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Floppy Disk Drive
Floppy Disk Drives 8 5 3.jpg
8-inch, 5¼-inch (full height), and 3½-inch drives
Date invented 1969 (8-inch),
1976 (5¼-inch),
1982 (3½-inch)
Invented by IBM team led by David L. Noble[1]
Connects to Controller via:
  • Cable
8-inch, 5¼-inch, and 3½-inch floppy disks
.A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible ("floppy") magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell.^ Blank floppy disks and storage (4) .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ A computer peripheral that reads magnetic data from a floppy disk.
  • What is the definition of floppy disk? 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Blank floppy disks and storage .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive or FDD, the initials of which should not be confused with "fixed disk drive", which is another term for a (nonremovable) type of hard disk drive.^ Try another floppy drive.
  • HELP - two OSs screwed, new disk/floppy initialization problems, etc. - Topic Powered by Social Strata 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC episteme.arstechnica.com [Source type: General]

^ The "how to fix disk drives."
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The "how to fix floppy drives."
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Invented by the American information technology company IBM, floppy disks in 8-inch (203 mm), 5+14 in (133 mm), and 3+12 in (89 mm) formats enjoyed nearly three decades as a popular and ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange, from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s.^ How to format a floppy disk?
  • How to format a floppy disk? - Yahoo! Answers 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Blank floppy disks and storage (4) .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Refurbished 3.5 -inch Floppy Disk Drive .

.While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment,[2] they have now been largely superseded by USB flash drives, external hard disk drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards.^ What kind of floppy disk drive (hardware) are you using?
  • Floppy Disk in Windows 7 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.w7forums.com [Source type: General]

^ LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive .
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives .
  • Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

Usage

.The flexible magnetic disk, or diskette revolutionized computer disk storage in the 1970s.^ Magnetic disks, first used to store data in 1962, initially provided supplemental memory in high-speed computer systems.
  • How floppy disk is made - material, manufacture, used, processing, parts, components, dimensions, procedure, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of floppy disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following is a selection of items (artistic styles or groups, constructions, events, fictional characters, organizations, publications) associated with "floppy disk" auxiliary storage (computing) magnetic disk (electronics) No additional content was found for this topic.
  • floppy disk (computing) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Floppy disks are made of flexible plastic coated with a magnetic material, and are enclosed in a hard plastic case.
  • floppy disk (computing) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Diskettes, which were often called floppy disks or floppies, became ubiquitous in the 1980s and 1990s in their use with personal computers and home computers to distribute software, transfer data, and create backups.^ A bootable diskette is also called a bootable floppy, boot disk, and startup disk.
  • bootable diskette - Internetnews.com - Webopedia.com 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC inews.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ A computer peripheral that reads magnetic data from a floppy disk.
  • What is the definition of floppy disk? 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The floppy driver uses DMA to transfer data between the computer's memory and the diskette controller.
  • Floppy Disk Driver 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.on-time.com [Source type: Reference]

.Before hard disks became affordable, floppy disks were often also used to store a computer's operating system (OS), in addition to application software and data.^ That will copy the OS system files on the running computer to the floppy disk.
  • A Floppy Boot Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.computing.net [Source type: General]

^ Completely Automated Disk level data recovery software for Floppy Disks.
  • Rescue Floppy Disk - Free Download at Rocket Download 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.rocketdownload.com [Source type: General]
  • Corrupt Floppy Disk downloads at VicMan 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: Reference]

^ What file system is used on the floppy image?

.Most home computers had a primary OS (and often BASIC) stored permanently in on-board ROM, with the option of loading a more advanced disk operating system from a floppy, whether it be a proprietary system, CP/M, or later, DOS.^ That will copy the OS system files on the running computer to the floppy disk.
  • A Floppy Boot Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.computing.net [Source type: General]

^ OS/2 version 3 on 3.5" floppy disks with BonusPak .
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Have multiple operating systems on the same computer!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.By the early 1990s, the increasing size of software meant that many programs demanded multiple diskettes; a large package like Windows or Adobe Photoshop could use a dozen disks or more.^ Keywords: Disk recovery program , disk data recovery , disk data recovery software , disk data recovery tool , windows disk recovery .
  • Floppy disk recovery downloads at VicMan 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Used older CAD program on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 3.0 version of Windows on 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

Toward the end of the 1990s, distribution of larger packages therefore gradually switched to CD-ROM (or online distribution for smaller programs).
Mechanically incompatible higher-density formats were introduced (e.g. the .Iomega Zip drive) and were briefly popular, but adoption was limited by the competition between proprietary formats, and the need to buy expensive drives for computers where the media would be used.^ Used Zip disks for Zip 100 drives .
  • 3.5" DSDD disks and 5.25" DSDD and HD blank floppy disks for old computers with double density 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" drives 25 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used Zip 100 Disks for Iomega Zip drives .
  • 3.5" DSDD disks and 5.25" DSDD and HD blank floppy disks for old computers with double density 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" drives 25 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ I haven’t had a floppy drive installed on any of my actively-used computers for something like 7 years now.
  • Floppy Disk Finally Dead? | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.In some cases, such as with the Zip drive, the failure in market penetration was exacerbated by the release of newer higher-capacity versions of the drive and media that were not backward compatible with the original drives, thus fragmenting the user base between new users and early adopters who were unwilling to pay for an upgrade so soon.^ Some users have reported gradual system slow down and eventual lock up while copying a large amount of data to/from virtual drives.

^ News But the meteoric rise of CD-rewritable drives in the late 1990s, followed by the ever-growing popularity of DVD recording, cast a shadow over the high-capacity Zip floppy .
  • floppy disk Content at ZDNet UK 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.zdnet.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Bizjournals.com Wall Street Journal (blog) ABC News  - - Software Will Be the E-Reader's Kingmaker - PC Magazine PC Magazine I'm convinced that, as in most cases these days, it's the software that will drive the hardware and determine the eventual winners and losers in this market ...
  • Floppy Disk Recovery Software Free Download 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC top.softlandmark.com [Source type: General]

A chicken or the egg scenario ensued, with consumers wary of making costly investments into unproven and rapidly changing technologies, with the result that none of the technologies were able to prove themselves and stabilize their market presence. .Soon, inexpensive recordable CDs with even greater capacity, which were also compatible with an existing infrastructure of CD-ROM drives, made the new floppy technologies redundant.^ Many new machines no longer even have floppy drives.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ CD-ROM drives .

^ I don't mind unplugging things--I've installed hard and cd rom drives, memory, video and sound cards, and now a floppy disk drive.
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

.The last advantage of floppy disks, reusability, was countered by re-writable CDs.^ Re: Zenworks and Floppy Disk errors .
  • Zenworks and Floppy Disk errors - NOVELL FORUMS 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.novell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: floppy disk mounting issues .
  • HOWTO fix floppy disk mounting issues - Ubuntu Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC ubuntuforums.org [Source type: General]

^ Re: Floppy disk image .
  • Floppy disk image - NOVELL FORUMS 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.novell.com [Source type: General]

.Later, advancements in flash-based devices and widespread adoption of the USB interface provided another alternative that, in turn, made even optical storage obsolete for some purposes.^ USB Storage Device is listed.
  • Yahoo! Canada Answers - Can I use a memory stick instead of a floppy disk as a start up disk? 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC ca.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ As the functionality evolved, some of the bit definitions were actually reversed in meaning, not merely made obsolete.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008, because of a widespread computer worm, the United States Department of Defense completely banned the use of USB flash drives.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.An attempt to continue the traditional diskette was the SuperDisk (LS-120) in the late 1990s, with a capacity of 120 MB[3] which was backward compatible with standard 3½-inch floppies.^ News But the meteoric rise of CD-rewritable drives in the late 1990s, followed by the ever-growing popularity of DVD recording, cast a shadow over the high-capacity Zip floppy .
  • floppy disk Content at ZDNet UK 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.zdnet.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Capacity 1.44 MB   1 MB   120 MB   125.9 MB   Drive Type Floppy  remove Zip   LS-120 (SuperDisk)   Recording Media Floppy Disk   Zip   LS-120 (SuperDisk)   Interface Type Floppy   USB   USB 2.0   SCSI   IDE / EIDE   PCI   Data Transfer Rate 500   50   62.5   64 KBps   250 KBps   500 KBps   680 KBps   Operating System Compatibility PC   Mac   Sun   Linux   Novell   Unix   Suggested Searches .
  • Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]
  • Floppy disk drive Tape / Cartridge Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ It reads and writes standard 1.44 MB floppy disks at twice the speed.
  • Floppy Disks / Blank Media 25 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.beachaudio.com [Source type: General]

.For some time, PC manufacturers were reluctant to remove the floppy drive because many IT departments appreciated a built-in file transfer mechanism (dubbed Sneakernet) that always worked and required no device driver to operate properly.^ Many new machines no longer even have floppy drives.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Today, 98% of all PCs in PC World have no floppy, or A drive.
  • Death of the Floppy Disk...RIP - MobileBurn Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.mobileburn.com [Source type: General]

^ Don’t have a floppy drive on any of my pc’s.
  • Floppy Disk Finally Dead? | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.However, manufacturers and retailers have progressively reduced the availability of computers fitted with floppy drives and of the disks themselves.^ Supermicro TEAC Floppy disk drive - Floppy .

^ Blank floppy disks and storage manufacturers .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive .
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

.Widespread built-in operating system support for USB flash drives, and even BIOS boot support for such devices on most modern systems, has helped this process along.^ Most modern motherboards also support flashing from an USB drive, or from a floppy disk where the only file is the BIOS image.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Operating system supported .
  • Screenshot of Floppy Zip Disk Rescue - rescue damaged file from Floppy Zip disk. :: free :: freeware :: shareware 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.softcab.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Besides, modern BIOS's can emulate USB storage devices as harddrive.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Imation USB Floppy Drive, model 01946. An external drive that accepts high-density disks.
.External USB-based floppy disk drives are available for computers without floppy drives, and they work on any machine that supports USB Mass Storage Devices.^ External Floppy Drives AFD-USB-2X .

^ Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives .
  • Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ External USB 1.1, 3.5 Inches Floppy Disk Drive, Works Under Win98, 2000, XP, 2003 .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Many modern systems even provide firmware support for booting to a USB-mounted floppy drive.^ Many new machines no longer even have floppy drives.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Each ribbon cable for floppy drives can support 2 drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My 2002 Sony laptop will even let me boot from a USB floppy drive!
  • keyboard doesn' t run after boot from floppy disk - Vista Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vistax64.com [Source type: General]

.However these drives can't handle anything but the common 80-track MFM format.^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it CAN also be done in Windows XP. When you select format the disk in drive A in My Computer, there is an option to create an MS-DOS startup disk.
  • A Floppy Boot Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.computing.net [Source type: General]

^ Coupled with the companion NEC 9201 chip, it handles all operations with the drive including read and write data, formatting, seeking, sensing drive status, and recalibrating.
  • Macintosh II PC 5.25 Floppy Disk Controller Card: Description 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC docs.info.apple.com [Source type: Reference]

.Which means that formats used by C64, Amiga, Macintosh, etc.^ Other personal computers (the Macintosh in particular) used 3.5 inch diskette drives, but with a different formatting scheme.
  • Working with Diskettes 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.brutman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The double-sided double-density disks (DSDD) are ideal for old computers such as old IBM compatible systems, Commodore, Amiga, Atari, Apple 2, Macintosh, etc.
  • 3.5" DSDD disks and 5.25" DSDD and HD blank floppy disks for old computers with double density 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" drives 25 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

can't be read by these devices.
.Windows XP still requires the use of floppy drives to install third-party RAID, SATA, and AHCI hard drives, unless the install CD is modified to include these drivers.^ Floppy disk for SATA RAID install .
  • Floppy disk for SATA RAID install - Gigabyte - Motherboards-Memory 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ I use it mainly for the SATA/RAID drivers for XP installs (via the F6 > method).
  • Floppy Disk in Windows 7 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.w7forums.com [Source type: General]

^ Hard drive required.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.Customized Windows XP install CDs can be made with programs such as nLite.^ Copy the Ntdetect.com and the Ntldr files from the I386 folder on the Windows XP CD-ROM to the new disk.
  • How to make a boot disk (in floppy) for Win. XP Prof. - Cyber Tech Help Support Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.cybertechhelp.com [Source type: General]

^ This drive was very easy to install under Windows XP. I have not had any problems with this device.
  • USB Floppy Disk Drive for PC & Mac - PC World Pricing 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The Windows XP CD-ROM or an operational Windows XP-based computer.
  • How to make a boot disk (in floppy) for Win. XP Prof. - Cyber Tech Help Support Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.cybertechhelp.com [Source type: General]

.This requirement was dropped only with the introduction of Windows Vista in 2007. Most PC motherboards will still attempt to boot from a floppy drive, depending on CMOS settings.^ Don’t have a floppy drive on any of my pc’s.
  • Floppy Disk Finally Dead? | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The boot floppy disk was created in Windows Vista home ed.
  • keyboard doesn' t run after boot from floppy disk - Vista Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vistax64.com [Source type: General]

^ The Internal 3 Floppy Disc Drive is perfect for systems that still encounter legacy equipment and historical machinery that would ordinarily cause delays.
  • CompUSA.com | FD1231-302 | Floppy Disk Drive 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.compusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CompUSA.com | FD1231-302 | Floppy Disk Drive 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.compusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Disk formats

.Floppy sizes are almost universally referred to in imperial measurements, even in countries where metric is the standard, and even when the size is in fact defined in metric (for instance the 3½-inch floppy, which is actually 90 mm).^ Two common size devices are produced for the 3.5 inch floppy drive; the standard version 25.4 x 101.6 x 146mm [H x W x D], and a reduced size version 12.7 x 96 x 126mm [H x W x D].
  • Floppy Drive Pinout, Signal Names, Pin out Description and Cable twist wiring 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.interfacebus.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bit Density for the two common size Floppy Disks are 8717 bpi [Bits per Inch] for the 720KB size and 17434 bpi for the 1.44MB size.
  • Floppy Drive Pinout, Signal Names, Pin out Description and Cable twist wiring 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.interfacebus.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Refurbished Floppy Disk Drive with 3.5-inch Size and 1.44MB Capacity .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Formatted capacities are generally set in terms of binary kilobytes (as 1 sector is generally 512 bytes).^ IBM PC clones generally use a 512 byte sector.
  • Working with Diskettes 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.brutman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 4 byte format buffer must be provided for each sector of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the 360 KB format shown above uses 40 tracks * 2 sides * 9 sectors per track * 512 byes per sector, for a total of 368640 bytes on a diskette.
  • Working with Diskettes 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.brutman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For more information see below.
Historical sequence of floppy disk formats, including the last format to be generally adopted — the "High Density" 3½-inch HD floppy, introduced 1987.
Disk format Year introduced Formatted
Storage capacity
in KiB (1024 bytes) if not stated
Marketed
capacity¹
8-inch - IBM 23FD (read-only) 1971 79.7[4] ?
8-inch - Memorex 650 1972 175 kB[5] 1.5 megabit[5] [unformatted]
8-inch - SSSD
IBM 33FD / Shugart 901
1973 237.25[6][7] 3.1 Mbits unformatted
8-inch - DSSD
IBM 43FD / Shugart 850
1976 500.5[8] 6.2 Mbits unformatted
5¼-inch (35 track)
Shugart SA 400
1976[9] 89.6 kB[10] 110 kB
8-inch DSDD
IBM 53FD / Shugart 850
1977 980 (CP/M)
- 1200 (MS-DOS FAT)
1.2 MB
5¼-inch DD 1978 360 or 800 360 KB
5¼-inch
Apple Disk II (Pre-DOS 3.3)
1978 113.75
(256 byte sectors, 13 sectors/track, 35 tracks)
113 KB
5¼-inch
Apple Disk II (DOS 3.3)
1980 140
(256 byte sectors, 16 sectors/track, 35 tracks)
140 KB
3½-inch
HP single sided
1982 280 264 kB
3-inch 1982[11][12] 360[citation needed] 125 kB (SS/SD), 500 kB (DS/DD)[12]
3½-inch (DD at release) 1983[13] 720 (400 SS, 800 DS on Macintosh, 880 DS on Amiga) 1 MB
5¼-inch QD 720 720 KB
5¼-inch HD 1982 YE Data YD380[14] 1,182,720 bytes 1.2 MB
3-inch DD 1984[citation needed] 720[citation needed] ?
3-inch
Mitsumi Quick Disk
1985 128 to 256 ?
2-inch 1985[citation needed] 720[citation needed] ?
2½-inch 1986[15] ? ?
5¼-inch Perpendicular 1986[15] 10 MB ?
3½-inch HD 1987 1440 1.44 MB (2.0 MB unformatted)
3½-inch ED 1987[16] 2880 2.88 MB
3½-inch Floptical (LS) 1991 21000 21 MB
3½-inch LS-120 1996 120.375 MB 120 MB
3½-inch LS-240 1997 240.75 MB 240 MB
3½-inch HiFD 1998/99 150/200 MB[citation needed] 150/200 MB
Abbreviations: DD = Double Density; QD = Quad Density; HD = High Density; ED = Extended Density; LS = Laser Servo; HiFD = High capacity Floppy Disk; SS = Single Sided; DS = Double Sided
¹ The formatted capacities of floppy disks frequently corresponded only vaguely to their capacities as marketed by drive and media companies, due to differences between formatted and unformatted capacities and also due to the non-standard use of binary prefixes in labeling and advertising floppy media. .The erroneous "1.44 MB" value for the 3½-inch HD floppies is the most widely known example.^ For a 1.44 MB floppy and a 10ms delay this gives "HLT_value = 10 * 500000 / 1000000" or 5.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a 1.44 MB floppy and a 240 mS delay this gives "HUT_value = 24 * 500000 / 8000000" or 15.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a 1.44 MB floppy and 8ms delay this gives "SRT_value = 16 - (8 * 500000 / 500000)" or a parameter value of 8.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See Ultimate capacity and speed.
Dates and capacities marked ? are of unclear origin and need source information; other listed capacities refer to:
Formatted Storage Capacity is total size of all sectors on the disk:
.
  • For 8-inch see Table of 8-inch floppy formats IBM 8-inch formats.^ Click here to see many more IBM compatible games and programs on floppy disk and CD!!!
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Click Here to see many more IBM compatible games and programs on floppy disks and CD! .
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ See It IBM Thinkpad 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive 3.5 Mfr p/n 05K9206 .

    Note that spare, hidden and otherwise reserved sectors are included in this number.
  • For 5¼- and 3½-inch capacities quoted are from subsystem or system vendor statements.
Marketed Capacity is the capacity, typically unformatted, by the original media OEM vendor or in the case of IBM media, the first OEM thereafter. .Other formats may get more or less capacity from the same drives and disks.^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The internal host computer will send commands to the control circuitry 66 and control the disk drive 40 in the same manner as an external host computer in the preferred embodiment.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If windows has ever told you that the disk in drive A is not formatted.
  • Floppy disk recovery downloads at VicMan 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: Reference]

History

8-inch disk drive with diskette (3½-inch disk for comparison)
.The earliest floppy disks, invented at IBM, were 8 inches in diameter.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Refurbished Floppy Disk Drive with 3.5-inch Size and 1.44MB Capacity .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ External USB 1.1, 3.5 Inches Floppy Disk Drive, Works Under Win98, 2000, XP, 2003 .
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.They became commercially available in 1971.[1][17] Disks in this form factor were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, and Burroughs Corporation.^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The micro-floppy disk drive is a commercially available drive with minimal modification required for implementation into the instant invention.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ FIG. 6 also shows an eject button 62 which is an integral part of the commercially available disk drive 40.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[18]
5¼-inch diskette.
In 1976 Shugart Associates introduced the first 5¼-inch FDD and associated media. .By 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing 5¼-inch FDDs, in competing disk formats: hard or soft sectored with various encoding schemes such as FM, MFM and GCR.^ If there are more than one controller in this branch, you may have > > > a "ghost".
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Business Type Manufacturer (51 products) Exporter (39 products) Trading Company (10 products) Wholesaler (7 products) Importer (4 products) more...
  • Diskette Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Using PIO mode can transfer data 10 percent faster than a DMA transfer, but there is an immense cost in CPU cycle requirements.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 5¼-inch formats quickly displaced the 8-inch for most applications, and the 5¼-inch hard-sectored disk format eventually disappeared.^ Likewise, a 1.4 MB disk cannot be used as an 800 KB without problems (this is most often done by accidentally formatting a 1.4 MB disk in an 800K drive).
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Hard disk data recovery software can easily and quickly provide deleted or formatted data from inaccessible hard disk drive based Windows OS such as 95, 98, ME, XP, 2000, 2003, Vista and Windows 7.
  • Floppy disk recovery downloads at VicMan 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1984, IBM introduced the 1.2 megabyte dual sided floppy disk along with its AT model.^ Floppy Disk retail software for IBM, Windows and Dos .
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ As shown in FIG. 6, microswitch 60, the "disk-loaded" switch, is attached to the side of the disk drive 40 to detect the presence of a micro-floppy disk 48 in the operational position.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although often used as backup storage, the high density floppy was not often used by software manufacturers for interchangeability.^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Third party drives are available for users of Macintosh Pluses who need to use high density floppies - and that would be any Plus user who wants to keep his computer running new software these days.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 5.25" high density science fiction role-playing dos game with manual in original box.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.In 1986, IBM began to use the 720 kB double density 3.5" microfloppy disk on its Convertible laptop computer.^ The SuperDrive adds 1.4 MB high density disks to the list of supported capacities and retains the backwards compatibility with 400 KB and 800 KB diskettes.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Using only one side of the disk, these drives are largely obsolete and have been for some time now - Apple sold the last 400K drive in 1986.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the Mac users attempted to use the IBM diskette in a Mac, sometimes damaging the diskette; then they had to locate IBM computers, which entailed moving to a different room or building.
  • Dennison: Course on a Diskette 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC horizon.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It introduced the so-called "1.44 MB" high density version with the PS/2 line.^ The SuperDrive adds 1.4 MB high density disks to the list of supported capacities and retains the backwards compatibility with 400 KB and 800 KB diskettes.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ DS/HD refers to a double-sided, high-density diskette and refers to the 1.4 MB high density disk.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

.These disk drives could be added to existing older model PCs.^ January 2007 Floppy Disks Get The Chop - R.I.P. PC World is killing off the floppy disk by announcing that it won't stock any more of them once the existing stock has sold out.
  • Death of the Floppy Disk...RIP - MobileBurn Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.mobileburn.com [Source type: General]

^ Using only one side of the disk, these drives are largely obsolete and have been for some time now - Apple sold the last 400K drive in 1986.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Some have seen these drives sitting next to Macs and attempted to load a disk into it, only to find it does not read in the standard Macintosh system.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

.In 1988 IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB "DSED" diskettes in its top-of-the-line PS/2 models; it was a commercial failure.^ While the drive was introduced with that model, it wasn't used across the line until the Plus was discontinued.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Two years later, the double-sided drive brought 800 KB disks into light, followed by the 1.4M SuperDrive in 1988.* The 2.8 MB extended density disks were never brought to the Mac (nor were they popular on IBMs).
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ IBM - Disk drive - floppy disk ( 1.44 MB ) - Floppy - internal - 3.5" .

Throughout the early 1980s the limitations of the 5¼-inch format were starting to become clear. .Originally designed to be smaller and more practical than the 8-inch format, the 5¼-inch system was itself too large, and as the quality of the recording media grew, the same amount of data could be placed on a smaller surface.^ The micro-floppy computer disk is a particularly convenient and compact device for storing relatively large amounts of digital data.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also unlike the larger floppy disks, the semi-rigid package of the micro-floppy disk is enclosed such that the recording media is not exposed to the external environment except when the micro-floppy disks are in place in a micro-floppy disk drive.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If a system were to have more than one floppy controller, the second controller would be found at a base IO port address of 0x370.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.A number of solutions were developed, with drives at 2-inch, 2½-inch, 3-inch and 3½-inch (50, 60, 75 and 90 mm) all being offered by various companies.^ The bits all indicate various types of data errors for either bad media, or a bad drive.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive , Available in Various Specifications, OEM Orders Accepted .
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They all shared a number of advantages over the older format, including a small form factor and a rigid case with a slidable write protection tab.^ In the days of 5.25" disks, write protection was done using tabs, which covered a notch on the side of the disk.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ This helped some students who needed to catch up, although not all of them used the break to advantage.
  • Dennison: Course on a Diskette 20 September 2009 11:55 UTC horizon.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The almost-universal use of the 5¼-inch format made it very difficult for any of these new formats to gain any significant market share.^ These disks can also be used as 400 KB disks with only one side being formatted.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ We aren't sure if these are new or used but they are in like-new condition.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
3½-inch diskette.
.Sony introduced its own small-format 90.0 mm × 94.0 mm disk.; however, this format suffered from a fate similar to the other new formats: the 5¼-inch format simply had too much market share.^ However, because the computer industry is a very volatile and fast-moving market, it is desirable for computer program suppliers to have a large number of computer program copies on micro-floppy disks available for immediate delivery when revisions, updates, or new programs are announced.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Discover new 5 Floppy Disk and other Computer Products ...

A variant on the Sony design, introduced in 1982 by a large number of manufacturers, was then rapidly adopted. By 1988 the 3½-inch was outselling the 5¼-inch.[19]
By the end of the 1980s, the 5¼-inch disks had been superseded by the 3½-inch disks. .Though 5¼-inch drives were still available, as were disks, they faded in popularity as the 1990s began.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .

^ Two years later, the double-sided drive brought 800 KB disks into light, followed by the 1.4M SuperDrive in 1988.* The 2.8 MB extended density disks were never brought to the Mac (nor were they popular on IBMs).
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy Disk Drive with 5.33 Tracks/Inches Density and 250 to 500kbps Data Transfer Rate .

.By the mid-1990s the 5¼-inch drives had virtually disappeared as the 3½-inch disk became the predominant floppy disk.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .

^ Refurbished Floppy Disk Drive with 3.5-inch Size and 1.44MB Capacity .

^ Suggested categories for "Floppy Disk Drive" .

.One of the chief advantages of the 3½-inch disk, besides its smaller size which allows it to fit in a shirt pocket, is its plastic case, which gives it good protection from dust, liquids, fingerprints, scratches, sunlight, warping, and other environmental risks.^ Refurbished Floppy Disk Drive with 3.5-inch Size and 1.44MB Capacity .

^ New plastic disk case with flip up top holds approximately 40 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used plastic disk case with flip up top holds approximately 50 5 1/4" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

Standard floppy replacements

.Through the early 1990s a number of attempts were made by various companies to introduce newer floppy-like formats based on the now-universal 3½-inch physical format.^ Hunt the Wumpus was an early computer adventure game based on a simple hide-and-seek format, originally created as a simple text-based game by Gregory Yob in BASIC, in 1972.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ They were replaced by 3.5 inch floppies in the early 1990s, which have since been mostly replaced by compact discs and USB flash drives.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Cave Quest was an adventure game that The Brothers Chaps made when they were younger, likely in the late 1980s or 1990s.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.Most of these systems provided the ability to read and write standard DD and HD disks, while at the same time introducing a much higher-capacity format as well.^ OR these bits onto the above read/write/format/verify commands.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manually, loading the disks into and ejecting the disks from a disk drive for copying and/or verifying would be time-consuming and would introduce the probability of human error into the process.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To read these PDF files requires Acrobat Reader 4.x or higher (Adobe Acrobat is standard software not provided by us) .
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.There were a number of times where it was felt that the existing floppy was just about to be replaced by one of these newer devices, but a variety of problems ensured this never took place.^ But, if there is already just one driver there, then...
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ There is one thing I just thought of...
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Also known as the SuperDrive, these are found in just about every Mac made since the IIx .
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

.None of these ever reached the point where it could be assumed that every current PC would have one, and they have now largely been replaced by CD and DVD burners and USB flash drives.^ USB flash drives manufacturers .

^ I don't mind unplugging things--I've installed hard and cd rom drives, memory, video and sound cards, and now a floppy disk drive.
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Using only one side of the disk, these drives are largely obsolete and have been for some time now - Apple sold the last 400K drive in 1986.
  • Floppy Drive Observations: A Compleat Guide to Mac Floppy Drives and Disk Formats 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC new.lowendmac.com [Source type: General]

.The main technological change was the addition of tracking information on the disk surface to allow the read/write heads to be positioned more accurately.^ The disk drive 40 is equipped with a separate interface cable through which it can receive commands from an external control means to write data to or read data from a disk which has been loaded into the disk drive 40.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The st2 register provides more (useless) detail about errors during read/write operations.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to note that this means you should check the value of Disk Change just prior to every Seek command that you do, because otherwise you will lose any Disk Change information.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Normal disks have no such information, so the drives use the tracks themselves with a feedback loop in order to center themselves.^ This command puts information in the controller about the next disk drive to be accessed.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disk drive is mounted on the alignment framework such that in the full raised position of such alignment framework, the disk entrance of the micro-floppy disk drive is accurately aligned with the bottom surface of a supply hopper.
  • Automatic micro-floppy disk drive loader - Patent 4661870 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Floppy Disk Drive with 5.33 Tracks/Inches Density and 250 to 500kbps Data Transfer Rate .

.The newer systems generally used marks burned onto the surface of the disk to find the tracks, allowing the track width to be greatly reduced.^ Targets surface damage in system area - including Boot Sector of floppy disk and Root Folder.
  • Floppy disk recovery downloads at VicMan 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The controller could not find: a data address mark DAM a deleted data address mark DAM on the specified track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

Flextra

As early as 1988, Brier Technology introduced the Flextra BR 3020, which boasted 21.4 MB (marketing, true size was 21,040 KB,[20] 25 MB unformatted). Later the same year it introduced the BR3225, which doubled the capacity. .This model could also read standard 3½-inch disks.^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.It used 3½-inch standard disks which had servo information embedded on them for use with the Twin Tier Tracking technology.^ Floppy Disk Drive with 5.33 Tracks/Inches Density and 250 to 500kbps Data Transfer Rate .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The purpose of this document is to provide information related to programming the NEC PD765 and the Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controllers (FDCs), by use of the registers.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

Original Floptical

In 1991, Insite Peripherals introduced the "Floptical," which used an infra-red LED to position the heads over marks in the disk surface. .The original drive stored 21 MB, while also reading and writing standard DD and HD floppies.^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For bootloaders or OSes that run with the CPU remaining in Real Mode , use BIOS Function INT13h AH=2 (read) or AH=3 (write) to access floppy drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cylinder on drive 0, 1, 2, 3 where read/write head is currently positioned.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.In order to improve data transfer speeds and make the high-capacity drive usefully quick as well, the drives were attached to the system using a SCSI connector instead of the normal floppy controller.^ This command is used to pass mechanical control data to the controller for the connected drives.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Floppy Disk Drive with Data Transfer Rate of 250/500kbps .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ For most data transfers, DMA is used.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.This made them appear to the operating system as a hard drive instead of a floppy, meaning that most PCs were unable to boot from them.^ I don't mind unplugging things--I've installed hard and cd rom drives, memory, video and sound cards, and now a floppy disk drive.
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The values are specific to the exact model, condition, and age of floppy drive installed on the system.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D-Clk the floppy drive that appears under it for Properties.
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

This again adversely affected pickup rates.
Insite licenced their technology to a number of companies, who introduced compatible devices as well as even larger-capacity formats. The most popular of these, by far, was the LS-120, mentioned below.

Zip drive

In 1994, Iomega introduced the Zip drive. .Although it was not true to the 3½-inch form factor (hence not compatible with the standard 1.44 MB floppies), it still became the most popular of the "super floppies". It boasted 100 MB, later 250 MB, and then 750 MB of storage.^ Sony - 100 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - PC - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Imation - 10 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - PC - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For a 1.44 MB floppy and a 10ms delay this gives "HLT_value = 10 * 500000 / 1000000" or 5.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though Zip drives gained in popularity for several years they never reached the same market penetration as standard floppy drives, since only some new computers were sold with the drives.^ Discover new Floppy Disk Drive and other Computer Products ...
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Path: Top Products > > Computer Products > > Computer Subsystems, Parts & Services > > Floppy Disk Drive suppliers "Floppy Disk Drive" manufacturers & suppliers results Refine Floppy Disk Drive manufacturers & suppliers search result by .
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Y-E DATA 702D-6639D B Floppy Disk Drive ,720K-1.28M,new products Y-E DATA 702D-6639D B Floppy Disk Drive,720K-1.28M,new productsY-E DATA 702D-6639D B Floppy Disk Drive ,720K-1.28M,new products .
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Eventually the falling prices of CD-R and CD-RW media and USB flash drives, along with notorious hardware failures (the so-called "click of death"), reduced the popularity of the Zip drive.^ USB flash drives manufacturers .

^ Flash drives work fine in Win3.1, use DUSE or another DOS USB driver.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I use usb for everything now, even my mobo supports bios level flashing from a USB. And even stuff that i cant do an a USB, CD's are so cheap nowadys.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A major reason for the failure of the Zip Drives is also attributed to the higher pricing they carried (partly because of royalties that 3rd-party manufacturers of drives and disks had to pay).^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Price includes shipping within the continental U.S. Note: Because there are 17 of the 3.5" disks in this set and because they are used there is always a possibility that one or more of the disks could go bad.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.However, hardware vendors such as Hewlett Packard, Dell and Compaq had promoted the same at a very high level.^ Developing a mission-critical hardware strategy for your SAP environment sponsored by Hewlett-Packard Company EBOOK: How can you develop the optimal hardware strategy for maximum performance of your SAP environment?
  • Floppy Disk Drives White Papers ( Floppy Drives, Winchester Disk Drives, FDD ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

Zip drive media were primarily popular for the excellent storage density and drive speed they carried, but were always overshadowed by the price.

LS-120

.Announced in 1995, the "SuperDisk" drive, often seen with the brand names Matsushita (Panasonic) and Imation, had an initial capacity of 120 MB (120.375 MB)[21] using even higher density "LS-120" disks.^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Keeping statistics in that way only works when the drive in question is used often.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imation - 10 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - PC - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

It was upgraded (as the "LS-240") to 240 MB (240.75 MB). .Not only could the drive read and write 1440 kB disks, but the last versions of the drives could write 32 MB onto a normal 1440 kB disk (see note below).^ Note that the delay waiting for the controller to be ready for a read or write can be as much as 175s on an Intel controller, and longer on older controllers.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If this happens, the data only needs reading from disk when a new cylinder is being read from, or when the disk has been changed.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unfortunately, popular opinion held the Super Disk disks to be quite unreliable, though no more so than the Zip drives and SyQuest Technology offerings of the same period and there were also many reported problems moving standard floppies between LS-120 drives and normal floppy drives.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .
  • Floppy Disk Drive Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp!
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Floppy Disk problems .
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This belief, true or otherwise, crippled adoption. .The BIOS of many motherboards even to this day supports LS-120 drives as boot options.^ I use usb for everything now, even my mobo supports bios level flashing from a USB. And even stuff that i cant do an a USB, CD's are so cheap nowadys.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.LS-120 compatible drives were available as options on many computers, including desktop and notebook computers from Compaq Computer Corporation.^ The first floppy-less personal computers were made by NeXT, and many modern computers replace the floppy drive with an 8-in-one memory card reader.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ The New Print Shop Companion adds desktop publishing capabilities and many other new features while maintaining compatibility with graphics.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The 7th Guest was one of the first games to only be available on CD-ROM, causing many people to buy CD-ROM drives just to play the game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.In the case of the Compaq notebooks, the LS-120 drive replaced the standard floppy drive in a multibay configuration.^ The first floppy-less personal computers were made by NeXT, and many modern computers replace the floppy drive with an 8-in-one memory card reader.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ How tough would it be to go back to the smaller power |> supply, in case |> the floppy drives were somehow sensitive to that?
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

^ How tough would it be to go back to the smaller power supply, > > > in case > > > the floppy drives were somehow sensitive to that?
  • Floppy Disk Question Follow Up 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC help.wugnet.com [Source type: General]

Sony HiFD

Sony introduced its own floptical-like system in 1997 as the "150 MB Sony HiFD" which could hold 150 megabytes (157.3 actual megabytes) of data. .Although by this time the LS-120 had already garnered some market penetration, industry observers nevertheless confidently predicted the HiFD would be the real standard-floppy-killer and finally replace standard floppies in all machines.^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Might be useful to someone who already has a set but needs some replacement disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.After only a short time on the market the product was pulled, as it was discovered there were a number of performance and reliability problems that made the system essentially unusable.^ There are a number of gameplay options — play for a certain amount of time or first to a set score, winner's or loser's outs, etc.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Sony then re-engineered the device for a quick re-release, but then extended the delay well into 1998 instead, and increased the capacity to "200 MB" (approximately 210 megabytes) while they were at it. By this point the market was already saturated by the Zip disk, so it never gained much market share.

Caleb Technology’s UHD144

.The UHD144 drive surfaced early in 1998 as the it drive, and provided 144 MB of storage while also being compatible with the standard 1.44 MB floppies.^ Sony - 100 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - PC - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Imation - 10 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - PC - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Verbatim DataLife - 10 x floppy disk - 1.44 MB - gray - storage media more info...
  • Techonweb.com - Storage : Media : Floppy Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.techonweb.com [Source type: Reference]

The drive was slower than its competitors but the media were cheaper, running about 8 US$ at introduction and 5 US$ soon after.

Structure

A user inserts the floppy disk, medium opening first, into a 5¼-inch floppy disk drive (pictured, an internal model) and moves the lever down (by twisting on this model) to close the drive and engage the motor and heads with the disk.
.The 5¼-inch disk had a large circular hole in the center for the spindle of the drive and a small oval aperture in both sides of the plastic to allow the heads of the drive to read and write the data.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Cylinder on drive 0, 1, 2, 3 where read/write head is currently positioned.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

The magnetic medium could be spun by rotating it from the middle hole. .A small notch on the right hand side of the disk would identify whether the disk was read-only or writable, detected by a mechanical switch or photo transistor above it.^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If this happens, the data only needs reading from disk when a new cylinder is being read from, or when the disk has been changed.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If no ID address mark can be read in one complete disk revolution, the controller issues an error message, detected from the values returned in ST0-2.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

Another LED/phototransistor pair located near the center of the disk could detect a small hole once per rotation, called the index hole, in the magnetic disk. .It was used to detect the start of each track, and whether or not the disk rotated at the correct speed; some operating systems, such as Apple DOS, did not use index sync, and often the drives designed for such systems lacked the index hole sensor.^ Example: To start the motor on drive A and select it, ready for another operation, you would use the following: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sectors are formatted continuously until the drive passes the same signal again, this time indicating the end of the track (note that the start and end of the track are at the same point, marked by an index hole on the disk).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The game was originally for PC-DOS, but versions for other platforms, such as the Mega Drive/Genesis, were also made thereafter.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Disks of this type were said to be soft sector disks. Very early 8-inch and 5¼-inch disks also had physical holes for each sector, and were termed hard sector disks. Inside the disk were two layers of fabric designed to reduce friction between the medium and the outer casing, with the medium sandwiched in the middle. The outer casing was usually a one-part sheet, folded double with flaps glued or spot-welded together. .A catch was lowered into position in front of the drive to prevent the disk from emerging, as well as to raise or lower the spindle (and, in two-sided drives, the upper read/write head).^ The drive records the two sides with two "heads" that are bolted together.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HLT = "Head Load Time" = time the controller should wait between activating a head and actually performing a read/write.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After you are done reading (or writing), you should typically wait an additional two seconds to turn the motor off.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 8-inch disk was very similar in structure to the 5¼-inch disk, with the exception that the read-only logic was in reverse: the slot on the side had to be taped over to allow writing.^ You only need to seek one head to find a particular cylinder, so that both heads may read/write that cylinder.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows you to read/write twice as much data with a single command.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Set in Execution phase of PIO mode read/write commands only.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 3½-inch disk is made of two pieces of rigid plastic, with the fabric-medium-fabric sandwich in the middle to remove dust and dirt. .The front has only a label and a small aperture for reading and writing data, protected by a spring-loaded metal or plastic cover, which is pushed back on entry into the drive.^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If this bit is set, data transfer is carried out exclusively by means of read or write commands to the data register.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Any read or write command that fails should be retried at least twice, unless it was a write and failed on "write protect".
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 5¼-inch 1.2 MB floppy disk drive
The 3½-inch 2.88 MB floppy disk drive
.Newer 5¼-inch drives and all 3½-inch drives automatically engage when the user inserts a disk, and disengage and eject with the press of the eject button.^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy Disk Drive with 5.33 Tracks/Inches Density and 250 to 500kbps Data Transfer Rate .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Refurbished Floppy Disk Drive with 3.5-inch Size and 1.44MB Capacity .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.On Apple Macintosh computers with built-in floppy drives, the disk is ejected by a motor (similar to a VCR) instead of manually; there is no eject button.^ If Disk Change is set and there was media, the OS should get a signal that the previous media was ejected.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Online Catalog Hi-tech survival, security books, manuals, ebooks (email / CDROM) , software, services: Computers, hard drives, floppy drives, encryption ...
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

The disk's desktop icon is dragged onto the Trash icon to eject a disk.
The reverse has a similar covered aperture, as well as a hole to allow the spindle to connect into a metal plate glued to the medium. .Two holes, bottom left and right, indicate the write-protect status and high-density disk correspondingly, a hole meaning protected or high density, and a covered gap meaning write-enabled or low density.^ In the olden days, there used to be 5.25 inch low-density, high-density, and single-sided drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Incidentally, the write-protect and high-density holes on a 3½-inch disk are spaced exactly as far apart as the holes in punched A4 paper (8 cm), allowing write-protected floppies to be clipped into standard ring binders.^ Contains 37 study guides on 3.5" high density floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The following guide aims to fix a common Breezy bug which doesn't allow your floppy disk to be mounted.
  • HOWTO fix floppy disk mounting issues - Ubuntu Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC ubuntuforums.org [Source type: General]

) .A notch top right ensures that the disk is inserted correctly, and an arrow top left indicates the direction of insertion.^ I inserted a disk into my floppy drive then went to start > my computer, then right clicked a: and chose format.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The drive usually has a button that, when pressed, will spring the disk out at varying degrees of force.^ This set of commands includes various miscellaneous commands relating to the status of a disk or drive, including seeking to a new cylinder and responding to invalid commands.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the player presses buttons too fast or out of sequence, he or she will be overwhelmed with an annoying "FAULT" message.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Refurbished 3.5-inch Floppy Disk Drive, Available in Various Specifications, OEM Orders Accepted .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Some will barely make it out of the disk drive; others will shoot out at a fairly high speed.^ X Speed USB Floppy Disk Drive with Silver Coating Casing, Measuring 103.7 x 18.6 x 142.7mm .
  • Datace Floppy Disk Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Reaction times to change from one attack move to the next were also slow, making this game enjoyable for some, frustrating for others.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

In a majority of drives, the ejection force is provided by the spring that holds the cover shut, and therefore the ejection speed is dependent on this spring. .In PC-type machines, a floppy disk can be inserted or ejected manually at any time (evoking an error message or even lost data in some cases), as the drive is not continuously monitored for status and so programs can make assumptions that do not match actual status (e.g., disk 123 is still in the drive and has not been altered by any other agency).^ Excellent typing program on 3.5" disks for Windows.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Each floppy drive on the system may be a different type.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surplus commercial software programs and games on 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

A 3″ floppy disk used on Amstrad CPC machines
.With Apple Macintosh computers, disk drives are continuously monitored by the OS; a disk inserted is automatically searched for content, and one is ejected only when the software agrees the disk should be ejected.^ If Disk Change is set and there was media, the OS should get a signal that the previous media was ejected.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Online Catalog Hi-tech survival, security books, manuals, ebooks (email / CDROM) , software, services: Computers, hard drives, floppy drives, encryption ...
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Jump to: navigation , search The Floppy Disk Container sits on the right of Strong Bad 's computer desk and shows the latest program that he's been running.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.This kind of disk drive (starting with the slim "Twiggy" drives of the late Apple "Lisa") does not have an eject button, but uses a motorized mechanism to eject disks; this action is triggered by the OS software (e.g., the user dragged the "drive" icon to the "trash can" icon).^ Example: To start the motor on drive A and select it, ready for another operation, you would use the following: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Used retail package of OS/2 version 2.1 on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ If Disk Change is set and there was media, the OS should get a signal that the previous media was ejected.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Should this not work (as in the case of a power failure or drive malfunction), one can insert a straightened paper clip into a small hole at the drive's front, thereby forcing the disk to eject (similar to that found on CD–DVD drives).^ Apparently a small number of floppy drives also support one additional way to clear the bit -- something that Linux calls a "twaddle".
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Disk Change is set and there was media, the OS should get a signal that the previous media was ejected.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 7th Guest was one of the first games to only be available on CD-ROM, causing many people to buy CD-ROM drives just to play the game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

External 3.5" floppy drives from Apple were equipped with eject buttons. .The button was ignored when the drive was plugged into a Mac, but would eject the disk if the drive was used with an Apple II, as ProDOS did not support or implement software-controlled eject.^ Example: To start the motor on drive A and select it, ready for another operation, you would use the following: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This command puts information in the controller about the next disk drive to be accessed.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This command is used to pass mechanical control data to the controller for the connected drives.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some other computer designs (such as the Commodore Amiga) monitor for a new disk continuously but still have push-button eject mechanisms.^ Discover new 5 Floppy Disk and other Computer Products ...

^ New boxes of 3.5" DSDD and 5.25" floppy disks still available!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.The 3-inch disk, widely used on Amstrad CPC machines, bears much similarity to the 3½-inch type, with some unique and somewhat curious features.^ Might be useful to someone who already has a set but needs some replacement disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Similar to the fictitious game Typing Tutor by Videlectrix, this game features short and quick lessons developed for kids in order to teach them how to type.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ You may find some pre-1996 Pentium machines using PS/2 mode.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example is the rectangular-shaped plastic casing, almost taller than a 3½-inch disk, but narrower, and more than twice as thick, almost the size of a standard compact audio cassette.^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If a system were to have more than one floppy controller, the second controller would be found at a base IO port address of 0x370.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New plastic disk case with flip up top holds approximately 40 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.This made the disk look more like a greatly oversized present day memory card or a standard PC card notebook expansion card rather than a floppy disk.^ These values should be more than enough for any floppy drive to spin up correctly.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I found a clever looking bit of kit called Floppy Disk Formatter v3.1c (FFormat) which I downloaded and installed.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the newest featured game to date, being at least 10 years later than the next latest release, and was never actually released on floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.Despite the size, the actual 3-inch magnetic-coated disk occupied less than 50% of the space inside the casing, the rest being used by the complex protection and sealing mechanisms implemented on the disks.^ Less than 50 .

^ This is the newest featured game to date, being at least 10 years later than the next latest release, and was never actually released on floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Used plastic disk case with flip up top holds approximately 50 5 1/4" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

Such mechanisms were largely responsible for the thickness, length and high costs of the 3-inch disks. .On the Amstrad machines the disks were typically flipped over to use both sides, as opposed to being truly double-sided.^ The IIc version used double hi-res graphics, and both versions allowed the user to set up a personal vocabulary on which to practice.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Double-sided mechanisms were available but rare.

Legacy

.The advent of other portable storage options, such as USB storage devices, SD Cards, recordable CDs and DVDs, and the rise of multi-megapixel digital photography encouraged the creation and use of files larger than most 3½-inch disks could hold.^ Besides, modern BIOS's can emulate USB storage devices as harddrive.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All USB devices, including USB floppy drives, are accessed indirectly (using SCSI-style commands encoded in USB datapackets) over the USB bus.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are using an emulator and you need a floppy disk image that is bigger than 1440Kb, there is a 2880Kb image available.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additionally, the increasing availability of broadband and wireless Internet connections decreased the overall utility of removable storage devices (humorously named sneakernet).
.In 1991, Commodore introduced the CDTV, which used a CD-ROM drive in place of the floppy drive.^ The 7th Guest was one of the first games to only be available on CD-ROM, causing many people to buy CD-ROM drives just to play the game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Flash drives don't work with Win 3.1 So you use a floppy.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of AmigaOS was stored in read-only memory, making it easier to boot from a CD-ROM rather than floppy.^ The 7th Guest was one of the first games to only be available on CD-ROM, causing many people to buy CD-ROM drives just to play the game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.In 1998, Apple introduced the iMac which had no floppy drive.^ I would have to agree with tigger, there is no reason to bother with the floppy drive.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This made USB-connected floppy drives a popular accessory for the early iMacs, since the basic model of iMac at the time had only a CD-ROM drive, giving users no easy access to writable removable media.^ The user can swap media out of a floppy drive at any moment.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USB floppy drives do not use any of the IO ports or FDC commands described in this article.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.This transition away from standard floppies was relatively easy for Apple, since all Macintosh models that were originally designed to use a CD-ROM drive were able to boot and install their operating system from CD-ROM early on.^ It is currently mainly designed to model the floppy using DMA. .
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The values are specific to the exact model, condition, and age of floppy drive installed on the system.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is worth noting that since I last used the floppy drive I have reformatted the HD. I didn't have a recovery disk, so used someone's XP Media Edition (mine was XP home standard) and then picked up the drivers I needed from the Hewlett-Packard website.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In February 2003, Dell, Inc. announced that they would no longer include standard floppy drives on their Dell Dimension home computers as standard equipment, although they are available as a selectable option[22][23] for around US$20 and can be purchased as an aftermarket OEM add-on anywhere from US$5–25.
.On 29 January 2007 the British computer retail chain PC World issued a statement saying that only 2% of the computers that they sold contained a built-in floppy disk drive and, once present stocks were exhausted, no more standard floppies would be sold.^ These values should be more than enough for any floppy drive to spin up correctly.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog Survival, Security Books, Manuals: Computers, Computer Security, Computer Encryption, Computer Repairs, Computer Maintenance, Disk Drives Technologies!
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The 5.25 floppy disk was also featured in technology , outside of the Floppy Disk Container.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

[24][25][26]
In 2009, Hewlett-Packard stopped supplying standard floppy drives on business desktops.[citation needed]
AwardBIOS CMOS Setup Utility.png
.Floppies are still used for emergency boots in aging systems which lack support for other bootable media.^ The values are specific to the exact model, condition, and age of floppy drive installed on the system.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note also that drives 2 and 3 (floppy drives C and D) are not supported in all systems.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.They can also be used for BIOS updates since most BIOS and firmware programs can still be executed from bootable floppy disks.^ Surplus commercial software programs and games on 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Most pre-XP PC computers can still be run in DOS mode, and DOS programs are usually tiny and much faster than Windows programs for the same functions.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ So generally, you want to set CCR to zero just once, after bootup (because the BIOS may not have done it, unless it booted a floppy disk).
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, if a BIOS update fails or becomes corrupted somehow, floppy drives can be used to perform a recovery.^ Floppy drives use CHS addressing exclusively.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USB floppy drives do not use any of the IO ports or FDC commands described in this article.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The music and theatre industries still use equipment (i.e. synthesizers, samplers, drum machines, sequencers, and lighting consoles) that requires standard floppy disks as a storage medium.

Use as icon for saving

Screenshot of the toolbar in OpenOffice.org, highlighting the Save icon, a floppy disk.
.For more than two decades, the floppy disk was the primary external writable storage device used.^ This is the newest featured game to date, being at least 10 years later than the next latest release, and was never actually released on floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Click here to see many more IBM compatible games and programs on floppy disk and CD!!!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ By the use of the two status registers A and B on a PS/2, it is possible to read the status of the control lines between the floppy controller and drive.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also, in a non-network environment, floppies were once the primary means of transferring data between computers.^ If this bit is set, data transfer is carried out exclusively by means of read or write commands to the data register.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You could leave the motor on longer, but it might give the user the idea that the floppy is still transferring data and that it's taking an awfully long time.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first gap length (typically called "GPL1") is used when reading or writing data, and sets the length of the gap between sectors that the floppy should expect (but doesn't change this gap).
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Floppy disks are also, unlike hard disks, handled and seen; even a novice user can identify a floppy disk.^ Note: IO port 0x3F6 is the ATA (hard disk) Alternate Status register, and is not used by any floppy controller.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog Survival, Security Books, Manuals: Computers, Computer Security, Computer Encryption, Computer Repairs, Computer Maintenance, Disk Drives Technologies!
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Because of all these factors, the image of the floppy disk has become a metaphor for saving data, and the floppy disk symbol is often seen in programs on buttons and other user interface elements related to saving files, even though such disks are obsolete.^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Surplus commercial software programs and games on 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ You could leave the motor on longer, but it might give the user the idea that the floppy is still transferring data and that it's taking an awfully long time.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Compatibility

.In general, different physical sizes of floppy disks are incompatible by definition, and disks can be loaded only on the correct size of drive.^ Each floppy drive on the system may be a different type.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Send the correct Datarate setting to CCR. Usually this is a 0 (1.44MB floppy drive).
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were some drives available with both 3½-inch and 5¼-inch slots that were popular in the transition period between the sizes.^ In the olden days, there used to be 5.25 inch low-density, high-density, and single-sided drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are doing a transfer between 2 floppy drives (so that both motors are on), and you are toggling "selection" between the two, there may be a short delay required.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, there are many more subtle incompatibilities within each form factor. .For example, all but the earliest models of Apple Macintosh computers that have built-in floppy drives included a disk controller that can read, write and format IBM PC-format 3½-inch diskettes.^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The PC usually uses the NEC PD765 floppy disk controller.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, few IBM-compatible computers use floppy disk drives that can read or write disks in Apple's variable speed format.^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.For details on this, see the section More on floppy disk formats.^ See below for more detail.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each section has a screenshot, the name of the toon(s) or email(s) in which it appeared, a brief explanation of the game mentioned on the floppy disk, and sources of supplementary material about said game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ This section gives more detailed information on the use of the registers listed in the above table.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

3½-inch floppy disk

.Within the world of IBM-compatible computers, the three densities of 3½-inch floppy disks are partially compatible.^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Contains 37 study guides on 3.5" high density floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Jump to: navigation , search The Floppy Disk Container sits on the right of Strong Bad 's computer desk and shows the latest program that he's been running.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.Higher density drives are built to read, write and even format lower density media without problems, provided the correct media are used for the density selected.^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Example: To start the motor on drive A and select it, ready for another operation, you would use the following: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, if by whatever means a diskette is formatted at the wrong density, the result is a substantial risk of data loss due to magnetic mismatch between oxide and the drive head's writing attempts.^ Write precompensation is a technical thing having to do with drive head magnetics.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the beginning of the result phase of the commands: read sector read deleted sector write sector write deleted sector read track format track read sector ID verify After completion of the following commands without a result phase: calibrate drive seek seek relative For data exchange between main memory and controller when interrupt-driven data exchange is active and the controller is not using DMA. Result Phase .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Still, a fresh diskette that has been manufactured for high density use can theoretically be formatted as double density, but only if no information has ever been written on the disk using high density mode (for example, HD diskettes that are pre-formatted at the factory are out of the question).^ Used 5.25" high density disks with manuals and license.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The magnetic strength of a high density record is stronger and will "overrule" the weaker lower density, remaining on the diskette and causing problems. .However, in practice there are people who use downformatted (ED to HD, HD to DD) or even overformatted (DD to HD) without apparent problems.^ However, if your OS or application is single-tasking, then there is nothing else that the CPU cycles can be used for anyway, so you may as well use PIO mode.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Doing so always constitutes a data risk, so one should weigh out the benefits (e.g.^ Should you wish to do business with them, please contact them DIRECTLY (as with all purchases one makes, you should check out all available sources for the item of interest) .
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

increased space or interoperability) versus the risks (data loss, permanent disk damage).
.The holes on the right side of a 3½-inch disk can be altered as to 'fool' some disk drives or operating systems (others such as the Acorn Archimedes simply do not care about the holes) into treating the disk as a higher or lower density one, for backward compatibility or economical reasons[citation needed].^ The "track" on one side of a disk is always exactly opposite the track on the other side of the disk.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Possible modifications include:
.
  • Drilling or cutting an extra hole into the right-lower side of a 3½-inch DD disk (symmetrical to the write-protect hole) in order to format the DD disk into a HD one.^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
    • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The "track" on one side of a disk is always exactly opposite the track on the other side of the disk.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Set if the disk in the selected drive is write protected while the controller attempts to execute a write command.
    • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

    .This was a popular practice during the early 1990s, as most people switched to HD from DD during those days and some of them "converted" some or all of their DD disks into HD ones, for gaining an extra "free" 720 KB of disk space.^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
    • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ We will either repair or replace any bad disks for 30 days but we also have a few extra sets of the original used disks which didn't come with manuals or printed licenses which we are offering for just $20 extra to those who purchase one of the complete used sets.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sorts each day's entry while minimizing disk space usage.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    .There even was a special hole punch that was made to easily make this extra (square) hole in a floppy.
  • Taping or otherwise covering the bottom right hole on a HD 3½-inch disk enables it to be 'downgraded' to DD format.^ New retail box with 3.5" HD floppy disk.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fax Builder allows you to easily make eye-catching and professional looking fax cover sheets.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) is a (legacy) device that controls internal 3.5/5.25 inch floppy disk drive devices on desktop x86 systems.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This may be done for reasons such as compatibility issues with older computers, drives or devices that use DD floppies, like some electronic keyboard instruments and samplers[28] where a 'downgraded' disk can be useful, as factory-made DD disks have become hard to find after the mid-1990s.^ Used older CAD program on 3.5" disks.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Older floppy disk drives contain much technology adaptable to many other electronic and computer-controlled uses ranging from precise positioning processes to robotics.
    • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
    • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

    See the section "Compatibility" above. .
    • Note: By default, many older HD drives will recognize ED disks as DD ones, since they lack the HD-specific holes and the drives lack the sensors to detect the ED-specific hole.^ Sectors are formatted continuously until the drive passes the same signal again, this time indicating the end of the track (note that the start and end of the track are at the same point, marked by an index hole on the disk).
      • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ They were replaced by 3.5 inch floppies in the early 1990s, which have since been mostly replaced by compact discs and USB flash drives.
      • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

      ^ The first floppy-less personal computers were made by NeXT, and many modern computers replace the floppy drive with an 8-in-one memory card reader.
      • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

      Most DD drives will also handle ED (and some even HD) disks as DD ones..January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Similarly, drilling an HD-like hole (under the ED one) into an ED (2880 kB) disk for 'downgrading' it to HD (1440 kB) format if there are many unusable ED disks due to the lack of a specific ED drive, which can now be used as normal HD disks.^ It is worth noting that since I last used the floppy drive I have reformatted the HD. I didn't have a recovery disk, so used someone's XP Media Edition (mine was XP home standard) and then picked up the drivers I needed from the Hewlett-Packard website.
    • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
    • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Older floppy disk drives contain much technology adaptable to many other electronic and computer-controlled uses ranging from precise positioning processes to robotics.
    • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

    .January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Even if such a format was hardly officially supported on any system, it is possible to "force" a 3½-inch floppy disk drive to be recognized by the system as a 5¼-inch 360 kB or 1200 kB one (on PCs and compatibles.^ Each ribbon cable for floppy drives can support 2 drives.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note also that drives 2 and 3 (floppy drives C and D) are not supported in all systems.
    • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ I inserted a disk into my floppy drive then went to start > my computer, then right clicked a: and chose format.
    • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This can be done by simply changing the CMOS BIOS settings) and thus format and read non-standard disk formats, such as a double sided 360 kB 3½-inch disk.^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
    • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If Disk Change is set and there was media, the OS should get a signal that the previous media was ejected.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Possible applications include data exchange with obsolete CP/M systems, for example with an Amstrad CPC.^ Also, the floppy subsystem is the primary remaining one that accesses the obsolete and terrible ISA DMA system for its data transfers.
    • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [citation needed]

5¼-inch floppy disk

The situation was even more complex with 5¼-inch diskettes. .The head gap of a 80-track high-density (1.2 MB in the MFM format) drive is shorter than that of a 40-track double-density (360 kB) drive, but will format, read and write 40 track diskettes with apparent success provided the controller supports double stepping (or the manufacturer fitted a switch to do double stepping in hardware).^ For the format command, the length of the GAP field is larger than when reading or writing data.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The controller will switch automatically from Head 0 to Head 1 at the end of the track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also necessary to fix the drive format prior to any read, write or format operation.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.A blank 40 track disk formatted and written on an 80 track drive can be taken to a 40 track drive without problems, similarly a disk formatted on a 40 track drive can be used on an 80 track drive.^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It gets to 50% successfully, then I get a message 'Trying to rebuild track 0', then eventually I get the message 'This disk could not be formatted: unrecoverable error on system area or uncompatible format mode'.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But a disk written on a 40 track drive and updated on an 80 track drive becomes permanently unreadable on any 360 kB drive, owing to the incompatibility of the track widths (special, very slow programs could have been used to overcome this problem).^ Used older CAD program on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The purpose of this document is to provide information related to programming the NEC PD765 and the Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controllers (FDCs), by use of the registers.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

There are several other bad scenarios.
.Prior to the problems with head and track size, there was a period when just trying to figure out which side of a "single sided" diskette was the right side was a problem.^ If you want to read the same track on both heads, you have to send the command twice, unlike other read commands which allow for multi-track operations with a single command.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the olden days, there used to be 5.25 inch low-density, high-density, and single-sided drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are always 2 heads (sides), but the driver (and controller) must also know how many cylinders and sectors per track the media expects.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Radio Shack and Apple used 180 kB single-sided 5¼-inch disks, and both sold disks labeled "single sided" that were certified for use on only one side, even though they in fact were coated in magnetic material on both sides.^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ The "track" on one side of a disk is always exactly opposite the track on the other side of the disk.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only powerful tools to decrypt the ciphers of others, they can also test the strength of YOUR CIPHERS and be used to develop data compression methods.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.The irony was that the disks would work on both Radio Shack and Apple machines, yet the Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I computers used one side and the Apple II machines used the other, regardless of whether there was software available which could make sense of the other format.^ The "track" on one side of a disk is always exactly opposite the track on the other side of the disk.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You would need to add another couple of lines of code if you need to check for both possibilities (In general, you would know from previous commands whether the controller should be expecting or offering data, and so only need to check for one condition).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sophisticated yet easy to use dos program reminds you of important dates right on your computer screen.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

A disk notcher used to convert single-sided 5.25-inch diskettes to double-sided.
.For quite a while in the 1980s, users could purchase a special tool called a disk notcher which would allow them to cut a second write-unprotect notch in these diskettes and thus use them as "flippies" (either inserted as intended or upside down): both sides could now be written on and thereby the data storage capacity was doubled.^ PIO data transfers can either be done using polling or interrupts.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is actually a reference to the "Stump Joke" from another famous Lucasfilms Game "The Secret of Monkey Island ", wherein the user would be prompted to "insert disk 24", which did not exist.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

Other users made do with a steady hand and a hole punch or scissors. .For re-protecting a disk side, one would simply place a piece of opaque tape over the notch or hole in question.^ The "track" on one side of a disk is always exactly opposite the track on the other side of the disk.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These "flippy disk procedures" were followed by owners of practically every home-computer with single sided disk drives.^ In the olden days, there used to be 5.25 inch low-density, high-density, and single-sided drives.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog Survival, Security Books, Manuals: Computers, Computer Security, Computer Encryption, Computer Repairs, Computer Maintenance, Disk Drives Technologies!
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

Proper disk labels became quite important for such users. .Flippies were eventually adopted by some manufacturers, with a few programs being sold in this medium (they were also widely used for software distribution on systems that could be used with both 40 track and 80 track drives but lacked the software to read a 40 track disk in an 80 track drive).^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To calibrate the drive, you may have to issue several calibration commands, especially if the drive being calibrated has more than 80 tracks.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you want to read the same track on both heads, you have to send the command twice, unlike other read commands which allow for multi-track operations with a single command.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.The practice eventually faded with the increased use of double-sided drives capable of accessing both sides of the disk without the need for flipping.^ This command puts information in the controller about the next disk drive to be accessed.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if you have drives of different types on the bus which use different datarates, then you need to switch the datarate when you select the other drive.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All USB devices, including USB floppy drives, are accessed indirectly (using SCSI-style commands encoded in USB datapackets) over the USB bus.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More on floppy disk formats

Efficiency of disk space usage

.In general, data is written to floppy disks in a series of sectors, angular blocks of the disk, and in tracks, concentric rings at a constant radius, e.g.^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first gap length (typically called "GPL1") is used when reading or writing data, and sets the length of the gap between sectors that the floppy should expect (but doesn't change this gap).
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .HD format of 3½-inch floppy disks uses 512 bytes per sector, 18 sectors per track, 80 tracks per side and two sides, for a total of 1,474,560 bytes per disk.^ A 4 byte format buffer must be provided for each sector of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Typically, as said above, it is 80 cylinders and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Some disk controllers can vary these parameters at the user's request, increasing the amount of storage on the disk, although these formats may not be able to be read on machines with other controllers; e.g.^ For ease of use, the DMA controller should be programmed to enable the controller to read the format buffer via DMA channel 2.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These disks may be unreliable on very old computers (where accuracy and speed variation may be worse), but were considered reliable enough for Microsoft to distribute a version of Windows on 1680Kb floppies (Windows 95 on a set of 12 floppies).
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsoft applications were often distributed on Distribution Media Format (DMF) disks, a hack that allowed 1.68 MB (1680 kB) to be stored on a 3½-inch floppy by formatting it with 21 sectors instead of 18, while these disks were still properly recognized by a standard controller.^ These 3 1/2" color disks are formatted at 1.44 mb.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

) .On the IBM PC and also on the MSX, Atari ST, Amstrad CPC, and most other microcomputer platforms, disks are written using a Constant Angular Velocity (CAV)—Constant Sector Capacity format.^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Tass Times in Tonetown was an adventure game for PC, Apple II, Atari ST, Amiga, and Commodore 64, and was released in 1986.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This means that the disk spins at a constant speed, and the sectors on the disk all hold the same amount of information on each track regardless of radial location.^ The format buffer should be large enough to hold the data required for all sectors of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I got an error message : 'Disk error on track 0, head 0 Address mark not found' Same thing with all three disks.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As all 3 disks have repeated the same messages and errors, I am assuming it is not those at fault.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this is not the most efficient way to use the disk surface, even with available drive electronics.^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keeping statistics in that way only works when the drive in question is used often.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Older floppy disk drives contain much technology adaptable to many other electronic and computer-controlled uses ranging from precise positioning processes to robotics.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Because the sectors have a constant angular size, the 512 bytes in each sector are packed into a smaller length near the disk's center than nearer the disk's edge.^ If EC = 0 and sector size = 0: length of data to verify, in bytes.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The actual gap lengths depend on many factors, but GPL1 is always a bit less than GPL2 so that the floppy hardware starts expecting the next sector near the end of the blank space.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A better technique would be to increase the number of sectors/track toward the outer edge of the disk, from 18 to 30 for instance, thereby keeping constant the amount of physical disk space used for storing each 512 byte sector (see zone bit recording).^ Number of sectors per track or max.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Track length/Max sector number: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A 4 byte format buffer must be provided for each sector of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Apple implemented this solution in the early Macintosh computers by spinning the disk slower when the head was at the edge while keeping the data rate the same, allowing them to store 400 kB per side, amounting to an extra 160 kB on a double-sided disk.^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are always 2 heads (sides), but the driver (and controller) must also know how many cylinders and sectors per track the media expects.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.January 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This higher capacity came with a serious disadvantage, however: the format required a special drive mechanism and control circuitry not used by other manufacturers, meaning that Mac disks could not be read on any other computers.^ This command is used to pass mechanical control data to the controller for the connected drives.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A precomp_val of 0 tells the controller/drive to use the manufacturer default value.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Apple eventually gave up on the format and used constant angular velocity with HD floppy disks on their later machines; these drives were still unique to Apple as they still supported the older variable-speed format.^ These values should be more than enough for any floppy drive to spin up correctly.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commodore 64/128

.Commodore started its tradition of special disk formats with the 5¼-inch disk drives accompanying its PET/CBM, VIC-20 and Commodore 64 home computers, the same as the 1540 and 1541 drives used with the later two machines.^ Example: To start the motor on drive A and select it, ready for another operation, you would use the following: .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sectors are formatted continuously until the drive passes the same signal again, this time indicating the end of the track (note that the start and end of the track are at the same point, marked by an index hole on the disk).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Older floppy disk drives contain much technology adaptable to many other electronic and computer-controlled uses ranging from precise positioning processes to robotics.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.The standard Commodore Group Code Recording (GCR) scheme used in 1541 and compatibles employed four different data rates depending upon track position (see zone bit recording).^ This data can be used when the rate is set through the Control Configuration Register to check that the rate has been correctly set, or to check what rate the controller is set to at any time.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It should be noted, as shown in the bottom 3 diagrams, that the values are also dependent on the data transfer rate, which in the AT and PS/2 is set in the control configuration register .
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After completion of the command, you should always check whether the head is correctly positioned over track 0, using the check interrupt status command.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tracks 1 to 17 had 21 sectors, 18 to 24 had 19, 25 to 30 had 18, and 31 to 35 had 17, for a disk capacity of 170 kB (170.75 KB).^ Typically, as said above, it is 80 cylinders and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, by using a gap length of 0x1C when formatting (and 0x0C when reading/writing) instead of 0x54 (and 0x1B when reading/writing) it's possible to format a normal 1440 KB floppy disk with 21 sectors per track to create a 1680Kb floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unique among personal computer architectures, the operating system on the computer itself was unaware of the details of the disk and filesystem; disk operations were handled by Commodore DOS instead, which was implemented with an extra MOS-6502 processor on the disk drive.^ Have multiple operating systems on the same computer!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer Operation - Computers : The "computer operating systems."
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Note: This is the upgrade version and requires that you already have a previous legitimate version of MS Dos (2.11 or later) or IBM PC Dos up to 6.1 or OS/2 or other operating system compatible with MS Dos 2.11 or later already on your computer in order for this operating system to install properly.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.Many programs such as GEOS removed Commodore's DOS completely, and replaced it with "fast loading" programs in the 1541 drive.^ Battle Chess was a very popular chess program for DOS, Amiga, 3DO, Apple II, Atari ST, Commodore 64, and the NES, released by Interplay in 1988.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.Eventually Commodore gave in to disk format standardization, and made its last 5¼-inch drives, the 1570 and 1571, compatible with Modified Frequency Modulation (MFM), to enable the Commodore 128 to work with CP/M disks from several vendors.^ The Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) is a (legacy) device that controls internal 3.5/5.25 inch floppy disk drive devices on desktop x86 systems.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Equipped with one of these drives, the C128 was able to access both C64 and CP/M disks, as it needed to, as well as MS-DOS disks (using third-party software), which was a crucial feature for some office work.^ The reason I need (or thought I needed) my floppy drive, was because I have downloaded a BIOS update, and when I try to install it I am asked to insert a floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This command puts information in the controller about the next disk drive to be accessed.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flash drives work fine in Win3.1, use DUSE or another DOS USB driver.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commodore also offered its 8-bit machines a 3½-inch 800 kByte disk format with its 1581 disk drive, which used only MFM.
.The GEOS operating system used a disk format that was largely identical to the Commodore DOS format with a few minor extensions; while generally compatible with standard Commodore disks, certain disk maintenance operations could corrupt the filesystem without proper supervision from the GEOS Kernal.^ Note: This is the upgrade version and requires that you already have a previous legitimate version of MS Dos (2.11 or later) or IBM PC Dos up to 6.1 or OS/2 or other operating system compatible with MS Dos 2.11 or later already on your computer in order for this operating system to install properly.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note: see the IBM PC Dos 6.1 link above if you need a qualifying operating system to upgrade from.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

Atari 8-bit line

.The combination of DOS and hardware (810, 1050 and XF551 disk drives) for Atari 8-bit floppy usage allowed sectors numbered from 1 to 720. The DOS' 2.0 disk bitmap provides information on sector allocation, counts from 0 to 719. As a result, sector 720 could not be written to by the DOS. Some companies used a copy protection scheme where "hidden" data was put in sector 720 that could not be copied through the DOS copy option.^ These registers all allow you to detect a disk change by reading bit 7, with additional information available for the PS/2 and Model 30 variants.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Set when the sector count exceeds the number of sectors on a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another more-common early copy-protected scheme simply did not record important sectors as "used" in the FAT, so the DOS Utility Package (DUP) did not duplicate them.^ Sophisticated yet easy to use dos program reminds you of important dates right on your computer screen.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

All of these early techniques were thwarted by the first program that simply duplicated all 720 sectors.
Later DOS versions (3.0 and later 2.5) and DOS systems by third parties (i.e. OSS) accepted (and formatted) disks with up to 960 and 1020 sectors, resulting in 127KB storage capacity per disk side on drives equipped with double-density heads (i.e. not the Atari 810) vs. previous 90KB. That unusual 127K format allowed sectors 1-720 to still be read on a single-density 810 disk drive, and was introduced by Atari with the 1050 drive with the introduction of DOS 3.0 in 1983.
.A true 180K double-density Atari floppy format used 128 byte sectors for sectors 1-3, then 256 byte sectors for 4-720. The first three sectors contain code that signals the drive to switch into double-density mode.^ A 4 byte format buffer must be provided for each sector of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the above table, Sector Size uses the same codes as for each of the commands described above.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Contains 37 study guides on 3.5" high density floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.While this 180K format was developed by Atari for their DOS 2.0D and their (canceled) Atari 815 Floppy Drive, that double-density DOS was never widely released and the format was generally used by third-party DOS products.^ Out of This World was an action-adventure game for DOS, Windows 3.X, SNES, Atari ST, Amiga, Genesis, Apple Macintosh, and 3DO, originally released in 1991.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Crush, Crumble & Chomp was a strategy game for DOS, Apple II, Commodore 64, Atari 400/800, and TRS 80, released in 1981.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ This is the newest featured game to date, being at least 10 years later than the next latest release, and was never actually released on floppy disk.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Under the Atari DOS scheme, sector 360 was the FAT sector map, and sectors 361-367 contained the file listing. .The Atari-brand DOS versions and compatible used three bytes per sector for housekeeping and to link-list to the next sector.^ Used 3.5" Dos version with documentation.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 3.5" Dos version with manual.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The handler can then transfer the 4 byte format information for the next sector to be formatted.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

Third-party DOS systems added features such as double-sided drives, subdirectories, and drive types such as 1.2 MByte and 8". Well-known 3rd party Atari DOS products included SmartDOS (distributed with the Rana disk drive), TopDos, MyDos and SpartaDOS.

Commodore Amiga

The pictured chip, codenamed Paula, controlled floppy access on all revisions of the Commodore Amiga as one of its many functions.
.The Commodore Amiga computers used an 880 kByte format (11 * 512-byte sectors per track) on a 3½-inch floppy.^ The second (typically called "GPL2") is the gap length for the "format track" command, which specifies the amount of space between sectors to use.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It involves finding a bad sector on the media, and then marking the entire track or cylinder as being bad, during the formatting process.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, as said above, it is 80 cylinders and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the entire track is written at once, inter-sector gaps could be eliminated, saving space.^ The second (typically called "GPL2") is the gap length for the "format track" command, which specifies the amount of space between sectors to use.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It involves finding a bad sector on the media, and then marking the entire track or cylinder as being bad, during the formatting process.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two different gap lengths that are controlled by software for specifying the amount of blank space between sectors.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Amiga floppy controller was basic but much more flexible than the one on the PC: it was free of arbitrary format restrictions, encoding such as MFM and GCR could be done in software, and developers were able to create their own proprietary disc formats.^ These values should be more than enough for any floppy drive to spin up correctly.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The graphics are simplistic, the music poor and repetitive, the controls are touchy, the game is basically the same thing over and over, and it doesn't have much of an ending.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ Most pre-XP PC computers can still be run in DOS mode, and DOS programs are usually tiny and much faster than Windows programs for the same functions.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Because of this, foreign formats such as the IBM PC-compatible could be handled with ease (by use of CrossDOS, which was included with later versions of AmigaOS).^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The game was originally for PC-DOS, but versions for other platforms, such as the Mega Drive/Genesis, were also made thereafter.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.With the correct filesystem driver, an Amiga could theoretically read any arbitrary format on the 3½-inch floppy, including those recorded at a slightly different rotation rate.^ As usual on the PC architecture, some of those IO ports access different controller registers depending on whether you read from or write to them.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the PC, however, there is no way to read an Amiga disk without special hardware, such as a CatWeasel, or a second floppy drive,[29] which is also a crucial reason for an emulator being technically unable to access real Amiga disks inserted in a standard PC floppy disk drive.^ There is really no reason to ever use head 1 when seeking.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In real hardware, floppy drives are extremely unreliable.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is certainly no reason why you should trust the BIOS to have done any of it correctly.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commodore never upgraded the Amiga chip set to support high-density floppies, but sold a custom drive (made by Chinon) that spun at half speed (150 RPM) when a high-density floppy was inserted, enabling the existing floppy controller to be used.^ If the REST bit is set, the controller is enabled, in order to accept and execute commands.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For ease of use, the DMA controller should be programmed to enable the controller to read the format buffer via DMA channel 2.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

This drive was introduced with the launch of the Amiga 3000, although the later Amiga 1200 was only fitted with the standard DD drive. .The Amiga HD disks could handle 1760 kByte, but using special software programs it could hold even more data.^ Used older CAD program on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Surplus commercial software programs and games on 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.A company named Kolff Computer Supplies also made an external HD floppy drive (KCS Dual HD Drive) available which could handle HD format diskettes on all Amiga computer systems.^ Note also that drives 2 and 3 (floppy drives C and D) are not supported in all systems.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer Online Catalog Hi-tech survival, security books, manuals, ebooks (email / CDROM) , software, services: Computers, hard drives, floppy drives, encryption ...
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The majority of the labels are names of computer games (although several Nintendo Entertainment System and Atari 2600 titles also appear) and most are obscure titles from the '80s.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

[30]
.Because of storage reasons, the use of emulators and preserving data, many disks were packed into disk-images.^ The read sector command reads one or more sectors with a valid data address mark from the disk, and transfers the data into main memory.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you are using an emulator and you need a floppy disk image that is bigger than 1440Kb, there is a 2880Kb image available.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Currently popular formats are .ADF (Amiga Disk File), .DMS (DiskMasher) and .IPF (Interchangeable Preservation Format) files. The DiskMasher format is copyright-protected and has problems storing particular sequences of bits due to bugs in the compression algorithm, but was widely used in the pirate and demo scenes. ADF has been around for almost as long as the Amiga itself though it was not initially called by that name. .Only with the advent of the Internet and Amiga emulators has it become a popular way of distributing disk images.^ If you are using an emulator and you need a floppy disk image that is bigger than 1440Kb, there is a 2880Kb image available.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1996, it released the popular Voodoo Graphics chip, which was originally only sold to manufacturers but soon found its way to home PCs.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

The proprietary IPF files were created to allow preservation of commercial games which have copy protection, which is something that ADF and DMS unfortunately cannot do.

Acorn Electron, BBC Micro, and Acorn Archimedes

.The British company Acorn used non-standard disk formats in their 8-bit BBC Micro and Acorn Electron, and their successor the 32-bit Acorn Archimedes.^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.Acorn however used standard disk controllers — initially FM, though they quickly transitioned to MFM. The original disk implementation for the BBC Micro stored 100 KB (40 track) or 200 KB (80 track) per side on 5¼-inch disks in a custom format using the Disc Filing System (DFS).^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Once youve loaded a file, you can use the Acrobat Find feature to quickly search for keywords.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.Because of the incompatibility between 40 and 80 track drives, much software was distributed on combined 40/80 track discs.^ To calibrate the drive, you may have to issue several calibration commands, especially if the drive being calibrated has more than 80 tracks.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.These worked by writing the same data in pairs of consecutive tracks in 80 track format, and including a small loader program on track 1 (which is in the same physical position in either format).^ The format buffer should be large enough to hold the data required for all sectors of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The write deleted sector command is the same as the write sector command, except that for each sector written a deleted data address mark is written instead of the normal data address mark.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.The loader program detected which type of drive was in use, and loaded the main software program straight from disc bypassing the DFS, double-stepping for 80 track drives and single-stepping for 40 track.^ However, if you have drives of different types on the bus which use different datarates, then you need to switch the datarate when you select the other drive.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ MasterType refers to an educational typing program for the Apple II. Originally released by Lightning Software in 1981, later versions were made for the Apple IIe and IIc.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.This effectively achieved downgraded capacity to 100 KB from either disk format, but enabled distributed software to be effectively compatible with either drive.^ I inserted a disk into my floppy drive then went to start > my computer, then right clicked a: and chose format.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drive polling mode is just an annoyance that is there for backwards software compatibility.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Review of drive formatting, diagnostic, defragmentation, etc software.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

.For their Electron floppy disk add-on added, Acorn picked 3½-inch disks and developed the Advanced Disc Filing System (ADFS).^ The Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) is a (legacy) device that controls internal 3.5/5.25 inch floppy disk drive devices on desktop x86 systems.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once I have written my own floppy disk drivers for the operating system I am working on, I'll add a link to that.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Classic AD&D (Advanced Dungeons and Dragons) SSI game on 5.25" disk.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.It used double-density recording and added the ability to treat both sides of the disk as a single drive.^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The drive records the two sides with two "heads" that are bolted together.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drive is double sided (indicates the DSDR signal is active).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.This offered three formats: S (small) — 160 KB, 40-track single-sided; M (medium) — 320 KB, 80-track single-sided; and L (large) — 640 KB, 80-track double-sided.^ The format buffer should be large enough to hold the data required for all sectors of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This command formats a single track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.ADFS provided hierarchical directory structure, rather than the flat model of DFS. ADFS also stored some metadata about each file, notably a load address, an execution address, owner and public privileges, and a "lock" bit.^ Note: the Linux floppy driver sourcecode has a comment that claims that turning on the MOTC or MOTD bits in the DOR can completely lock up some systems.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Even on the eight-bit machines, load addresses were stored in 32-bit format, since those machines supported 16 and 32-bit coprocessors.
The ADFS format was later adopted into the BBC line upon release of the BBC Master. .The BBC Master Compact marked the move to 3½-inch disks, using the same ADFS formats.^ I tried to use that to format my disks, and again all three disks failed in the same way.
  • Floppy Disk problems - techPowerUp! Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.techpowerup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sectors are formatted continuously until the drive passes the same signal again, this time indicating the end of the track (note that the start and end of the track are at the same point, marked by an index hole on the disk).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are the commands used to transfer data between a disk and main memory, or to format a track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Acorn Archimedes added D format, which increased the number of objects per directory from 44 to 77 and increased the storage space to 800 KB. The extra space was obtained by using 1024 byte sectors instead of the usual 512 bytes, thus reducing the space needed for inter-sector gaps.^ Number of sectors per track or max.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A 4 byte format buffer must be provided for each sector of the track.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The handler can then transfer the 4 byte format information for the next sector to be formatted.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a further enhancement, successive tracks were offset by a sector, giving time for the head to advance to the next track without missing the first sector, thus increasing bulk throughput.^ Given the values programmed for M (multi-track) and HD (head number), the values for the sector ID in the results phase indicate whether the last sector affected was the last sector of the command or not.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SRT = "Step Rate Time" = time the controller should wait for the head assembly to move between successive cylinders.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When performing a read or write operation, data may be transferred a byte at a time by reading from or writing to the appropriate port, or a sector/track at a time through the use of DMA channel 2.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

The Archimedes used special values in the ADFS load/execute address metadata to store a 12-bit filetype field and a 40-bit timestamp.
RISC OS 2 introduced E format, which retained the same physical layout as D format, but supported file fragmentation and auto-compaction. .Post-1991 machines including the A5000 and Risc PC added support for high-density disks with F format, storing 1600 KB. However, the PC combo IO chips used were unable to format disks with sector skew, losing some performance.^ Cakewalk was renamed Cakewalk Pro at some point, and later into Cakewalk Pro Audio when support for digitized audio was added.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ When buffering data, if the disk has not been changed, required sectors can already be in memory when requested (for example, a whole track can be read at a time and stored in a buffer, including the possibility of storing multiple tracks when sectors are read from different cylinders).
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note: IO port 0x3F6 is the ATA (hard disk) Alternate Status register, and is not used by any floppy controller.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ADFS and the PC controllers also support extended-density disks as G format, storing 3200 KB, but ED drives were never fitted to production machines.^ If the controller does not support the extended commands, this command is treated as an invalid opcode, and an error message is returned.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Over 150 high quality LDS clipart outline images (by Inspire Graphics 1995) in vector (.wmf) format on 3.5" high density disk.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ This command determines whether there is a controller present which supports the extended commands.
  • Programming the NEC �PD765 and Intel 82072/7 Floppy Disk Controller 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.isdaman.com [Source type: Reference]

.With RISC OS 3, the Archimedes could also read and write disk formats from other machines, for example the Atari ST and the IBM PC. With third party software it could even read the BBC Micro's original single density 5¼-inch DFS disks.^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ New 3.5" color disks preformatted for IBM type pcs.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.The Amiga's disks could not be read as they used unusual sector gap markers.^ Price includes shipping within the continental U.S. Note: Because there are 17 of the 3.5" disks in this set and because they are used there is always a possibility that one or more of the disks could go bad.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.The Acorn filesystem design was interesting because all ADFS-based storage devices connected to a module called FileCore which provided almost all the features required to implement an ADFS-compatible filesystem.^ We designed and built here almost all of these circuits (and many, many more), and sold them as our Off-the-Shelf Hardware and Special Projects .
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

Because of this modular design, it was easy in RISC OS 3 to add support for so-called image filing systems. .These were used to implement completely transparent support for IBM PC format floppy disks, including the slightly different Atari ST format.^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ A 1.44MB floppy disk is usually formatted with 80 cylinders, 2 sides, and 18 sectors per track.
  • Floppy Disk Controller - OSDev Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC wiki.osdev.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.Computer Concepts released a package that implemented an image filing system to allow access to high density Macintosh format disks.^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Over 150 high quality LDS clipart outline images (by Inspire Graphics 1995) in vector (.wmf) format on 3.5" high density disk.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ High quality LDS clipart images (by Inspire Graphics 1996) in vector (.wmf) format on 3.5" high density disk.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

IBM DemiDiskettes

IBM DemiDiskette media and drive
.In the early 80s, IBM Rochester developed a 4-inch floppy diskette, the DemiDiskette.^ They were replaced by 3.5 inch floppies in the early 1990s, which have since been mostly replaced by compact discs and USB flash drives.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

This program was driven by aggressive cost goals, but missed the pulse of the industry. The prospective users, both inside and outside IBM, preferred standardization to what by release time were small cost reductions, and were unwilling to retool packaging, interface chips and applications for a proprietary design. The product never appeared in the light of day, and IBM wrote off several hundred million dollars of development and manufacturing facility. IBM obtained patent number 4482929 on the media and the drive for the DemiDiskette. At trade shows, the drive and media were labeled "Brown" and "Tabor".[citation needed]

Auto-loaders

.IBM developed, and several companies copied, an autoloader mechanism that could load a stack of floppies one at a time into a drive unit.^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ CGA. Requires two 5.25 floppy drives or one 5.25" floppy drive with a hard drive.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The first floppy-less personal computers were made by NeXT, and many modern computers replace the floppy drive with an 8-in-one memory card reader.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.These were very bulky systems, and suffered from media hangups and chew-ups more than standard drives,[citation needed] but they were a partial answer to replication and large removable storage needs.^ While drives are more reliable today, they still should be occasionally cleaned and lubricated.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

The smaller 5¼- and 3½-inch floppy made this a much easier technology to perfect.

Floppy mass storage

A number of companies, including IBM and Burroughs, experimented with using large numbers of unenclosed disks to create massive amounts of storage. .The Burroughs system used a stack of 256 12-inch disks, spinning at a high speed.^ Used 5.25" High Density disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used 5.25" high density disks with manuals and license.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.The disk to be accessed was selected by using air jets to part the stack, and then a pair of heads flew over the surface as in any standard hard disk drive.^ Cessna Jet simulator for 286 w/DOS 5 and 512k or better & hard drive.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used hard-to-find Office 4.0 on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Used hard-to-find Office 4.2 on 3.5" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

This approach in some ways anticipated the Bernoulli disk technology implemented in the Iomega Bernoulli Box, but head crashes or air failures were spectacularly messy. The program did not reach production.

2-inch floppy disks

2-inch Video Floppy Disk from Canon.
.A small floppy disk was also used in the late 1980s to store video information for still video cameras such as the Sony Mavica (not to be confused with current Digital Mavica models) and the Ion and Xapshot cameras from Canon.^ New boxes of 3.5" DSDD and 5.25" floppy disks still available!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

It was officially referred to as a Video Floppy (or VF for short).
VF was not a digital data format; each track on the disk stored one video field in the analog interlaced composite video format in either the North American NTSC or European PAL standard. This yielded a capacity of 25 images per disk in frame mode and 50 in field mode.
.The same media were used digitally formatted - 720 kB, 245TPI, 80 tracks/side, double-sided, double-density - in the Zenith Minisport laptop computer circa 1989. Although the media exhibited nearly identical performance to the 3½-inch disks of the time, they were not successful.^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ There was the option of six 5.25" Double Density (360KB) disks, or three 3.5" Double Density (720KB) floppies.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

.This was due in part to the scarcity of other devices using this drive making it impractical for software transfer, and high media cost which was much more than 3½-inch and 5¼-inch disks of the time.^ The winnings can be used to upgrade the car's armour, weapons and parts to eventually make it nearly invincible — which comes in handy, since this game doesn't really have an ending.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ It was made by Gray Design Associates, a company not known for much other than this game.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ This sequel to The Oregon Trail has much more content than its predecessor.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Ultimate capacity and speed

.Floppy disk drive and floppy media manufacturers specify an unformatted capacity, which is, for example, 2.0 MB for a standard 3½-inch HD floppy.^ They were replaced by 3.5 inch floppies in the early 1990s, which have since been mostly replaced by compact discs and USB flash drives.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

^ New retail box with 3.5" HD floppy disk.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ The New Print Shop is available on 3.5" or 5.25" floppy disks (please specify).
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

It is implied that this data capacity should not be exceeded since exceeding such limitations will most likely degrade the design margins of the floppy system and could result in performance problems such as inability to interchange or even loss of data.
The nominal formatted capacity printed on labels is "1.44 MB" which uses an incorrect definition of the megabyte that combines decimal (base 10) with binary (base 2) to yield 1.44×1000×1024 bytes (approximately 1.47 million bytes). This usage of the "Mega-" prefix is not compatible with the International System of Units prefixes. Using SI-compliant definitions, the capacity of a 3½-inch HD floppy is properly written as 1.47 MB (base 10) or 1.41 MiB (base 2).
.User available data capacity is a function of the particular disk format used which in turn is determined by the FDD controller manufacturer and the settings applied to its controller.^ HARD DRIVE MANUAL : Invaluable advice and tips on how to best select, interface, initialize, set up, and use hard drives and controller cards.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Might be useful to someone who already has a set but needs some replacement disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

The differences between formats can result in user data capacities ranging from approximately 1300 KB up to 1760 KB (1.80 MB) on a "standard" 3½-inch High Density floppy (and even up to near 2 MB with utilities like 2MGUI). The highest capacity techniques require much tighter matching of drive head geometry between drives; this is not always possible and cannot be relied upon. The LS-240 drive supports a (rarely used) 32 MB capacity on standard 3½-inch HD floppies[citation needed]—it is, however, a write-once technique, and cannot be used in a read/write/read mode. .All the data must be read off, changed as needed and rewritten to the disk.^ Major Discounts all for Products on this Website: 15% OFF all Orders over $79, or 10% OFF for all Orders over $49 effective immediately and until changed here!
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A must have for anyone needing to better understand hard drives, and all doing hard drive data rescues and repairs.
  • Consumertronics computers,hard drives,floppy disk drives,encryption Online Catalog 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.consumertronics.net [Source type: Reference]

The format also requires an LS-240 drive to read.
.Double-sided Extended-density (DSED) 3½″ floppy disks, introduced by Toshiba in 1987 and adopted by IBM on the PS/2 in 1994,[16] operate at twice the data rate and have twice the capacity of DSHD 3½″ FDDs.^ Contains 37 study guides on 3.5" high density floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Click here to see many more IBM compatible games and programs on floppy disk and CD!!!
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Chris Crawford's PATTON STRIKES BACK The Battle of the Bulge on 5.25" high density floppy disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

[31] The only serious attempt to speed up a 3½” floppy drive beyond 2x was the X10 accelerated floppy drive. .It used a combination of RAM and 4x spindle speed to read a floppy in less than six seconds versus the more than one minute of a conventional drive.^ CGA. Requires two 5.25 floppy drives or one 5.25" floppy drive with a hard drive.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

3½-inch HD floppy drives typically have a maximum transfer rate of 1000 kilobits/second (minus overhead such as error correction and file handling). (For comparison, a 1x CD transfers at 1200 kilobits per second (maximum), and a 1x DVD transfers at approximately 11,000 kilobits per second.) .While the floppy's data rate cannot be easily changed, overall performance can be improved by optimizing drive access times, shortening some BIOS introduced delays (especially on the IBM PC and compatible platforms), and by changing the sector:shift parameter of a disk, which is, roughly, the numbers of sectors that are skipped by the drive's head when moving to the next track.^ For those lacking an earlier version to upgrade from we have an OEM version of IBM PC Dos 6.1 on 5.25" disks available.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Includes HP 95LX palmtop computer version and IBM PC or PC/AT version on 3.5" and 5.25" disks.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ New 3.5" color disks preformatted for IBM type pcs.
  • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

Because of overhead and these additional delays, the average sequential read speed is rather 30–70 KB/s than 125 KB/s.
This happens because sectors are not typically written exactly in a sequential manner but are scattered around the disk, which introduces yet another delay. Older machines and controllers may take advantage of these delays to cope with the data flow from the disk without having to actually stop.

Usability

.One of the chief usability problems of the floppy disk is its vulnerability.^ This is also assuming that it followed the recurring theme that the floppy disk has a game title on it, although there was only one time this hasn't occurred.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

Even inside a closed plastic housing, the disk medium is still highly sensitive to dust, condensation and temperature extremes. As with any magnetic storage, it is also vulnerable to magnetic fields. Blank disks have usually been distributed with an extensive set of warnings, cautioning the user not to expose it to conditions which can endanger it. It should be noted that the disk must not be roughly treated, or removed from the drive if the access light is switched on and the magnetic media is still spinning, since doing so is likely to cause damage to the disk, drive head and/or render the data on it inaccessible.
.Users damaging floppy disks (or their contents) were once a staple of "stupid user" folklore among computer technicians.^ Jump to: navigation , search The Floppy Disk Container sits on the right of Strong Bad 's computer desk and shows the latest program that he's been running.
  • Floppy Disk Container - Homestar Runner Wiki 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hrwiki.org [Source type: General]

These stories poked fun at users who stapled floppies to papers, made faxes or photocopies of them when asked to "copy a disk," or stored floppies by holding them with a magnet to a file cabinet. The flexible 5¼-inch disk could also (apocryphally) be abused by rolling it into a typewriter to type a label, or by removing the disk medium from the plastic enclosure, the same way a record is removed from its slipsleeve. Also, these same users were, conversely, often the victims of technicians' hoaxes. Stories of them being carried on Subway/Underground systems wrapped in tin-foil to protect them from the magnetic fields of the electric power supply were common (for an explanation of why this is plausible, see Faraday cage).
On the other hand, the 3½-inch floppy has also been lauded for its mechanical usability by HCI expert Donald Norman:
A simple example of a good design is the 3½-inch magnetic diskette for computers, a small circle of "floppy" magnetic material encased in hard plastic. Earlier types of floppy disks did not have this plastic case, which protects the magnetic material from abuse and damage. A sliding metal cover protects the delicate magnetic surface when the diskette is not in use and automatically opens when the diskette is inserted into the computer. The diskette has a square shape: there are apparently eight possible ways to insert it into the machine, only one of which is correct. What happens if I do it wrong? I try inserting the disk sideways. Ah, the designer thought of that. A little study shows that the case really isn't square: it's rectangular, so you can't insert a longer side. I try backward. The diskette goes in only part of the way. Small protrusions, indentations, and cutouts, prevent the diskette from being inserted backward or upside down: of the eight ways one might try to insert the diskette, only one is correct, and only that one will fit. An excellent design.[32]
If a floppy drive is used very infrequently, dust may accumulate on the drive's read/write head and cause damage to floppy disks. This rarely happens on floppy drives that are used frequently. In order to overcome this, the user can first put in the drive a cleaning disk or an already useless disk and run the drive. Thus dust would be cleaned off from the read/write head.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R.; Palmer, John H., "IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems", Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0262161230. Cf. pp.513-523 on David L. Noble and the invention of the floppy disk apparatus.
  2. ^ The Floppy Disk Drive Engineering Design Challenge SSD to FDD; see http://jimwarholic.com/2008/12/floppy-disk-drive-engineering-design.php
  3. ^ actually 126,222,336 bytes, 6848 cylinders x 36 blocks/cylinder x 512 bytes/block; see http://linuxcommand.org/man_pages/floppy8.html
  4. ^ The IBM Diskette and Diskette Drive, James T. Engh, 1981 - "where k = 1000" ... "This increased the formatted disk capacity to 81.6 kbytes."
  5. ^ a b Memorex 650 Flexible Disc File - OEM Manual
  6. ^ The IBM Diskette and Diskette Drive, James T. Engh, 1981 - "The user capacity of the diskette was established at 242 944 bytes on 73 tracks with 26 sectors on each track."
  7. ^ The Evolution of Magnetic Storage, L.D. Stevens, 1981 - "This drive, with a capacity of 243 Kbytes"
  8. ^ The IBM Diskette and Diskette Drive, James T. Engh, 1981 - "This would double the capacity to approximately 0.5 megabytes (Mbytes)."
  9. ^ Sollman, George (July 1978). "Evolution of the Minifloppy (TM) Product Family". Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on 14 (4): 160–166. doi:10.1109/TMAG.1978.1059748. ISSN: 0018-9464.  "In September, 1976, the first minifloppy disk drive was introduced by Shugart Associates."
  10. ^ Shugart SA 400 Datasheet Formatted with 256 byte sectors and 10 sectors per track the capacity is 89.6 Kbytes (256 x 10 x 35 = 89,600)
  11. ^ "Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers − 1981-1983 Business Takes Over". http://nikkicox.tripod.com/comp1981.htm. Retrieved 1008-10-04.  December 1982: Amdek releases the Amdisk-3 Micro-Floppy-disk Cartridge system.
  12. ^ a b "Three-inch floppy disk product announced". http://csdl.computer.org/plugins/dl/pdf/mags/mi/1982/02/04070788.pdf. Retrieved 1008-10-04. 
    A new, compact floppy disk, with dimensions of 80 × 100 × 5 millimeters (about 3 × 4 inches), has been jointly announced by Maxell, Hitachi, and Matsushita. (...) we expect that various disk drives using 3-inch disks will begin to appear in the latter part of 1982. The capacity of the new disk is 125K bytes for the single-sided, single-density version and 500K bytes for the double-sided, double-density version.
    —Victor Nelson, "New Products," IEEE Micro, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 91, April-June, 1982
  13. ^ "Tandon announces tiny but powerful 3 1/2 inch disk drive". InfoWorld 4 (43): p.11. November 1, 1982. ISSN 0199-6649. http://books.google.com/books?id=EzAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA11. Units would ship in early 1983.
  14. ^ per 1986 Disk/Trend Report, Flexible Disk Drives
  15. ^ a b http://www.atarimagazines.com/compute/issue70/054_1_THE_FUTURE_OF_MASS_STORAGE.php
  16. ^ a b Mueller, S: "Upgrading and Repairing PCs," p.656, Que Publishing, 2002.
  17. ^ IBM Archives: 20th century disk storage chronology
  18. ^ http://www.disktrend.com/5decades2.htm Five decades of disk drive industry firsts
  19. ^ 1991 Disk/Trend Report, Flexible Disk Drives, Figure 2
  20. ^ 2 sides × 526 cyl × 40 tracks × 512 bytes
  21. ^ 6848 cylinders × 36 blocks/cylinder × 512 bytes
  22. ^ "R.I.P. Floppy Disk", BBC News, 1 April 2003
  23. ^ "Dell Drops Floppy Drive on New Machine", Lisa Bruce, University of Missouri-Columbia, March 2003
  24. ^ "So farewell then, floppy disk", Richi Jennings, Computerworld, January 31, 2007
  25. ^ "PC World says farewell to floppy", BBC News, January 30, 2007
  26. ^ "Floppy disks ejected as demand slumps", David Derbyshire, Daily Telegraph, 30 January 2007
  27. ^ Landphair, Ted (10 March 2007). "So Long, Faithful Floppies". VOA News (Voice of America). http://voanews.com/english/archive/2007-03/2007-03-10-voa3.cfm. Retrieved 25 December 2008. 
  28. ^ "Managing Disks". http://www.carolrpt.com/disks.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-25. 
  29. ^ Jonguin, Vincent; Sonia Joguin (2004). "Disk2FDI Homepage". http://www.oldskool.org/disk2fdi. Retrieved 2006-05-25. 
  30. ^ KCS Dual HD Drive for Amiga computers
  31. ^ Since USB floppy drives include their own controllers, it's possible use their buffer to exceed the speed of a standard floppy drive without confusing the host. Such USB 3½″ FDDs are available from SmartDisk, Y-E Data, Sony, and Apricorn; however, their internal drives are DSHD FDD and their sustained speed is 1x.
  32. ^ Norman, Donald (1990). "Chapter 1". The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26774-6. 

Bibliography

  • Weyhrich, Steven (2005). ."The Disk II" – A detailed essay describing one of the first commercial floppy disk drives (from the Apple II History website)
  • Immers, Richard; Neufeld, Gerald G. (1984).^ Surplus commercial software programs and games on 3 1/2" and 5 1/4" floppy disks.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ CGA. Requires two 5.25 floppy drives or one 5.25" floppy drive with a hard drive.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    .Inside Commodore DOS. The Complete Guide to the 1541 Disk Operating System. DATAMOST, Inc & Reston Publishing Company, Inc.^ Note: see the IBM PC Dos 6.1 link above if you need a qualifying operating system to upgrade from.
    • old 3.5" and 5.25" floppy disk software and computer games 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.oldsoftware.com [Source type: General]

    (Prentice-Hall). ISBN 0-8359-3091-2.
  • Englisch, Lothar; Szczepanowski, Norbert (1984). The Anatomy of the 1541 Disk Drive. Grand Rapids, MI: Abacus Software (translated from the original 1983 German edition, Düsseldorf: Data Becker GmbH). ISBN 0-916439-01-1.
  • Hewlett Packard: 9121D/S Disc Memory Operator's Manual; Printed 1 September 1982; Part No. 09121-90000

External links


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Don't Copy that Floppy!
A floppy disk is a magnetic data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible (i.e. "floppy") magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. .Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive.^ LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive .
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives .
  • Floppy disk Tape / Cartridge Drives at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ How to isable floppy disk (drive A:)?
  • keyboard doesn' t run after boot from floppy disk - Vista Forums 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.vistax64.com [Source type: General]

.The image to the left is a 3.5" floppy, and will probably hold 1.4 megabytes of data.^ Floppies hold very little data.
  • How to format a floppy disk? - Yahoo! Answers 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ First floppy disks do not hold enough data for the many kinds of graphic, audio, video, reports, and presentation files that students are creating today.

^ A more modern equivalent is to just burn the data onto a CD, it holds ~700 MB. Still not much in modern terms, but more useful that a floppy .
  • Floppy disk size - Dev Shed 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC forums.devshed.com [Source type: General]

.An older, floppier format is the 5.25" floppy.^ You are correct that the Macintosh floppies were formatted to 400kb - so maybe our low density format is just a nonstandard 5.25".
  • Virtual PC Guy's WebLog : Floppy disk image formats supported by Virtual PC and Virtual Server 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ K format would most like really be the low-density 5.25" floppy that shipped with the original PC (1981).
  • Virtual PC Guy's WebLog : Floppy disk image formats supported by Virtual PC and Virtual Server 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Floppy Drives in the 5.25 format have not shipped with computers as long as I can remember.
  • Floppy Drive Pinout, Signal Names, Pin out Description and Cable twist wiring 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.interfacebus.com [Source type: Reference]

.Floppy disks are being phased out in the PC industry - companies like Apple and Dell have removed floppy disk drives from newer models of their computer systems.^ Answer: Remove the disk from the drive.

^ That will copy the OS system files on the running computer to the floppy disk.
  • A Floppy Boot Disk 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.computing.net [Source type: General]

^ LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive .
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]
  • LaCie 706018 Floppy Disk Drive at TigerDirect.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.tigerdirect.com [Source type: General]

.The format has been all but replaced by compact discs, which in turn are being made obsolete by the DVD.^ It was one of the greyest games ever made, but with some interesting features, like being able to send a photo to the developers, get a disc back through the post, and ’star’ in the game itself.
  • Floppy Disk Drive « Commodoreshop.com 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC commodoreshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The floppy disk has several replacements, including writeable compact discs and keychain flash memory devices.
  • USATODAY.com - Floppy disk reaches old age, nearing death 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ Of course, this was made in 2003 and Zip discs were on their way out, but I imagine she didn't want the hassle of reburning a CD-RW all the time.
  • Magic Floppy Disk - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 14:17 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]


This article uses material from the "Floppy disk" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:Floppy
An 8 inch floppy disk

The floppy disk (or a 3½ floppy for today's standard) is a magnetic storage medium mainly used for computers and laptops, but other devices used them as well, like some early digital cameras, and even a Japanese NES accessory. A floppy drive is the part of the computer that reads from and writes to the floppy disk.

Floppy disks store less data than a CD-ROM or USB flash drive. A current 3½ inch floppy (known as 3½ Double-Sided, High-Density floppies) can take 1.44 megabytes of data. This is usually enough for text documents. Special floppies (known as 3½ Double-Sided, Extended-Density floppies) were made to hold 2.88 MB of data, but they were not commonly available.

Floppies have been around since the early 1970s (known as the 8-inch floppy then). Today, floppy disks have been replaced by other storage media, like memory sticks. A few years ago, the Zip Disk was made as a replacement for floppies.

The floppy drive

[[File:|thumb|A USB floppy drive. This one can be plugged into any modern computer.]]
File:3,5"
A 3 1/2 inch floppy disk

A floppy drive (often called drive “A” on a computer) can be connected to or installed in a personal computer (PC). It is the part of a computer that reads and writes the disk that can be removed. A disk, often called a floppy disk, is used to store files and carry them from one computer to another by using the floppy drive. The floppy drive reads the disk (or diskette) and the user is then able to open and change the files saved on the disk.

Capacities

Historical sequence of floppy disk formats, including the last format to be generally adopted — the "1.44 MB" 3½-inch HD floppy, introduced 1987.
Floppy disk format Year introduced Storage capacity
(binary kilobytes if not stated)
Marketed
capacity
8-inch (read-only) 1969 80
8-inch 1972 187.5 1.5 Mbit
8-inch 1973 256 256 KB
8-inch DD 1976 500 0.5 MB
5¼-inch 1976 223
8-inch double sided 1977 1200 1.2 MB
5¼-inch DD 1978 360 360 KB
3½-inch
HP single sided
1982 280 264 KB
3-inch 1982? 360?
3½-inch (DD at release) 1984 720 720 KB
5¼-inch QD 1984 1200 1.2 MB
3-inch DD 1984? 720?
3-inch
Mitsumi Quick Disk
1985 128 to 256
2-inch 1985? 720?
5¼-inch Perpendicular 1986? 100 MiB
3½-inch HD 1987 1440 1.44 MB
3½-inch ED 1991 2880 2.88 MB
3½-inch LS-120 1996 120.375 MiB 120 MB
3½-inch LS-240 1997 240.75 MiB 240 MB
3½-inch HiFD 1998/99 150/200 MiB? 150/200 MB
Acronyms:  DD = Double Density; QD = Quad Density; HD = High Density ED = Extended Density; LS = Laser Servo; HiFD = High capacity Floppy Disk
Dates and capacities marked ? are of unclear origin and need source information; other listed capacities refer to:
  • For 8-inch: standard IBM formats as used by the System/370 mainframes and newer systems
  • For 5¼- and 3½-inch: standard PC formats, capacities quoted are the total size of all sectors on the disk and include space used for the bootsector and filesystem

Other formats may get more or less capacity from the same drives and disks.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Floppy disk, which are similar to those in the above article.








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