The Full Wiki

Flora: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Flora

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.

In botany, flora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings: a flora (with a lower case 'f') refers to the plant life occurring in a particular region, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life, while a Flora (with a capital 'F') refers to a book or other work describing a flora and including aids for the identification of the plants it contains such as botanical keys and line drawings that illustrate the characters that distinguish the different plants. Floristics is the study of floras, including the preparation of Floras.

The goddess Flora is one of the three goddess offices held in the Grange or Patrons of Husbandry. The other goddesses are Pomona, and Ceres.

The term flora comes from Latin language Flora, the goddess of flowers in Roman mythology. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Some classic and modern floras are listed below.

Contents

Flora classifications

Plant species diversity

Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora. Lastly, floras may be subdivided by special environments:

  • Native flora. The native and indigenous flora of an area.
  • Agricultural and garden flora. The plants that are deliberately grown by humans.
  • Weed flora. Traditionally this classification was applied to plants regarded as undesirable, and studied in efforts to control or eradicate them. Today the designation is less often used as a classification of plant life, since it includes three different types of plants: weedy species, invasive species (that may or may not be weedy), and native and introduced non-weedy species that are agriculturally undesirable. Many native plants previously considered weeds have been shown to be beneficial or even necessary to various ecosystems.

Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora[1][2], and sometimes the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately.

Flora treatises

Floristic regions in Europe according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch

Traditionally floras are books, but some are now published on CD-ROM or websites. The area that a flora covers can be either geographically or politically defined. Floras usually require some specialist botanical knowledge to use with any effectiveness.

It is said that the Flora Sinensis by the Polish Jesuit Michał Boym was the first book that used the name "Flora" in this meaning, a book covering the plant world of a region.[3] However, despite its title it covered not only plants, but also some animals of the region.

A flora often contains diagnostic keys. Often these are dichotomous keys, which require the user to repeatedly examine a plant, and decide which one of two alternatives given in the flora best applies to the plant.

A compendium of world floras has been compiled by David Frodin.[4]

Classic floras

Europe
India
Indonesia
China
Americas

Modern floras

Plants
A fossil leaf from the extinct Comptonia columbiana, 48.5 million years old. Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington, USA. Stonerose Interpretive Center.

Americas

Caribbean
  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to Thymeleales. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
North America

Asia

Taxus chinensis, Chinese Yew tree. Morton Arboretum
China and Japan
Southeast Asia
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of the Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915-36)
  • Flora of Nepal
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903-29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921-25)
  • Flora of British India (1872-1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia
  • Flora of Turkey
  • Flora Iranica
  • Flora Palaestina:
    • M. Zohary (1966). Flora Palaestina part 1.
    • M. Zohary (1972). Flora Palaestina part 2.
    • N. Feinbrun (1978). Flora Palaestina part 3.
    • N. Feinbrun (1986). Flora Palaestina part 4.
    • A. Danin, (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area (Flora Palaestina part 5).
    • Online updates: http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=showfile&fileid=14005

Australia

A closing venus fly trap.
  • Flora of Australia
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae. ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special Edition. ISBN 0-478-09339-X.

Pacific Islands

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [1]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)

Europe

British Isles

Africa and Madagascar

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

Flora on Wikipedia

An aloe vera plant.
Blueberry plant with berries.

Wikipedia has the following mainly flora categories:

See also

References

  1. ^ http://webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=flora
  2. ^ http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/zy198.htm#F
  3. ^ a b Flora Sinensis (access to the facsimile of the book, its French translation, and an article about it)
  4. ^ Frodin, David G. 2001. Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521790772.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later identified with the Greek Chloris. Her festival at Rome, the Floralia, instituted 2 3 8 B.C. by order of the Sibylline books and at first held irregularly, became annual after 173. It lasted six days (April 28 - May 3), the first day being the anniversary of the foundation of her temple. It included theatrical performances and animal hunts in the circus, and vegetables were distributed to the people. The proceedings were characterized by excessive merriment and licentiousness. According to the legend, her worship was instituted by Titus Tatius, and her priest, the flamen Floralis, by Numa. In art Flora was represented as a beautiful maiden, bedecked with flowers (Ovid, Fasti, v. 183 ff.; Tacitus, Annals, ii. 49).

The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.


<< Roger Di Flor

Flore and Blanchefleur >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also flora

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Flora

Plural
-

Flora

  1. (Roman mythology) The goddess of flowers, guardian of the flora
  2. A female given name.
    • 1933 Eleanor Farjeon, Over the Garden Wall,Faber and Faber 1933, page 91 ("Girls' Names")
      What lovely names for girls there are!
      There's Stella like the Evening Star,
      And Sylvia like a rustling tree,
      And Lola like a melody,
      And Flora like a flowery morn,

Translations


French

Proper noun

Flora

  1. A female given name, a latinate variant of Flore.

Anagrams


German

Noun

Flora f. (genitive Flora, plural Floren)

  1. flora (plants as a group; microorganisms)

Proper noun

Flora

  1. (Roman mythology) Flora.
  2. A female given name.

Related terms

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia


Italian

Proper noun

Flora f.

  1. (Roman mythology) The goddess of flowers, Flora.
  2. A female given name.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aflor
  • farlo

Norwegian

Proper noun

Flora

  1. A municipality in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway

Spanish

Proper noun

Flora f.

  1. (Roman mythology) Flora
  2. A female given name.

Simple English

[[File:|frame|right|Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.]]

In botany, flora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings.

The first meaning refers to all plant life in an area or time period (especially the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life).

The second meaning refers to a book or other work which describes the plant species in an area or time period, with the aim of allowing identification.

The term flora comes from Latin language Flora, the goddess of flowers in Roman mythology. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna.

Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora.

Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora [1] [2]. Other times, the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately.

Contents

Floras (in the second sense)

Classic floras

Europe
  • Flora Londinensis, William Curtis. England 1777- 1798
  • Flora Graeca, John Sibthorp. (England) 1806 - 1840
  • Flora Danica, Simon Paulli. Denmark, 1847.
  • Flora Jenensis, Heinrich Bernhard Rupp Germany, 1718.
  • Flora Scorer, Paolo Di Canio. 1723.
  • Flora Suecica, Carolus Linnaeus. 1745.
India
  • Hortus indicus malabaricus, Hendrik van Rheede 16831703
Indonesia
  • Flora Javae, Carl Ludwig Blume and Joanne Baptista Fischer. 1828.

Modern floras

Americas

Caribbean
  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to Thymeleales. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
North America
  • Flora of North America
  • Kearney, Thomas H. Arizona Flora. University of California Press, 1940.
  • Hickman, James C., editor. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, 1993.
  • Hultén, Eric. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of the Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press, 1968.
  • Radford, Albert E. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Hitchcock, C. Leo, and Arthur Cronquist. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, 1973.
  • Chadde, Steve W., and Steve Chadde. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora. 2nd ed. Pocketflora Press, 2002. ISBN 0-9651385-5-0
  • P. D. Strausbaugh and Earl L. Core. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Seneca Books Inc., 1964. ISBN 0-89092-010-9
  • Ann Fouler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block. The Plants of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8122-3535-5
  • Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. In three volumes. Dover Publications, 1913, 1970. ISBN 0-486-22642-5

Asia

China and Japan
Southeast Asia
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of the Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915-36)
  • Flora of Nepal
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903-29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921-25)
  • Flora of British India (1872-1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia
  • Flora of Turkey
  • Flora Iranica
  • Flora Palaestina:
    • M. Zohary (1966). Flora Palaestina part 1.
    • M. Zohary (1972). Flora Palaestina part 2.
    • N. Feinbrun (1978). Flora Palaestina part 3.
    • N. Feinbrun (1986). Flora Palaestina part 4.
    • A. Danin, (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area (Flora Palaestina part 5).
    • Online updates: http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=showfile&fileid=14005

Australasia

  • Flora of Australia
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae. ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special Edition. ISBN 0-478-09339-X.

Pacific Islands

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [3]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)

Europe

British Isles

Africa and Madagascar

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

Other pages

  • Biome — a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities.
  • Vegetation — a general term for the plant life of a region.
  • Fauna

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message