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Flowering plants
Fossil range: Early CretaceousRecent
Magnolia virginiana
Sweet Bay
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiospermae
Lindley[1] [P.D. Cantino & M.J. Donoghue][2]
Clades
Synonyms
Anthophyta
Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht. & W.Zimm., 1966
.The flowering plants or angiosperms (Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most diverse group of land plants.^ A flower is the reproductive organ of angiosperms (flowering plants).
  • starting - UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.usingenglish.com [Source type: General]

^ A group of non- flowering plants?
  • WikiAnswers - What are the differences between flowering and non-flowering plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The only plant group that produces true fruit is the flowering plants, the angiosperms.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flowering plants and the gymnosperms are the only extant groups of seed plants.^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ A group of non- flowering plants?
  • WikiAnswers - What are the differences between flowering and non-flowering plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The only plant group that produces true fruit is the flowering plants, the angiosperms.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of apomorphies, or derived characteristics.^ Flowers & Plants, see other matches in: .
  • Indoor flowering plants Flowers & Plants at bizrate - Shop online for Gifts, Flowers & Food. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Possible apomorphies for flowering plants are in bold.
  • Pandanales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Laurales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Solanales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Canellales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Amborellales 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Flowering plants have flowers and seeds (phanerogamic plants).

.The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago.^ Gymnosperms are the plants that are known as evergreens.
  • Diversity And Adaptations Of Organisms 7H2 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants.
  • Questions about Angiosperm Examples - Ask.com 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Pollination was by wind when plants first invaded the land 400 million years ago.

.They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100[citation needed] million years ago.^ Conifers became the dominant gymnosperms during the Mesozoic.
  • Chapter 14, part 9, Chapter Tutorial, Life of the Mesozoic,Levin 2005: The Earth Through Time, 8th edition, Wiley 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC higheredbcs.wiley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They appeared on Earth about 125 millions years ago in the early Cretaceous .

^ Hence, they were not ferried to Laurasia 145 million years ago.

Contents

Angiosperm derived characteristics

.The flowers, which are the reproductive organs of flowering plants, are the most remarkable feature distinguishing them from other seed plants.^ Objectives Recognize the flower as the reproductive organ of a plant.
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowers & Plants, see other matches in: .
  • Indoor flowering plants Flowers & Plants at bizrate - Shop online for Gifts, Flowers & Food. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Four features delimit flowering plants: .
  • Floral morphology 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.botany.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flowers aid angiosperms by enabling a wider range of adaptability and broadening the ecological niches open to them.^ Flowers aided angiosperms by enabling a wider range of evolutionary relationships and broadening the ecological niches open to them, allowing flowering plants to eventually dominate terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Flowers aided angiosperms by enabling a wider range of evolutionary relationship and broadening the ecological niches open to them, allowing flowering plants to eventually dominate terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Flowers initiated the differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms by broadening the scope of evolutionary relationships and niches open to flowering plants, allowing them to eventually dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

.This has allowed flowering plants to largely dominate terrestrial ecosystems.^ The major exception to the dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants is the coniferous forest.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Botany;Flowering plants;Plants;desert ecosystem .
  • National Digital Library : Search Results 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fws.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What allowed flowering plants to dominate the world's flora so quickly?
  • Flowering Plants Article, Flowers Information, Facts -- National Geographic 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC science.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

  • Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs
.Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators.^ Why are gymnosperms different than angiosperms?
  • Why are gymnosperms different than angiosperms? - Botany - Helium 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Angiosperms evolved later than gymnosperms.
  • City of Poway : Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC poway.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Stamens have also become modified through time to prevent self-fertilization, which has permitted further diversification, allowing angiosperms eventually to fill more niches.^ Stamens have also been modified through time to prevent self-fertilization, again to increase diversity, allowing angiosperms to eventually fill more niches.
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Stamens have also become modified through time to prevent self-fertilization, which has permitted further diversification, allowing angiosperms to eventually fill more niches.
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Angiosperm diversification through time.

  • Reduced male parts, three cells
.The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of gymnosperm seed plants.^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ The gametophytes of angiosperms are much reduced in size and cell number.
  • Biology Lab 8 71:125 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.umanitoba.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Biology Lab 8 71:125 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.umanitoba.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Compare the life cycle of the angiosperm with that of the gymnosperm.
  • RNR: "Seed Plants: Angiosperms" Lesson Plan 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC sftrc.cas.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The smaller pollen decreases the time from pollination — the pollen grain reaching the female plant — to fertilization of the ovary; in gymnosperms fertilization can occur up to a year after pollination, while in angiosperms the fertilization begins very soon after pollination.^ In gymnosperms fertilization can occur up to a year after pollination, while in flowering plants the fertilization process begins very soon after pollination, allowing angiosperms, ultimately, to set seeds sooner and faster than gymnosperms.

^ Pollination occurs in angiosperms .
  • Chaper 23:  Seeds Plants: Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC academic.kellogg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pollen grains of different plants.
  • Konus Prepared Slides for Konus Kids Microscopes. 4877, 4910, 4855, 4979, 4856, 4862, 4863, 4880, 4881, 4886, 4887, 4900, 4911, 4914, 4915, 4918, 4935, 4950, 4951, 4952, 4960, 4963, 4964, 4981, 4982, 4976, 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.opticsplanet.net [Source type: General]

.The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting seeds sooner and faster than gymnosperms, which is a distinct evolutionary advantage.^ Why are gymnosperms different than angiosperms?
  • Why are gymnosperms different than angiosperms? - Botany - Helium 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting seeds sooner and faster than gymnosperms, which is a distinct evolutionary advantage.
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

  • Closed carpel enclosing the ovules (carpel or carpels and accessory parts may become the fruit)
.The closed carpel of angiosperms also allows adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes and controls.^ Angiosperms have completely closed carpels.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms? 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stamens with 2 pairs of pollen sac Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding microscopically of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators.
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.This helps to prevent self-fertilization, thereby maintaining increased diversity.^ The multiple subfunctionalization events that have occurred in this subfamily highlight the potential for gene duplication to lead to dissociation among genetic modules, thereby allowing an increase in morphological diversity.
  • Patterns of Gene Duplication and Functional Evolution During the Diversification of the AGAMOUS Subfamily of MADS Box Genes in Angiosperms -- Kramer et al. 166 (2): 1011 -- Genetics 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Closed carpel enclosing the ovules (carpel or carpels and accessory parts may become the fruit) The closed carpel of angiosperms also allows adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes and controls to prevent self-fertilization, thereby maintaining increased diversity.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Also it helps to have two or more A nana; the flowers are protected against self fertilization by the spathe.

.Once the ovary is fertilized, the carpel and some surrounding tissues develop into a fruit.^ The fruit consists of the ovary wall and, in some cases, receptacle tissue.
  • Plant Physiology Online: Flower Structure and the Angiosperm Life Cycle 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC 4e.plantphys.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The ovary, sometimes with other floral parts, develops into a fruit.

^ The ovary develops into a fruit while the ovules develop into seeds.
  • Plant Diversity - Gymnosperms and Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC dbs.umt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This fruit often serves as an attractant to seed-dispersing animals.^ Fruits are adapted to disperse seeds.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds dispersed by animals: .
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fruits serve to protect the seed, as well as aid in seed dispersal.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting cooperative relationship presents another advantage to angiosperms in the process of dispersal.^ In addition, seed dispersal mutualisms with ants provide myrmecochorous plants with several selective advantages that are not present in other dispersal modes (reviewed in [21] – [23] ).
  • PLoS ONE: Ants Sow the Seeds of Global Diversification in Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, early molecular studies based on single genes provided conflicting results regarding the relationship of Gnetales and angiosperms (see Doyle, 1998 , for review).
  • Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes -- Soltis et al. 89 (10): 1670 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC intl.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our results show that the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism, myrmecochory, is consistently associated with accelerated diversification in angiosperm plants.
  • PLoS ONE: Ants Sow the Seeds of Global Diversification in Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

  • Reduced female gametophyte, seven cells with eight nuclei
.The reduced female gametophyte, like the reduced male gametophyte, may be an adaptation allowing for more rapid seed set, eventually leading to such flowering plant adaptations as annual herbaceous life cycles, allowing the flowering plants to fill even more niches.^ Hybridization is even more common among flowering plants.
  • BioEd Online Slides: flowering plants, plants, Plantae, vascular tissue 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bioedonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dioecious plants have imperfect flowers on separate plants; that is, some plants are male, some female.
  • Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.dls.ym.edu.tw [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Care after flowering Calceolarias are annual plants grown from seeds.
  • G6511 Care of Flowering Potted Plants | University of Missouri Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Endosperm formation generally begins after fertilization and before the first division of the zygote.^ Endosperm Endosperm formation generally begins after fertilization and before the first division of the zygote.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Flower Plants & Seedlings, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants at Garden Gifts Galore 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC gardengiftsgalore.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Double Fertilization (formation of zygote and endosperm) .
  • Flowering Plant Reproduction Lecture 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, double fertilization results in the formation of the diploid zygote, the first stage of the new sporophyte generation, and the triploid endosperm cell.
  • Plant Physiology Online: Flower Structure and the Angiosperm Life Cycle 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC 4e.plantphys.net [Source type: Academic]

.Endosperm is a highly nutritive tissue that can provide food for the developing embryo, the cotyledons, and sometimes for the seedling when it first appears.^ The seedling initially uses the food stored in the endosperm and cotyledons to support development.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provides nutrition to the sporophyte embryo.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The endosperm is part of the seed and provides nutrition for the sporophyte embryo.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.^ The groups listed here are some of the most prominent: Land plants.
  • CC250: Plant fossil record 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Angiosperms are the flowering plants (today the most abundant and diverse plants on earth).
  • Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.dls.ym.edu.tw [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The angiosperms are the most economically important group of all plants...
  • Angiosperm: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The major exception to the dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants is the coniferous forest.^ The major exception to the dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants is the coniferous forest.
  • Angiosperm: Angiosperm 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC angiosperm-angiosperm.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difference between angiosperms and gymnoperms?? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Explain in detail two evolutionary adaptations that made angiosperms the most successful organism? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The dominant plant species at the time were coniferous.
  • Exploitation vs Symbiosis | Kort Explores 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.kortexplores.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ecology and evolution of flowering plant dominance.

Evolution

Flowers of Malus sylvestris (crab apple)
.Land plants have existed for about 425 million years.^ Evolution Land plants have existed for about 425 million years.

^ In land plants (Embryophyta), comprising bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, DNA C-value data has increased significantly in recent years.
  • Current Genomics, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2002 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.bentham.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This quest is like the search for the Holy Grail: botanists have puzzled for over a hundred years over how flowering plants (currently the group of plants with the richest range of variety) could have come into being, about 130 million years ago.
  • The early relatives of flowering plants - lightsources.org 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lightsources.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Early land plants reproduced sexually with flagellated, swimming sperm, like the green algae from which they evolved.^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ The green algae are the simplest of green, photosynthetic plants.
  • vPlants - Guide to Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.vplants.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The microfossil record of early land plants.
  • Origin and Diversity of Land Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.sou.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An adaptation to terrestrialization was the development of upright meiosporangia for dispersal by spores to new habitats.^ Unlike lower plants like ferns and seaweeds which rely on spores to invade new habitats, flowering plants are dispersed by seeds and this undoubtedly accounts for their success.
  • Angiosperm reproduction 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC scitec.uwichill.edu.bb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These adaptations aided plants in the colonization of land from aquatic ancestors, and in surviving in the changing terrestrial habitat.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of their tiny size, the spores themselves can be dispersed in a dormant state to a new area.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This feature is lacking in the descendants of their nearest algal relatives, the Charophycean green algae.^ When lakes and ponds are "fertilized" with phosphates and nitrates (e.g., from sewage and the runoff from fertilized fields and lawns), green algae often form extensive algal "blooms".
  • Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A later terrestrial adaptation took place with retention of the delicate, avascular sexual stage, the gametophyte, within the tissues of the vascular sporophyte.^ Is it composed of sporophyte or gametophyte tissue?
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is an angiosperm plant the sporophyte or gametophyte stage?
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sporophyte has vascular tissue and roots; the gametophyte does not.
  • Developmental Biology 8e Online: Plant Life Cycles 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC 8e.devbio.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Developmental Biology Online: Plant Life Cycles 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC 8e.devbio.com [Source type: Academic]

.This occurred by spore germination within sporangia rather than spore release, as in non-seed plants.^ Alternative non-seed plants.
  • Tree of Life 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.greenbac.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If so, the pollen grain germinates and grows a tube down through the style and ovary and into the ovule, where fertilization occurs and a seed begins to grow.
  • Flowering Plants Article, Flowers Information, Facts -- National Geographic 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC science.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

^ The angiosperms are those plants whose seeds develop within a surrounding layer of plant tissue, called the carpel, with seeds attached around the margins.
  • Angiosperms - Biology Encyclopedia - plant, body, animal, system, different, organisms, DNA, organs, water, separated 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.biologyreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A current example of how this might have happened can be seen in the precocious spore germination in Sellaginella, the spike-moss.^ A beautiful example of how to classify different looking plants into related species can be seen in the flowers that carpet these mountains in spring: the rhododendron.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, the current definition of “transitional” is so muddled that it includes anything that provides information (whatever that means) about how a transition might have occurred.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.The result for the ancestors of angiosperms was enclosing them in a case, the seed.^ DICOTYLEDON FLOWERS FIND OUT MORE Known as angiosperms (which means “seed cases”), flowering plants produce seeds inside the swollen base of the FLOWER , the ovary.
  • FLOWERING PLANTS — Infoplease.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ovules, which develop into seeds, are enclosed within an ovary, hence the term angiosperm, meaning "enclosed seed."
  • Magnoliophyta: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, the ovules and seeds of angiosperms develop in enclosed chambers called ovaries.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first seed bearing plants, like the ginkgo, and conifers (such as pines and firs), did not produce flowers.^ Most seed plants, have flowers and produce seeds in fruits; some, such as the pines, form seeds on cones.
  • Introductory Biology: Lab 8 for 71.125 - Glossary 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.umanitoba.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Flowering plants produce seeds inside flowers, which contain the plants' reproductive parts.
  • Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC web.stclair.k12.il.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANGIOSPERM Angiosperms are flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in fruit.

.Interestingly, the pollen grains (males) of Ginkgo and cycads produce a pair of flagellated, mobile sperm cells that "swim" down the developing pollen tube to the female and her eggs.^ The male gametophytes are in the pollen grains, which develop within microsporangia in the anthers.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each microspore develops into a pollen grain containing a male gametophyte.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each stamen will produce hundreds of pollen grains.

.The apparently sudden appearance of relatively modern flowers in the fossil record posed such a problem for the theory of evolution that it was called an "abominable mystery" by Charles Darwin.^ The apparently sudden appearance of relatively modern flowers in the fossil record posed such a problem for the theory of evolution that it was called an "abominable mystery" by Charlen Darwin.

^ "It's a major piece of the puzzle of flowering plant evolution, which Charles Darwin called an 'abominable mystery.'"
  • Botanist Discovers New Lineage of Early Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nature.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angiosperm evolution Darwin called the origin of angiosperms an abominable mystery.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .However, the fossil record has grown since the time of Darwin, and recently discovered angiosperm fossils such as Archaefructus, along with further discoveries of fossil gymnosperms, suggest how angiosperm characteristics may have been acquired in a series of steps.^ Recently discovered angiosperm fossils such as Archaefructus, along with further discoveries of fossil gymnosperms, suggest how angiosperm characteristics may have been acquired in a series of steps.

^ Archaefructus was found along with fish fossils and may be aquatic.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "How do we distinguish true angiosperms from angiophytes in the fossil record" ...

.Several groups of extinct gymnosperms, particularly seed ferns, have been proposed as the ancestors of flowering plants but there is no continuous fossil evidence showing exactly how flowers evolved.^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ Fossil plants hints how first flowers bloomed.
  • CC250: Plant fossil record 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ INSTRUCTION: There are two groups of seed bearing plants.
  • Plants 5F1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some older fossils, such as the upper Triassic Sanmiguelia, have been suggested.^ Some older fossils, such as the upper Triassic Sanmiguelia, have been suggested.

^ Recently discovered angiosperm fossils such as Archaefructus, along with further discoveries of fossil gymnosperms, suggest how angiosperm characteristics may have been acquired in a series of steps.

^ We therefore suggest that paleoentomologists should examine specimens of fossilized insects from the Upper Jurassic for pollen that may have been clinging to their exoskeletons at the time of burial.
  • Cornet & Habib 1992 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC bcornet.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.Based on current evidence, some propose that the ancestors of the angiosperms diverged from an unknown group of gymnosperms during the late Triassic (245–202 million years ago).^ Molecular and morphological evidence suggests that living gymnosperms are a monophyletic group whose earliest lineages diverged from the ancestors of angiosperms about 305 million years ago.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By about 90 million years ago, Angiosperms begun to outnumber Gymnosperms.
  • Acc Biology        Notes       Homework          Home CHAPTER 30 PLANT EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION  CHAPTER 30 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.silverfalls.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angiosperms diversified and gymnosperms declined during late Cret.
  • CRETACEOUS 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC facstaff.gpc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A close relationship between angiosperms and gnetophytes, proposed on the basis of morphological evidence, has more recently been disputed on the basis of molecular evidence that suggest gnetophytes are instead more closely related to other gymnosperms.^ The classification and evolutionary relationships between angiosperms .
  • Biology International 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.iubs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A close relationship between angiosperms and Gnetophytes, suggested on the basis of morphological evidence, has been disputed on the basis of molecular evidence that suggest Gnetophytes are more closely related to other gymnosperms.

^ However, more recent molecular studies suggest that gnetophytes are more closely related to conifers than they are to angiosperms.
  • Evolution of Plants - Biology Encyclopedia - cells, body, human, process, system, different, organisms, life, structure 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.biologyreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest known macrofossil confidently identified as an angiosperm, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 million years BP (the Cretaceous period),[5] while pollen considered to be of angiosperm origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 million years BP. However, one study has suggested that the early-middle Jurassic plant Schmeissneria, traditionally considered a type of ginkgo, may be the earliest known angiosperm, or at least a close relative.^ No one had ever found a flowering plant from the Jurassic period.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin and early diversification of angiosperms.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Origin of Angiosperms 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.gigantopteroid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ultrastructure of Lower Cretaceous angiosperm pollen and early monocot evolution.
  • Cornet & Habib 1992 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC bcornet.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Additionally, circumstantial chemical evidence for the existence of angiosperms as early as 250 million years ago.^ First appearing at least 110 million years ago from an unknown gymnosperm ancestor, flowering planbts have risen to dominance in most of the world's floras.

^ Flowering plants, the angiosperms , were the last of the seed plant groups to evolve, appearing over 100 million years ago during the middle of the Age of Dinosaurs (late Jurassic ).
  • Flowering Plant Reproduction 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flowering Plant Reproduction 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They appeared on Earth about 125 millions years ago in the early Cretaceous .

.Oleanane, a secondary metabolite produced by many flowering plants, has been found in Permian deposits of that age together with fossils of gigantopterids.^ A flowering plant produces flowers for reproduction.
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Many flowering plants 'panic' when deadheaded and produce even more flowers.
  • Deadheading Flowers: How to Keep Your Plants Flowering - a knol by Gary Pilarchik 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ Flowering Plant, any plant that produces flowers.

[7][8] .Gigantopterids are a group of extinct seed plants that share many morphological traits with flowering plants, although they are not known to have been flowering plants themselves.^ The gymnosperms : They are plants which are reproduced by seed.

^ The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants .
  • Angiospermae - Palaeos.org 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.palaeos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plant.

.Recent DNA analysis (molecular systematics) [9][10] show that Amborella trichopoda, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants, and morphological studies [11] suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.^ So is Amborella the world's oldest flowering plant?
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowers & Plants, see other matches in: .
  • Indoor flowering plants Flowers & Plants at bizrate - Shop online for Gifts, Flowers & Food. Compare Prices and Read Consumer Reviews 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Molecular systematics of plants II: DNA sequencing.
  • Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Utility of the petD Group II Intron: A Case Study in Basal Angiosperms -- Löhne and Borsch 22 (2): 317 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appears in the fossil record, occurred in the mid-Cretaceous (approximately 100 million years ago).^ It occurred at the start of the Permian about 280 million years ago (3).
  • The Immemorial Proteaceae 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.flwildflowers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angiosperms first appeared in the fossil record about 135 million years ago.
  • Acc Biology        Notes       Homework          Home CHAPTER 30 PLANT EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION  CHAPTER 30 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.silverfalls.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They appeared on Earth about 125 millions years ago in the early Cretaceous .

.However, a study in 2007 estimated that the division of the five most recent (the genus Ceratophyllum, the family Chloranthaceae, the eudicots, the magnoliids, and the monocots) of the eight main groups occurred around 140 million years ago.^ It occurred at the start of the Permian about 280 million years ago (3).
  • The Immemorial Proteaceae 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.flwildflowers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first warming event that I studied occurred 55.5 million years ago.
  • Carlos Jaramillo - Current Research 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC striweb.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most species of angiosperms are either monocots (especially grasses and orchids) or eudicots, the greatest diversity of structure occurs in the basal angiosperms.
  • Tree of Life 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.greenbac.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .By the late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have dominated environments formerly occupied by ferns and cycadophytes, but large canopy-forming trees replaced conifers as the dominant trees only close to the end of the Cretaceous 65 millions years ago or even later, at the beginning of the Tertiary.^ Angiosperms first appeared in the fossil record about 135 million years ago.
  • Acc Biology        Notes       Homework          Home CHAPTER 30 PLANT EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION  CHAPTER 30 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.silverfalls.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They appeared on Earth about 125 millions years ago in the early Cretaceous .

^ Angiosperms arose more than 200 million years later.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The radiation of herbaceous angiosperm occurred much later.^ Labandeira (1998) indicated that insect pollination likely began with gymnospermous taxa in the Jurassic, while ‘fine-tuning’ of the mechanism by angiosperms occurred later.
  • Evolution: Angiosperm Origins and Evolution 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Did interspecific (and intergeneric) hybridization occur in populations of unrelated Paleozoic gigantopterid and vojnovskyalian gymnosperm shrub lifeboats resulting in polyploidization of offspring and later angiospermization?

^ This is not to say that there were not the occasional attractive fruits produced earlier, but a large radiation of fruit and seed types of the angiosperms occurred during the Paleocene and Eocene.
  • Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Yet, many fossil plants recognizable as belonging to modern families (including beech, oak, maple, and magnolia) appeared already at late Cretaceous.^ By the late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have become the predominant group of land plants, and many fossil plants recognizable as belonging to modern families (including beech, oak, maple, and magnolia) appeared.

^ By the late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have become the predominant group of land plants, and many fossil plants recognizable as belonging to modern families had appeared.
  • Angiospermae - Palaeos.org 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.palaeos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although angiosperms appear in the fossil record in Jurassic deposits, it was not until the end of the Mesozoic era that angiosperms became the dominant plants of the landscape.
  • Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Two bees on a flower head of Creeping Thistle, Cirsium arvense
.It is generally assumed that the function of flowers, from the start, was to involve mobile animals in their reproduction processes.^ It is generally assumed that the function of flowers, from the start, was to involve the mobile animals in the reproduction process.

^ Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Visit: http:// koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plants_Human/lecppt/flower.ppt Alternation of Generations in Plants Life Cycle of a Typical Animal Life Cycle of a Typical Plant Flowers and Fossils The Rise and Fall of Dinosaurs Dinosaurs are found in the fossil record starting about 230 million years ago.
  • Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ Do you or do you not agree that the ability to process citrate is a change in function and, therefore involves a change in CSI/FCSI?” .
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is, pollen can be scattered even if the flower is not brightly colored or oddly shaped in a way that attracts animals; however, by expending the energy required to create such traits, angiosperms can enlist the aid of animals and thus reproduce more efficiently.^ Pollen can be scattered without bright colors and obvious shapes.

^ Flowers aided angiosperms by enabling a wider range of evolutionary relationships and broadening the ecological niches open to them, allowing flowering plants to eventually dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

^ Flowers not only presented their sex organs surrounded by sterile floral organs with attractive patterns and colors, exuding attractive fragrances and filled with nectar and pollen for food, but the bilateral flowers could show the animals which way to approach them and how to enter and exit them.
  • Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Island genetics provides one proposed explanation for the sudden, fully developed appearance of flowering plants.^ What are the 5 stages of development in a flowering plant?
  • Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC web.stclair.k12.il.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Island genetics provides one proposed explanation for the sudden, fully developed appearance of flowering plants.

^ One of the earliest plants to flower.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflowers - Flowering plants that grow on land adjecent to open water. 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

.Island genetics is believed to be a common source of speciation in general, especially when it comes to radical adaptations that seem to have required inferior transitional forms.^ Island genetics is believed to be a common source of speciation in general, especially when it comes to radical adaptations which seem to have required inferior transitional forms.

^ Evolutionary pattern of divergence of a great many taxa from a common ancestral species as a result of novel adaptations or a recent mass extinction .

^ A hormone doesn't seem to be absolutely required since the meristem is the source of the receptor and it could pass the permanent change on to future cells.

.Flowering plants may have evolved in an isolated setting like an island or island chain, where the plants bearing them were able to develop a highly specialized relationship with some specific animal (a wasp, for example).^ Heterostyly  In some species a plant bears one of two morphological forms of a flower.
  • Angiosperm reproduction 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC scitec.uwichill.edu.bb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the 5 stages of development in a flowering plant?
  • Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC web.stclair.k12.il.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be able to list some of the uses of flowering plants.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a relationship, with a hypothetical wasp carrying pollen from one plant to another much the way fig wasps do today, could result in both the plant(s) and their partners developing a high degree of specialization.^ I think that maybe we could do another one but not about plants, maybe animals.
  • Liatris punctata (Tash) 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC newsystem.tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this way the bee carries pollen from one plant to another.
  • starting - UsingEnglish.com ESL Forum 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.usingenglish.com [Source type: General]

^ Pollinators carry plant pollen to other plants.

.Note that the wasp example is not incidental; bees, which apparently evolved specifically due to mutualistic plant relationships, are descended from wasps.^ Note that the wasp example is not incidental; bees, which apparently evolved specifically due to mutualistic plant relationships, are descended from wasps.

^ Lichens and Fungi Although not truly a plant, lichens are plant-like colonies of mutualistic fungi and algae existing in a symbiotic relationship.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowering plants may have evolved in an isolated setting like an island or island chain, where the plants bearing them were able to develop a highly specialized relationship with some specific animal (a wasp, for example).

.Animals are also involved in the distribution of seeds.^ Animals are also involved in the distribution of seeds.

.Fruit, which is formed by the enlargement of flower parts, is frequently a seed-dispersal tool that attracts animals to eat or otherwise disturb it, incidentally scattering the seeds it contains (see frugivory).^ Fruits are adapted to disperse seeds.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds dispersed by animals: .
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flower, fruit, and seed Flowers .

.While many such mutualistic relationships remain too fragile to survive competition and spread widely, flowering proved to be an unusually effective means of reproduction, spreading (whatever its origin) to become the dominant form of land plant life.^ While many such mutualistic relationships remain too fragile to survive competition with mainland animals and spread, flowers proved to be an unusually effective means of production, spreading (whatever their actual origin) to become the dominant form of land plant life.

^ The origin and early evolution of plants on land.
  • Origin and Diversity of Land Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.sou.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The life cycle of a flowering plant .
  • Flowering Plant Reproduction 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flowering Plant Reproduction 10 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flower ontogeny uses a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots.^ Flowers are derived from leaf and stem components, arising from a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots.
  • Angiospermae - Palaeos.org 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.palaeos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note the new shoots being formed.

^ Flowers are derived from leaf and stem components, arising from a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots.The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other.

[14] .The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other.^ The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other.
  • Angiospermae - Palaeos.org 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.palaeos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the flowering plants are the most economically important group of green plants, serving as a source of pharmaceuticals, fibre products, timber, ornamentals, and other commercial products .
  • angiosperm (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary , and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, e.g.
  • Angiospermae - Palaeos.org 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.palaeos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flowers would have tended to grow in a spiral pattern, to be bisexual (in plants, this means both male and female parts on the same flower), and to be dominated by the ovary (female part).^ Interest: The scented flowers are hermaphrodite, meaning the plants have both male and female organs and are pollinated by Insects.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

^ Most flowers have both male and female parts.
  • Flowering Plants Article, Flowers Information, Facts -- National Geographic 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC science.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

^ If a flower contains both male and female parts, botanists call them perfect flowers .

As flowers grew more advanced, some variations developed parts fused together, with a much more specific number and design, and with either specific sexes per flower or plant, or at least "ovary inferior".
.Flower evolution continues to the present day; modern flowers have been so profoundly influenced by humans that some of them cannot be pollinated in nature.^ Flower evolution continues to the present day; modern flowers have been so profoundly influenced by humans that some of them cannot be pollinated in nature.

^ Some aspects of beetle pollination in the evolution of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The apparently sudden appearance of relatively modern flowers in the fossil record posed such a problem for the theory of evolution that it was called an "abominable mystery" by Charlen Darwin.

.Many modern, domesticated flowers used to be simple weeds, which only sprouted when the ground was disturbed.^ Many modern, domesticated flowers used to be simple weeds, which only sprouted when the ground was disturbed.

^ Several theories proposed that modern flowering plants evolved from Magnolia -like species having strobiloid (cone-like) flowers with many whorled parts not unlike Bennettitales.

^ Hellebores are excellent ground cover plants for shaded areas and their winter flowers brighten up the garden when many plants are looking bleak and miserable.
  • Print fact sheet - Early Spring Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.burkesbackyard.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of them tended to grow with human crops, perhaps already having symbiotic companion plant relationships with them, and the prettiest did not get plucked because of their beauty, developing a dependence upon and special adaptation to human affection.^ Some of them tended to grow with human crops, perhaps already having symbiotic companion plant relationships with them, and the prettiest did not get plucked because of their beauty, developing a dependence upon and special adaptation to human affection.

^ A great companion for Winterthur because planting two distinct clones in close proximity results in bumper crops of berries.
  • Colorful Flowering Shrubs  - Proven Winners 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC colorchoiceplants.com [Source type: General]

^ Lichens and Fungi Although not truly a plant, lichens are plant-like colonies of mutualistic fungi and algae existing in a symbiotic relationship.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Classification

Angiospermae







Mesangiospermae













The current phylogeny of the flowering plants.
There are eight groups of living angiosperms:
.The exact relationship between these eight groups is not yet clear, although it has been determined that the first three groups to diverge from the ancestral angiosperm were Amborellales, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales.^ The classification and evolutionary relationships between angiosperms .
  • Biology International 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.iubs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mycorrhizal condition of the ANITA grade (Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales here) is largely unknown, as is that of Canellales, Piperales, and most of Laurales, although mycorrhizae are absent in Nymphaeales (and Ceratophyllales), as might be expected for aquatic groups (Landis et al.
  • Amborellales 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous studies have revealed strong support for the successive sister relationships of Amborellaceae, Nymphaeales [ sensu APGII ( 3 ), including Hydatellaceae], and Austrobaileyales to all other extant angiosperms ( 4 – 16 ), although some studies have placed Amborellaceae + Nymphaeales as sister to all other angiosperms (e.g., refs.
  • Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[17] .The term basal angiosperms refers to these three groups.^ Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes.
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basal branches are sister groups to all of the remaining angiosperms, which make up a strongly supported single large clade (euangiosperms).
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For linkage of these basal seed groups to more derived and `typical' eudicot lineages, we selected two important microevolutionary model plants, Silene and Mimulus.
  • Tree of Life 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.greenbac.org [Source type: Academic]

.The five other groups form the clade Mesangiospermae, with the Chloranthales and Magnoliidae forming the basal mesangiosperms.^ The basal branches are sister groups to all of the remaining angiosperms, which make up a strongly supported single large clade (euangiosperms).
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, Magnoliidae contained groups that are not part of the magnoliid clade as recognized by phylogenetic analyses.
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree.
  • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ceratophyllum seems to group with the eudicots rather than with the monocots.^ The origins of the extant crown groups of magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots were dated to somewhat later in the Cretaceous: 130.1 ± 4.4 Mya for magnoliids, 128.9 ± 4.9 Mya for monocots, and 124.8 ± 6.3 Mya for eudicots ( Table 1 ; SI Fig.
  • Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, the relationships among Ceratophyllum , Chloranthaceae, monocots, magnoliids, and eudicots are resolved in different ways in various analyses, mostly with low support.
  • Chicago Journals - International Journal of Plant Sciences 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.journals.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chloranthaceae, magnoliids, Ceratophyllum , eudicots, and monocots varied depending on data partition and optimality criterion.
  • Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

History of classification

From 1736, an illustration of Linnaean classification.
.The botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon (receptacle, vessel) and σπέρμα, (seed), was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom.^ ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ayyeEov, receptacle, and o-71pua, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits - the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.

^ Botanists call flowering plants angiosperms, from the Greek words for "vessel" and "seed."
  • Flowering Plants Article, Flowers Information, Facts -- National Geographic 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC science.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

^ NARRATOR: Dilcher is one of the world's leading paleobotanists, which is the study of ancient plants and their fossils.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.^ Angiosperms (discussed below) are plants in which the seeds are enclosed within a fruit.

^ You are here: Origin of Flowering Plants .

^ ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ayyeEov, receptacle, and o-71pua, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits - the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.

.The term and its antonym were maintained by Carolus Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia.^ The term and its antonym were maintained by Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia.

^ The genus name, Linnaea refers to the scientist Carolus Linnaeus, who some consider to be the “Father of Modern Taxonomy”.  It is an evergreen perennial creeper.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

.Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after 1827, when Robert Brown established the existence of truly naked ovules in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, and applied to them the name Gymnosperms.^ Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms .

^ Name three uses of gymnosperms.
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the name Passiflora coccinea has been used for so long for this species in cultivation, it is important to establish a link between Passiflora miniata and the wrongly applied name.
  • Botany Photo of the Day: Flowering Plants (18) Archives 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org [Source type: General]

.From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, with varying scope, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.^ Rosa : Latin name for these plants.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ The only plant group that produces true fruit is the flowering plants, the angiosperms.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAGNOLIIDAE (dicotyledonous flowering plants) .
  • MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants) 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bioimages.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Auxanometer: Device for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants.
.In 1851, Hofmeister discovered the changes occurring in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and determined the correct relationships of these to the Cryptogamia.^ How many nuclei make an embryo sac in flowering plants?.
  • Chicago Journals - International Journal of Plant Sciences 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.journals.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The advent in 1351 of Hofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons , and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.

^ Ma: "The rise of the Angiosperms: These flowering plants boast structures that attract insects and other animals to spread pollen."
  • Let us go back, way back into time [The evolution of life in board games] | BoardGameGeek 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This fixed the position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, including the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.^ The advent in 1351 of Hofmeister's brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct relationships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons , and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.

^ Orchids are distinct from other flowering plants because: .

^ MAGNOLIIDAE (dicotyledonous flowering plants) .
  • MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants) 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bioimages.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This is the sense in which the term is used today.^ This is the sense in which the term is nowadays received and in which it is used here.

.In most taxonomies, the flowering plants are treated as a coherent group.^ In addition, the flowering plants are the most economically important group of green plants, serving as a source of pharmaceuticals, fibre products, timber, ornamentals, and other commercial products .
  • angiosperm (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Finally, some of the critical fossil groups of flowering plants and extant angiosperms are depicted in red type.

^ Work as a group and set up a display representing      reproduction of Flowering Plants.
  • Botany Lab Help - Ex. 15 Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC samson.kean.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most popular descriptive name has been Angiospermae (Angiosperms), with Anthophyta ("flowering plants") a second choice.^ Division Anthophyta (flowering plants) .
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently the focus will be on the Angiosperms (flowering plants).

^ Division Anthophyta contains the flowering plants, or Angiosperms.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These names are not linked to any rank. .The Wettstein system and the Engler system use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision.^ The designation of FCSI is nothing more than pointing to the transcription/translation system in biology so if you do not like our name for it, then just use that concept.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now some of these highly complex sequences specify a function, namely they specify an amino acid sequence that has function using an intermediary system of about a thousand parts to do so.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Reveal system treated flowering plants as subdivision Magnoliophytina (Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal, Phytologia 79: 70 1996), but later split it to Magnoliopsida, Liliopsida and Rosopsida.^ An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Simultaneous parsimony jackknife analysis of 2538 rbcL DNA sequences reveals support for major clades of green plants, land plants, seed plants and flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically the division Magnoliophyta ( 25 ) is used for angiosperms or flowering plants, and the class Magnoliopsida is used for the dicotyledons and Liliopsida for the monocotyledons.
  • In Search of the First Flower 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC cas.bellarmine.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Takhtajan system and Cronquist system treat this group at the rank of division, leading to the name Magnoliophyta (from the family name Magnoliaceae).^ Cronquist 1981; Takhtajan 1997), either as separate families more or less adjacent in the sequence, or Chrysobalanaceae might even be included as a subfamily of Rosaceae.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is clear, however, that angiosperms do not fall into two major groups that correspond to monocots (Liliopsida) and dicots (Magnoliopsida) of most traditional classification systems such as Cronquist (1981), Takhtajan (1997), and their predecessors.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Botanical Review 46: 225-359 [CrossRef] [Web of Science] Takhtajan A. 1987 System of Magnoliophyta.
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida.^ The techjnical names for these groups are the class Magnoliopsida for dicots and the class Liliopsida for monocots.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the APG system, of 1998, and the APG II system, of 2003[18], do not treat it as a formal taxon but rather treat it as a clade without a formal botanical name and use the name angiosperms for this clade.^ This outline uses APG II (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group), which was revised in 2003 and is a common system to use.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ APG II. 2003.
  • Introduction — Plant DNA C-values Database — Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC data.kew.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is known as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (APG II) botanical classification system.
  • angiosperm (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The internal classification of this group has undergone considerable revision. .The Cronquist system, proposed by Arthur Cronquist in 1968 and published in its full form in 1981, is still widely used, but is no longer believed to accurately reflect phylogeny.^ Without much stronger evidence than we have, I see no reason to believe that living systems did, either.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Journal of Botany 85: 1122-1133 [Abstract] Cronquist A. 1981 An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In bryophytes there is still no equivalent pooled list of C-values published in hard copy.
  • Introduction — Plant DNA C-values Database — Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC data.kew.org [Source type: Academic]

A general consensus about how the flowering plants should be arranged has recently begun to emerge, through the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, who published an influential reclassification of the angiosperms in 1998. An update incorporating more recent research was published as APG II[18] in 2003.
A monocot (left), and dicot
.Traditionally, the flowering plants are divided into two groups, which in the Cronquist system are called Magnoliopsida (at the rank of class, formed from the family name Magnoliacae) and Liliopsida (at the rank of class, formed from the family name Liliaceae).^ Two classes of genes in plants.
  • Mutational Bias Affects Protein Evolution in Flowering Plants -- Wang et al. 21 (1): 90 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The flowering plants divide into two large groups, informally named the monocots and the dicots.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other descriptive names allowed by Article 16 of the ICBN include Dicotyledones or Dicotyledoneae, and Monocotyledones or Monocotyledoneae, which have a long history of use.^ The name “Plena” is oft-used in horticultural circles to denote a double-flowered selection (one that has twice the number of petals and perhaps other floral parts).
  • Botany Photo of the Day: Flowering Plants (01) Archives 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org [Source type: General]

^ The common names listed in the Flora of Tasmania Online are those seen in other floras, field guides etc and/or known to be in use.

^ There are also a couple long comment by myself and others on this thread that may be of use.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.In English a member of either group may be called a dicotyledon (plural dicotyledons) and monocotyledon (plural monocotyledons), or abbreviated, as dicot (plural dicots) and monocot (plural monocots).^ Recognition of the monocots as a distinct group within the angiosperms dates from Ray (1703) and was largely based on their possession of a single cotyledon relative to the two cotyledons typical of the dicotyledons or "dicots."
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The flowering plants divide into two large groups, informally named the monocots and the dicots.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The techjnical names for these groups are the class Magnoliopsida for dicots and the class Liliopsida for monocots.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These names derive from the observation that the dicots most often have two cotyledons, or embryonic leaves, within each seed.^ Cotyledons: seed leaves produced by the embryo.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The embryo has a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves, or cotyledons .
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two cotyledons (seed leaves) can be seen.

.The monocots usually have only one, but the rule is not absolute either way.^ Large bulbs produce two stems of flowers; smaller bulbs usually have only one.
  • G6511 Care of Flowering Potted Plants | University of Missouri Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice usually is unsatisfactory; light on a window sill usually is diffused, it comes from only one direction, and the period of strong daylight varies from day to day.
  • Growing Flowering Annuals 1975 -- Cathey, Henry M. Plant Genetics and Germplasm Institute,... 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC agnic.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually only fragments remain, which is one of the things that makes this strange new fossil from China so extraordinary.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly handy nor reliable character.
.Recent studies, as by the APG, show that the monocots form holophyletic or monophyletic group; this clade is given the name monocots.^ Given the likely phylogenetic relationships within this clade, anatomical studies of Bonnetiaceae are needed to clarify the apparent absence - or near absence - of secretory tissues.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The close relatives of A. majus form a monophyletic group of approximately 20 species native to the Mediterranean region, particularly southwestern Europe and northern Africa.
  • The Genus Antirrhinum (Snapdragon): A Flowering Plant Model for Evolution and Development -- Hudson et al. 2008 (11): pdb.emo100 -- Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC cshprotocols.cshlp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The monocots included in this last analysis did not always form a monophyletic group.
  • Amborellales 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the dicots are not (they are a paraphyletic group).^ The dicots are not a monophyletic group – they are actually paraphyletic.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, within the dicots a monophyletic group does exist, called the eudicots or tricolpates, and including most of the dicots.^ The monocots included in this last analysis did not always form a monophyletic group.
  • Amborellales 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The relatively small size of the PSO reflects the generic nature of the ontology; often, the most granular terms are specific to taxonomic groups and are included only when necessary (i.e.
  • The Plant Structure Ontology, a Unified Vocabulary of Anatomy and Morphology of a Flowering Plant -- Ilic et al. 143 (2): 587 -- PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plantphysiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although monocots clearly form a strongly supported group, dicots in the traditional sense do not: most are found in the eudicot clade, but the remaining nonmonocot basal branches (i.e., Amborellaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Austrobaileyales, Ceratophyllaceae, Chloranthaceae, magnoliids) were also "traditional" dicots.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The name tricolpates derives from a type of pollen found widely within this group.^ Various types of pollen, often tricolpate .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my opinion, all of the female gametophyte types described for extant crown group basal angiosperms including magnoliids are derived (apomorphic).

^ Timing in the evolution of derived floral characters: Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) taxa with tricolpate and tricolpate-derived pollen.

.The name eudicots is formed combining dicot with the prefix eu- (from Greek, for "well," or "good," botanically indicating "true"), as the eudicots share the characters traditionally attributed to the dicots, such as flowers with four or five parts (four or five petals, four or five sepals).^ Monocots have flower parts in multiple of threes; eudicot parts are in multiples of fours or fives.

^ Sterile parts of flowers are the sepals and petals .
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a new form of irreducible complexity in the sense that a complicated part, a protein or protein RNA polymer combination, has a countless functional sub parts.
  • Lobbing a grenade into the Tetrapod Evolution picture | Uncommon Descent 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Separating this group of eudicots from the rest of the (former) dicots leaves a remainder, which sometimes are called informally palaeodicots (Greek prefix "palaeo-" means "old").^ The majority of plants traditionally called “dicots” form a clade now known as eudicots or “true” dicots.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monocot Evolution There are many more fossils of dicot leaves than monocot Angiosperms probably separated into monocots and dicots in the mid-Cretaceous period.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As this remnant group is not monophyletic this is a term of convenience only.^ The relatively small size of the PSO reflects the generic nature of the ontology; often, the most granular terms are specific to taxonomic groups and are included only when necessary (i.e.
  • The Plant Structure Ontology, a Unified Vocabulary of Anatomy and Morphology of a Flowering Plant -- Ilic et al. 143 (2): 587 -- PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plantphysiol.org [Source type: Academic]

Flowering plant diversity

Various flower colors and shapes
The number of species of flowering plants is estimated to be in the range of 250,000 to 400,000. [19] [20] [21] The number of families in APG (1998) was 462. In APG II[18] (2003) it is not settled; at maximum it is 457, but within this number there are 55 optional segregates, so that the minimum number of families in this system is 402.
.The diversity of flowering plants is not evenly distributed.^ Diversity and classification of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants should also fill the container with foliage so that no potting medium shows and should display an even distribution of flowers over the canopy within about 8 to 12 weeks from planting.
  • ACES Publications : GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION OF FLOWERING HANGING BASKETS : ANR-1147 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.aces.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the previous lab, we learned about the diversity of non-flowering plants.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly all species belong to the eudicot (75%), monocot (23%) and magnoliid (2%) clades.^ Thus, Amborella , Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales each originated (and had begun to evolve) before the origin of monocots, eudicots, and eumagnoliids (a clade that includes Magnoliales, Laurales, Piperales, and Winterales).
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are approximately 52 000 species of monocots (Mabberley, 1993 ), representing 22% of all angiosperms.
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Asterids Like rosids, asterids are a large clade, encompassing nearly one-third of all angiosperm species (80 000 species) and classified in 114 families (Albach et al., 2001b ).
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.The remaining 5 clades contain a little over 250 species in total, i.e., less than 0.1% of flowering plant diversity, divided among 9 families.^ The family of Orchids contains more species than any other family of plants.

^ The majority of flowering plant species have fewer than 20 stamens.

^ Diversity and classification of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

The most diverse families of flowering plants, in their APG circumscriptions, in order of number of species, are:
  1. Asteraceae or Compositae (daisy family): 23,600 species[22]
  2. Orchidaceae (orchid family): 22,075 species[22]
  3. Fabaceae or Leguminosae (pea family): 19,400[22]
  4. Rubiaceae (madder family): 13,150[23]
  5. Poaceae or Gramineae (grass family): 10,035[22]
  6. Lamiaceae or Labiatae (mint family): 7,173[22]
  7. Euphorbiaceae (spurge family): 5,735[22]
  8. Melastomataceae (melastome family): 5,005[22]
  9. Myrtaceae (myrtle family): 4,620[22]
  10. Apocynaceae (dogbane family): 4,555[22]
.In the list above (showing only the 10 largest families), the Orchidaceae and Poaceae are monocot families; the others are eudicot families.^ Amborella is sister to all other angiosperms, followed by Nymphaeaceae, Austrabaileyales, a clade of monocots + Ceratophyllaceae, Chloranthaceae, and a clade of magnoliids + eudicots.
  • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It becomes evident that major clades such as eudicots and monocots are resolved by all data partitions, but other clades are only resolved by indels (e.g., the magnoliids) or by substitutions (e.g., Magnoliales and Piperales), respectively.
  • Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Utility of the petD Group II Intron: A Case Study in Basal Angiosperms -- Löhne and Borsch 22 (2): 317 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The consensus is fully resolved but shows high posterior probabilities ( 95%), largely for terminal nodes at the family or order level but also for monocots and eudicots ( fig.
  • Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Utility of the petD Group II Intron: A Case Study in Basal Angiosperms -- Löhne and Borsch 22 (2): 317 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Vascular anatomy

Cross-section of a stem of the angiosperm flax:
1. Pith,
2. Protoxylem,
3. Xylem I,
4. Phloem I,
5. Sclerenchyma (bast fibre),
6. Cortex,
7. Epidermis
.The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of Gymnosperms.^ Earth’s landscape changed dramatically as conifers, cycads, and other gymnosperms were replaced by flowering plants in many habitats.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All control plants initiated flower buds and flower formation after 24 and 28 days respectively compared to the three transgenic lines.
  • PLoS ONE: Heterologous Expression of Wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2) Gene in Arabidopsis Delays Flowering and Enhances Freezing Tolerance 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous gymnosperm groups have been proposed as flowering plant ancestors over the past century.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings.^ Arrangement of vascular bundles in the stem .
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, dicot vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the outside of the stem.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stem vascular bundles scattered .
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex.^ Stem vascular bundles in a ring .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eudicot traits include two cotyledons, netlike venation, vascular bundles arranged as a ring, a taproot, pollen grains with three openings, and floral parts in multiples of four or five.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, dicot vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the outside of the stem.
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium.^ Two sperm are released into the female gametophyte: one fuses with the egg to produce the zygote, the other helps form the nutritive tissue known as endosperm.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cells and subsequent tissues form first between the wound surface and the vascular cambium and last in the region of the original phellogen.
  • Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center - Bark Research 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.caf.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In linden, callus tissue forms from any active, newly formed cambial derivative rather than from any one particular cell type (Barker 1954).
  • Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center - Bark Research 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.caf.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside.^ When in contact with the host cambium, the loranth haustorium induces the formation of additional wood that enlarges in fluted columns, eventually forming a placenta-like saddle.
  • APSnet Education Center - Introductions to the Major Pathogen Groups - Introduction to Parasitic Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.apsnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the bark inside the first formed phellem accumulates relatively high ethylene concentrations that increases phellogen activity.
  • Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center - Bark Research 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.caf.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A complete flowering plant develops inside the bulb.
  • Spring Flowering Bulbs 1976 -- Prepared by Cathey, Henry M. Plant Genetics and Germplasm Institute... 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC agnic.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.The soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial.^ The soft phloem soon becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists, and forms the great bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial.

^ Stem: Trailing, woody; smooth branches.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

^ Pinching too early after planting can delay plant establishment, and pinching too late can result in poor branching from hard woody stems below.
  • ACES Publications : GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION OF FLOWERING HANGING BASKETS : ANR-1147 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.aces.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.^ Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth - the so-called annual rings.

^ This is so for each ascending body; each body will transmute the toxins within into a different molecular structure rendering it inert or useful due to the increasing fire element within.
  • From the Flowering Plants Trees and Bees 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ascendpress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A study by Jasienski and Bazzaz (1995) looked at how the growth of seven annual grasses was affected by increased CO 2 concentrations.
  • Biology International 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.iubs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Among the Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue.^ Stem vascular bundles scattered .
  • Untitled 1 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC biology.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the smaller group, the Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and scattered through the ground tissue.

^ Scattered primary vascular bundles in stems .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.^ Moreover they contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.

^ I also added in the deeper water between the containers pieces of driftwood with Java fern and moss; they all grew in submersed and emersed forms to large sizes.

^ Your houses do not contain love; they are built by those who are only interested in profit and by those who struggle to make ends meet and are overworked by their employers.
  • From the Flowering Plants Trees and Bees 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ascendpress.org [Source type: Original source]

The flower, fruit, and seed

Flowers

A collection of flowers forming an inflorescence.
.The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower.^ Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of angiosperms: contrasting the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers.

^ The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and families or natural orders, into which the group is divided.

^ Although most angiosperms conform to this suite of reproductive characteristics, the widespread distribution of these features reveals nothing of their evolutionary origin and diversification.
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species.^ The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of the series and families or natural orders, into which the group is divided.

^ It cannot be assumed that basal angiosperm flowers did not have significant floral variation, given that the flowers of Amborella and the Nymphaeaceae are so different.

^ At that time, a series of phylogenetic analyses converged on a set of relationships among basal angiosperms that indicated that most magnoliid lineages, although relatively ancient in origin, were not the most ancient lineages of flowering plants.
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds.^ As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary develops into a fruit.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

^ Not all fruits develop simply as a result of ovule fertilization.
  • http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/book/flower.html 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf (where the petiole attaches to the stem).^ Except where it is terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which is then known as a bract.

^ Occasionally, as in violet , a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then termed axillary.

^ Flowers small, occasionally showy, in clusters of leaf axils or terminal, white, pink or red.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

.Occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf.^ Occasionally, as in violet , a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then termed axillary.

^ Flowers small, occasionally showy, in clusters of leaf axils or terminal, white, pink or red.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ Flower: Blue; tubular, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 2 lipped; 2 sepals form a short tube; bump on upper sepal; in pairs from leaf axils; July-August.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflowers - Flowering plants that grow on land adjecent to open water. 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

.More typically, the flower-bearing portion of the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence.^ An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.
  • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Strong growing plants better branching and more flowers.
  • Colorful Flowering Shrubs  - Proven Winners 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC colorchoiceplants.com [Source type: General]

^ Such a branch-system is called an inflorescence.

.The reproductive cells produced by flowers are of two kinds.^ A flowering plant produces flowers for reproduction.
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Produce flowers (reproductive structures) .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large bulbs produce two stems of flowers; smaller bulbs usually have only one.
  • G6511 Care of Flowering Potted Plants | University of Missouri Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens (or microsporophylls).^ Each microspore develops into a pollen grain containing a male gametophyte.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The quartet cells separate becoming pollen grains.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stamens produce microspores that develop into pollen grains containing male gametophytes.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg-cell (megagametogenesis), are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll).^ Megasporangia on megasporophylls produce megaspores, which give rise to female (egg-containing) gametophytes.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Stilt roots 0); (to 8 tenuinucellate ovules/carpel, archesporial cells single); fruit a berry; meso- and endotegmen persist.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The carpels of Archaefructus are closed in a conduplicate fashion, contain more than one ovule, and are clustered together.
  • In Search of the First Flower 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC cas.bellarmine.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels.^ The flower may consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow , where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels.

^ Large bulbs produce two stems of flowers; smaller bulbs usually have only one.
  • G6511 Care of Flowering Potted Plants | University of Missouri Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only part of Pilostyles that emerges from the host is a tiny bud that opens into a minute red flower.
  • Parasitic Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC waynesword.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators.^ And the wide diversity of present-day pollination-specialized insects speaks vividly that long before the Jurassic, lively adaptations in their form and function took place.

^ Yet the diversity of present-day pollination-specialized insects speaks vividly that long before the Jurassic, lively adaptations in their form and function took place.
  • The Immemorial Proteaceae 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.flwildflowers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seeds of gymnosperms are exposed on modified leaves (sporophylls) that usually form cones (strobili).
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals (or tepals in flowers such as Magnolia where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other).^ Sterile parts of flowers are the sepals and petals .
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowers in large clusters (panicle) on short lateral shoots, 5 petals, 5 toothed sepals, 10 stamens Fruit a winged or ribbed with 1-2 seeds.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ These characters distinguish these genera from Schmeissneria , which has paired female organs on a peduncle that are arranged along the axis of the female structure [24, also in this paper] (for details, see Table 2 ).
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms? 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.The outer series (calyx of sepals) is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, especially the bud.^ In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

^ NARRATOR: To understand why this fossil that looks nothing like a flower could be one of the world's first, you have to understand what the function of flowers is.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowers solitary or in clusters at the end of lateral shoots, usually 5 sepals and 5 petals, numerous stamens and pistils.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

.The inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure.^ In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

^ Series 2, Heteromerae, has generally a superior ovary, stamens as many as the corolla-lobes or more, and more than two carpels.

^ Flowers solitary or in clusters, calyx 4-5 parted and persistent in fruit, corolla more or less tubular, 4-5 lobes, white, pink, or red, 8-10 staments.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

.It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators.^ Nectar functions to attract pollinators.

^ And the wide diversity of present-day pollination-specialized insects speaks vividly that long before the Jurassic, lively adaptations in their form and function took place.

^ Builds the argument, either by correcting or by expanding."/> Copper Kitten: Petals may produce nectar and help pollinate the plant by attracting insects, birds, or bats.

.Attraction is effected by color, scent, and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower.^ The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower.

^ The conspicuous part of infertile flowers is often enlarged, colored, petal-like sepals, true petals may be much reduced or absent.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 2 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ Flowers may be unisexual on some plants or bisexual, 5 petals united at the ends into a cap which is shed when the flower opens, 5 stamens.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

.The characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans.^ Flowers attract specific pollinators .

^ They are dense and thorny plants with white flowers and red fruits, though exceptions to these characteristics exist.
  • Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees - Virginia Cooperative Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees - Virginia Cooperative Extension 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers are typically small and not very colorful because they do not need to attract animal pollinators.

.While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite (having both male and female parts in the same flower structure), flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.^ Interest: The scented flowers are hermaphrodite, meaning the plants have both male and female organs and are pollinated by Insects.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

^ The pollination of a flower with pollen from the same plant.

^ Or like all flowering plants the flower them self is a male and female organisms in the flower.

.Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot easily transfer pollen to the pistil (receptive part of the carpel).^ Nolana have two long and two short stamens.
  • Solanales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pollination is the transfer of pollen to the stigma.

^ Flowers in large clusters (panicle) on short lateral shoots, 5 petals, 5 toothed sepals, 10 stamens Fruit a winged or ribbed with 1-2 seeds.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

.Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical (physiological) mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self- and non-self pollen grains.^ As with other taxa, genetic diversity has generally been found to be lower in smaller populations, and the distribution of genetic variants within and between populations has been correlated with their level of self-incompatibility.
  • The Genus Antirrhinum (Snapdragon): A Flowering Plant Model for Evolution and Development -- Hudson et al. 2008 (11): pdb.emo100 -- Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC cshprotocols.cshlp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mechanical barrier is the closed carpel and the biochemical barrier is the incompatibility systems that developed to prevent the successful growth of pollen tubes.
  • Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Self-fertilization is common in species of Gaudichaudia , Janusia and relatives; it occurs by pollen tubes growing through the tissues of the flower to the embryo sac (Anderson 1980).
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers.^ Female flower of the species.
  • Botany Photo of the Day: Flowering Plants (01) Archives 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org [Source type: General]

^ Species populations with male and female flowers borne on separate male and female individuals are termed dioecious.

^ Male and female flowers.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 2 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

Fertilization and embryogenesis

Angiosperm life cycle
.Double fertilization refers to a process in which two sperm cells fertilize cells in the ovary.^ Grossniklaus described another very interesting project in maize to investigate polyspermy in plants, which is the fertilization of one egg cell by more than one sperm.
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, although the issue of whether the first angiosperms possessed a process of double fertilization remains unresolved, the answer will be revealed as soon as the condition is investigated in Amborella .
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acridocarpus has spiral, exstipulate leaves and an inferior ovary with only two carpels fertile.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.This process begins when a pollen grain adheres to the stigma of the pistil (female reproductive structure), germinates, and grows a long pollen tube.^ Pollen cell grows a pollen tube .
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The germinated pollen grain is the male gametophyte.
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the female reproductive structures form the pistil.

.While this pollen tube is growing, a haploid generative cell travels down the tube behind the tube nucleus.^ Pollen cell grows a pollen tube .
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pollen contains two nuclei, a generative nucleus and a tube nucleus.

^ Pollen tube grows down stigma, through the style and the ovary .
  • Prentice Hall 8-3 & 8-4 Characteristics of Seed Plants and Gymnosperms andAngiosperms: SmithLifeScience 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.smithlifescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The generative cell divides by mitosis to produce two haploid (n) sperm cells.^ The generative cell will later divide to produce two sperm.

^ It will then produce sperm by mitosis because it is haploid .

^ Each male gametophyte has two haploid cells: a generative cell that divides to form two sperm and a tube cell that produces a pollen tube.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the pollen tube grows, it makes its way from the stigma, down the style and into the ovary.^ The pollen germinates, sends pollen tubes down through the style to the ovary, and fertilizes the ovules.
  • http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/book/flower.html 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This includes the stigma, style, and ovary.

^ Loranthaceae are unique among angiosperms in having an "aggressive" embryo sac which actually grows out of the ovule into the ovary and even into the style in some species.
  • APSnet Education Center - Introductions to the Major Pathogen Groups - Introduction to Parasitic Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.apsnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here the pollen tube reaches the micropyle of the ovule and digests its way into one of the synergids, releasing its contents (which include the sperm cells).^ After reaching the ovary, the pollen tube penetrates the micropyle , a pore in the integuments of the ovule.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During normal pollination, the pollen tube enters one of the synergid cells, which degenerates in the process, and then ruptures to release the two sperm.
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grossniklaus described another very interesting project in maize to investigate polyspermy in plants, which is the fertilization of one egg cell by more than one sperm.
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.The synergid that the cells were released into degenerates and one sperm makes its way to fertilize the egg cell, producing a diploid (2n) zygote.^ When a sperm fertilizes an egg of a seed plant, the zygote grows into a sporophyte embryo.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One fertilizes the egg to form a diploid zygote.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grossniklaus described another very interesting project in maize to investigate polyspermy in plants, which is the fertilization of one egg cell by more than one sperm.
  • Plant Reproduction: Insights into the "Abominable Mystery" -- Eckardt 14 (8): 1669 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell.^ The central cell nuclei are shown in blue.
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The generative cell will later divide to produce two sperm.

^ True four-celled female gametophytes have a haploid central cell nucleus, whereas cryptic seven-celled, eight-nucleate female gametophytes in which the antipodals have degenerated and the two haploid nuclei have fused to produce a secondary nucleus contain a diploid central cell.
  • Developmental Evolution of the Sexual Process in Ancient Flowering Plant Lineages -- Friedman and Williams 16 (Supplement 1): S119 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.As the zygote develops into an embryo, the triploid cell develops into the endosperm, which serves as the embryo's food supply.^ The zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo that is packaged with food in the seed.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have endosperm: food storage tissue that provides nutrients to developing embryo .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One hypothesis for the function of double fertilization is that it synchronizes development of food storage in the seed with development of the embryo.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ovary now will develop into fruit and the ovule will develop into seed.^ The structure diagrammed below is an ovule and will develop into a seed.

^ The ovary, sometimes with other floral parts, develops into a fruit.

^ As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary develops into a fruit.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fruit and seed

The fruit of the Aesculus or Horse Chestnut tree.
.As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, the sac wall enlarges and combines with the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) and the integument to form the seed-coat.^ The seed consists of the embryo, endosperm, and a seed coat derived from the integuments.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After fertilization, the embryo and seed begin to form within the inferior ovary.
  • APSnet Education Center - Introductions to the Major Pathogen Groups - Introduction to Parasitic Flowering Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.apsnet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One hypothesis for the function of double fertilization is that it synchronizes development of food storage in the seed with development of the embryo.
  • Chapter 30 - Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ovary wall develops to form the fruit or pericarp, whose form is closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed.^ The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

^ (E) A developing fruit showing strong expression in the developing seeds.
  • The Evolution of the SEPALLATA Subfamily of MADS-Box Genes: A Preangiosperm Origin With Multiple Duplications Throughout Angiosperm History -- Zahn et al. 169 (4): 2209 -- Genetics 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Produce modified leaves grouped into flowers that in turn develop into fruit and seeds .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, e.g. the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others.^ Tetradium : from the Greek, tetradion , quartermium, a reference to the flower and fruit parts which usually occur in fours.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ The flowers are small, with staminodes outside the stamens, the ovary is inferior and syncarpous, and the single-seeded fruit is drupaceous.
  • Laurales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The name “Plena” is oft-used in horticultural circles to denote a double-flowered selection (one that has twice the number of petals and perhaps other floral parts).
  • Botany Photo of the Day: Flowering Plants (01) Archives 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org [Source type: General]

.The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation to that of the fruit.^ The fruits are often quite large, the placentation is parietal, and the seeds often have conspicuous vascular bundles in the coat.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only pollen from another variety of the same or closely related species will cause set of fruit and seed.
  • http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/book/flower.html 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seed coat appears to have thin, unlignified walls, as might be expected in such a fruit, although some lignification has been reported (Tobe et al.
  • Amborellales 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.They protect the embryo and aid in dissemination; they may also directly promote germination.^ There are a variety of seed dormancy mechanisms in the family, and the embryo may grow extensively after dispersal but before germination - Cardiocrinum is an example (Kondo et al.
  • Liliales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If they are sowed in soil that is cooler than this, they will re- main dormant until the soil warms and may rot before they germinate.
  • Growing Flowering Annuals 1975 -- Cathey, Henry M. Plant Genetics and Germplasm Institute,... 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC agnic.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among plants with indehiscent fruits, the fruit generally provides protection for the embryo and secures dissemination.^ Another solution is to bless the plant kingdoms and cows and chickens that provide your vegetables, fruit, nuts, grains, milk, cheese and eggs.
  • From the Flowering Plants Trees and Bees 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ascendpress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Flowering plant and tree kingdoms provide beautiful fragrances, honey procured by the bee kingdom, as well as fruits, nuts and vegetables for animal, bird or human consumption.
  • From the Flowering Plants Trees and Bees 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ascendpress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Growth continuous; plant monoecious/dioecious, inflorescence fasciculate; (to 16-colporate; colpi diploporate); G [2-6(-15)] , (ovules hemitropous); (fruit indehiscent).
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.In this case, the seed-coat is only slightly developed.^ This is caused by the thick, hard seed coat found in most members of the family, water initially penetrating the seed only at particular places in the coat (Jayasuriya et al.
  • Solanales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Hugonioideae, only half of the ovules may develop and produce seeds.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

.If the fruit is dehiscent and the seed is exposed, the seed-coat is generally well developed, and must discharge the functions otherwise executed by the fruit.^ Fruit is a dehiscent capsule, winged seeds.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 2 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fruit dehiscent, large seeds.
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ Yucca glauca [Soapweed Yucca] Common Name List ( plant habit, spring ) ( leaves ) ( developing flower stalk ) ( plant habit, fruiting ) ( fruitng stalk ) ( ripe fruit with seeds ) ( info ) .
  • Oregon State University, LANDSCAPE PLANTS, Vol. 3 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: General]

Economic importance

Agriculture is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, either directly or indirectly through livestock feed. .Of all the families plants, the Poaceae, or grass family, is by far the most important, providing the bulk of all feedstocks (rice, corn — maize, wheat, barley, rye, oats, pearl millet, sugar cane, sorghum).^ Poales (grasses and many crops such as rice, wheat, maize, sugar cane, and pineapple) .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the flowering plants are the most economically important group of green plants, serving as a source of pharmaceuticals, fibre products, timber, ornamentals, and other commercial products .
  • angiosperm (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of annuals can be found among cultivated garden plants, such as beans ( Phaseolus; Fabaceae), corn (maize; Zea mays; Poaceae), and squashes ( Cucurbita; Cucurbitaceae), as well as among the wildflowers, such as some buttercups ( Ranunculus ) and larkspurs ( Delphinium ).
  • angiosperm (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Fabaceae, or legume family, comes in second place. .Also of high importance are the Solanaceae, or nightshade family (potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers, among others), the Cucurbitaceae, or gourd family (also including pumpkins and melons), the Brassicaceae, or mustard plant family (including rapeseed and cabbage), and the Apiaceae, or parsley family.^ Brassicaceae - Mustard family .

^ Solanaceae - Nightshade family .

^ Cucurbitaceae - Gourd family .

.Many of our fruits come from the Rutaceae, or rue family, and the Rosaceae, or rose family (including apples, pears, cherries, apricots, plums, etc.^ Rosaceae - Rose family .

^ It is believed that there may be as many as 400,000 different species of flowering plants, including things as different as roses, wheat and even apple trees.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cronquist 1981; Takhtajan 1997), either as separate families more or less adjacent in the sequence, or Chrysobalanaceae might even be included as a subfamily of Rosaceae.
  • Malpighiales 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.mobot.org [Source type: Academic]

).
.In some parts of the world, certain single species assume paramount importance because of their variety of uses, for example the coconut (Cocos nucifera) on Pacific atolls, and the olive (Olea europaea) in the Mediterranean region.^ Coconuts are the fruit of the coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera ) .
  • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interest: Tends to form large clumps and extensive colonies.  It is a species that occurs around the world in the Boreal and Mixed Forest Regions and adjacent regions of the Deciduous Forests and Tundra.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

^ The close relatives of A. majus form a monophyletic group of approximately 20 species native to the Mediterranean region, particularly southwestern Europe and northern Africa.
  • The Genus Antirrhinum (Snapdragon): A Flowering Plant Model for Evolution and Development -- Hudson et al. 2008 (11): pdb.emo100 -- Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC cshprotocols.cshlp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Flowering plants also provide economic resources in the form of wood, paper, fiber (cotton, flax, and hemp, among others), medicines (digitalis, camphor), decorative and landscaping plants, and many other uses.^ Other: Originated from Europe where it was used for medicine.
  • Andy's northern Ontario wildflower site - plants in a deciduous forest 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ontariowildflower.com [Source type: General]

^ Be able to list some of the uses of flowering plants.
  • Biological Diversity 6 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants for the House Plants for the house can be used in many ways.
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

.The main area in which they are surpassed by other plants is timber production.^ They account for the majority of terrestrial primary production, demonstrate the highest diversity in the plant kingdom, and dominate highly diversified habitats [ 1 - 4 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms? 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In plants other than monocotyledons, leaves are counted when they are visibly separated from the terminal bud.
  • Whole-Plant Growth Stage Ontology for Angiosperms and Its Application in Plant Biology -- Pujar et al. 142 (2): 414 -- PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.plantphysiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About Aloe Vera Plant Your source for information, and other aloe products .
  • Beautifull Aloe Plants-aloe plant care,growing tips,aloe info - Windows Live 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC freealoeplant.spaces.live.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lindley, J (1830). Introduction to the Natural System of Botany. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. xxxvi. 
  2. ^ Cantino, Philip D.; James A. Doyle, Sean W. Graham, Walter S. Judd, Richard G. Olmstead, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, & Michael J. Donoghue (2007). "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta". Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44. 
  3. ^ Lindley, D (2000). "The role of mid-palaeozoic mesofossils in the detection of early bryophytes". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355 (1398): 733–755.. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0613. PMID 10905607. PMC 1692787. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1692787. 
  4. ^ Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. T. Jonathan Davies, Timothy G. Barraclough, Mark W. Chase, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, and Vincent Savolainen. Published (online) February 6, 2004.
  5. ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C. Nixon & X. Wang 2002. Archaefructaceae, a New Basal Angiosperm Family. Science 296(5569): 899–904.
  6. ^ Xin Wing; Shuying Duan, Baoyin Geng, Jinzhong Cui and Yong Yang (2007). "Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 14. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-14. 
  7. ^ David Winship Taylor, Hongqi Li, Jeremy Dahl, Fred J. Fago, David Zinniker, and J. Michael Moldowan (March 2006). "Biogeochemical evidence for the presence of the angiosperm molecular fossil oleanane in Paleozoic and Mesozoic non-angiospermous fossils". Paleobiology 32 (2): 179–190. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2006)32[179:BEFTPO2.0.CO;2]. doi:10.1666%2F0094-8373(2006)32%5B179%3ABEFTPO%5D2.0.CO%3B2. 
  8. ^ Oily Fossils Provide Clues To The Evolution Of Flowers — ScienceDaily (Apr. 5, 2001)
  9. ^ NOVA — Transcripts — First Flower — PBS Airdate: April 17, 2007
  10. ^ Amborella not a "basal angiosperm"? Not so fast -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (6): 997 -- American Journal of Botany
  11. ^ South Pacific plant may be missing link in evolution of flowering plants — Public release date: 17-May-2006
  12. ^ Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms- Communicated by David L. Dilcher, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, August 28, 2007 (received for review June 15, 2007) — PNAS
  13. ^ Wilson Nichols Stewart & Gar W. Rothwell‏, Paleobotany and the evolution of plants, 2nd ed., Cambridge Univ. Press 1993, p. 498
  14. ^ Age-Old Question On Evolution Of Flowers Answered — 15-Jun-2001
  15. ^ Human Affection Altered Evolution of Flowers — By Robert Roy Britt, LiveScience Senior Writer (posted: 26 May 2005 06:53 am ET)
  16. ^ a b c d e f Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, Chase, M. W. (2004). Figure 2. "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany 91: 1437–1445. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1437. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/1437/F2. 
  17. ^ Pamela S. Soltis and Douglas E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of angiosperms". American Journal of Botany 91: 1614–1626. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/1614. 
  18. ^ a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x/full/. 
  19. ^ Thorne, R. F. (2002). "How many species of seed plants are there?". Taxon 51 (3): 511–522. doi:10.2307/1554864. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content//iapt/tax/2002/00000051/00000003/art00009. >
  20. ^ Scotland, R. W. & Wortley, A. H. (2003). "How many species of seed plants are there?". Taxon 52 (1): 101–104. doi:10.2307/3647306. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2003/00000052/00000001/art00011. 
  21. ^ Govaerts, R.url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2003/00000052/00000003/art00016+(2003). "How many species of seed plants are there? — a response". Taxon 52 (3): 583–584. doi:10.2307/3647457. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (at Missouri Botanical Garden)". http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html. 
  23. ^ "Kew Scientist 30 (October2006)". http://www.kew.org/kewscientist/ks_30.pdf. 

External links

  • Cronquist, Arthur. .(1981) An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants.^ Cronquist AJ (1981) An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants.

    ^ Aliso 8: 147-209 Thorne R. F. 1992 Classification and geography of the flowering plants.
    • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.
    • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

    Columbia Univ. .Press, New York.
  • Dilcher, D. 2000. Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record.^ Toward a New Synthesis: Major Evolutionary Trends in the Angiosperm Fossil Record (255-270) .
    • Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This new paradigm shift opened the door for a new synthesis of the fossil record of angiosperms.
    • Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms: Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The fossil record of angiosperms: requiem or renaissance?

    .PNAS [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America] 97: 7030-7036 (available online here)
  • Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (2007).^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 787-792.
    • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99: 6848-6853 [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Zanis M. J. P. S. Soltis Y.-L. Qiu E. Zimmer D. E. Soltis 2003 Phylogenetic analyses and perianth evolution in basal angiosperms.
    • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97: 13166-13171 [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Barkman T. J. S.-H. Lim K. M. Salleh J. Nais 2004 Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia , the world's largest flower.
    • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Flowering Plant Families of the World.^ So is Amborella the world's oldest flowering plant?
    • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thonner's analytical key to the families of flowering plants .
    • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ T he duckweed family (Lemnaceae) includes the undisputed smallest and fastest reproducing flowering plants in the world.

    .Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books.^ Plant Sciences Biological-Geological Building 1151 Richmond St. N London, Ontario CANADA N6A 5B7 Phone: (519) 679-2111 ext.
    • OFN Schedule - Angiosperms 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.nybg.org [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 1-55407-206-9. 
  • Oldest Known Flowering Plants Identified By Genes, William J. Cromie, Harvard Gazette, December 16, 1999.
  • L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards).^ On the one hand, recently molecular data have identified Amborella trichopoda as the most primitive living flowering plant ( Stephens, 1999 ).

    ^ So is Amborella the world's oldest flowering plant?
    • NOVA | Transcripts | First Flower | PBS 11 October 2009 9:32 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Aliso 8: 147-209 Thorne R. F. 1992 Classification and geography of the flowering plants.
    • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
  • Simpson, M.G. Plant Systematics.^ An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants.
    • Angiosperms 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
    • The origin and diversification of angiosperms -- Soltis and Soltis 91 (10): 1614 -- American Journal of Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Core Eudicots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC wwww.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Phylogenetic variation in the shoot mineral concentration of angiosperms -- Broadley et al. 55 (396): 321 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Biology International 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.iubs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One of the largest families of flowering plants .
    • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is a revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants, including newly adopted orders by APG II (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, 2002).

    .Elsevier Academic Press.^ Burlington: Elsevier Academic Press, 1230 pp.

    2006.
  • Raven, P.H., R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn. .Biology of Plants, 7th Edition.^ Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, Second Edition.

    ^ Introductory Plant Biology Laboratory Manual, Tenth Edition .
    • Monocots 10 February 2010 11:21 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    W.H. Freeman. 2004.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Simple English

Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
Fossil range: Upper Jurassic - Recent
File:Rose- Rosa
Rosa Mundi flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

Flowering plants (also called Angiosperms) are a familiar form of land plants. Together with the gymnosperms they make up the seed plants. They are different from the gymnosperms because angiosperms bear flowers and gymnosperms do not bear flowers.

Look up Magnoliophyta in Wikispecies, a directory of species

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Flowering plant, which are similar to those in the above article.








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