 People's Republic of China 480,000 *
 India 167,000
 United States 149,963
 Ethiopia 67,000 *
 Bangladesh 50,000 F
 Russia 47,490
 Ukraine 45,000 *
 France 41,000 F
 Argentina 34,000
 World 1,875,018 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep friable loams, and containing a large proportion of organic matter. Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. Farming flax requires few fertilizers or pesticides. .Within 8 weeks of sowing, the plant will reach 10–15 cm in height, and will grow several centimeters per day under its optimal growth conditions, reaching 70–80 cm within fifteen days.^ 'Response Report' (2 Weeks): Minutes after taking the first scoop My body began to 'heat up' and within 30 minutes, I developed a severe headache.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Diseases

Maturation

.Flax is harvested for fiber production after approximately 100 days, or a month after the plant flowers and two weeks after the seed capsules form.^ Week 4: Skipped a day or two.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Flax seed is rich in a form of omega-3 fatty acids called ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had not been on the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans for more than two weeks when he noticed a significant improvement, almost a complete reversal.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

The base of the plant will begin to turn yellow. .If the plant is still green the seed will not be useful, and the fiber will be underdeveloped.^ The flax plant supplies both industrial oil (i.e., linseed oil) and bast fiber used to produce textiles, composites, and paper/pulp.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ideally, a crop grown for its seed could also be processed for refined fiber, which could then be used in industrial products.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

The fiber degrades once the plant is brown.

Harvesting methods

.There are two ways to harvest flax, one involving mechanized equipment (combines), and a second method, more manual and targeted towards maximizing the fiber length.^ He had not been on the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans for more than two weeks when he noticed a significant improvement, almost a complete reversal.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Method 1

.The mature plant is cut with mowing equipment, similar to hay harvesting, and raked into windrows.^ Drum cutting, raking, and baling requires less operator attentiveness than European pullers, turners, and balers which decreases harvesting time.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditional harvest methods including mowers, rakes, and balers produce plants of good yield and quality for fiber (Foulk et al.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

When dried sufficiently, a combine then harvests the seeds similar to wheat or oat harvesting. The amount of weeds in the straw affects its marketability, and this coupled with market prices determined whether the farmer chose to harvest the flax straw. .If the flax was not harvested, it was typically burnt, since the straw stalk is quite tough and decomposes slowly (i.e., not in a single season), and still being somewhat in a windrow from the harvesting process, the straw would often clog up tillage and planting equipment.^ Traditionally, flax harvesting was performed by hand with the plants pulled from the ground.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditional methods for harvesting flax require specially made, sole-purpose, and expensive equipment (Sultana 1992) manufactured only overseas to pull and turn flax.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ European harvesting equipment is specialized equipment and only used for flax.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was common, in the flax growing regions of western Minnesota, to see the harvested flax straw (square) bale stacks start appearing every July, the size of some stacks being estimated at 10-15 yards wides by 50 or more yards long, and as tall as a two-story house.^ Growing and harvesting flax.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yields of flax appear to be influenced by proper field management and by the climate throughout the growing season.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dew-retting is very inefficient due to cold, dry weather at harvest time in this region, and estimates of 85% (after a small amount is used for fibers in specialty papers) of this straw is burned, creating a substantial environmental problem.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Method 2

The mature plant is pulled up with the roots (not cut), so as to maximize the fiber length. .After this the flax is allowed to dry, the seeds are removed, and is then retted.^ Following incubation, the enzyme-retted flax stalks are rinsed with water to remove the enzyme solution and the solubilized portion of stalk.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Retted flax stalks are then dried with circulating heated air.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After stripping, the flax was mowed, allowed to dry and evenly spread across the soil surface using a HSR 200R rake (JF Fabriken, Sonderborg, Denmark).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Dependent upon climatic conditions, characteristics of the sown flax and fields, the flax remains in the ground between two weeks and two months for retting.^ He had not been on the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans for more than two weeks when he noticed a significant improvement, almost a complete reversal.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again depending upon conditions additional fertilizer may be supplied for plant growth.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yields of flax appear to be influenced by proper field management and by the climate throughout the growing season.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

As a result of alternating rain and the sun, an enzymatic action degrades the pectins which bind fibers to the straw. The farmers turn over the straw during retting to evenly rett the stalks. When the straw is retted and sufficiently dry, it is rolled up. It will then be stored by farmers before scutching to extract fibers.
.Flax grown for seed is allowed to mature until the seed capsules are yellow and just starting to split; it is then harvested by combine harvester and dried to extract the seed.^ As you know I've been HIV positive for just over five months, four months when I started taking the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Differences exist between flax grown for fiber and flax grown for its seed due to variety differences as well as harvesting methods.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After stripping, the flax was mowed, allowed to dry and evenly spread across the soil surface using a HSR 200R rake (JF Fabriken, Sonderborg, Denmark).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

Threshing flax

A tool for threshing flax
File:58-aspetti di vita quotidiana, abbigliamento lino, Taccuino Sa.jpg
Flax tissues, Tacuinum sanitatis, 14th century.
Threshing is the process of removing the seeds from the rest of the plant. As noted above in the Method 1 section, the threshing could be done in the field by a machine, or in another process, a description of which follows:
.The process is divided into two parts: the first part is intended for the farmer, or flax-grower, to bring the flax into a fit state for general or common purposes.^ It was not until the early colonists arrived in North America that flax was first planted in the United States.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is performed by three machines: one for threshing out the seed, one for breaking and separating the straw (stem) from the fiber, and one for further separating the broken straw and matter from the fiber.^ As a versatile crop, the seeds are removed for their oil content and the fibers are separated from the stem for industrial applications.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During incubation, the chelators and enzymes work concurrently to further separate the fiber bundles.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases the farmers thrash out the seed in their own mill and therefore, in such cases, the first machine will be unnecessary.^ Some people have gastrointestinal symptoms, such as flatulence and bloating, when they first begin to incorporate flaxseeds into their diet.
  • WHFoods: Flaxseeds 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

The second part of the process is intended for the manufacturer to bring the flax into a state for the very finest purposes, such as lace, cambric, damask, and very fine linen. This second part is performed by the refining machine only.
The threshing process would be conducted as follows:
.
  • Take the flax in small bundles, as it comes from the field or stack, and holding it in the left hand, put the seed end between the threshing machine and the bed or block against which the machine is to strike; then take the handle of the machine in the right hand, and move the machine backward and forward, to strike on the flax, until the seed is all threshed out.
  • Take the flax in small handfuls in the left hand, spread it flat between the third and little finger, with the seed end downwards, and the root-end above, as near the hand as possible.
  • Put the handful between the beater of the breaking machine, and beat it gently till the three or four inches, which have been under the operation of the machine, appear to be soft.
  • Remove the flax a little higher in the hand, so as to let the soft part of the flax rest upon the little finger, and continue to beat it till all is soft, and the wood is separated from the fiber, keeping the left hand close to the block and the flax as flat upon the block as possible.^ I have been taking flax seed for over 4 months daily.
    • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yields of flax appear to be influenced by proper field management and by the climate throughout the growing season.
    • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Flax Seed Catalog Season It's that time of year when I walk on out to my mailbox and find seed catalogs waiting for me.

    [citation needed]
  • The other end of the flax is then to be turned, and the end which has been beaten is to be wrapped round the little finger, the root end flat, and beaten in the machine till the wood is separated, exactly in the same way as the other end was beaten.

Preparation for spinning

.
Flax stem cross-section, showing locations of underlying tissues.
^ Calcium levels are especially high in the protective barrier of the flax stem and likely help stabilize pectins and thereby plant tissues in that location.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

Ep = epidermis; C = cortex; BF = bast fibers; P = phloem; X = xylem; Pi = pith
Rhof-flachsbearbeitung.ogg
Threshing, retting and dressing flax in the Roscheider Hof, Open Air Museum (German)
.Before the flax fibers can be spun into linen, they must be separated from the rest of the stalk.^ Although flax fibers have a lower strength, they have a lower density and cost, which reduces the load-bearing cost.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Removal of these ions allows easier access by the enzyme formulation into the stalk’s interior, preferentially degrading the pectins, and leaving the cellulose fibers intact.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Retting, which is the separation of bast fibers from the core tissues, is preeminent in flax fiber processing, as it affects quality and yield (Pallesen 1996; Van Sumere 1992).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The first step in this process is called retting.^ Therefore, the retting and mechanical processing steps work together to produce fibers, which are more precisely fiber bundles, of a particular fineness distribution.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Retting is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer fibers intact.^ Color of enzyme-retted flax fiber affected by processing, cleaning, and cottonizing.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For flax, any of the processing methods (i.e., retting and/or subsequent cleaning) potentially could further divide the bundles and result in ultimate fibers and finer bundles.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Enzyme-retting of flax and characteristics of processed fibers.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

At this point there is still straw, or coarse fibers, remaining. .To remove these the flax is "broken," the straw is broken up into small, short bits, while the actual fiber is left unharmed, then "scutched," where the straw is scraped away from the fiber, and then pulled through "hackles," which act like combs and comb the straw out of the fiber.^ Flax is the source of industrial fibers and, as currently processed, results in long-line and short (i.e., tow) fibers (Van Sumere 1992).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These enzymes provide a key step in the economic development of a controlled and scientific approach to rapidly and efficiently produce flax fibers of high and consistent quality.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These flax fibers may aid in the sustainability of US agriculture by providing an alternative crop (winter crop for double-cropping in the south; new fiber products from linseed straw in the north).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

Retting flax

There are several methods of retting flax. It can be retted in a pond, stream, field or a tank. .When the retting is complete the bundles of flax feel soft and slimy, and quite a few fibers are standing out from the stalks.^ Current technical data suggest that dew-retted flax fibers can compete with glass fibers in specific composite materials (Wittig 1994; Burger et al.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Color of enzyme-retted flax fiber affected by processing, cleaning, and cottonizing.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For flax, any of the processing methods (i.e., retting and/or subsequent cleaning) potentially could further divide the bundles and result in ultimate fibers and finer bundles.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

When wrapped around a finger the inner woody part springs away from the fibers.
Pond retting is the fastest. It consists of placing the flax in a pool of water which will not evaporate. .It generally takes place in a shallow pool which will warm up dramatically in the sun; the process may take from only a couple days to a couple weeks.^ I have been surrounded with people suffering with them, and have had only a couple of days of slight nasal stuffiness.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only that, she hasn't been sick a day since she started taking it!"
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of being with both my son and my niece, I only had a couple of days of slight nasal stuffiness with a little sleepiness.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Pond retted flax is traditionally considered lower quality, possibly because the product can become dirty, and easily over-retts, damaging the fiber. This form of retting also produces quite an odor.
.Stream retting is similar to pool retting, but the flax is submerged in bundles in a stream or river.^ For flax, any of the processing methods (i.e., retting and/or subsequent cleaning) potentially could further divide the bundles and result in ultimate fibers and finer bundles.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In water-retting, flax stems are submerged in rivers and lakes, and anaerobic bacteria colonize the flax stems and degrade pectins and other matrix compounds, thus freeing fibers from the core tissues (Van Sumere 1992).
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This generally takes longer than pond retting, normally by two or three weeks, but the end product is less likely to be dirty, does not smell as bad and, because the water is cooler, it is less likely to be over-retted.^ He had not been on the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans for more than two weeks when he noticed a significant improvement, almost a complete reversal.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This last year had been really bad because my sugars where staying too high and I was already taking around 40 units of insulin with every shot.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The really amazing thing here is that I have (now for the last two months) been taking it just a few times a week and my blood sugars have come down into their normal range.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Both Pond and Stream retting were traditionally used less because they pollute the waters used for the process.
Field retting is laying the flax out in a large field, and allowing dew to collect on it. .This process normally takes a month or more, but is generally considered to provide the highest quality flax fibers[citation needed], and produces the least pollution.^ I have been taking flax seed for over 4 months daily.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As you know I've been HIV positive for just over five months, four months when I started taking the Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Day): T cell 470 (highest to date) VL undetectable (in November before the flax I had gone on a drug holiday for a month, the third so far over four years).
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Retting can also be done in a plastic trash can or any type of water tight container of wood, concrete, earthenware or plastic. Metal containers will not work, as an acid is produced when retting, and it would corrode the metal. If the water temperature is kept at 80°F, the retting process under these conditions takes 4 or 5 days. If the water is any colder then it takes longer. Scum will collect at the top and an odour is given off the same as in pond retting. Currently 'enzymatic' retting of flax is being researched as a retting technique to engineer fibers with specific properties (Foulk Akin Dodd (2008). “Pectinolytic enzymes and retting,” BioResources 3(1), 155-169) (Foulk Akin Dodd (2001) "Processing techniques for improving enzyme-retting of flax," Industrial Crops and Products 13 (2001) 239–248).

Dressing the flax

Dressing the flax is the term given to removing the straw from the fibers. Dressing consists of three steps: breaking, scutching, and heckling. The breaking breaks up the straw, then some of the straw is scraped from the fibers in the scutching process, then the fiber is pulled through heckles to remove the last bits of straw.
The dressing is done as follows:
Breaking: The process of breaking breaks up the straw into short segments. To do it, take the bundles of flax and untie them. Next, in small handfuls, put it between the beater of the breaking machine (a set of wooden blades that mesh together when the upper jaw is lowered, which look like a paper cutter but instead of having a big knife it has a blunt arm), and beat it till the three or four inches that have been beaten appear to be soft. Move the flax a little higher and continue to beat it till all is soft, and the wood is separated from the fiber. When half of the flax is broken, hold the beaten end and beat the rest in the same way as the other end was beaten, till the wood is separated.
Scutching: In order to remove some of the straw from the fiber, it helps to swing a wooden scutching knife down the fibers while they hang vertically, thus scraping the edge of the knife along the fibers and pull away pieces of the stalk. .Some of the fiber will also be scutched away, this cannot be helped and is a normal part of the process.^ I explained to him about the tax and U.S. fund raising efforts, and he promised to help with some papers to facilitate the Tax exemption process.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

Heckling: In this process the fiber is pulled through various different sized heckling combs or heckles. A heckle is a bed of "nails" - sharp, long-tapered, tempered, polished steel pins driven into wooden blocks at regular spacing. A good progression is from 4 pins per square inch, to 12, to 25 to 48 to 80. The first three will remove the straw, and the last two will split and polish the fibers. .Some of the finer stuff that comes off in the last hackles is called "tow" and can be carded like wool and spun.^ Great stuff with a really vibrant texture you don’t get with the average ‘junk’ cereal; not too strenous on the jaw, either, like some hardcore granolas!
  • Kashi : Our food : GOLEAN, Crunch! Honey Almond Flax 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.kashi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great stuff with a really vibrant texture you don't get with the average 'junk' cereal; not too strenous on the jaw, either, like some hardcore granolas!
  • Kashi : Our food : GOLEAN, Crunch! Honey Almond Flax 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.kashi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It will produce a coarser yarn than the fibers pulled through the heckles because it will still have some straw in it.

Genetically modified flax contamination

In September 2009 it was reported that Canadian flax exports had been contaminated by an unapproved, illegal, genetically modified (GM) variety, known as Triffid. The Flax Council of Canada had raised concerns about the marketability of this variety in Europe and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency had declared it illegal to grow. .Despite these precautions the flax crop has now been contaminated with this GM variety, threatening Canada's flax growers, who export 70% of their product to Europe where there is a zero tolerance policy regarding GMOs.^ He was a candidate for a pace-maker before he started with Concentrated Flax Hull Lignans, now there is no mention of needing surgery.
  • AIDSHIVAWARENESS.ORG | Flax Hull Lignans Testimonials 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aidshivawareness.org [Source type: Original source]

[19]

As a symbolic image

Flax is the emblem of Northern Ireland and used by the Northern Ireland Assembly. In a coronet, it appeared on the reverse of the British one pound coin to represent Northern Ireland on coins minted in 1986 and 1991. Flax also represents Northern Ireland on the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and on various logos associated with it.
Common flax is the national flower of Belarus.
In early tellings of the Sleeping Beauty tale, such as Sun, Moon, and Talia by Giambattista Basile, the princess pricks her finger not on a spindle but on a sliver of flax, which is later sucked out by her children conceived as she sleeps.

See also

References

  1. ^ Alister D. Muir, Neil D. Westcot, ""Flax: The Genus Linum"". http://books.google.com/books?id=j0zDO165tHcC&pg. , page 3 (August 1, 2003).
  2. ^ http://www.westonaprice.org/Flaxseed-and-Flaxseed-Oils-for-Omega-3-Fatty-Acids.html
  3. ^ Balter M. (2009). Clothes make the (Hu) Man. Science,325(5946):1329.doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a
  4. ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. (2009).30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science, 325(5946):1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404 Supporting Online Material
  5. ^ "Flax nutrition profile". http://www.flaxcouncil.ca/english/index.jsp?p=g3&mp=nutrition. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  6. ^ a b Mayo Clinic (2006-05-01). "Drugs and Supplements: Flaxseed and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum)". http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/flaxseed/NS_patient-flaxseed. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  7. ^ Malcolmson, L.J. (2006-04). "Storage stability of milled flaxseed". http://www.springerlink.com/content/l544x14m66l05372/. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  8. ^ Alpers, Linda; Sawyer-Morse, Mary K. (1996-08). "Eating Quality of Banana Nut Muffins and Oatmeal Cookies Made With Ground Flaxseed". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 (8): 794–796. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00219-2. 
  9. ^ "Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids," Pan A, Yu D, Demark-Wahnefried W, Franco OH, Lin X, Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug; 90(2): 288-97.
  10. ^ Chen J, Wang L, Thompson LU (2006). "Flaxseed and its components reduce metastasis after surgical excision of solid human breast tumor in nude mice". Cancer Lett. 234 (2): 168–75. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.03.056. PMID 15913884. 
  11. ^ Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, Strasser-Weippl K, Goss PE (2005). "Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (10): 3828–35. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2326. PMID 15897583. 
  12. ^ "Flaxseed Stunts The Growth Of Prostate Tumors". ScienceDaily. 2007-06-04. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070603215443.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  13. ^ (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070603215443.htm)
  14. ^ Dahl, WJ; Lockert EA Cammer AL Whiting SJ (December 2005). "Effects of Flax Fiber on Laxation and Glycemic Response in Healthy Volunteers". Journal of Medicinal Food 8 (4): 508–511. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.508. http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jmf.2005.8.508. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  15. ^ a b "Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/flaxseed/. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  16. ^ {{{1}}} patent {{{2}}}
  17. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112726804&sc=fb&cc=fp
  18. ^ Wardey, A. J. (1967). The Linen Trade: Ancient and Modern. Routledge. pp. 752. ISBN 071461114X. 
  19. ^ Illegal GM Flax Contaminates Canadian Exports, Canadian Business, 10 September 2009, accessed 11 September 2009

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1911 encyclopedia

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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

(Heb. .pishtah, i.e., "peeled", in allusion to the fact that the stalks of flax when dried were first split or peeled before being steeped in water for the purpose of destroying the pulp).^ Following incubation, the enzyme-retted flax stalks are rinsed with water to remove the enzyme solution and the solubilized portion of stalk.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Retted flax stalks are then dried with circulating heated air.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

This plant was cultivated from earliest times. .The flax of Egypt was destroyed by the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i.e., was forming pods for seed (Ex 9:31).^ Flax seed is rich in a form of omega-3 fatty acids called ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).
  • Flax Seed and Prostate Cancer Risk | Mark's Daily Apple 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herbs (All) Echinacea Lemon Grape Ginseng Flax Seed remove Vitamin / Supplement Form .
  • Flax Seed, Capsules Vitamins & Nutrition at BizRate - Shop online for Health & Beauty Supplies. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 22 September 2009 17:52 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Flax seeds were apparently first used as a medicament in ancient Egypt.
  • Tag: Flax - Explore content tagged Flax on eHow.com 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

It was extensively cultivated both in Egypt and Palestine. .Reference is made in Josh 2:6 to the custom of drying flax-stalks by exposing them to the sun on the flat roofs of houses.^ Retted flax stalks are then dried with circulating heated air.
  • Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast 11 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

It was much used in forming articles of clothing such as girdles, also cords and bands (Lev 13:48ff; Deut 22:11). (See also: Linen.)
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Simple English

Flax
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Linaceae
Genus: Linum
Species: L. usitatissimum
Binomial name
Linum usitatissimum
Linnaeus.

Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (Linum usitatissimum) is a plant.

The fibers of flax are used to make linen. From the dried ripe flax seeds can be made an oil (linseed oil). Flax has been used for a long time in such tasks as making bows and candles.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Flax, which are similar to those in the above article.








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