The Full Wiki

Florida panther: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Florida Panther
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Puma
Species: P. concolor
Subspecies: P. c. coryi
Trinomial name
Puma concolor coryi
Bangs, 1899
Synonyms

Proposed taxonomic revision: aggregation with other subspecies of Puma concolor into a single subspecies of North American cougar, P. c. couguar,[1] based on genetic work.[2]

The Florida panther is a highly threatened representative of cougar (Puma concolor) that lives in the low tides, palm forests and swamps of southern Florida in the United States. Its current taxonomic status (Puma concolor coryi or Puma concolor couguar) is unresolved. The Florida Panther is also known as the cougar, mountain lion, puma, and catamount.

Males weigh about 169 pounds and live within a range that includes the Big Cypress National Preserve, Everglades National Park, and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge.[3] This population, the only unequivocal cougar representative in the eastern United States, currently occupies only 5% of its historic range. The number of living Florida panthers is estimated to be between 80 and 100.[4]

In 1982, the Florida panther was chosen as the Florida state animal.[5]

Contents

Taxonomic status

The Florida panther has long been considered a unique subspecies of cougar, under the trinomial Puma concolor coryii (Felis concolor coryii in older listings), one of thirty-two subspecies once recognized. The Florida panther has been protected from legal hunting since 1958, and in 1967 it was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; it was added to the state's endangered species list in 1973.[5][6] It continues to be one of the most intensively and expensively protected feline, mostly because there are only about 80-100 left.

A genetic study of cougar mitochondrial DNA finds that many of the supposed subspecies are too similar to be recognized as distinct,[2] suggesting a reclassification of the Florida panther and numerous other subspecies into a single North American cougar (Puma concolor couguar). Following the research, the canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition) ceased to recognize the Florida panther as a unique subspecies, collapsing it and others into the North American cougar.[1]

Despite these findings it is still listed as subspecies Puma concolor cactus in research works, including those directly concerned with its conservation.[7] Responding to the research that suggested removing its subspecies status, the Florida Panther Recovery Team notes "the degree to which the scientific community has accepted the results of Culver et al. and the proposed change in taxonomy is not resolved at this time."[8]

Conservation status

Florida panther at Audubon's Possum Long Nature Center, Stuart, Florida, September, 1992

It was formerly considered Critically Endangered by the IUCN, but it has not been listed since 2008. Recovery efforts are currently underway in Florida to conserve the state's remaining population of native panthers. This is a difficult task, as the panther requires contiguous areas of habitat — each breeding unit, consisting of one male and two to five females, requires about 200 square miles (500 km2) of habitat.[9] A population of 240 panthers would require 8,000 to 12,000 square miles (31,000 km2) of habitat and sufficient genetic diversity in order to avoid inbreeding as a result of small population size. The introduction of eight female cougars from a closely related Texas population has apparently been successful in mitigating inbreeding problems.[10]

Southern Florida is a fast-developing area, and declining habitat threatens this species. The two highest causes of mortality for the Florida panthers are automobile injuries and aggression between panthers for territory. The primary threats to the population as a whole include habitat loss, habitat degradation, and habitat fragmentation. The development at Ave Maria near Naples, is controversial for its location in prime panther habitat.[11]

Advertisements

Controversy

The Florida panther has been at the center of a controversy over the science used to manage the species. There has been very strong disagreement between scientists about the location and nature of critical habitat. This in turn is linked to a dispute over management which involves property developers and environmental organizations.[12] Recovery agencies appointed a panel of four experts, the Florida Panther Scientific Review Team (SRT), to evaluate the soundness of the body of work used to guide panther recovery. The SRT identified serious problems in panther literature, including miscitations and misrepresentation of data to support unsound conclusions.[13][14][15] A Data Quality Act (DQA) complaint brought by Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) and Andrew Eller, a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), was successful in demonstrating that agencies continued to use incorrect data after it had been clearly identified as such.[16] As a result of the DQA ruling, USFWS admitted errors in the science the agency was using and subsequently reinstated Eller, who had been fired by USFWS after filing the DQA complaint. In two white papers, environmental groups contended that habitat development was permitted that should not have been, and documented the link between incorrect data and financial conflicts of interest.[17][18] In January 2006, USFWS released a new Draft Florida Panther Recovery Plan for public review.[19]

Fiction

References

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds). ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544-545. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3. 
  2. ^ a b Culver, M.; Johnson, W.E., Pecon-Slattery, J., O'Brein, S.J. (2000). "Genomic Ancestry of the American Puma" (PDF). Journal of Heredity 91 (3): 186–197. doi:10.1093/jhered/91.3.186. http://www.coryi.org/Florida_panther/Miscellaneous_Panther_Material/Genomic%20ancestry%20of%20the%20American%20puma.pdf. 
  3. ^ FLORIDA PANTHER. Division of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Last Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  4. ^ Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida panther deaths increase from collisions with vehicles Press release, Date: June 29, 2007
  5. ^ a b "The State Animal: Florida Panther". Division of Historical Resources. http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/facts/symbols/symbol.cfm?page=1&id=6. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  6. ^ "Florida Panther". Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. http://www.fws.gov/endangered/i/a/saa05.html. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  7. ^ Conroy, Michael J.; Paul Beier; Howard Quigley; Michael R. Vaughan (January 2006). "Improving The Use Of Science In Conservation: Lessons From The Florida Panther" (subscription required). Journal of Wildlife Management 70 (1): 1–7. doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70[1:ITUOSI2.0.CO;2]. http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-pdf&file=i0022-541X-70-1-1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  8. ^ The Florida Panther Recovery Team (2006-01-31). "Florida Panther Recovery Program (Draft)" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/Florida%20panther%20files/Panther%20Recovery%20Plan%202006_01_31%20-%20no%20figures.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  9. ^ Florida Panther Recovery Plan. The Florida Panther Recovery Team, South Florida Ecological Services Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 1995-03-13. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  10. ^ Florida Panther and the Genetic Restoration Program. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  11. ^ Staats, Eric (Jan.27, 2004). "Sierra Club Says Ave Maria Will 'Threaten' Everglades". Naples Daily News. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/Fish/southflorida/news/maria2004.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  12. ^ Gross L (2005) "Why Not the Best? How Science Failed the Florida Panther". PLoS Biol 3(9): e333
  13. ^ Beier, P, MR Vaughan, MJ Conroy, and H Quigley. 2003, An analysis of scientific literature related to the Florida panther: Submitted as final report for Project NG01-105, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, FL. 203 pp.
  14. ^ Beier, P, MR Vaughan, MJ Conroy, and H Quigley. 2006. "Evaluating scientific inferences about the Florida panther". Journal of Wildlife Management 70:236-245.
  15. ^ Conroy, MJ, P Beier, H Quigley, and MR Vaughan. 2006. "Improving the use of science in conservation: lessons from the Florida panther". Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1-7.
  16. ^ Information Quality Guidelines: Your Questions and Our Responses. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 2005-03-21. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  17. ^ * Kostyack, J and K Hill. 2005. Giving Away the Store.
  18. ^ Kostyack, J and K Hill. 2004. Discrediting a Decade of Panther Science: Implications of the Scientific Review Team Report. [1]
  19. ^ Fish and Wildlife Service releases Draft Florida Panther Recovery Plan for public review. Then in 2008 the TV show Monsterquest had an episode where a man took a picture of a supposed Florida Panther in South Carolina. This means that the species might be making a comeback on its own U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 2006-01-31. Retrieved 2007-01-30.

External links


Florida Panther
File:Everglades National Park Florida
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Puma
Species: P. concolor
Subspecies: P. c. coryi
Trinomial name
Puma concolor coryi
Bangs, 1899
Synonyms

Proposed taxonomic revision: aggregation with other subspecies of Puma concolor into a single subspecies of North American cougar, P. c. couguar,[1] based on genetic work.[2]

The Florida panther is a highly threatened representative of cougar (Puma concolor) that lives in forests and swamps of southern Florida in the United States. Its current taxonomic status (Puma concolor coryi or Puma concolor couguar) is unresolved, but recent genetic research alone does not alter the legal conservation status. This species is also known as the cougar, mountain lion, puma, and catamount but in the Southeast, and particularly Florida, it is exclusively known as the panther.

Males can weigh up to 100 kilograms (200 lbs) and live within a range that includes the Big Cypress National Preserve, Everglades National Park, and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge.[3] This population, the only unequivocal cougar representative in the eastern United States, currently occupies only 5% of its historic range. The number of living Florida panthers is estimated to be between 80 and 100.[4]

In 1982, the Florida panther was chosen as the Florida state animal.[5]

Contents

Description

Florida Panthers are spotted at birth and typically have blue eyes. As the panther grows the spots fade and the coat becomes completely tan while the eyes typically become more of a yellow. The pathers underbelly is a creamy white, with black tips on the tail and ears. Florida panthers lack the ability to roar, and instead make many distinct sounds that include whistles, chirps, growls, hisses, and purrs.

Taxonomic status

The Florida panther has long been considered a unique subspecies of cougar, under the trinomial Puma concolor coryii (Felis concolor coryii in older listings), one of thirty-two subspecies once recognized. The Florida panther has been protected from legal hunting since 1958, and in 1967 it was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; it was added to the state's endangered species list in 1973.[5][6] It continues to be one of the most intensively and expensively protected feline, mostly because there are only about 80-100 left.

A genetic study of cougar mitochondrial DNA finds that many of the supposed subspecies are too similar to be recognized as distinct,[2] suggesting a reclassification of the Florida panther and numerous other subspecies into a single North American cougar (Puma concolor couguar). Following the research, the canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition) ceased to recognize the Florida panther as a unique subspecies, collapsing it and others into the North American cougar.[1]

Despite these findings it is still listed as subspecies Puma concolor coryii in research works, including those directly concerned with its conservation.[7] Responding to the research that suggested removing its subspecies status, the Florida Panther Recovery Team notes "the degree to which the scientific community has accepted the results of Culver et al. and the proposed change in taxonomy is not resolved at this time."[8]

Diet

The Florida panthers diet is mainly white-tailed deer and wild hogs but can also include smaller prey such as raccoon, armadillo, birds, and rabbits. They do feed on young alligators, perhaps even sub adults[citation needed]. Although not a natural part of its diet, panthers will take farm animals including cattle. The Florida panther is not considered a man-eater and there are no documented attacks on humans, however as a large cat they are capable of attacking if provoked or threatened.

Threats

The Florida panther only has two natural enemies, large adult alligators, and humans. The biggest threat to their survival is human encroachment. Historical persecution reduced this wide-ranging, large carnivore to a small area of south Florida. This created a tiny isolated population that became inbred (revealed by kinked tails, heart and sperm problems). The two highest causes of mortality for Florida panthers are automobile collisions and territorial aggression between panthers but the primary threats to the population as a whole include habitat loss, habitat degradation, and habitat fragmentation. Southern Florida is a fast-developing area and certain developments such as Ave Maria near Naples, are controversial for their location in prime panther habitat.[9]

Development and the Caloosahatchee River are major barriers to natural population expansion. While young males wander over extremely large areas in search of an available territory, females occupies home ranges close to their mothers. For this reason, cougars/panthers are poor colonizers and expand their range slowly despite occurrences of males far away from the core population.

Conservation status

, September, 1992]] It was formerly considered Critically Endangered by the IUCN, but it has not been listed since 2008. Recovery efforts are currently underway in Florida to conserve the state's remaining population of native panthers. This is a difficult task, as the panther requires contiguous areas of habitat — each breeding unit, consisting of one male and two to five females, requires about 200 square miles (500 km2) of habitat.[10] A population of 240 panthers would require 8,000 to 12,000 square miles (31,000 km2) of habitat and sufficient genetic diversity in order to avoid inbreeding as a result of small population size. The introduction of eight female cougars from a closely-related Texas population has apparently been successful in mitigating inbreeding problems.[11] One objective to panther recovery is establishing 2 additional populations within historic range, a goal that has been socio-politically difficult.

Management Controversy

The Florida panther has been at the center of a controversy over the science used to manage the species. There has been very strong disagreement between scientists about the location and nature of critical habitat. This in turn is linked to a dispute over management which involves property developers and environmental organizations.[12] Recovery agencies appointed a panel of four experts, the Florida Panther Scientific Review Team (SRT), to evaluate the soundness of the body of work used to guide panther recovery. The SRT identified serious problems in panther literature, including mis-citations and misrepresentation of data to support unsound conclusions.[13][14][15] A Data Quality Act (DQA) complaint brought by Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) and Andrew Eller, a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), was successful in demonstrating that agencies continued to use incorrect data after it had been clearly identified as such.[16] As a result of the DQA ruling, USFWS admitted errors in the science the agency was using and subsequently reinstated Eller, who had been fired by USFWS after filing the DQA complaint. In two white papers, environmental groups contended that habitat development was permitted that should not have been, and documented the link between incorrect data and financial conflicts of interest.[17][18] In January 2006, USFWS released a new Draft Florida Panther Recovery Plan for public review.[19]

Fiction

References

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). pp. 544–545. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3. 
  2. ^ a b Culver, M.; Johnson, W.E., Pecon-Slattery, J., O'Brein, S.J. (2000). "Genomic Ancestry of the American Puma" (PDF). Journal of Heredity 91 (3): 186–197. doi:10.1093/jhered/91.3.186. PMID 10833043. http://www.coryi.org/Florida_panther/Miscellaneous_Panther_Material/Genomic%20ancestry%20of%20the%20American%20puma.pdf. 
  3. ^ FLORIDA PANTHER. Division of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Last Retrieved 2007-01-30. Archived April 27, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida panther deaths increase from collisions with vehicles[dead link] Press release, Date: June 29, 2007
  5. ^ a b "The State Animal: Florida Panther". Division of Historical Resources. http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/facts/symbols/symbol.cfm?page=1&id=6. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  6. ^ "Florida Panther". Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070706125308/http%3A//www.fws.gov/endangered/i/a/saa05.html. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  7. ^ Conroy, Michael J.; Paul Beier; Howard Quigley; Michael R. Vaughan (January 2006). "Improving The Use Of Science In Conservation: Lessons From The Florida Panther" (subscription required). Journal of Wildlife Management 70 (1): 1–7. doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70[1:ITUOSI]2.0.CO;2. http://www.wildlifejournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-pdf&file=i0022-541X-70-1-1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  8. ^ The Florida Panther Recovery Team (2006-01-31). "Florida Panther Recovery Program (Draft)" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071025124654/http%3A//www.fws.gov/verobeach/Florida%2520panther%2520files/Panther%2520Recovery%2520Plan%25202006_01_31%2520-%2520no%2520figures.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 
  9. ^ Staats, Eric (Jan.27, 2004). "Sierra Club Says Ave Maria Will 'Threaten' Everglades". Naples Daily News. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/Fish/southflorida/news/maria2004.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  10. ^ Florida Panther Recovery Plan. The Florida Panther Recovery Team, South Florida Ecological Services Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 1995-03-13. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  11. ^ Florida Panther and the Genetic Restoration Program. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  12. ^ Gross L (2005) "Why Not the Best? How Science Failed the Florida Panther". PLoS Biol 3(9): e333
  13. ^ Beier, P, MR Vaughan, MJ Conroy, and H Quigley. 2003, An analysis of scientific literature related to the Florida panther: Submitted as final report for Project NG01-105, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, FL. 203 pp.
  14. ^ Beier, P, MR Vaughan, MJ Conroy, and H Quigley. 2006. "Evaluating scientific inferences about the Florida panther". Journal of Wildlife Management 70:236-245.
  15. ^ Conroy, MJ, P Beier, H Quigley, and MR Vaughan. 2006. "Improving the use of science in conservation: lessons from the Florida panther". Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1-7.
  16. ^ Information Quality Guidelines: Your Questions and Our Responses. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 2005-03-21. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
  17. ^ Kostyack, J and K Hill. 2005. Giving Away the Store.
  18. ^ Kostyack, J and K Hill. 2004. Discrediting a Decade of Panther Science: Implications of the Scientific Review Team Report. [1]
  19. ^ Fish and Wildlife Service releases Draft Florida Panther Recovery Plan for public review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Published 2006-01-31. Retrieved 2007-01-30.

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message