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Florence Nightingale

Born 12 May 1820(1820-05-12)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 August 1910 (aged 90)
Park Lane, London, United Kingdom
Profession Nurse and Statistician
Institutions Selimiye Barracks, Scutari
Specialism Hospital hygiene and sanitation
Known for Pioneering modern nursing
.Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (pronounced /ˈflɒrəns ˈnaɪtɪŋɡeɪl/, historically [ˈflɒɾəns]; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English nurse, writer and statistician.^ Florence Nightingale , English nurse, born on May 12, 1820 .
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^ Florence Nightingale, 1820-1910 .
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^ August 13 , 1910 ), English nurse during the Crimean War .
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.She came to prominence during the Crimean War for her pioneering work in nursing, and was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night to tend injured soldiers.^ She earned the nickname "The Lady With the Lamp" for her tireless nursing care delivered to British soldiers during the Crimean War (1853-1856).
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^ Although she is best remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1853-56), Nightingale fundamentally changed the role of nursing in hospitals, and was a key figure in introducing new professional training standards.

^ The world knows Florence Nightingale as "the lady with the lamp"-the revered founder of nursing as a respectable profession for women.
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.Nightingale laid the foundation stone of professional nursing with the principles summarised in the book Notes on Nursing.^ Miss Nightingale and the Fund never successfully established a military nursing service on the lines laid down in her ` subsidiary Notes.` .

^ Seacole and Florence Nightingale were contemporaries noted for their nursing care of soldiers during the Crimean War .

^ Mrs Deeble was generally regarded as having laid the foundations for the `Queen Alexandra Royal Nursing Service` Miss Norman took over as Superintendent at Netley.

.The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.^ International Nursing Day (Florence Nightingale's birthday) .
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^ "International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world every May 12, the anniversary of Florence Nightingale's birth.
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^ Snellman Day, Finland Celebrates the birthday of JV Snellman ( May 12 , 1806 - July 4 , 1881 ) , Finnish ( Fennoman of Swedish origin) writer , philosopher and statesman .
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Contents

Biography

Early life

Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale
.Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near the Porta Romana in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth.^ Education near Florence Nightingale Museum .
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^ Pubs near Florence Nightingale Museum .
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^ Young Florence My name is Florence Nightingale .
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Florence's older sister Parthenope (pronounced /pɑrˈθiːnəpɪ/) had similarly been named after her place of birth, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
.Her parents were William Edward Nightingale (1794–1874) and Frances ("Fanny") Nightingale née Smith (1789–1880).^ William Edward Nightingale was born William Edward Shore in 1794.

^ Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson founds Alcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock .
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^ Fanny was six years older that William Edward Nightingale when they became engaged in 1817.

.William Nightingale was born William Edward Shore.^ William Edward Nightingale was born William Edward Shore in 1794.

^ Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson founds Alcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock .
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^ Fanny was six years older that William Edward Nightingale when they became engaged in 1817.

.His mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William Shore not only inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, but also assumed the name and arms of Nightingale.^ He changed his name to Nightingale when he became twenty-one, after inheriting a fortune from his Uncle Peter Nightingale .

^ In 1882, she discovered that the District Nurses at Holloway near Lea Hurst her Derbyshire home, were taking paying patients, instead of doing their work.

^ In the Summer of 1879 the estate at Lea Hurst was involved in a serious scandal.

.Fanny's father (Florence's maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist William Smith.^ William's sister Mary (Aunt Mai) married Fanny's brother Samuel Smith .

.Inspired by what she took as a Christian divine calling, which she experienced first in 1837 at Embley Park and later throughout her life, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1845, despite the intense anger and distress of her family, particularly her mother.^ As her mother was unable to travel with her husband to Lea Hurst, Miss Nightingale agreed to go and look after her mother at Embley Park.

^ I did an extensive literature search to find out more about the woman who is now being called another Florence Nightingale, the Black Florence Nightingale, and the first nurse practitioner.

^ After training as a nurse aged 33 (despite her family's protests), she is put in charge of Scutari Military Hospital during the Crimean War .
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.In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother.^ The Physical Life of Woman: Advice to the Maiden, Wife and Mother (English) (as Author) Napier, James, 1810-1884 .
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.Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women.^ As hard as Miss Nightingale worked herself, she made others.

^ Miss Nightingale could not rest , she had worked so hard and now all she wanted was solitude.

^ In spite of a great shortage of suitable women to go to the Crimea as nurses, she was turned down by all.

She cared for people in poverty. .In December 1844, she became the leading advocate for improved medical care in the infirmaries and immediately engaged the support of Charles Villiers, then president of the Poor Law Board.^ Miss Nightingale wrote to Mr Charles Villiers , the President of the Poor Law Board, stating her case for the improvement of nursing in workhouse infirmaries.

^ It therefore was a surprise when in March 1867, a Bill introduced in February, became law, under the title of the `Metropolitan Poor Act`.

^ The Infirmary was controlled by the Central London Sick Asylum, and the old Poor Law Board was replaced by a new Local Government Board.

.This led to her active role in the reform of the Poor Laws, extending far beyond the provision of medical care.^ A Christian universalist , she played an active role in the reform of the British Poor Laws , extending far beyond the provision of medical care.
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^ Miss Nightingale had been working on her workhouse reform with Mr Farnall the Poor Law Inspector of the Metropolitan District.

.She was later instrumental in mentoring and then sending Agnes Elizabeth Jones and other Nightingale Probationers to Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.^ William Rathbone had written to Miss Nightingale, to persuade her to allow nurses to go to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.

^ He appointed a committee to report on the requisite amount of space, and other matters in relation to Workhouse Infirmaries.

^ Miss Nightingale wrote to Mr Charles Villiers , the President of the Poor Law Board, stating her case for the improvement of nursing in workhouse infirmaries.

.Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing.^ In the summer of 1842, at a party given by the Palmerston's , Florence was introduced to Richard Monckton Milnes .

^ Miss Nightingale would become advisor to him.

.When in Rome in 1847, recovering from a mental breakdown precipitated by a continuing crisis of her relationship with Milnes, she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War.^ On the basis of this and related experience she was chosen, in 1854, to head up a party of nurses who would work in the hospital in Scutari, nursing wounded soldiers from the newly declared Crimean war.
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^ Many of the nurses who were waiting to go to the Herbert had become fed up with waiting and had applied for other positions.

^ Pages 68-70, 150-153 describe Nightingale's work during the Crimean War; Gift of the Columbia and Presbyterian School of Nursing Alumni, 2003.
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.Herbert was already married, but he and Nightingale were immediately attracted to each other and they became lifelong close friends.^ Miss Nightingale had been devoted to her father, they were very close and he understood her much more than her mother.

^ Gradually her friends were being taken from her, on September 6 th 1865 , Hilary Bonham Carter died, they had been very close when they were young and Miss Nightingale had been very fond of her.

^ Lord Northbrook succeeded him, Miss Nightingale knew him as he had been a friend of Sidney Herbert , but he did not consult her before he left for India.

.Herbert was instrumental in facilitating her pioneering work in the Crimea and in the field of nursing, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career.^ It seems a big step from nursing in the Crimea to your work in army and hospital reform, in public health, and in statistics.
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^ The Fund never succeed in altering nursing at the Herbert, there was little improvement until Miss Caulfield from Netley became superintendent.

^ Additionally she cooperated with Sidney Herbert, a family friend who was by now a Cabinet minister, in several surveys of hospitals, examining defects in the working conditions of nurses.
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In 1851, she rejected Milne's marriage proposal, against her mother's wishes.
.Nightingale also had strong and intimate relations with Benjamin Jowett, particularly about the time that she was considering leaving money in her will to establish a chair in applied statistics at the University of Oxford.^ Her friends during this time were Mary Clarke and Benjamin Jowett , both of whom she wrote to constantly.

^ A training school for midwives had been established in Kings College Hospital, with part of the money raised by the Nightingale Fund.

[2]
.Nightingale continued her travels with Charles and Selina Bracebridge as far as Greece and Egypt.^ In 1849 Florence was to travel to Egypt with the Bracebridges.

Though not mentioned by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote
."I don't think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this."^ Miss Nightingale had been devoted to her father, they were very close and he understood her much more than her mother.

And, considering the temple: "Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering... not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man."
.At Thebes she wrote of being "called to God" while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): "God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation."^ Fine in VG DJ. now edited by Anthony Sattin; privately printed by her sister in 1854, they were never published; long picturesque letters.
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^ Douglas Galton was on the Committee, so she wrote to him, to ask if he would put her name forward.

^ He called at the Burlington to see Miss Nightingale, who had returned there to say good bye to him.

[3] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. .She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc was her first published work.^ This Association was the first which undertook to give nurses already trained in hospital the special district training necessary for their work.

^ Dr Sutherland put together all her findings, and published them in 1871 under the title of `Introductory Notes on Lying-in Institutions`.

[4]
.On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[5] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £25,000/US$50,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.^ In 1853 Liz Herbert contacted Florence about a position for Superintendent at The Institution for the care of Sick Gentlewomen in Distressed Circumstances.

^ We next present an imaginary dialogue between ourselves (I = Interviewer) and Florence Nightingale (FN), imagining that she has travelled in time to meet us.
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^ The sick, insane, incurable and children must be dealt with separately in proper institutions and not mixed up together in infirmaries and sick wards as at present.

James Joseph Sylvester is said to have been her mentor.

Crimean War

A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava
A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an 1856 lithograph
.Florence Nightingale's most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded.^ Miss Nightingale had discovered that for every man that died in the Crimea from wounds, seven would die from diseases, most of which could be simply prevented.

^ In 1854 a number of nurses were recruited  to go to the Crimean War by Florence Nightingale .

^ The JCAHO published a book about her, Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes.
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.On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[6] were sent (under the authorization of Sidney Herbert) to Turkey, about 545 km across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based.^ He had also written to her about a staff of trained nurses being sent to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary .

^ The world knows Florence Nightingale as "the lady with the lamp"-the revered founder of nursing as a respectable profession for women.
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^ Miss Nightingale and Sidney Herbert had been working together on the reorganisation of the War Office .

.Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul).^ Florence Nightingale stamps of the world Early progressives in the Book of Days .
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She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. .There was no equipment to process food for the patients.^ There was no nurse training at Kaiserwerth, but patients were well cared for, and well fed.

Death rates did not drop; on the contrary, they began to rise. .The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region.^ FN: In comparing the deaths of one hospital with those of another, any statistics are justly considered absolutely valueless which do not give the ages, the sexes and the diseases of all the cases.
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During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. .Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds.^ American Civil War : Battle of Spotsylvania Court House : The 'Bloody Angle' thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers died.
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.Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital's defective sewers and lack of ventilation.^ I could have complained about unsanitary conditions in the hospital in Scutari, or in army barracks in England, till I was blue in the face.
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^ Patients suffered through lack of ventilation and drainage, infection spread with speed.

^ Additionally she cooperated with Sidney Herbert, a family friend who was by now a Cabinet minister, in several surveys of hospitals, examining defects in the working conditions of nurses.
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.A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.^ She compliments him on the gigantic work of the Bengal Sanitary Commission.and wishes all papers pertaining to India's sanitary improvements to be sent to her.12mo, 16p, ALS. .
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^ Miss Nightingale was determined to get the right people for the commission and she spent many hours consulting with 1856, Florence spoke with Sidney Herbert; she wanted him to be chairman.

^ Miss Nightingale had been asked to send out nurses, twenty-four were sent out under the supervision of a Nightingale trained matron.

[7] Death rates were sharply reduced. .Until recently it was commonly asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission.^ She compliments him on the gigantic work of the Bengal Sanitary Commission.and wishes all papers pertaining to India's sanitary improvements to be sent to her.12mo, 16p, ALS. .
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^ But I was able to make improvements, and the Sanitary Commissioners who arrived in March 1855 made huge improvements in the conditions.
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For example the 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, but the second edition in 2001 did not. .During the war she did not recognize hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.^ FN: I learned that it was only at Scutari, not at the other hospitals in the Crimea, that the death rate was an appalling 43% during that first winter.
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^ Upon her return to England at the end of July 1856 FN become involved in a series of investigations that sought to establish the reason for the huge death rate during the first winter of the war in the Crimea.
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^ Reliable data are terribly important for ascertaining whether any particular cause of death predominates in lying-in [childbirth] institutions; and, if so, why so?
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[8]
.Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers.^ Miss Nightingale had predicted illness due to the hospitals poor site, and dampness.

^ The first, invented in collaboration with Farr, displayed the effect of her efforts in the Crimea on soldiers death rates.
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.It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions.^ The Commission was to hear evidence of the poor conditions of the Army.

^ I collected as much evidence on hospitals and public health as I could to form the basis of my knowledge.
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^ It seems a big step from nursing in the Crimea to your work in army and hospital reform, in public health, and in statistics.
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.This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance.^ The Master had a great influence on the happiness or otherwise of those in his care, and a kindly man probably turned a blind eye to the harsh rules and regulations.

^ For me, this experience emphasised the great importance of correct hospital statistics as an essential element in hospital administration.
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.Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.^ FN: I learned that it was only at Scutari, not at the other hospitals in the Crimea, that the death rate was an appalling 43% during that first winter.
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^ A Contribution to the Sanitary History of the British Army during the Late War with Russia .
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The Lady with the Lamp

During the Crimean campaign, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname "The Lady with the Lamp", deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times:
She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow's face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. .When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.^ I hope that I can in this way secure some hold upon the minds of those who hold in their hands the remedies that we are seeking.
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[9]
"Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari", a portrait by Jerry Barrett
The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 1857 poem "Santa Filomena":[10]
Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

Later career

.While she was still in Turkey, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses.^ The Nightingale Fund had been approached to supply nurses.

^ Her energy and enthusiasm for her task, the publicity which the Times gave to her work, the high regard in which she was held by the soldiers, and a national appeal for a Nightingale fund that would be used to help establish training for nurses, all contributed to make FN a heroine.
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^ International Nursing Day (Florence Nightingale's birthday) .
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There was an outpouring of generous donations. .Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman.^ Miss Nightingale was determined to get the right people for the commission and she spent many hours consulting with 1856, Florence spoke with Sidney Herbert; she wanted him to be chairman.

^ Sidney Herbert who was Secretary at War, was responsible for the sick and wounded, and he wrote to Florence regarding her taking a party of nurses to the hospitals of the British Army.

^ George Lewis , was to take Sidney Herberts position as Secretary of State for War.

.Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in Turkey, detailing the health conditions, physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland).^ He also wrote to Miss Nightingale, a very formal letter about a military hospital at Woolwich, and to his successor George Lewis.

^ Since FNs time, there has been substantial progress in getting an insistence on a secure evidence-based foundation for at least some medical treatments.
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^ There was no nurse training at Kaiserwerth, but patients were well cared for, and well fed.

.It may be assumed she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment.^ With this successful organization, a complicated surgery such as liver transplantation may now be offered as a treatment option that can easily reached by our patients.
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By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas' Hospital on 9 July 1860. (It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King's College London.) .The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.^ He had also written to her about a staff of trained nurses being sent to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary .

^ It was not until March 1865 that permission was given for nurses to work in the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.

^ William Rathbone had written to Miss Nightingale, to persuade her to allow nurses to go to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.

.She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home.^ Mr Rathbone financed a nurse`s home built near Liverpool Hospital.

^ The Fund had more or less drafted the Regulations for the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley.

^ A training school for midwives had been established in Kings College Hospital, with part of the money raised by the Nightingale Fund.

.Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established.^ I: Eight years later you wrote another book, Notes on Lying-In Institutions , on childbirth facilities.
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^ Pages 68-70, 150-153 describe Nightingale's work during the Crimean War; Gift of the Columbia and Presbyterian School of Nursing Alumni, 2003.
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^ Training Schools supervised and directed by Nightingale superintendents had been established in .

.Nightingale wrote "Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place.^ International Nursing Day (Florence Nightingale's birthday) .
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^ Miss Nightingale had discovered that for every man that died in the Crimea from wounds, seven would die from diseases, most of which could be simply prevented.

^ Miss Nightingale wrote to Mr Charles Villiers , the President of the Poor Law Board, stating her case for the improvement of nursing in workhouse infirmaries.

It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have-distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have".[11]
.Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing.^ Organization of Nursing: An Account of the Liverpool Nurses' Training School, Its Foundation, Progress, and Operation in Hospital, District, and Private Nursing, with an introduction, and notes .
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^ Subsidiary Notes as to the Introduction of Female Nursing into Military HospitALS in Peace and in War .
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.Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form.^ The world knows Florence Nightingale as "the lady with the lamp"-the revered founder of nursing as a respectable profession for women.
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^ Miss Nightingale and the Fund never successfully established a military nursing service on the lines laid down in her ` subsidiary Notes.` .

^ Inscription: Offered to Nurse Vonsden on her entrance into St. Marylebone new Infirmary: with Florence Nightingale's earnest prayers that she & all her Patients & all the Nurses may be led to that higher life which our Lord wills for us all.
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.In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: "The book was the first of its kind ever to be written.^ William Rathbone had written to Miss Nightingale, to persuade her to allow nurses to go to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.

^ Miss Nightingale wrote to Mr Charles Villiers , the President of the Poor Law Board, stating her case for the improvement of nursing in workhouse infirmaries.

^ Josephine A. Dolan was the first professor of nursing at the University of Connecticut School of Nursing.
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.It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons.^ To prevent her nurses from "socializing" with the patients, she banned them from the hospital at night and made rounds by herself, carrying her lamp.
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^ It seems a big step from nursing in the Crimea to your work in army and hospital reform, in public health, and in statistics.
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^ FN: The proportion of recoveries, the proportion of deaths, and the average time in hospital, must all be taken into account in discussions of this nature, as well as the character of the cases and the proportion of different ages among the sick.
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The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing".[12]
.Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain.^ He also wrote to Miss Nightingale, a very formal letter about a military hospital at Woolwich, and to his successor George Lewis.

^ The JCAHO published a book about her, Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes.
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^ Miss Nightingale felt that the choice for nursing staff for a military hospital should be done carefully and that preference should be given to widows of army surgeons and officers.

.Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army.^ She entered nursing school at the age of 31 and then went to the British military hospital in Scutari , Turkey where the British were fighting the Crimean war.
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^ The Principal Medical Officer was not resident, this meant that the superintendent would not be responsible to the resident Medical Officer for day-to-day nursing matters.

^ Mrs Deeble had persuaded Sir Thomas Longmore of the Army Medical College that Netley was the only place capable of training army nurses.

.It is commonly stated that Nightingale "went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection". Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[13] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as "contagionism" which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch.^ Miss Nightingale had discovered that for every man that died in the Crimea from wounds, seven would die from diseases, most of which could be simply prevented.

^ Parthe had become seriously ill, and Sir Harry now eighty-two could not cope, so Miss Nightingale went to Claydon House to help.

^ Miss Nightingale could not agree, there was so much she wanted to speak on the subject of conditions, not only construction.

Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, to kill germs. .Nightingale's work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War.^ Miss Nightingale and Sidney Herbert had been working together on the reorganisation of the War Office .

^ Another nurse, Harriet Eaton from Maine, wrote and received letters from her family during her Civil War service and these are in the series.
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^ In 1854 a number of nurses were recruited  to go to the Crimean War by Florence Nightingale .

The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. .Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission.^ She corresponded with the Secretaries of each Presidential Sanitary Commission, and officials of influence in India.

.In 1869, Nightingale and Dr Elizabeth Blackwell opened the Women's Medical College.^ It was her view that There is a better thing than making women into medical men, and that is making them into medical women ( Nightingale 1871 ).
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^ "Elizabeth Fry, Pastor Fliedner and Florence Nightingale," AnnALS of Medical History .
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^ Dr A Smith, who Miss Nightingale had first heard of, when he war director of the Army Medical Service, when she was planning to take nurses to Scutari.

.In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, "America's first trained nurse", and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools.^ Training Schools supervised and directed by Nightingale superintendents had been established in .

^ Sloan, I. W. America's first trained nurse: the story of Linda Richards 1841-1930.
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^ Miss Nightingale and the Fund never successfully established a military nursing service on the lines laid down in her ` subsidiary Notes.` .

.Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan.^ Sloan, I. W. America's first trained nurse: the story of Linda Richards 1841-1930.
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.By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession.^ When in 1882 Mrs Deeble was asked by the War Office to take nurses to Egypt, Miss Nightingale was annoyed.

^ Florence Nightingale managed to transform the nursing profession in a total career of less than 3 years.
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.Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary's Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.^ South St., Park Lane, London W., April 5, 1868, letter to Lady Eastlake, regarding the possibility of a Lady Superintendent for the Nurses of Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.8vo, 8p, ALS. .
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^ I look to the abolition of all hospitals and workhouse infirmaries.
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^ William Rathbone had written to Miss Nightingale, to persuade her to allow nurses to go to the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary.

.In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria.^ The Red Cross Medal was initiated, among its first recipients were Miss Nightingale and Mrs Deeble.

^ En 1883, la reina Victoria le otorgó la Royal Red Cross y en 1907 , fue la primera mujer condecorada con la Order of Merit.

.In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit.^ En 1883, la reina Victoria le otorgó la Royal Red Cross y en 1907 , fue la primera mujer condecorada con la Order of Merit.

^ In October 1907 she was given the Order of Merit by King Edward VII, the first time it had been given to a woman.

.In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London.^ The following year she received the Freedom of the City of London.

.Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day.^ International Nursing Day (Florence Nightingale's birthday) .
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^ Snellman Day, Finland Celebrates the birthday of JV Snellman ( May 12 , 1806 - July 4 , 1881 ) , Finnish ( Fennoman of Swedish origin) writer , philosopher and statesman .
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^ "International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world every May 12, the anniversary of Florence Nightingale's birth.
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From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[14] .An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.^ Upon her return to England at the end of July 1856 FN become involved in a series of investigations that sought to establish the reason for the huge death rate during the first winter of the war in the Crimea.
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[8] Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. .During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world.^ During her stay at Kaiserwerth she worked with the children and in the hospital.

Relationships

.Although much of Nightingale's work improved the lot of women everywhere, she had little affection for women in general[15] preferring the friendship of powerful men.^ Miss Nightingale was unable to spend much time of District Nursing, although she had constant correspondence with Mr Rathbone.

^ Miss Nightingale and Mr Croft worked together on improving lectures and the standard of examinations.

^ The women selected for training as "Village Nurse-Midwives" were generally those belonging to the county in which they were to work.

She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example "a man of action".[citation needed]
.She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women.^ FN did however see an important role for women medical professionals.
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As a young woman she adored both an aunt and a female cousin. .Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.^ A further religious influence was her friendship with the Irish Sister Mary Clare Moore, the founding superior of the Roman Catholic Sisters of Mercy in Bermondsey, London.
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^ On 5 th December 1860, he told Miss Nightingale that if he gave up all public work and returned to Wilton, it was possible that his life might be prolonged.

[16] .Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.^ It was during this trip that she met Mary Clarke .

[17]
.In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale's life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in a time of sexual repression.^ In this surprisingly passionate feminist essay (a "brilliant polemic," states Martha Vicinus) , Nightingale denounces the lives of idleness she and other women of her class were forced to lead.
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[18]
The grave of Florence Nightingale in the churchyard of St. Margaret's Church, East Wellow.

Death

.On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street, Park Lane.^ El día 13 de agosto de 1910 fallece Florence a la edad de 90 años.

[19] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[20][21]

Contributions

Statistics and sanitary reform

"Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East" by Florence Nightingale.
.Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father.^ Keats House and the Florence Nightingale Museum Romantic poet, Keats, left love letters in his north London house - he wrote 'Ode to a Nightingale' under...
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^ In this paper we gather a set of quotations and construct a dialogue with Florence Nightingale on the subject of statistics.
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^ Florence Nightingale Exhibit.
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.Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.^ I: And what about presentation of statistical information?
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^ I: Yes, your graphical presentations were great innovations at the time - you are to be congratulated, Miss Nightingale, for coming up with such elegant yet powerful graphs.
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^ Tufte, E.R. (1983), The Visual Display of Quantitative Information , Cheshire, CO: Graphics Press.
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[22] Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801.
.Indeed, Nightingale is described as "a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics", and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram,[23] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed.^ He also wrote to Miss Nightingale, a very formal letter about a military hospital at Woolwich, and to his successor George Lewis.

^ She wanted to put forward facts concerning neglect and ill treatment of patients in military hospitals to the War Office.

^ Miss Nightingale felt that the choice for nursing staff for a military hospital should be done carefully and that preference should be given to widows of army surgeons and officers.

Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a "coxcomb", but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. .She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports.^ On the basis of this and related experience she was chosen, in 1854, to head up a party of nurses who would work in the hospital in Scutari, nursing wounded soldiers from the newly declared Crimean war.
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^ FN: You can see the power of careful, accurate, statistical information from the way that I used them in my pleas to Government to improve the conditions of ordinary soldiers and of ordinary people.
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^ When the report was completed it was presented to the Secretary of State for War.

.In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India.^ Public Health Service publication No.
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^ The study of statistics is thus a religious service.
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^ I: You know, statistical thinking may be having more of an impact on medical practice and public health nowadays though the concept of evidence-based approaches, but debate continues as to how to go about it.
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.In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation.^ Three months into her report Lord Panmure agreed to Miss Nightingale`s Royal Commission.

Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. "After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000".[24]
.In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.^ III: Essay in memoriam," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 144, 76-79, 176-213 and 332-351.
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^ At the first meeting of the National Society a letter was read out from Miss Nightingale appealing for Funds.

^ The Royal Herbert at Woolwich was the first military hospital built on the pavilion plan which Miss Nightingale favoured most.

Literature and the women's movement

.Nightingale's achievements are all the more impressive when they are gauged against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England.^ Miss Nightingale had been devoted to her father, they were very close and he understood her much more than her mother.

.Her father, William Edward Nightingale, was an extremely wealthy landowner, and the family moved in the highest circles of English society.^ William Edward Nightingale was born William Edward Shore in 1794.

^ Fanny was six years older that William Edward Nightingale when they became engaged in 1817.

^ She was the daughter of Frances and William Edward Nightingale.

In those days, women of Nightingale's class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. Nightingale was fortunate. .Her father believed women should be educated, and he personally taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history and - most unusual of all for women of the time - writing and mathematics.^ William would teach them Greek, Latin, German, French, Italian, History and philosophy.

[25]
.But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism.^ Miss Nightingale felt it was important that District Nurses should be aware of the importance of their work.

During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. .As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth.^ Eran consideraciones filosóficas que publicó más tarde en tres volúmenes, en una edición privada, con el título Suggestions for thought for searchers after religious truth (Nightingale, 1860 b ) .

^ Suggestions for Thought to the Searchers after Truth among the Artizans of England .
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.The three-volume book has never been printed in its entirety, but a section, called Cassandra, was published by Ray Strachey in 1928. Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women's movement.^ Fine in VG DJ. now edited by Anthony Sattin; privately printed by her sister in 1854, they were never published; long picturesque letters.
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.Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth.^ Miss Nightingale had been asked to send out nurses, twenty-four were sent out under the supervision of a Nightingale trained matron.

^ By 1887 the following hospitals, institutions and organisations had matrons or superintendent who had trained at the Nightingale School: .

.Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother's and older sister's lethargic lifestyle, despite their education.^ Education near Florence Nightingale Museum .
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^ His wife once wrote a note to Miss Nightingale for her husband to be excused, and Miss Nightingale got herself into such a state that Dr Sutherland had to be sent for.

^ Miss Nightingale`s mother and sister were staying with her in London.

She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra's. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale's writing "a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf."[26]

Theology

Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale's work of theology, her own theodicy, where she develops her radical heterodox ideas.
Nightingale was a Christian universalist.[27] She explained that on 7 February 1837 – not long before her 17th birthday: "God spoke to me", she wrote, "and called me to His service."[citation needed]

Legacy and memory

A young Florence Nightingale

Nursing

.The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach.^ Nurses were to be trained for both hospital and district nursing.

^ Nightingale Training School St. Thomas' Hospital, 1860-1960.
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^ She had intended to train in nursing at the Maison de la Providence which was the hospital of the Sisters of Charity.

.This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.^ Professional partnerhood in health care: the need for research into nursing practice.” An abstract for action.
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^ Hospitals then were not as they are today, most people were nursed in their own home, and as a last resort would be in a hospital.

[28]
.Florence Nightingale's lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession.^ In 1854 a number of nurses were recruited  to go to the Crimean War by Florence Nightingale .

^ The members of the Hospital Association went against Miss Nightingale and recommended that a register should be established and the British Nurses` Association was founded.

^ Additional Dolan materials, especially Florence Nightingale correspondence, is available in the Josephine Dolan History of Nursing Collection in Special Collections , Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. .
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She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.
.The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King's College London.^ Miss Nightingale continued to receive visitors at her South Street home, many of them connected with her work in India.

^ She continued to work on the reconstruction of the Nightingale School Mr Croft had taken over from Mr Whitfield as Resident Medical Officer.

^ International Cooperation Group Florence Nightingale cooperates with world renowned Medical Schools: .
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.The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her.^ It had been proposed that a board of examiners independent of the training schools be set up, enabling a nurse to pass an examination by them, and their name entered on a register.

International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year.
.The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[29] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale's death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale's birth).^ At this center, world's most advanced cancer research and treatment facilities are provided through the coordinated studies of fully-equipped diagnosis, medical treatment and radiotherapy units established in line with the U.S standards.
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^ With their high-technology Intensive Care Unit and health care support units, state-of-the-art technical facilities and innovations in its private rooms, Gayrettepe Florence Nightingale Hospital is a center preferred by the mothers and fathers seeking the best for their babies.
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^ GOKTURK FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE MEDICAL CENTER (since 2007) General Medical Center at Gokturk - Istanbul, with 10 patient beds.
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.NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health.^ Please Click Here to request more information about Group Florence Nightingale.
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^ PART I Books by Florence Nightingale Books About Florence Nightingale Books About Nursing Miscellaneous Books .
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^ Berry, Frank B. "Florence Nightingale's Influence on Military Medicine," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine .
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries.^ Revista “HOLA” Artículo “Florence Nightingale” -18 de octubre del 2006- .

^ Whittier, John Greenleaf, Oak Knoll, Danvers, U.S., 5 th Month of 1882, "Poem - To Florence Nightingale of England," 12 lines, 12mo, 1p, Signed.
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work.^ The legend and white-washed life of the 19th-century Englishwoman turned national heroine as a battlefield nurse during the Crimean War, teaming Jaclyn Smith with an all-British cast.
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miss Nightingale and Sidney Herbert had been working together on the reorganisation of the War Office .

^ Another nurse, Harriet Eaton from Maine, wrote and received letters from her family during her Civil War service and these are in the series.
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[30]
.Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi in Gayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.^ Screening Center Private Şişli Florence Nightingale Hospital screening center, carrying out its operations in parallel to the uninterrupted services provided by other centers, operates under the supervision of specialized radiologists with advanced technical equipment.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With their high-technology Intensive Care Unit and health care support units, state-of-the-art technical facilities and innovations in its private rooms, Gayrettepe Florence Nightingale Hospital is a center preferred by the mothers and fathers seeking the best for their babies.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With its quick adaptation to rapidly developing technology and advanced treatment applications in the field of cardiology just as in all other fields of specialization, Private Şişli Florence Nightingale continues to be a modern medical center that monitors and implements the developments worldwide.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[32] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale's contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name "Bedside Florence" to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.^ Josephine A. Dolan was the first professor of nursing at the University of Connecticut School of Nursing.
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cemsid Demiroglu for giving me the chance to be operated in Florence Nightingale Hospital.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Robotic Heart and Prostate Surgery (daVinci) Florence Nightingale Hospitals perform robotic surgeries using the daVinci Robotic Surgery System, which is available only in the most advanced medical centers and hospitals of the world.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

[33]
.There are many foundations named after Florence Nightingale.^ Miss Nightingale was determined to get the right people for the commission and she spent many hours consulting with 1856, Florence spoke with Sidney Herbert; she wanted him to be chairman.

^ S.C. Hall who have done so much for so many good causes with warm regards & thankful heart of Florence Nightingale Whitsuntide: 1877 .
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There were many parties during the summer, at Embley, and it was during this time Florence met Lord Palmerston and his wife Lady Emily Courper.

.Most are nursing foundations, but there is also Nightingale Research Foundation in Canada, dedicated to the study and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, which Nightingale is believed to have had.^ At this center, world's most advanced cancer research and treatment facilities are provided through the coordinated studies of fully-equipped diagnosis, medical treatment and radiotherapy units established in line with the U.S standards.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is a psychological effect known as the "Florence Nightingale Effect", whereby patients fall in love with their caregivers.^ GOKTURK FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE MEDICAL CENTER (since 2007) General Medical Center at Gokturk - Istanbul, with 10 patient beds.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SISLI FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE HOSPITAL - (since 1989) General Hospital at Sisli - İstanbul - Turkey, with 300 patient beds.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Florence Nightingale Hospitals provide general hospital service to patients with specialty on following branches and attained " Center of Excellency " status in its field.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Museums and monuments

Statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, London
.A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.^ El Monumento de Crimea, fue erigido en 1915 en Waterloo Place, Londres, para honrar la contribución que hizo Florence Nightingale a esa guerra y a la salud del ejército.

^ Florence Nightingale Hospitals provide general hospital service to patients with specialty on following branches and attained " Center of Excellency " status in its field.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rundall, F.B.A. "Florence Nightingale's Place In British History," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine .
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the Derby Royal Infirmary, one in St. Peter's Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[34]
.There is a Florence Nightingale Museum in London and another museum devoted to her at her sister's family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust.^ Now I am in Ipek-Kosovo, I am thankful for the miracle that became true at Florence Nightingale Hospital.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parthe had become seriously ill, and Sir Harry now eighty-two could not cope, so Miss Nightingale went to Claydon House to help.

^ As there was no son to inherit , the properties of Embley and Lea Hurst now passed on to Aunt Mai , according to the instructions of Peter Nightingale's will.

.The northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is today a museum, and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.^ Suite rooms of Private Şişli Florence Nightingale Hospital have been designed taking into account the comfort, convenience and needs of our guests.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When I arrived to Istanbul to your Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital at almost midnight, I was fully escorted and my room and a team of doctors was ready to examine me.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional Dolan materials, especially Florence Nightingale correspondence, is available in the Josephine Dolan History of Nursing Collection in Special Collections , Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. .
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.When she first arrived in Turkey, Nightingale would travel on horseback to make inspections.^ This would make it difficult for Miss Nightingale to influence the Association.

^ The Nightingales arrived back in London, on April 6th 1839 ; Embley would not be finished until June.

^ This would lay the foundation of the vast and detailed knowledge of sanitary conditions, which was to make her the first expert in Europe.

She then transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. .The carriage was returned to England after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses, which she founded at St Thomas's Hospital.^ Nightingale Training School St. Thomas' Hospital, 1860-1960.
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ She had intended to train in nursing at the Maison de la Providence which was the hospital of the Sisters of Charity.

^ Philadelphia General Hospital School of Nursing Blockley Division historical articles, 1951-1978 .
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. .It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot.^ During the time she was in the Crimea, he had become the Director General of the British Army Medical Service.

^ Dr A Smith, who Miss Nightingale had first heard of, when he war director of the Army Medical Service, when she was planning to take nurses to Scutari.

^ She decided to write and publish her experiences in the Crimea, and suggestions for improvement in the Army Medical Service.

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[36]
."To Florence Nightingale, whose work near this Cemetery a century ago relieved much human suffering and laid the foundations for the nursing profession."^ Additional Dolan materials, especially Florence Nightingale correspondence, is available in the Josephine Dolan History of Nursing Collection in Special Collections , Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. .
  • Josephine A. Dolan Collection of Nursing History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC doddcenter.uconn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ SISLI FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE HOSPITAL Private Şişli Florence Nightingale Hospital entered into operation in 1989 as the first hospital of Turkish Cardiology Foundation with a capacity of 50 beds.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

.Florence Nightingale's voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive.^ The Life of Florence Nightingale Search billions of records on Ancestry.com     .

Theatre

The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his "The Lady with the Lamp", premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey's biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[37] It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond's surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria.
.In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled "The Voyage of the Lass". The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities' icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines.^ Cardiology Department Based on nearly 20 years of experience and reliability of Florence Nightingale Group in the field of Cardiology, Gktrk Florence Nightingale Medical Center also renders services in this area.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Florence Nightingale Hospitals provide general hospital service to patients with specialty on following branches and attained " Center of Excellency " status in its field.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Being the only hospital located on Bagdat Street, Kadıky Florence Nightingale Hospital provides services in all specialties with its inpatient and outpatient, diagnosis, treatment and emergency service facilities and fully-equipped polyclinics.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

.The play tells the story of Nightingale's early life and her struggles during the Crimean War.^ The legend and white-washed life of the 19th-century Englishwoman turned national heroine as a battlefield nurse during the Crimean War, teaming Jaclyn Smith with an all-British cast.
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pages 68-70, 150-153 describe Nightingale's work during the Crimean War; Gift of the Columbia and Presbyterian School of Nursing Alumni, 2003.
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The end came in June, he collapsed and told Miss Nightingale he could struggle no longer and must resign the War Office and retire.

."The Voyage of the Lass" was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts.^ The members of the Hospital Association went against Miss Nightingale and recommended that a register should be established and the British Nurses` Association was founded.

^ Two of her probationers she became most fond of Miss Rachel Williams and Miss Pringle, both were excellent nurses and became matrons of important hospitals.

Television

.Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary - the BBC's 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4's 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole's efforts.^ Revista “HOLA” Artículo “Florence Nightingale” -18 de octubre del 2006- .

^ Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo!
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Books about Florence Nightingale A.B.C. Florence Nightingale: The Angel of Charity .
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1985 a TV biopic "Florence Nightingale", starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced.^ Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo!
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Florence Nightingale TV Show - Florence Nightingale Television Show - Yahoo!
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TV TV Home > Shows > Florence Nightingale more Overview Episodes Cast Videos Photos Message Boards Reviews When is it on?
  • Florence Nightingale Television show - Florence Nightingale TV Show - Yahoo! TV 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Film

In 1912 a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale was produced. .In 1915 another biographical silent film titled Florence Nightingale was produced starring Elisabeth Risdon.^ Inscription: Florence Nightingale's autograph is written on the title .
  • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1936 a biographical film titled White Angel was produced, starring Kay Francis as Nightingale. A 1951 a second "talkie" biographical film titled The Lady With The Lamp was produced starring Anna Neagle.

Banknotes

.Florence Nightingale's image appeared on the reverse of Series D £10 banknotes issued by the Bank of England from 1975 until 1994. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital in the Crimea, holding her lamp.^ Testimonials Letter from Cambridge after visiting and participating to Liver Transplant Program at Florence Nightingale Hospital.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiology Department Based on nearly 20 years of experience and reliability of Florence Nightingale Group in the field of Cardiology, Gktrk Florence Nightingale Medical Center also renders services in this area.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Contact Information: Florence Nightingale Hospital +90 212 224 49 84 .
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

[38]

Photography

A rare black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in 1910 by Lizzie Caswall Smith in her London home in Park Lane was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[39]

Other

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August.
.Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A "Nightingale" aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 platform.^ Cardiology Department Based on nearly 20 years of experience and reliability of Florence Nightingale Group in the field of Cardiology, Gktrk Florence Nightingale Medical Center also renders services in this area.
  • Florence Nightingale Hospital | Cancer Treatment in Istanbul, Turkey | Cosmetic Surgery in Turkey 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.placidway.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[41]

See also

Works

.
  • Cassandra (1851)
  • Notes on Nursing: What Nursing Is, What Nursing is Not (1859)
  • Suggestions for Thought (to Searchers after Religious Truth)
  • Mysticism and Eastern Religions
  • Florence Nightingale's Theology
  • Florence Nightingale's Spiritual Journey
  • The Family, a critical essay in Fraser's Magazine (1870)
  • Una and Her Paupers, Memorials of Agnes Elizabeth Jones with an introduction by Florence Nightingale.^ PART I Books by Florence Nightingale Books About Florence Nightingale Books About Nursing Miscellaneous Books .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To the Heroic Memory of Florence Nightingale .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It had been Marianne who had told one of the Committee Ladies about Fanny and Parthe, and their objection to Florence taking up nursing, stirring up an old family quarrel between the Nicholsons and the Nightingales.

    Diggory Press ISBN 978-1905363223
  • Letters from Egypt: A Journey on the Nile 1849-1850 (1987) ISBN 1-55584-204-6

Sources

.
  • Baly, Monica E. and H. C. G. Matthew, "Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910)"; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press (2004); online edn, May 2005 accessed 28 October 2006
  • Bostridge, Mark (2008).^ Florence Nightingale, 1820-1910 .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Held Wednesday, May 28, 1910.
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pasted on inside cover: article in Bengal Hurkaru and the Indian Gazette June 28, 1856 Morris, Charles D. L'Exemple de Florence Nightingale .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Florence Nightingale: The Woman and Her Legend.^ A Woman's Example and a Nation's Work: A Tribute to Florence Nightingale .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    London: Viking. .ISBN 9780670874118. 
  • Gill, G. The extraordinary upbringing and curious life of Miss Florence Nightingale Random House, New York (2005)
  • McDonald, Lynn ed., Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.^ Miss Nightingale felt her work would be over.

    ^ Miss Nightingale was in Hampstead when she heard the news, she hurried down to the Burlington where she collapsed and was seriously ill, for nearly four weeks.

    ^ On 5 th December 1860, he told Miss Nightingale that if he gave up all public work and returned to Wilton, it was possible that his life might be prolonged.

    Wilfrid Laurier University Press
  • Pugh, Martin; The march of the women: A revisionist analysis of the campaign for women's suffrage 1866-1914, Oxford (2000), at 55.
  • Sokoloff, Nancy Boyd.; Three Victorian women who changed their world, Macmillan, London (1982)
  • Webb, Val; The Making of a Radical Theologician, Chalice Press (2002)
  • Woodham Smith, Cecil; Florence Nightingale, Penguin (1951), rev. 1955

References

  1. ^ Florence Nightingale's birthplace with photo of commemorative plaque
  2. ^ Bibby, John. (1986) Notes towards a history of teaching statistics
  3. ^ Edward Chaney, "Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution", in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York, 2006), 39-74.
  4. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  5. ^ History of Harley Street at Harley Street Guide (commercial website)
  6. ^ Gill, CJ; Gill, GC (2005). "Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined". Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1799–1805. doi:10.1086/430380. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15909269. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/430380. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  7. ^ "Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=dRpgFsQ7nqkC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=sanitary+commissioner+Scutari&source=bl&ots=d0MkZWFS46&sig=EbU9zrZiYx8wkhv5YnW7ZeLJOlw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel by Hugh Small (Constable 1998)
  9. ^ Cited in Cook, E. T. The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.
  10. ^ "''The Atlantic Monthly''; November 1857; "Santa Filomena," by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ; Volume 1, No. 1; pages 22-23". Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/nov1857/filomena.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  11. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). "Preface". in .... Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Glasgow & London: Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0-216-89974-5. 
  12. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). "Introduction by Joan Quixley". in .... Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0397550073. 
  13. ^ Florence Nightingale, the Woman and her Legend, by Mark Bostridge (Viking 2008)
  14. ^ Bostridge (2008)
  15. ^ In an 1861 letter, Nightengale wrote "Women have no sympathy. [...] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. ... They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information.".
  16. ^ "Institute of Our Lady of Mercy, Great Britain". Ourladyofmercy.org.uk. 2009-12-08. http://www.ourladyofmercy.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  17. ^ Cannadine, David. "Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters." The New Republic. 203.7 (13 August 1990): 38-42.
  18. ^ Dossey, Barbara Montgomery. Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Reformer. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  19. ^ "Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety". The New York Times. 1910-08-15. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0512.html. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Florence Nightingale, the famous nurse of the Crimean war, and the only woman who ever received the Order of Merit, died yesterday afternoon at her London home. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position, and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. A week ago she was quite sick, but then improved, and on Friday was cheerful. During that night alarming symptoms developed, and she gradually sank until 2 o'clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came." 
  20. ^ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/joe_grave.jpg
  21. ^ "Florence Nightingale: The Grave at East Wellow". Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/wellow.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  22. ^ Lewi, Paul J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm. 
  23. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (March). "Florence Nightingale". Scientific American 250 (3): 128–37. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0384-128. PMID 6367033.  (alternative pagination depending on country of sale: 98-107. This quote p.107. Bibliography on p.114)
  24. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.107
  25. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.98
  26. ^ Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. "Florence Nightingale." The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. 836-837.
  27. ^ Florence Nightingale at Tentmaker.org. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  28. ^ Neeb, Kathy. Mental Health Nursing. 3rd. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2006.
  29. ^ "Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign". Nightingaledeclaration.net. http://www.nightingaledeclaration.net/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  30. ^ "Country Joe McDonald's Tribute to Florence Nightingale". Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  31. ^ Florence
  32. ^ "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - The Rome Campus". .unicatt.it. http://www3.unicatt.it/pls/unicatt/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=9396&id_lingua=4. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ "Florence Nightingale". Derby Guide. http://www.derby-guide.co.uk/florence_nightingale.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  35. ^ "Florence Nightingale". Florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk. http://www.florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk/tower.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  36. ^ "Commenwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha Cemetery" (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_haidar.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  37. ^ Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale - The Woman and Her Legend
  38. ^ "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  39. ^ "Rare Nightingale photo sold off". BBC News. 19 November 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7737130.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  40. ^ Air Mobility Command Museum: "C-9 Nightingale".
  41. ^ Air Force Link: "Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement".

Further reading

External links


Florence Nightingale
File:Florence Nightingale CDV by H
Born 12 May 1820(1820-05-12)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 August 1910 (aged 90)
Park Lane, London, United Kingdom
Profession Nurse and Statistician
Institutions Selimiye Barracks, Scutari
Specialism Hospital hygiene and sanitation
Known for Pioneering modern nursing
Signature
File:Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (pronounced /ˈflɒrəns ˈnaɪtɪŋɡeɪl/, historically [ˈflɒɾəns]; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. A Christian universalist, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night.

Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.

Contents

Biography

Early life

, now a school, was one of the family homes of William Nightingale]] Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope (pronounced /pɑrˈθiːnəpɪ/) had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.

Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances ("Fanny") Nightingale née Smith (1789–1880). William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father (Florence's maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist William Smith. (For family trees, see [2])

Inspired by what she took as a call from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women.

File:Florence Nightingale by Goodman,
Florence Nightingale, circa 1858

Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing.

In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War. Herbert was on his honeymoon; he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert and his wife were instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him.

Nightingale also much later had strong relations with Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.

Nightingale continued her travels (now with Charles and Selina Bracebridge) as far as Greece and Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote
"I don't think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this." And, considering the temple: "Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering... not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man."
At Thebes she wrote of being "called to God" while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): "God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation."[3] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc. was her first published work.[4]

On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[5] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £25,000/US$50,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.

Crimean War

File:Balaklava sick
A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava
File:Hospital at Scutari
A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an 1856 lithograph

Florence Nightingale's most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[6] were sent (under the authorization of Sidney Herbert) to Turkey, about 545 km across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based.

Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul). She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no equipment to process food for the patients.

Death rates did not drop; on the contrary, they began to rise. The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region. During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds. Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital's defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.[7] Death rates were sharply reduced. Until recently it was commonly asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. For example the 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, but the second edition in 2001 did not. During the war she did not recognize hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.[8]

Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.

The Lady with the Lamp

During the Crimean campaign, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname "The Lady with the Lamp", deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times:

She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow's face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.[9]
File:Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari by Jerry
"Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari", a portrait by Jerry Barrett

The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 1857 poem "Santa Filomena":[10]

Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

Later career

While she was in the Crimea, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses. There was an outpouring of generous donations. Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in Turkey, detailing the health conditions, physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland). It may be assumed[citation needed] she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment.

By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas' Hospital on 9 July 1860. (It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King's College London.) The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home.

Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. Nightingale wrote "Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have-distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have".[11]

Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form. In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: "The book was the first of its kind ever to be written. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing".[12]

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army.

As Mark Bostridge has recently demonstrated, one of Nightingale's signal achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system in England and Ireland from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were no longer being cared for by other, able-bodied paupers, but by properly trained nursing staff. This innovation may be said to herald the establishment of the National Health Service in Britain, forty years after Nightingale's death.

It is commonly stated that Nightingale "went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection". Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[13] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as "contagionism" which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, to kill germs. Nightingale's work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War. The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission.

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, "America's first trained nurse", and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan.

By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary's Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day.

From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[14] An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.[8] There is, however, no documentary evidence to support this theory which remains, therefore, largely supposition. Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis. the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world.

Relationships

Although much of Nightingale's work improved the lot of women everywhere, she had little respect for women in general[15] preferring the friendship of powerful men. She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example "a man of action".[citation needed]

She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women. As a young woman she adored both an aunt and a female cousin. Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.[16] Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.[17]

In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale's life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in the time of Victorian sexual morality.[18]

.]]

Death

On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street,[19] Park Lane.[20] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[21][22]

Contributions

Statistics and sanitary reform

of the causes of mortality in the army in the East" by Florence Nightingale.]]

Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father. Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[23] Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data.[24]

Indeed, Nightingale is described as "a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics", and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram,[25] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram, in order to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a "coxcomb", but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports.

In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation. Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. "After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000".[25]

In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.

Literature and the women's movement

Nightingale's achievements are all the more impressive when they are considered against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England. Her father, William Edward Nightingale, was an extremely wealthy landowner, and the family moved in the highest circles of English society. In those days, women of Nightingale's class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. Nightingale was fortunate. Her father believed women should be educated, and he personally taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history and - most unusual of all for women of the time - writing and mathematics.[26]

But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism. During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth. This was an 829 page, three-volume work, which Nightingale had printed privately in 1860, but which until recently was never published in its entirety.[27] An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[28] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.[29] The best known of these essays, called Cassandra, was previously published by Ray Strachey in 1928. Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women's movement. Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth.

Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother's and older sister's lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra's. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale's writing "a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf."[30]

Theology

Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale's work of theology, her own theodicy, where she develops her radical heterodox ideas.

Nightingale was a Christian universalist.[31] She explained that on 7 February 1837 – not long before her 17th birthday: "God spoke to me", she wrote, "and called me to His service."[citation needed]

Legacy and memory

Nursing

The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach. This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.[32]

Florence Nightingale's lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.

The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King's College London. The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year.

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[33] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale's death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale's birth). NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health. So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries.

During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[34]

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi in Gayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.[35]

The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[36] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale's contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name "Bedside Florence" to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.[37]

There are many foundations named after Florence Nightingale. Most are nursing foundations, but there is also Nightingale Research Foundation in Canada, dedicated to the study and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, which Nightingale is believed to have had.

In 1912 the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service.

Museums and monuments

File:Derby DRI stained glass window at St Peters
Florence Nightingale stained glass window

, London]]

File:Florence Nightingale Statue, London Road,
Florence Nightingale Statue, London Road, Derby
File:Flornce Nightingale
Florence Nightingale exhibit at Malvern Museum 2010

A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the London Road Community Hospital formerly known as the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, one in St. Peter's Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[38] the Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby.

A remarkable stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary chapel in the late 1950's. When the chapel was later demolished the window was removed, stored and replaced in the new replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. In October 2010, £6,000 was raised by friends of the window and St Peters church to reposition the window in St Peters Church, Derby. The remarkable work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Florence Nightingale herself. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010. [39]

There is a Florence Nightingale Museum in London, due to reopen in May 2010 in time for the centenary of Nightingale's death, and another museum devoted to her at her sister's family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust.

2010 marks the centenary of Nightingale's death, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum is holding a Florence Nightingale exhibit,[40] with a school poster competition to promote some events.[41]


In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now a museum,[42] and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.[43]

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself, in May 1855,she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot.

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[44]

"To Florence Nightingale, whose work near this Cemetery a century ago relieved much human suffering and laid the foundations for the nursing profession."

Audio

Florence Nightingale's voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive.

Theatre

The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his "The Lady with the Lamp", premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey's biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[45] It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond's surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria.

In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled "The Voyage of the Lass". The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities' icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines. The play tells the story of Nightingale's early life and her struggles during the Crimean War. "The Voyage of the Lass" was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts.

Television

Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary - the BBC's 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4's 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole's efforts. In 1985 a TV biopic "Florence Nightingale", starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced.

Film

In 1912 a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale was produced. In 1915 another biographical silent film titled Florence Nightingale was produced starring Elisabeth Risdon. In 1936 a biographical film titled White Angel was produced, starring Kay Francis as Nightingale. A 1951 a second "talkie" biographical film titled The Lady With The Lamp was produced starring Anna Neagle.

Banknotes

Florence Nightingale's image appeared on the reverse of Series D £10 banknotes issued by the Bank of England from 1975 until 1994. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital in the Crimea, holding her lamp.[46]

Photography

Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of Florence Nightingale, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May 1858, was discovered in 2006 and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. A black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale's London home in South Street, Park Lane, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[47]

Biographies

The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in 1855. In 1911 Edward Cook was authorised by Nightingale's executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in 1913. Lytton Strachey based much of his chapter on Nightingale in Eminent Victorians on Cook, and Cecil Woodham-Smith relied heavily on Cook's Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In 2008 Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon,and from archival documents from about 200 archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (2001 to date).

Fiction

Nightingale is a major supporting character in the Enola Holmes detective novel, The Case of the Cryptic Crinoline, where a coded message in a crinoline she once gave to Enola's landlady in the Crimean War gets her kidnapped. In this novel, Nightingale is depicted as a firm feminist who malingers as an invalid in order to focus on her political and medical work without the distractions of expected feminine behaviour of the day. This facade as well as her advanced age and social respect enables her to bluntly explain to Enola's brother, Sherlock Holmes, why his sister is determined to defy her brothers' wish for her to conform at a boarding school.

Florence Nightingale syndrome

Florence Nightingale syndrome is a term used to describe a situation where a caregiver, typically a doctor or nurse, develops an emotional attachment to a vulnerable patient in his or her care. This attachment may progress into a sexual attraction.[48]

Other

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August.

Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A "Nightingale" aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 platform.[49] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[50]

See also

Works

Sources

  • Baly, Monica E. and H. C. G. Matthew, "Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910)"; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press (2004); online edn, May 2005 accessed 28 October 2006
  • Bostridge, Mark (2008). Florence Nightingale: The Woman and Her Legend. London: Viking. ISBN 9780670874118. 
  • Gill, G. The extraordinary upbringing and curious life of Miss Florence Nightingale Random House, New York (2005)
  • McDonald, Lynn ed., Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Wilfrid Laurier University Press
  • Pugh, Martin; The march of the women: A revisionist analysis of the campaign for women's suffrage 1866-1914, Oxford (2000), at 55.
  • Sokoloff, Nancy Boyd.; Three Victorian women who changed their world, Macmillan, London (1982)
  • Webb, Val; The Making of a Radical Theologician, Chalice Press (2002)
  • Woodham Smith, Cecil; Florence Nightingale, Penguin (1951), rev. 1955

References

  1. ^ Florence Nightingale's birthplace with photo of commemorative plaque
  2. ^ http://www.rotherhamweb.co.uk/genealogy/shore.htm
  3. ^ Edward Chaney, "Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution", in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York, 2006), 39-74.
  4. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  5. ^ History of Harley Street at Harley Street Guide (commercial website)
  6. ^ Gill, CJ; Gill, GC; Gillian C. Gill (Jun 2005). "Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined". Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1799–1805. doi:10.1086/430380. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15909269. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/430380. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  7. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1999-08). Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. Books.google.com. ISBN 0866885595. http://books.google.com/?id=dRpgFsQ7nqkC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=sanitary+commissioner+Scutari. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel by Hugh Small (Constable 1998)
  9. ^ Cited in Cook, E. T. The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.
  10. ^ "''The Atlantic Monthly''; November 1857; "Santa Filomena," by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ; Volume 1, No. 1; pages 22-23". Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/nov1857/filomena.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  11. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). "Preface". In .... Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Glasgow & London: Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0-216-89974-5. 
  12. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). "Introduction by Joan Quixley". In .... Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0397550073. 
  13. ^ Florence Nightingale, the Woman and her Legend, by Mark Bostridge (Viking 2008)
  14. ^ Bostridge (2008)
  15. ^ In an 1861 letter, Nightingale wrote "Women have no sympathy. [...] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. ... They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information.".
  16. ^ "Institute of Our Lady of Mercy, Great Britain". Ourladyofmercy.org.uk. 2009-12-08. http://www.ourladyofmercy.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  17. ^ Cannadine, David. "Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters." The New Republic. 203.7 (13 August 1990): 38-42.
  18. ^ Dossey, Barbara Montgomery. Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Reformer. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  19. ^ Plaque #6 on Open Plaques.
  20. ^ "Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety". The New York Times. 1910-08-15. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0512.html. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Florence Nightingale, the famous nurse of the Crimean war, and the only woman who ever received the Order of Merit, died yesterday afternoon at her London home. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position, and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. A week ago she was quite sick, but then improved, and on Friday was cheerful. During that night alarming symptoms developed, and she gradually sank until 2 o'clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came." 
  21. ^ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/
  22. ^ "Florence Nightingale: The Grave at East Wellow". Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/wellow.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  23. ^ Lewi, Paul J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm. 
  24. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (March). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Florence Nightingale"]. Scientific American 250 (3): 128–37. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0384-128. PMID 6367033.  (alternative pagination depending on country of sale: 98-107. Bibliography on p.114) online article - see documents link at left
  25. ^ a b Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.107.
  26. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.98
  27. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1994). Michael D. Calabria & Janet A. Macrae. ed. Suggestions for Thought: Selections and Commentaries. ISBN 0-8122-1501-X. http://books.google.com/?id=CHcm-2Zm5DQC&dq=%22suggestions+for+thought%22&printsec=frontcover&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  28. ^ McDonald, Lynn, ed (2008). Florence Nightingale's Suggestions for Thought. Collected Works of Florence Nighingale. Volume 11. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-088920-465-2. http://books.google.com/?id=Mle5Sjixa0cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=McDonald++%22suggestions+for+thought%22&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010.  Privately printed by Nightingale in 1860.
  29. ^ Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. http://www.wlupress.wlu.ca/Series/CWFN.shtml. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  30. ^ Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. "Florence Nightingale." The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. 836-837.
  31. ^ Florence Nightingale at Tentmaker.org. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  32. ^ Neeb, Kathy. Mental Health Nursing. 3rd. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2006.
  33. ^ "Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign". Nightingaledeclaration.net. http://www.nightingaledeclaration.net/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  34. ^ "Country Joe McDonald's Tribute to Florence Nightingale". Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  35. ^ Group Florence Nightingale
  36. ^ "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - The Rome Campus". .unicatt.it. http://www3.unicatt.it/pls/unicatt/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=9396&id_lingua=4. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  37. ^ Cacace, Filippo et. al. "The impact of innovation in medical and nursing training: a Hospital Information System for Students accessible through mobile devices"
  38. ^ "Florence Nightingale". Derby Guide. http://www.derby-guide.co.uk/florence_nightingale.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  39. ^ http://www.stpetersderby.org.uk/DRI_window.html
  40. ^ "Malvern Museum's Nightingale Exhibit March - October 2010". http://www.malvernmuseum.co.uk/index.php/events2010.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  41. ^ "Chase pupil wins poster competition". Malvern Gazette (Newsquest Media Group). 21 June 2010. http://www.malverngazette.co.uk/news/8230148.Chase_pupil_wins_poster_competition/. Retrieved 12 July 2010 
  42. ^ "The Florence Nightingale Museum (Istanbul)". Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 15 September 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/turkey/738278/The-Florence-Nightingale-Museum.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  43. ^ "Florence Nightingale". Florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk. http://www.florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk/tower.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  44. ^ "Commonwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha Cemetery" (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_haidar.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  45. ^ Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale - The Woman and Her Legend
  46. ^ "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  47. ^ "Rare Nightingale photo sold off". BBC News. 19 November 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7737130.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  48. ^ Nurse Link Loyala University
  49. ^ Air Mobility Command Museum: "C-9 Nightingale".
  50. ^ Air Force Link: "Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement".

Further reading

External links

Nursing portal


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The progressive world is necessarily divided into two classes — those who take the best of what there is and enjoy it — those who wish for something better and try to create it.
.Florence Nightingale (12 May 182013 August 1910) was a British nurse, a pioneer of modern nursing, and a noted statistician.^ Florence Nightingale Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not (1860), 160.
  • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Florence Nightingale 1820-1910, English nurse, the founder of modern nursing, b.
  • Florence Nightingale Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Florence Nightingale had an immense influence on nursing.
  • Hibbert Assembly About Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) material forFlorence Nightingale web pages 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.hibbert-assembly.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

Can the "word" be pinned down to either one period or one church? All churches are, of course, only more or less unsuccessful attempts to represent the unseen to the mind.
It may seem a strange principle to enunciate as the very first requirement in a hospital that it should do the sick no harm.
.
You ask me why I do not write something...
^ "You're only imagining it" is, after all, a mysterious concept, not least when you ask why humans should want to imagine being sick.
  • Florence Nightingale - Independent.ie 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.independent.ie [Source type: News]

^ Quotes: “I attribute my success to this - I never gave or took any excuse.” "You ask me why I do not write something....
  • Florence Nightingale - GrowingBolder.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC growingbolder.com [Source type: General]

^ InsideSCOOP In the news Ask Judy Columnists Ask the College Counselor Forum Calendar Write the Chancellor 2002-2008 articles Why give?
  • P.S. 110 Florence Nightingale School School Review 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC insideschools.org [Source type: General]

.I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.
  • Can the "word" be pinned down to either one period or one church?^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results."
    • Florence Nightingale - GrowingBolder.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC growingbolder.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hailed as a national heroine, she was the first woman to be given the British Order of Merit and once said, "I think that feelings waste themselves in words ; they ought to be distilled into actions , and into actions which bring results."
    • Daily Celebrations ~ Florence Nightingale, A Splendid Gift ~ May 12 ~ Ideas to motivate, educate, and inspire 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC dailycelebrations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All churches are, of course, only more or less unsuccessful attempts to represent the unseen to the mind.
    • Letter quoted in Florence Nightingale in Rome : Letters Written by Florence Nightingale in Rome in the Winter of 1847-1848 (1981), edited by Mary Keele, and Suggestions for Thought : Selections and Commentaries (1994), edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. MacRae, p.^ Florence Nightingale Rate and Discuss this quote....
      • Quote Of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: General]

      ^ See more pictures of Florence Nightingale .
      • Florence Nightingale Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Read more about Florence Nightingale .
      • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mefmaction.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mefmaction.net [Source type: Original source]

      xiv
  • You must go to Mahometanism, to Buddhism, to the East, to the Sufis & Fakirs, to Pantheism, for the right growth of mysticism. .
    • Letter (2 March 1853), quoted in Suggestions for Thought : Selections and Commentaries (1994), edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. MacRae, p.^ Suggestion for Thought by Florence Nightingale: Selections and Commentaries.
      • AAHN Gravesites of Prominent Nurses - Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.aahn.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Tapton, March 29, 1853, letter to Mrs. Sutton, thanking her for the book she sent.
      • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Suggestions for Thought by Florence Nightingale: Selections and Commentaries .
      • Florence Nightingale Books at Real Nurse 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.realnurse.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      xiii
    • .
  • What the horrors of war are, no one can imagine — they are not wounds and blood and fever, spotted and low, or dysentery, chronic and acute, cold and heat and famine — they are intoxication, drunken brutality, demoralization and disorder on the part of the inferior, jealousies, meanness, indifference, selfish brutality on the part of the superior.^ They are intoxication, drunken brutality, demoralization and disorder on the part of the inferior...
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What the horrors of war are, no one can imagine.
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
    • Florence Nightingale Quotations 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.memorablequotations.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are intoxication, drunken brutality, demoralization and disorder on the part of the inferior, jealousies, meanness, indifference, selfish brutality on the part of the superior.

    .
    • Letter (5 May 1855), published in Florence Nightingale : An Introduction to Her Life and Family (2001), edited by Lynn McDonald, p.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Nightingale Florence 1820 1910 Family   .
      • Towers Library Catalog /MWSU 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC towers.missouri.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Letter from Florence Nightingale to unknown man, 1855 Image .
      • Florence Nightingale Letters Collection at UIC 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .141
  • Asceticism is the trifling of an enthusiast with his power, a puerile coquetting with his selfishness or his vanity, in the absence of any sufficiently great object to employ the first or overcome the last.^ I could be satisfied to spend a life with him in combining our different powers to some great object.
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Battery B, 4th U.S. Light Artillery - Bio. of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.batteryb.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter (5 September 1857), quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale (1913) by Edward Tyas Cook, p.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Submit a New Florence Nightingale quote .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Florence Nightingale quotes .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      .369
  • I use the word nursing for want of a better. It has been limited to signify little more than the administration of medicines and the application of poultices.^ It has been limited to signify little more than the administration of medicines and the application of poultices.
    • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Florence nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]
    • Research Paper on Florence Nightingale Theory of Positive Manipulation of the Environment 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.writingservicescompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I use the word nursing for want of a better word.

    ^ CONCUSION: "I use the word nursing for want of a better.
    • Research Paper on Florence Nightingale Theory of Positive Manipulation of the Environment 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.writingservicescompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It ought to signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of diet — all at the least expense of vital power to the patient.^ It ought to ought to signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of diet—all at the least expense of vital power to the patient.” Florence Nightingale (\"Florence Nightingale\", n.d.

    ^ It ought to signify the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the proper selection and administration of diet -all at the least expense of vital power to the patient."
    • Research Paper on Florence Nightingale Theory of Positive Manipulation of the Environment 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.writingservicescompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to Miss Nightingale nursing ought to signify the proper use of fresh air , light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and the selection and administration of diet - all at the least expense of vital force to the patient.
    • Florence Nightingale - LoveToKnow 1911 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Notes on Nursing (1860)
  • No man, not even a doctor, ever gives any other definition of what a nurse should be than this — 'devoted and obedient'. This definition would do just as well for a porter.^ No man, not even a doctor, ever gives any other definition of what a nurse should be than this - 'devoted and obedient'.
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This definition would do just as well for a porter.
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I have the honor of presenting the voice of Florence Nightingale: When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life.
    • Florence Nightingale: Adelaide Nutting's Introduction 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.countryjoe.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It might even do for a horse.^ It might even do for a horse.
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    .It would not do for a policeman.
    • Notes on Nursing (1860)
  • Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining what there are, I wish to see as few doctors, either male or female, as possible.^ Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining...
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bookmark · Source wikiquote · Powerpoint Wallpaper Florence Nightingale: " Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining what there are, I wish to see as few doctors, either male or female, as possible.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Florence Nightingale: " Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining what there are, I wish to see as few doctors, either male or female, as possible.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For, mark you, the women have made no improvement — they have only tried to be men and they have only succeeded in being third-rate men.^ For, mark you, the women have made no improvement -- they have only tried to be men and they have only succeeded in being third-rate men.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Women have no sympathy and my experience of women is almost... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because of these early beliefs, it is quite interesting and refreshing to read of the women who made a mark in the world of higher education despite the obstacles that they had to overcome in order to be a part of this history.
    • Healthy Communication 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.rasmussen.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ You're invited to participate in The Nursing Inspiration Project , a blog of inspirational stories by the caring and compassionate women and men who have chosen nursing as their life's work.

    • Letter to John Stuart Mill (12 September 1860), published in Florence Nightingale on Society and Politics, Philosophy, Science, Education (2003) edited by Lynn McDonald
  • It may seem a strange principle to enunciate as the very first requirement in a hospital that it should do the sick no harm.
    • Notes on Hospitals 3rd Edition (1863), Preface
  • God has taken away the greatest man of his generation, for Dr. Livingstone stood alone.
    • Quoted in Modern Heroes of the Mission Field (1882) by William Pakenham Walsh p. .281
  • Hospitals are only an intermediate stage of civilization, never intended at all even to take in the whole sick population.^ Every time a Christian of ANY denomination speaks or does anything wise or good, all Christians take the credit for it, even those whose denominations have utterly condemned that other Christian's denomination.
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even though she loves Richard, she decides to educate herself, resulting in becoming head nurse at an all-woman's hospital.
    • DVD Verdict Review - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dvdverdict.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In May 1855, Florence went to the battlefront in Crimea, but she became sick with the Crimean fever and was told she only held authority in Barrack Hospital.
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Sick-Nursing and Health-Nursing" (1893)
  • I have read half your book thro' and I am immensely charmed by it.^ Relative to the latter, it includes two commentaries on and the full archival text of two critical, shorter works: her formal letters to the nurses (1872-1900) and her influential 1893 essay, ‘Sick Nursing and Health Nursing’.
    • Louise Selanders, Florence Nightingale Today: Healing, Leadership, Global Action; Women in Nursing 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.louiseselanders.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Florence also became very interested in caring for the sick during her youth so she read up on hospital care, sanitation conditions in hospitals and public health.

    ^ It seems a big step from nursing in the Crimea to your work in army and hospital reform, in public health, and in statistics.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    But some things I disagree with and more I do not understand. This does not apply to the characters, but to your conclusions, e.g. you say ."women are more sympathetic than men."^ See this quotation: "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English countesses and Prussian farm women...no woman has excited passions among women more than I have."
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Dying men sat up in their beds, and clasped their hands, unable to utter more than the one word "Sebastopol."
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Englishwomen by M. B. Synge 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nightingale had doubts at first about the wisdom of this campaign and argued that it was more important to have better trained nurses than women doctors.
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Battery B, 4th U.S. Light Artillery - Bio. of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.batteryb.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Now if I were to write a book out of my experience I should begin Women have no sympathy.^ Women have no sympathy and my experience of women is almost as large as Europe.” .
    • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In one of her books, Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truths , she argued that women should not be discouraged from pursuing the careers of their choice.
    • The Story of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC i.nursegroups.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She frequently complained of women's selfishness, and she ironically had no sympathy with the growing feminist movement.
    • Gale - Free Resources - Women's History - Biographies - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.gale.cengage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Gale Schools - Women's History Month - Biographies - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.galeschools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Yours is the tradition. Mine is the conviction of experience. .I have never found one woman who has altered her life by one iota for me or my opinions.^ For decades she was a bedridden invalid, admitting only chosen people to see her, one on one, and she never again had anything approaching a normal social life.
    • Reader's Circle | Nightingales by Gillian Gill 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.randomhouse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Work was quite literally her religion: like General Gordon, who later became one of her heroes, she found God only in action.
    • New Statesman - Christian soldier 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Home-schooled, bound for the life of an educated Victorian lady, Nightingale scandalized her family when she found her calling as a nurse, a thoroughly unsuitable profession for a woman of her class.
    • Macmillan: Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon Mark Bostridge: Books 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC us.macmillan.com [Source type: General]

    Now look at my experience of men. .A statesman, past middle age, absorbed in politics for a quarter of a century, out of sympathy with me, remodels his whole life and policy—learns a science the driest, the most technical, the most difficult, that of administration, as far as it concerns the lives of men,—not, as I learnt it, in the field from stirring experience, but by writing dry regulations in a London room by my sofa with me.^ But for most of her life she was happier in the company of men.

    ^ She also began an anthology of mystical writings, called "Notes from Devotional Authors of the Middle Ages, Collected, Chosen, and Freely Translated by Florence Nightingale."
    • Biography: Florence Nightingale, nurse, renewer of society (18 May 1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC elvis.rowan.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.manotick.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though not mentioned by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , her writings on Egypt in particular are fascinating testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life.
    • Roxborough Memorial Hospital - Biography 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC roxboroughmemorial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is what I call real sympathy. [...]
Now just look at the degree in which women have sympathy— as far as my experience is concerned. And my experience of women is almost as large as Europe. And it is so intimate too. I have lived and slept in the same bed with English Countesses and Prussian Bauerinnen [farm laborers]. No Roman Catholic Supérieure [president of a French university system known for their diverse, eclectic teaching methods] has ever had charge of women of the different creeds that I have had. No woman has excited "passions" among women more than I have. Yet I leave no school behind me. My doctrines have taken no hold among women. [...] No woman that I know has ever appris à apprendre [learned to learn]. And I attribute this to want of sympathy. You say somewhere that women have no attention. Yes. And I attribute this to want of sympathy. [...] It makes me mad, the Women's Rights talk about "the want of a field" for them —- when I know that I would gladly give £500 a year [roughly $50,000 a year in 2008] for a Woman Secretary. And two English Lady Superintendents have told me the same thing. And we can't get one. [...]
In one sense, I do believe I am "like a man," as Parthe [the writer's sister] says. But how? In having sympathy. [...] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. ... They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information. Now is not all this the result of want of sympathy ? [...]
People often say to me, You don't know what a wife and mother feels. No, I say, I don't and I'm very glad I don't. And they don't know what I feel. ... I am sick with indignation at what wives and mothers will do of the most egregious selfishness. And people call it all maternal or conjugal affection, and think it pretty to say so. No, no, let each person tell the truth from his own experience.
.
    • Letter to Madame Mohl, dated 13 December 1861. The Life of Florence Nightingale (1913) by Edward Tyas Cook, pp.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Letter from Florence Nightingale, May 1856.
      • Letter from Florence Nightingale, May 1856. -- Science and Society Picture Library 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ssplprints.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Cook, Life of Florence Nightingale, vol.
      • Florence Nightingale's statistical diagrams 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.york.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .13-15.
  • You ask me why I do not write something...^ "You're only imagining it" is, after all, a mysterious concept, not least when you ask why humans should want to imagine being sick.
    • Florence Nightingale - Independent.ie 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.independent.ie [Source type: News]

    ^ InsideSCOOP In the news Ask Judy Columnists Ask the College Counselor Forum Calendar Write the Chancellor 2002-2008 articles Why give?
    • P.S. 110 Florence Nightingale School School Review 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC insideschools.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Bookmark · Source wikiquote · Powerpoint Wallpaper Florence Nightingale: " You ask me why I do not write something...
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.
    • Letter to a friend, quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale (1913) by Edward Tyas Cook, p.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words; they ought all to be distilled into actions which bring results.” .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Think of a nurse and you think of Florence Nightingale.
      • Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.camelotintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      94
.
The Church is now more like the Scribes and Pharisees than like Christ...
^ Statistically speaking, those in Florence Nightingale's care during the Crimean War were more likely to die than if they had been in the care of other nurses of the time.
  • Uncovered: The haunting last photograph of the Lady of the Lamp, Florence Nightingale | Mail Online 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This meant that injured soldiers were 7 times more likely to die from disease in hospital, than on the battlefield.

^ She would also write to bereaved parents saying their son had "died painlessly" even though this was more than likely untrue.
  • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

.What are now called the "essential doctrines" of the Christian religion he does not even mention.
  • The Church is now more like the Scribes and Pharisees than like Christ...^ Every time a Christian of ANY denomination speaks or does anything wise or good, all Christians take the credit for it, even those whose denominations have utterly condemned that other Christian's denomination.
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She wrote a book called, Suggestions for Thought: An Address to the Artisans of England , in which she explained that God was less of a Person and more of a Cosmic Force than is generally supposed by Christians.
    • Biography: Florence Nightingale, nurse, renewer of society (18 May 1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC elvis.rowan.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Statistically speaking, those in Florence Nightingale's care during the Crimean War were more likely to die than if they had been in the care of other nurses of the time.
    • Uncovered: The haunting last photograph of the Lady of the Lamp, Florence Nightingale | Mail Online 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .What are now called the "essential doctrines" of the Christian religion he does not even mention.
    • As quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale (1913) by Edward Tyas Cook, p.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Submit a New Florence Nightingale quote .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Florence Nightingale quotes .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      392
.
Never lose an opportunity of urging a practical beginning, however small, for it is wonderful how often in such matters the mustard-seed germinates and roots itself
  • I never lose an opportunity of urging a practical beginning, however small, for it is wonderful how often in such matters the mustard-seed germinates and roots itself.
    • Letter to a friend, quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale Vol.^ Sequence the life of Florence Sequence the life of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale | History | TopicBox.net free teacher websites 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.topicbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ How was Florence Nightingale honored after her death?
      • Florence Nightingale Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ A quote by florence nightingale?
      • WikiAnswers - What did Florence Nightingale do 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

      .II (1914) by Edward Tyas Cook, p.^ Florence Nightingale Letter to Miss H. Bonham Carter (8 Jan 1852), quoted in Edward Tyas Cook, The Life of Florence Nightingale (1914), Vol.
      • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Cook, Edward Tyas, Sir.

      ^ Florence Nightingale In Edward Tyas Cook and Rosalind Nightingale Nash, A Short Life of Florence Nightingale (1936).
      • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]

      .406
  • Law is the continuous manifestation of God's presence — not reason for believing him absent.
    Great confusion arises from our using the same word law in two totally distinct senses ...^ Nightingale thought that God must have had a great purpose when calling her to Him and realized nine years later what He did.

    ^ Unitarians believed that mankind has the power to continuously improve itself by observation and the use of reason.
    • Florence Nightingale's statistical diagrams 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.york.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I could be satisfied to spend a life with him in combining our different powers to some great object.

    as the cause and the effect. .It is said that to "explain away" everything by law is to enable us to do without God.^ These statistics, she said, "would enable us to ascertain what diseases and ages press most heavily on the resources of particular hostpials."


    But law is no explanation of anything; law is simply a generalization, a category of facts. .Law is neither a cause, nor a reason, nor a power, nor a coercive force. It is nothing but a general formula, a statistical table.^ It is by the aid of such diagrams in particular, and Statistics in general that law in the social sphere can be ascertained and codified, and certain aspects of the character of God thereby revealed.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Law brings us continually back to God instead of carrying us away from him.^ A young man spent nine years before the war proposing marriage to her but she rejected him to do God’s work instead.

    ^ She prayed instead "God deliver us from unconscientious work."
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Suggestions for Thought : Selections and Commentaries (1994), edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. MacRae, p.^ Calabria, Michael D. and Janet A. Macrae, ed., Suggestions for Thought by HC PB Florence Nightingale .
      • Florence Nightingale: Facts and extensive reading list 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.heroesofhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Poovey, Mary, ed., Cassandra and other selections from Suggestions for HC PB Thought .
      • Florence Nightingale: Facts and extensive reading list 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.heroesofhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Suggestions for Thought by Florence Nightingale: Selections and Commentaries .
      • Florence Nightingale Books at Real Nurse 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.realnurse.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      41
.
To understand God's thoughts we must study statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose.
  • Newton's law is nothing but the statistics of gravitation, it has no power whatever.^ She was once quoted as saying “To understand God’s thoughts, we must study statistics, for these are the measure of his purpose.” .

    ^ Florence once said "To understand Gods thoughts, we must s tudy statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose."
    • Florence Nightengale (1820-1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mrs.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bookmark · Source wikiquote · Powerpoint Wallpaper Florence Nightingale: " To understand God's thoughts we must study statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]


    Let us get rid of the idea of power from law altogether. .Call law tabulation of facts, expression of facts, or what you will; anything rather than suppose that it either explains or compels.
    • Suggestions for Thought : Selections and Commentaries (1994), edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. MacRae, p.^ She wrote a book called, Suggestions for Thought: An Address to the Artisans of England , in which she explained that God was less of a Person and more of a Cosmic Force than is generally supposed by Christians.
      • Biography: Florence Nightingale, nurse, renewer of society (18 May 1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC elvis.rowan.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ FN: Many people will try to tell you that statistics are impenetrable and cloud the issue rather than enlightening it.
      • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Hers also were more topical and conveyed a call to action - they were prescriptive rather than descriptive.
      • Florence Nightingale's statistical diagrams 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.york.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .41
  • To understand God's thoughts we must study statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose.
    • As quoted in Chance Rules : An Informal Guide to Probability, Risk, and Statistics (1999) by Brian Everitt, p.^ She was once quoted as saying “To understand God’s thoughts, we must study statistics, for these are the measure of his purpose.” .

      ^ To understand God's thoughts we must study statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose” .
      • Florence Nightingale quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Florence once said "To understand Gods thoughts, we must s tudy statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose."
      • Florence Nightengale (1820-1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mrs.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

      .137
  • Though he made a joke when asked to do the right thing, he always did it.^ 'The legend has long been that Nightingale went to the Crimea and made things all right," said Bostridge.
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ First, Florence Nightingale did things that reached ordinary people and made a difference in their lives.
    • Channeling Florence Nightingale to Promote Patient Safety 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I did not always have the right statistics at hand to use in comparisons.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He was so much more in earnest than he appeared.^ What Nightingale achieved at the hospitals at Scutari has been subject to some debate, and there is much evidence to suggest that she did more harm than good.
    • Reappraising Florence Nightingale -- Williams 337: a2889 -- BMJ 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Further papers applying the present ideas to actual forests counts where there is more than one observation to a cell will appear elsewhere.

    ^ Not even the death of a royal personage could have called forth more universal expressions of regret and tributes of love and affection than appear in the English papers.
    • Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

    He did not do himself justice. .
    • On Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, as quoted in Victorian England : Aspects of English and Imperial History, 1837-1901 (1973) by Lewis Charles Bernard Seaman, p.^ Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (1784-1865), comes from an aristocratic family with lands in Ireland.
      • Time traveller's guide to Victorian Britain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.channel4.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The Voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe, Volume I and Volume II (English) (as Author) Nordhoff, Charles, 1830-1901 .
      • Browse By Author: N - Project Gutenberg 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Million-Dollar Suitcase (English) (as Author) Newbolt, Henry John, Sir, 1862-1938 .
      • Browse By Author: N - Project Gutenberg 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

      .108
  • I have lived and slept in the same bed with English countesses and Prussian farm women...^ She also wrote "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English Countesses and Prussian farm women...
    • Florence Nightingale - NursingWiki 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.nursingwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See this quotation: "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English countesses and Prussian farm women...no woman has excited passions among women more than I have."
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    no woman has excited passions among women more than I have. .
    • As quoted in Parted Lips : Lesbian Love Quotes Through the Ages (2002) by Simone Rich
  • How very little can be done under the spirit of fear.
    • As quoted in The Book of Positive Quotations (2007) by John Cook, p.^ How very little can be done under the spirit of...
      • Quote Of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: General]

      ^ Fear Quotes Add to Favorite List How very little can be done under the spirit of fear.

      ^ Creating Positive Change Quotes Add to Favorite List How very little can be done under the spirit of fear.

      .479
  • I attribute my success to this — I never gave or took any excuse.
    • As quoted in The Gigantic Book of Teachers' Wisdom (2007) by Frank McCourt and Erin Gruwell, p.^ I attribute my success to this I never gave or took any excuse.
      • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 12 |Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson foundsAlcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Bookmark · Source wikiquote · Powerpoint Wallpaper Florence Nightingale: " I attribute my success to this — I never gave or took any excuse.
      • Florence Nightingale quote- Women have no sympathy and my experience of women is almost... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Medicine and Sickness Quotes Add to Favorite List I attribute my success to this: I never gave or took an excuse.

      410

Cassandra (1860)

Volume 2 of a privately printed work Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth (written in 1852, revised in 1859)
Poetry and imagination begin life...
.
People do not go into the company of their fellow-creatures for what would seem a very sufficient reason, namely, that they have something to say to them, or something that they want to hear from them; but in the vague hope that they may find something to say.
  • Perhaps, if prematurely we dismiss ourselves from this world, all may even have to be suffered through again — the premature birth may not contribute to the production of another being, which must be begun again from the beginning.
  • Why have women passion, intellect, moral activity — these three — and a place in society where no one of the three can be exercised? Men say that God punishes for complaining.^ No-one in the world can afford to create it.
    • Uncovered: The haunting last photograph of the Lady of the Lamp, Florence Nightingale | Mail Online 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ All her sayings were in one way or another connected to the greatness of god.
    • Research Paper on Florence Nightingale Theory of Positive Manipulation of the Environment 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.writingservicescompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "But no one can say that I didn't sing."

    No, but men are angry with misery. .They are irritated with women for not being happy.^ Nurses of the time were lacking in training and they also had the reputation of being coarse, ignorant women, given to promiscuity and drunkenness.

    ^ For, mark you, the women have made no improvement -- they have only tried to be men and they have only succeeded in being third-rate men.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Women have no sympathy and my experience of women is almost... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Instead of wishing to see more doctors made by women joining... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    They take it as a personal offence. .To God alone may women complain without insulting Him!
  • Suffering, sad "female humanity!"^ At Thebes she wrote of being "called to God" while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that Parthenope was to print after her return): "God called me in morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation."
    • Roxborough Memorial Hospital - Biography 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC roxboroughmemorial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for Him, for Him alone without the reputation.
    • Biography: Florence Nightingale, nurse, renewer of society (18 May 1910) 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC elvis.rowan.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .What are these feelings which they are taught to consider as disgraceful, to deny to themselves?^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.
    • Florence Nightingale quote- Women have no sympathy and my experience of women is almost... 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They have accustomed themselves to consider intellectual occupation as a merely selfish amusement, which it is their "duty" to give up for every trifler more selfish than themselves.
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Battery B, 4th U.S. Light Artillery - Bio. of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.batteryb.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words; they ought all to be distilled into actions which bring results.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 12 |Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson foundsAlcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    What form do the Chinese feet assume when denied their proper development? .If the young girls of the "higher classes," who never commit a false step, whose justly earned reputations were never sullied even by the stain which the fruit of mere "knowledge of good and evil" leaves behind, were to speak, and say what are their thoughts employed upon, their thoughts, which alone are free, what would they say?
  • By mortifying vanity we do ourselves no good.^ But she would say no.
    • The My Hero Project - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Womack, a 32-year veteran of Sacred Heart, is always professional and is someone who never says no; she says why not, according to a co-worker.
    • Sacred Heart News & Events - Sacred Heart Honors Recipient of First Florence Nightingale Award 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.sacred-heart.org [Source type: General]

    ^ At Thebes she wrote of being "called to God" while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that Parthenope was to print after her return): "God called me in morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation."
    • Roxborough Memorial Hospital - Biography 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC roxboroughmemorial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is the want of interest in our life which produces it; by filling up that want of interest in our life we can alone remedy it. .And, did we even see this, how can we make the difference?^ It is also the story of how one individual can make a difference when bureaucratic insensitivity and indifference seems to make change impossible.
    • Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.camelotintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet the nurses made no attempt to help her to eat; nor did they even deign to move her pillow to make her more comfortable.
    • Dirty wards, feminism and the tragic end of Florence Nightingale's ethos of patient care | Mail Online 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ How did Florence Nightingale make things better for soldiers in the Crimean War?
    • The Standards Site: Who was Florence Nightingale? 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.standards.dfes.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    How obtain the interest which society declares she does not want, and we cannot want?
  • What are novels? What is the secret of the charm of every romance that ever was written? .The first thing in a good novel is to place the persons together in circumstances which naturally call out the high feelings and thoughts of the character, which afford food for sympathy between them on these points — romantic events they are called.^ He sets up the First International, an organisation of revolutionaries, and points to the Paris Commune, in 1871, as a sign of things to come.
    • Time traveller's guide to Victorian Britain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.channel4.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The notion of 'greatness' is a highly subjective one, governed by considerations of race, class and gender, and by a person's or event's place within our affections (Okokon, 1998).

    ^ My point, if there was one, was to tell them that one who has seen more than any man what a horrible thing war is, yet feels more than any man that the military spirit in a good cause, 'that of one's country,' is the finest leaven which exists for the national spirit.

    The second is that the heroine has generally no family ties (almost invariably no mother), or, if she has, these do not interfere with her entire independence.
    .These two things constitute the main charm of reading novels.
  • Give us back our suffering, we cry to Heaven in our hearts — suffering rather than indifferentism; for out of nothing comes nothing.^ The main message in Florence's "Notes" was that men were dying from neglect, rather than injuries sustained.
    • Florence Nightingale - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "FOR us who Nurse, our Nursing is a thing, which, unless in it we are making progress every year, every month, every week, take my...
    • Florence Nightingale Books at Real Nurse 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.realnurse.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In August 1857 Sidney Herbert outlined the main points that would come out in the Commissions Report in a letter to Lord Panmure.

    But out of suffering may come the cure. Better have pain than paralysis!
    A hundred struggle and drown in the breakers. One discovers the new world. .But rather, ten times rather, die in the surf, heralding the way to that new world, than stand idly on the shore!
  • Passion, intellect, moral activity — these three have never been satisfied in a woman.^ Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus , typhoid , cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds.
    • Florence Nightingale - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Roxborough Memorial Hospital - Biography 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC roxboroughmemorial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Statistically speaking, those in Florence Nightingale's care during the Crimean War were more likely to die than if they had been in the care of other nurses of the time.
    • Uncovered: The haunting last photograph of the Lady of the Lamp, Florence Nightingale | Mail Online 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ This meant that injured soldiers were 7 times more likely to die from disease in hospital, than on the battlefield.

    In this cold and oppressive conventional atmosphere, they cannot be satisfied. .To say more on this subject would be to enter into the whole history of society, of the present state of civilisation.
  • The progressive world is necessarily divided into two classes — those who take the best of what there is and enjoy it — those who wish for something better and try to create it. Without these two classes the world would be badly off.^ If you are interested in a specific history subject, try searching our archives, you are bound to find something to pique your interest.
    • Florence Nightingale » HistoryNet 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One day I just said, “I wish these pots would put themselves away.” You can imagine my surprise when the dishes arranged themselves into neat piles and then moved into the cupboards.
    • Florence Nightingale's Right Leg - Noticeboard - Archives - Speaking Volumes Homepage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.speakingvolumesonline.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every now and again there is a person who does something special that betters the human race, in Florence Nightingale we have an example of this.
    • Florence Nightingale honored today by Episcopal Church | NowPublic News Coverage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nowpublic.com [Source type: General]

    .They are the very conditions of progress, both the one and the other.^ They had both been very devoted to her.

    ^ They had only two daughters; it would have been better if one of them was a boy, because of the conditions of Williams's inheritance.

    .Were there none who were discontented with what they have, the world would never reach anything better.
  • Poetry and imagination begin life. A child will fall on its knees on the gravel walk at the sight of a pink hawthorn in full flower, when it is by itself, to praise God for it.
  • There is a physical, not moral, impossibility of supplying the wants of the intellect in the state of civilisation at which we have arrived.^ Were there none who were discontented with what they have, the world would never reach anything better.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 12 |Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson foundsAlcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Every now and again there is a person who does something special that betters the human race, in Florence Nightingale we have an example of this.
    • Florence Nightingale honored today by Episcopal Church | NowPublic News Coverage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nowpublic.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Among her rival print columnists, there are few left who believe anything but that the prescription for society's ills is voting for the Good Guys, whoever they may be, next time around.
    • The American Spectator : Our Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC spectator.org [Source type: General]

    .The stimulus, the training, the time, are all three wanting to us; or, in other words, the means and inducements are not there.^ Every time a Christian of ANY denomination speaks or does anything wise or good, all Christians take the credit for it, even those whose denominations have utterly condemned that other Christian's denomination.
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In England, around the time Florence first began tending to the sick; there were no training schools for nurses.
    • Florence Nightingale - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Every woman," she says, "or at least almost every woman in England has at one time or another of her life charge of the personal health of somebody, in other words every woman is a nurse."
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Englishwomen by M. B. Synge 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]


    Look at the poor lives we lead. It is a wonder that we are so good as we are, not that we are so bad. In looking round we are struck with the power of the organisations we see, not with their want of power. .Now and then, it is true, we are conscious that there is an inferior organisation, but, in general, just the contrary.
  • Women are never supposed to have any occupation of sufficient importance not to be interrupted, except "suckling their fools "; and women themselves have accepted this, have written books to support it, and have trained themselves so as to consider whatever they do as not of such value to the world or to others, but that they can throw it up at the first "claim of social life."^ Women are never supposed to have any occupation of sufficient importance not to be interrupted, except "suckling their fools"; and women themselves have accepted this, have written books to support it, and have trained themselves so as to consider whatever they do as not of such value to the world as others, but that they can throw it up at the first "claim of social life".

    ^ Perhaps the greatest good that has resulted from her noble life has been the setting in motion of a force which has led thousands of women to devote themselves to systematic care of the sick and wounded.
    • Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Women never have a half hour in all their lives ( excepting before or...
    • Quote Of Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .They have accustomed themselves to consider intellectual occupation as a merely selfish amusement, which it is their " duty " to give up for every trifler more selfish than themselves.
  • People do not go into the company of their fellow-creatures for what would seem a very sufficient reason, namely, that they have something to say to them, or something that they want to hear from them; but in the vague hope that they may find something to say.
  • Society triumphs over many.^ They have accustomed themselves to consider intellectual occupation as a merely selfish amusement, which it is their "duty" to give up for every trifler more selfish than themselves.

    ^ (Germs, would go into their mouth.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She also praises the work of Mr. Burton and tells Mr. Butler of the former's activities which make him "more than a mere School master".
    • Florence Nightingale Letters at the Clendening Library: Chronological Listing 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC clendening.kumc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They wish to regenerate the world with their institutions, with their moral philosophy, with their love. .Then they sink to living from breakfast till dinner, from dinner till tea, with a little worsted work, and to looking forward to nothing but bed.^ When they arrived, they had very little to work with.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She could not believe the conditions they lived in, and begged her mother for food, bedding and clothes.

    ^ So Florence sat them both down, and worked out a budget on what they would need to live on.


    .When shall we see a life full of steady enthusiasm, walking straight to its aim, flying home, as that bird is now, against the wind — with the calmness and the confidence of one who knows the laws of God and can apply them?
  • The "dreams of youth" have become a proverb.^ Sad to see the heartache and suffering caused by ignorance and traditions in the medical field but very encouraging to see what one dedicated woman accomplised through her obedience to answer God's call and sacrifice another life of happiness she could have had.
    • Florence Nightingale - DVD at Christian Cinema.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.christiancinema.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "She was one of the most important statistical pioneers of the 19th century, and nobody knows that now.
    • Florence Nightingale: A new biography sheds light on the Lady with the Lamp - Profiles, People - The Independent 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ This "home nursing" advice was aimed at any woman who could read.

    That organisations, early rich, fall far short of their promise has been repeated to satiety. But is it extraordinary that it should be so? For do we ever utilise this heroism? Look how it lives upon itself and perishes for lack of food. We do not know what to do with it. We had rather that it should not be there. Often we laugh at it. Always we find it troublesome. Look at the poverty of our life! .Can we expect anything else but poor creatures to come out of it?
  • The family uses people, not for what they are, nor for what they are intended to be, but for what it wants them for — its own uses.^ The family uses people, not for what they are, not for what they are intended to be, but for what it wants for - its own uses.

    ^ Later poor people were allowed in, many never left, they lived and died there.

    ^ Mrs Nightingale's sister  Julia Smith would come to say for long periods to help out, she had not married, and had no permanent home of her own.

    .It thinks of them not as what God has made them, but as the something which it has arranged that they shall be.
  • At present we live to impede each other's satisfactions; competition, domestic life, society, what is it all but this?^ It thinks of them not as what God has made them, but as the something which it has arranged that they shall be.

    ^ It is impossible indeed to live in isolation: we are dependent upon others for the supply of all our wants, and others upon us...
    • Emerging Worlds: Chronic Illness and Viral Infections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.emergingworlds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Write the answers on the board and discuss how they made someone's life easier or better.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    We go somewhere where we are not wanted and where we don't want to go. What else is conventional life? Passivity when we want to be active. .So many hours spent every day in passively doing what conventional life tells us, when we would so gladly be at work.^ She worked up to 20 hours a day.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The efficient hospitals and devoted nurses of to-day owe an immortal debt to her, and through them the lives of all of us have been affected by the work of this great and gracious lady."
    • Eminence Without Irony - WSJ.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many of them would never recover and spent their lives there.


    .And is it a wonder that all individual life is extinguished?
  • We set the treatment of bodies so high above the treatment of souls, that the physician occupies a higher place in society than the school-master.^ Her work was invaluable to society and set a foundation for high sanitary standards.

    ^ I had my sights set high on being a creative hair stylist and paid my tuition to “beauty school”.

    ^ It was a strange party of 38 women who all had different views on nursing, the nurses to look after the body, the religious sisters and nuns their souls.

    .The governess is to have every one of God's gifts; she is to do that which the mother herself is incapable of doing; but our son must not degrade himself by marrying the governess, nor our daughter the tutor, though she might marry the medical man.
  • That man and woman have an equality of duties and rights is accepted by woman even less than by man.^ She wants to pursue a life of service to those less fortunate than herself as a result of a "calling" she's had since God spoke to her when she was 17.
    • Florence Nightingale (1985) : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dvdtalk.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The fear of this was causing British mothers to stop their daughters becoming nurses, and made British hospitals inferior to Continental ones where nuns did the nursing under the protection of a mother superior.

    ^ "Every woman," she says, "or at least almost every woman in England has at one time or another of her life charge of the personal health of somebody, in other words every woman is a nurse."
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Englishwomen by M. B. Synge 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

    Behind his destiny woman must annihilate herself, must be only his complement. A woman dedicates herself to the vocation of her husband; she fills up and performs the subordinate parts in it. .But if she has any destiny, any vocation of her own, she must renounce it, in nine cases out of ten.
  • To have no food for our heads no food for our hearts, no food for our activity, is that nothing? If we have no food for the body, how do we cry out, how all the world hears of it, how all the newspapers talk of it, with a paragraph headed in great capital letters, DEATH FROM STARVATION! But suppose one were to put a paragraph in the Times, Death of Thought from Starvation, or Death of Moral Activity from Starvation, how people would stare, how they would laugh and wonder!^ All the world wondered.
    • Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.camelotintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One letter from Nightingale, advising on how to find a reliable medical officer for a post in Egypt, warns against employing ex-army doctors: "The fact is, nearly all the half-pay list are blackguards".
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Was Florence Nightingale an angel of mercy or power-crazed meddler? | UK news | The Guardian 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ She also put her own time in perspective when, in a letter to a colleague in 1865, she said, "Patients won't wait to die, or better, to be made to live, and operations won't wait till I am less in a hurry."

    .One would think we had no heads nor hearts, by the total indifference of the public towards them.^ She would no more have dreamed of consulting him about her nurses than she would have sought the opinion of a husband, if she ever had one, about hiring a parlour maid."

    ^ One of her basic premises was that "no training is of any use, unless one can learn (1) to feel, and (2) to think out things for oneself."

    ^ One of the letters would be designated as public, meant for the recipient to share.

    Our bodies are the only things of any consequence.
  • Moral activity? There is scarcely such a thing possible! Everything is sketchy. .The world does nothing but sketch.
  • Look round at the marriages which you know.^ Old Florence Of course, Mr Jowett, you know I look forward to it.
    • Christian Plays - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC christianplays.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In case you are an astrologer, I don't know the exact time but I am sure it's on file and I'll keep looking.

    .The true marriage — that noble union, by which a man and woman become together the one perfect being — probably does not exist at present upon earth.^ One man burst into tears, and slowly raising his hands, he clasped them together, and sobbed out "Thank God!"
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Englishwomen by M. B. Synge 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]


    It is not surprising that husbands and wives seem so little part of one another. It is surprising that there is so much love as there is. .For there is no food for it.
    What does it live upon — what nourishes it?^ There was no equipment to process food for the patients.
    • Florence Nightingale - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Florence Nightingale - Florence Nightingale Biography, Life, About, Facts, History, 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.famouspeople.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .Husbands and wives never seem to have anything to say to one another.^ All her sayings were in one way or another connected to the greatness of god.
    • Research Paper on Florence Nightingale Theory of Positive Manipulation of the Environment 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.writingservicescompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Balaclava Day, letter to Mrs. Craven, saying she has been so busy that it has seemed impossible to do anything for her Godson's books.12mo, 3p, ALS. .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .What do they talk about?^ They had nothing to do except to go to parties, receive callers, or talk about their heroic `Flo`.

    Not about any great religious, social, political questions or feelings. .They talk about who shall come to dinner, who is to live in this lodge and who in that, about the improvement of the place, or when they shall go to London.^ Miss Nightingale returned to London, she had received a letter from General Gordon about his cousin Mrs Hawthorn , who was the wife of a colonel in the Royal Engineers.

    ^ This article is a primary source because it talks about the committee who collected money for the Nightingale fund which was later used to set up the Nightingale School of Nurses.

    ^ It was hard to find anyone who her parents would accept in her place, She needed to return to London, and decided to take her mother with her.

    If there are children, they form a common subject of some nourishment. .But, even then, the case is oftenest thus, — the husband is to think of how they are to get on in life; the wife of bringing them up at home.^ Write the answers on the board and discuss how they made someone's life easier or better.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Selina could see how unhappy she was and suggested they travel home through Prague and Berlin.

    ^ Have students write in their Nightingale Journals how they personally made someone's life easier or better.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .But any real communion between husband and wife — any descending into the depths of their being, and drawing out thence what they find and comparing it — do we ever dream of such a thing?^ The Red Cross came into being as a result of the war between France and Austria in the late 1850's.

    ^ His wife once wrote a note to Miss Nightingale for her husband to be excused, and Miss Nightingale got herself into such a state that Dr Sutherland had to be sent for.

    ^ They say Cole Porter had to bang his cane into his foot in order not to laugh out loud when she sang.

    Yes, we may dream of it during the season of "passion," but we shall not find it afterwards. We even expect it to go off, and lay our account that it will. .If the husband has, by chance, gone into the depths of his being, and found there anything unorthodox, he, oftenest, conceals it carefully from his wife, — he is afraid of "unsettling her opinions."
  • Religious men are and must be heretics now — for we must not pray, except in a "form" of words, made beforehand — or think of God but with a prearranged idea.
  • Men and women meet now to be idle.^ It also reflects on Miss Nightingale's disputation of the commonly-held opinion that women are inferior to men, arguing instead that women are just as capable to man in reasoning.

    ^ I think one's feelings waste themselves in words; they ought all to be distilled into actions which bring results.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 12 |Eisheilige ice saints Edward Lear Florence Nightingale William Wilson foundsAlcoholics Anonymous AA Tony Hancock 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There can be no comparison between old men with dropsies and young women with consumptions.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Is it extraordinary that they do not know each other, and that, in their mutual ignorance, they form no surer friendships?^ Often they were desperate women who could find no other work.
    • Florence Nightingale - Spotlight 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.spotlightradio.net [Source type: Original source]

    Did they meet to do something together, then indeed they might form some real tie.
    .But, as it is, they are not there, it is only a mask which is there — a mouth-piece of ready-made sentences about the "topics of the day"; and then people rail against men for choosing a woman "for her face" — why, what else do they see?
  • It is very well to say "be prudent, be careful, try to know each other."^ But as for shoes, they can only be made by shoemakers."

    ^ He accused her of squandering resources by sacking good nurses and orderlies and trying to take over control of others - "but in that she was disappointed, for they declined to serve under her orders".
    • Florence Nightingale: Angel of Mercy or Power-Crazed Meddler - The Education Forum 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May 26, 1883, letter to Col. [Wm] Denny, saying it made her unhappy that he should have left there the 2 pounds.12mo, 2p, ALS. .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .But how are you to know each other?

    Unless a woman had lost all pride, how is it possible for her, under the eyes of all her family, to indulge in long exclusive conversations with a man?^ I had no children of my own but became perhaps the most famous woman of all time and give birth to the profession of nursing as we know it today.
    • MySpace - tribute to Florence Nightingale - 100 - Female - California - myspace.com/kls92509 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Scan all the hands under the ultraviolet light to see how long you should wash your hands to remove all the germs.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When you are discussing how germs can be spread, have the class "scan" their hands under the ultraviolet light.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Such a thing" must not take place till after her "engagement." .And how is she to make an engagement, if "such a thing" has not taken place?
  • A girl, if she has any pride, is so ashamed of having anything she wishes to say out of the hearing of her own family, she thinks it must be something so very wrong, that it is ten to one, if she have the opportunity of saying it, that she will not.^ So to think of her as a nurse is such a ridiculous thing.
    • Florence Nightingale: A new biography sheds light on the Lady with the Lamp - Profiles, People - The Independent 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ "So never lose an opportunity of urging a practical beginning, however small, for it is wonderful how often in such matters the mustard-seed germinates and roots itself.
    • MySpace - tribute to Florence Nightingale - 100 - Female - California - myspace.com/kls92509 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's pretty amazing that one person can make such a difference in so many nurses lives both then and now.
    • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .And yet she is spending her life, perhaps, in dreaming of accidental means of unrestrained communion.
  • It is thought pretty to say that "Women have no passion."^ See this quotation: "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English countesses and Prussian farm women...no woman has excited passions among women more than I have."
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She seems to have had passionate friendships with women in her adolescence and again late in life.
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    .If passion is excitement in the daily social intercourse with men, women think about marriage much more than men do; it is the only event of their lives.^ She would no more have dreamed of consulting him about her nurses than she would have sought the opinion of a husband, if she ever had one, about hiring a parlour maid."
    • Was Florence Nightingale an angel of mercy or power-crazed meddler? | UK news | The Guardian 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ See this quotation: "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English countesses and Prussian farm women...no woman has excited passions among women more than I have."
    • Florence Nightingale, The Red Cross and Christianity 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But why does he feel so attracted to writing about the lives of women in particular?
    • Florence Nightingale: A new biography sheds light on the Lady with the Lamp - Profiles, People - The Independent 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    It ought to be a sacred event, but surely not the only event of a woman's life, as it is now. .Many women spend their lives in asking men to marry them, in a refined way.^ There is certainly no harm in asking the question whether the social and legal position of women is as fair as that of men.

    Yet it is true that women are seldom in love. .How can they be?
  • Women dream till they have no longer the strength to dream; those dreams against which they so struggle, so honestly, vigorously, and conscientiously, and so in vain, yet which are their life, without which they could not have lived; those dreams go at last. All their plans and visions seem vanished, and they know not where; gone, and they cannot recall them.^ No description could be more at variance with the formidable powers of the Florence Nightingale of those years of illness, 1857-68.
    • http://rescindinc.org/flo-dx.html 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC rescindinc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She could no longer coape and in December 1861 she collapsed, she would be bed ridden for the next six years.

    ^ The most vulnerable were orphan and foundling children, and the families of men who had been transported or were in prison, unmarried pregnant girls and the old who were no longer able to earn a living.

    They do not even remember them. And they are left without the food of reality or of hope.
    Later in life, they neither desire nor dream, neither of activity, nor of love, nor of intellect. The last often survives the longest. .They wish, if their experiences would benefit anybody, to give them to someone.^ Suppose you went to a shoemaker and said, "I am starving, I wish you would give me work."

    But they never find an hour free in which to collect their thoughts, and so discouragement becomes ever deeper and deeper, and they less and less capable of undertaking anything.
People talk about imitating Christ, and imitate Him in the little trifling formal things... but if anyone attempts the real imitation of .Him, there are no bounds to the outcry with which the presumption of that person is condemned.
  • It seems as if the female spirit of the world were mourning everlastingly over blessings, not lost, but which she has never had, and which, in her discouragement she feels that she never will have, they are so far off.
  • Jesus Christ raised women above the condition of mere slaves, mere ministers to the passions of the man, raised them by His sympathy, to be Ministers of God.^ There can be no comparison between old men with dropsies and young women with consumptions.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is certainly no harm in asking the question whether the social and legal position of women is as fair as that of men.

    ^ If middling uplands could not be sold at all, there would be no market for slaves.

    He gave them moral activity. .But the Age, the World, Humanity, must give them the means to exercise this moral activity, must give them intellectual cultivation, spheres of action.
  • Nothing can well be imagined more painful than the present position of woman, unless, on the one hand, she renounces all outward activity and keeps herself within the magic sphere, the bubble of her dreams; or, on the other, surrendering all aspiration, she gives herself to her real life, soul and body.^ She would no more have dreamed of consulting him about her nurses than she would have sought the opinion of a husband, if she ever had one, about hiring a parlour maid."
    • Was Florence Nightingale an angel of mercy or power-crazed meddler? | UK news | The Guardian 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ She wants to pursue a life of service to those less fortunate than herself as a result of a "calling" she's had since God spoke to her when she was 17.
    • Florence Nightingale (1985) : DVD Talk Review of the DVD Video 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dvdtalk.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This advice was given and she followed it for 25 years; and nothing in her entire life has generated more censure from her recent biographers.
    • http://rescindinc.org/flo-dx.html 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC rescindinc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For those to whom it is possible, the latter is best; for out of activity may come thought, out of mere aspiration can come nothing,
  • The time is come when women must do something more than the "domestic hearth," which means nursing the infants, keeping a pretty house, having a good dinner and an entertaining party.
  • The great reformers of the world turn into the great misanthropists, if circumstances or organisation do not permit them to act. Christ, if He had been a woman, might have been nothing but a great complainer.^ Her great talent turned out to be not nursing but impelling people to form and reform institutions.
    • Eminence Without Irony - WSJ.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Joe says on his website that she was the first Vietnam War nurse to "come out" and speak for women in the military.
    • Musical Tribute to Florence Nightingale - Nurse.Com Forums 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC forums.nurse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As Mr. Bostridge notes: "She saw prayer essentially as a misdirection of human energy that would be more fruitfully employed in going out into the world seeking to effect change."
    • Eminence Without Irony - WSJ.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

    Peace be with the misanthropists! They have made a step in progress; the next will make them great philanthropists; they are divided but by a line.
    The next Christ will perhaps be a female Christ. .But do we see one woman who looks like a female Christ?^ There are thousands of our soldiers now in camp who will like to see the whole letter: .

    ^ One needs to get together data that is as complete as possible, so that one can see the outcome for the tens of thousands of people who may go through in a year.
    • Journal of Statistics Education, V12N1: Maindonald & Richardson 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amstat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This little book is offered by one who is proud to call herself country-woman to such a true heroine.
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    or even like "the messenger before" her "face", to go before her and prepare the hearts and minds for her?
    To this will be answered that half the inmates of Bedlam begin in this way, by fancying that they are "the Christ."
    People talk about imitating Christ, and imitate Him in the little trifling formal things, such as washing the feet, saying His prayer, and so on; but if anyone attempts the real imitation of Him, there are no bounds to the outcry with which the presumption of that person is condemned.

Notes from Devotional Authors of the Middle Ages (1873-1874)

Notes for an unpublished work Notes from Devotional Authors of the Middle Ages, Collected, Chosen, and Freely Translated by Florence Nightengale (1873), as quoted in Suggestions for Thought : Selections and Commentaries (1994), edited by Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. MacRae,
What is Mysticism? Is it not the attempt to draw near to God, not by rites or ceremonies, but by inward disposition?
  • For what is Mysticism? Is it not the attempt to draw near to God, not by rites or ceremonies, but by inward disposition? Is it not merely a hard word for "The Kingdom of Heaven is within"? Heaven is neither a place nor a time. There might be a Heaven not only here but now...
  • Christ Himself was the first true Mystic. ."My meat is to do the will of Him that sent me and to finish His work."^ She compliments him on the gigantic work of the Bengal Sanitary Commission.and wishes all papers pertaining to India's sanitary improvements to be sent to her.12mo, 16p, ALS. .
    • Columbia University Health Sciences Library Archives & Special Collections 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC library.cpmc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    What is this but putting in fervent and the most striking words the foundation of all real Mystical Religion? — which is that for all our actions, all our words, all our thoughts, the food upon which they are to live and have their being is to be the indwelling presence of God, the union with God; that is, with the Spirit of Goodness and Wisdom.
  • Where shalll I find God? In myself. That is the true Mystical Doctrine. But then I myself must be in a state for Him to come and dwell in me. .This is the whole aim of the Mystical Life: and all Mystical Rules in all times and countries have been laid down for putting the soul in such a state.^ Today as a Hospice nurse, am continually humbled at the privilege of assisting at such a profound time that we as human beings will all one day experience.

    .
    • Also quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale Vol.^ This book reflects more on the life of Florence Nightingale than most through sketches, portraits, pictures, and cartoons.

      ^ Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale.

      ^ Part of our curriculum was studying the life and times of Florence Nightingale.
      • Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .II (1914) by Edward Tyas Cook, p.^ Florence Nightingale Letter to Miss H. Bonham Carter (8 Jan 1852), quoted in Edward Tyas Cook, The Life of Florence Nightingale (1914), Vol.
      • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Cook, Edward Tyas, Sir.

      ^ Florence Nightingale In Edward Tyas Cook and Rosalind Nightingale Nash, A Short Life of Florence Nightingale (1936).
      • Florence Nightingale Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Academic]

      253

Misattributed

  • Patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone.
    • This is actually a portion of statement by the British nurse Edith Cavell the night before her execution by German forces on charges of espionage.

Quotes of others about Nightingale

.
  • Her statistics were more than a study, they were indeed her religion...^ Certainly things have changed since those days, and that they have changed is due, far more than to any other human being, to Miss Nightingale herself.

    ^ More wounded soldiers were dying from disease and infections they acquired in the field hospitals, than died from the wounds of battle.
    • Lesson Plan - Florence Nightingale 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC teacherlink.ed.usu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Miss Nightingale had been devoted to her father, they were very close and he understood her much more than her mother.

    .Florence Nightingale believed — and in all the actions of her life acted upon that belief — that the administrator could only be successful if he were guided by statistical knowledge.
    The legislator — to say nothing of the politician — too often failed for want of this knowledge.^ The author tries to analyze how her belief in God played a role in Miss Nightingale's life and how she was inspired to live a chaste life in service of her fellow human beings.

    ^ Miss Nightingale could not rest , she had worked so hard and now all she wanted was solitude.

    ^ No description could be more at variance with the formidable powers of the Florence Nightingale of those years of illness, 1857-68.
    • http://rescindinc.org/flo-dx.html 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC rescindinc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Nay, she went further; she held that the universe — including human communities — was evolving in accordance with a divine plan; that it was man's business to endeavor to understand this plan and guide his actions in sympathy with it. But to understand God's thoughts, she held we must study statistics, for these are the measure of His purpose. Thus the study of statistics was for her a religious duty.

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

File:Florence
Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, OM (May 12, 1820August 13, 1910), was a famous English nurse. She helped create the modern techniques of nursing. She helped a lot of wounded soldiers during the Crimean War to get better. She was the first female to receive the Order of Merit, the highest honour awarded to a British person. As a nurse she adopted the name 'The Lady with the Lamp' because at night, she checked on the wounded soldiers and always carried 'The Lamp' with her. Florence Nightingale was a wonderful women who fought the odds of not living a life expected by her family. She helped make modern nursing possible.

Biography

Florence Nightingale was born into a very rich, upper class British family in 1820 in Florence, Italy. She was named after the town where she was born. The family moved she was also a prostitute.

back to London when Florence was a young girl.

Her parents expected her to become a wife and a mother but in 1845 she decided to become a nurse. While she was training she campaigned for better conditions for poor people in Britain.

In 1854 Florence was working in Harley Street in London when the Crimean war started. She read many reports about the poor treatment of sick and injured soldiers. Shortly afterward she traveled to Crimea to see for herself. She found the hospitals crowded and dirty.

Florence realized that soldiers died more often from diseases like cholera than from their injuries in war. She used her knowledge of math and statistics to show the British government that providing better conditions for sick and injured soldiers would help them win the war.

While she was working in Crimea she became known as “The Lady with the Lamp” because she would walk around the hospital in the evening carrying a lamp and check on the soldiers.

When she returned to England she started a school for nurses at St. Thomas’ hospital in London.

In 1907, Florence Nightingale became the first woman ever to be awarded the Order of Merit by Queen Victoria.

Florence died in 1910 in London. There are many statues of her in Britain, including one in Waterloo Place in London and a Florence Nightingale museum, also in London.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Florence Nightingale, which are similar to those in the above article.








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