Fletcher Christian: Wikis

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Fletcher Christian
Born September 25, 1764(1764-09-25)
Moreland Close, Brigham, Cumbria, England
Died September 20, 1793 (aged 28)
Pitcairn Island
Occupation Master's Mate
Spouse(s) Mauatua 'Isabella'
Children Thursday October, Charles and Mary Ann Christian
Parents Charles Christian, Ann Dixon

Fletcher Christian (25 September 1764 – 20 September 1793) was a Master's mate on board the Bounty during William Bligh's fateful voyage to Tahiti for breadfruit plants (see Mutiny on the Bounty). It was Christian who seized command[1] of the Bounty from Bligh on 28 April 1789.

Contents

Early life

Christian was born on 25 September 1764, at his family home of Moorland Close, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. Fletcher Christian was the second youngest son of Charles Christian (12 December 1729 – 11 March 1768) and Ann Dixon (1730 – c. 1812) who were to have ten children, six of whom survived infancy. Fletcher's father, Charles Christian, was descended from a long line of Manx gentry, his paternal grandparents were John Christian (14 May 1688 – 20 September 1745) and Bridget Senhouse (c. 1693 – 27 September 1749). John could trace his ancestry back to William the Conqueror. The surname Christian is an Anglicization of the Manx name McCrystyn. Bridget could trace her ancestry back to Edward I. Fletcher's mother, Ann Dixon, was of an old, well-established Cumberland family, her mother being one of the powerful Fletcher clan; it was after his maternal grandmother's family that Fletcher Christian was named. His maternal grandparents were Jacob Dixon and Mary Fletcher.

Charles' marriage to Ann brought with it the small but respectable property of Moorland Close, "a quadrangle pile of buildings ... half castle, half farmstead."[2] Charles died in 1768 when Fletcher was not yet four. Ann proved herself grossly irresponsible with money. By 1779, when Fletcher was fifteen, Ann had run up a staggering debt of nearly £6,500,[2] and faced the very real prospect of debtors' prison. Ultimately Moorland Close was lost, and Ann and her three younger children were forced to flee to the Isle of Man where English creditors had no power. The three elder Christian sons managed to arrange a £40 per year annuity for their mother, allowing the family to live in genteel poverty. In the mean time, Christian had spent seven years at the Cockermouth Free School from the age of nine. While there one of his younger contemporaries was Cockermouth native William Wordsworth.[3]

He next appears in 1783, now eighteen years old, on the muster rolls of HMS Eurydice outward bound for a 21-month voyage to India. The ship's muster shows Christian's conduct was more than satisfactory because "...some seven months out from England, he had been promoted from midshipman to master's mate".[4] Christian twice sailed to Jamaica with Bligh.

Mutiny on the Bounty

Map showing Bounty's movements in the Pacific Ocean, 1788–1790     Voyage of Bounty to Tahiti and to location of the mutiny, 28 April 1789     Movements of Bounty after the mutiny, under Christian's command     Course of Bligh's open-boat journey to Coupang

In 1787 Christian was appointed master's mate on the Bounty, on Bligh's recommendation, for the ship's breadfruit expedition to Tahiti. During the voyage out, Bligh appointed him acting lieutenant. The Bounty arrived at Tahiti on 26 October 1788, and Christian spent the next five months there.

The Bounty set sail with its breadfruit cargo on 4 April 1789. Some 1,300 miles west of Tahiti, near Tonga, mutiny broke out on 28 April 1789, led by Christian.

Following the mutiny, Christian attempted to build a colony on Tubuai, but there the mutineers met with conflict with natives. Abandoning the island, he stopped briefly in Tahiti where he married Maimiti, the daughter of one of the local chiefs, on June 16, 1789.[5] While on Tahiti he dropped off sixteen crewmen. These sixteen included four Bligh loyalists who had been left behind on the Bounty and two who had neither participated in, nor resisted the mutiny. The remaining nine mutineers, six Tahitian men, and eleven Tahitian women then settled on Pitcairn Island where they stripped the Bounty of all that could be floated ashore before Matthew Quintal set it on fire. This sexual imbalance, combined with the effective enslavement of the Tahitian men by the mutineers, led to insurrection and the deaths of most of the men.

Death

The American seal-hunting ship Topaz visited Pitcairn in 1808 and found only one mutineer, John Adams (who had used the alias Alexander Smith while on the Bounty), still alive along with nine Tahitian women. The mutineers who had perished had, however, already had children with their Tahitian wives. Most of these children were still living. Adams and Maimiti claimed Christian had been murdered during the conflict between the Tahitian men and the mutineers. According to an account by a Pitcairnian woman named Jenny who left the island in 1817, Christian was shot while working by a pond next to the home of his pregnant wife. Along with Christian, four other mutineers and all six of the Tahitian men who had come to the island were killed in the conflict. One of the four surviving mutineers fell off a cliff while intoxicated and was killed, and Quintal was later killed by the remaining two mutineers after he attacked them.

John Adams gave conflicting accounts of Christian's death to visitors on ships which subsequently visited Pitcairn. He was variously said to have died of natural causes, committed suicide, gone insane, and been murdered[6].

Christian was survived by Maimiti and his son, Thursday October Christian (born 1790). Besides Thursday October, Fletcher Christian also had a younger son named Charles Christian (Born 1792) and a daughter Mary Ann Christian (Born 1793). Thursday and Charles are the ancestors of almost everybody with the surname Christian on Pitcairn and Norfolk Islands, as well as the many descendants who have moved to Australia and New Zealand.

Rumors have persisted for more than two hundred years that Christian's murder may have been faked, that he had left the island, and that he made his way back to England.[7] Many scholars believe that the rumors of Christian returning to England helped to inspire Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.[8]

There is no portrait or drawing extant of Fletcher Christian that was drawn from life. Bligh described Christian as "5 ft. 9 in. high [175.26 cm]. Dark Swarthy Complexion. Hair - Blackish or very dark brown. Make - Strong. A Star tattooed [sic] on his left Breast, and tattooed on the backside. His knees stand a little out and he may be called a little Bowlegged. He is subject to Violent perspiration, particularly in his hand, so that he Soils anything he handles".[9]

Appearances in literature

In Peter F. Hamilton's Night's Dawn trilogy, Fletcher Christian appears as a possessed who helps two living girls escape. [10]

Movie portrayals

Christian was portrayed in films by:

The 1935 and 1962 films are based on the 1932 novel Mutiny on the Bounty in which Christian is a major character and is generally portrayed positively. The authors of that novel also wrote two sequels, one of which, Pitcairn’s Island is the story of the tragic events after the mutiny that apparently resulted in Christian’s death along with other violent deaths on Pitcairn Island. This series of novels uses fictionalized versions of minor crew members as narrators of the stories.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ Mutiny on the HMS Bounty: Bligh, Christian, Pitcairn, Norfolk
  2. ^ a b Anderson. The Bounty. pp. 60. 
  3. ^ Hough. Captain Bligh and Mister Christian. pp. 56. 
  4. ^ Anderson. The Bounty. pp. 57. 
  5. ^ thePeerage.com - Person Page 11908
  6. ^ Alexander, C. (2003) pp.359-360
  7. ^ The poet Robert Southey reported in correspondence a sighting of Christian in England in about 1803. Curry, K. (ed)(1965) New Letters of Robert Southey, vol. 1, pp 519ff, cited in Alexander, C. (2003), p.405
  8. ^ Williams; Oakeshott. The Cambridge Journal. pp. 190. 
  9. ^ "Bounty's Crew Encyclopedia, Christian, Fletcher". Pitcairn Island Study Center (PISC). http://library.puc.edu/pitcairn/bounty/crew.shtml. "The text on the PISC website is used with permission from Mutiny and Romance in the South Seas: A Companion to the Bounty Adventure by Sven Wahlroos." 
  10. ^ Hamilton. The Neutronium Alchemist. 

References

  • Hamilton. The Neutronium Alchemist. 
  • Alexander, Caroline (2003). The Bounty: The True Story of the Mutiny on the Bounty. New York: Viking. ISBN 067003133X. 
  • Hough, Richard (1973). Captain Bligh and Mister Christian: The Men and the Mutiny. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.. ISBN 0525073108. 
  • Williams, T.F.D.; Oakeshott, M. (1954). The Cambridge Journal. London: Bowes and Bowes. 

Further reading

  • Christian, Glynn (2005). Fragile Paradise: the Discovery of Fletcher Christian, Bounty Mutineer. Classic Travel Books, Long Riders' Guild Press. ISBN 1590482506. 
  • Conway, Christiane (2005). Letters from the Isle of Man - The Bounty-Correspondence of Nessy and Peter Heywood. The Manx Experience. ISBN 1-873120-77-X.

See also

External links

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General information

Genealogical information

Genealogical information about Fletcher Christian and the other Bounty crew members can be found at the following online locations. The genealogical information comes from information provided by descendents of the Bounty crew as well as historical archives.

Other related information

Political offices
Preceded by
Position Created
Leader of the Pitcairn Islands
January 23, 1790 – October 3, 1793
Succeeded by
Edward Young

Simple English

Fletcher Christian
Born September 25, 1764
Brigham, Cumbria, England
Died 1793
Pitcairn Island
Cause of death Shot
Title Lieutenant
Spouse Maimiti
Children Thursday October Christian

Fletcher Christian (September 25, 1764 - 1793) was an English seaman on HMS Bounty when it sailed to Tahiti to collect breadfruit trees in 1787. He led a mutiny (take over) to stop Lieutenant William Bligh returning to England. (See Mutiny on the Bounty). He left Bligh and 18 seaman in a small boat, and went back to Tahiti in the Bounty. Christian and some of the other sailors then sailed to Pitcairn Island to live. Christian was later killed in a fight between the Tahitian men and the seamen.

Contents

Early life

Christian was born in 1764 at the family home of Moorland Close, near Brigham, Cumbria[1]. He was one of 10 children of Charles Christian and Ann Dixon. He could trace his ancestry back to William the Conqueror. The name Christian is an English way of saying the Manx name "McCrystyn". Fletcher's mother came from Cumberland and he was named after his grandmother, Mary Fletcher. After his father died, Christian went to sea. He was 18 years old. He was a sailor on the ship 'Cambridge'. William Bligh was also on the ship. Christian later sailed on two trips with Bligh to Jamaica on the ship 'Britannia'[2].

After the mutiny

After the mutiny, Christian wanted to settle on the island of Tubuai. The sailors were scared of the natives who lived on the island. The sailors went back to Tahiti. Christian married Maimiti, the daughter of one of the chiefs on June 16, 1789[3]. He then left Tahiti with 8 of the mutineers, 13 Tahitian women and six men. They sailed to the remote Pitcairn Island[4]. Sixteen sailors from the Bounty stayed at Tahiti. At Pitcairn they took everything they could from the Bounty. After that Matthew Quintal set it on fire. The sexual imbalance (more men than women) and the slavery of the Tahitian men by the mutineers led to fighting and the deaths of most of the men. Fletcher Christian was killed in the fighting. He had a son with Maimiti, Thursday October Christian.

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References


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