Fluminense Football Club: Wikis


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Fluminense logo.svg
Full name Fluminense Football Club
Nickname(s) Tricolor carioca[1]
Founded July 21, 1902[1]
Ground Laranjeiras[1]
Chairman Brazil Roberto Horcades[5]
Manager Brazil Cuca
League Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
2009 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 16th
Home colours
Away colours

Fluminense Football Club is a sports club based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Founded in the beginning of the 20th century as a single-sport institution,[1] Fluminense is today an umbrella organization for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities.[6] The most popular endeavour of Fluminense, however, continues to be football.[7] This article concerns itself with Fluminense solely as a professional football club.



Fluminense Football Club was founded on July 21, 1902 in Rio de Janeiro by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of British heritage.[1] Settled in the then aristocratic neighbourhood of Laranjeiras,[8] Fluminense was formed by sons of the elite who had come into contact with football while studying in Europe.[9] The first official match was played against now defunct Rio FC, and ended 8-0 for Fluminense.[1] The first achievement came in 1906, when Fluminense won its first Campeonato Carioca.[1]

In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team,[1] which remains the club's main rival.[10] The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered the biggest in the history of Brazilian football.[10] Five years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazilian national football team debuted.[1] It was also there that they conquered their first title, in 1919.[11] One year later, Afrânio Costa, a Fluminense shooting athlete, won the first medal for Brazil in the history of the Olympic Games.[12][13]

By 1924, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe.[14] Nonetheless, Fluminense's long association with the rich tainted its history with racism.[15] In an unfortunate event in 1914, a mulatto man playing for Fluminense decided to cover himself in cosmetic powder to disguise the colour of his skin. This ultimately led to one of the club's nicknames, pó de arroz, which is the Portuguese for white powder.[15][16] After 1925, Fluminense began pressuring for the professionalization of football, so far restricted to club affiliates.[7] But it wasn't before 1950 that the club started to accept black players in its squad.[15]

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009.[17] International acclaim came in 1949 with the award of the Olympic Cup and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's first intercontinental honour, the Copa Rio.[18][1] The club established itself regionally with the achievement of two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960.[1] National honours followed in 1970 and 1984, with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively.[1]

Stained glass windows in Fluminense's headquarters

A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political maneuvers, however, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's main domestic league,[19] only to be relegated again in the next year.[20] Completely out of control, the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998.[21] In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and was to be promoted to Série B when it was invited to take part in Copa João Havelange,[22] a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A,[23] and so Fluminense Football Club found its way back to the top, where it has been ever since.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil and was admitted in the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years.[1][24] The club's campaign led it into the finals and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors.[25][26][27] Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito in a dispute of penalty shootouts.[28]

After signing up 27 players and 5 different managers in 2009, Fluminense found itself struggling to avoid another relegation from Série A.[29] With less than one-third of the championship left, the mathematical probability of the club's relegation was of 98%.[30] At this point, manager Cuca decided to sack some of the more experienced players and gave Fluminense's youngsters a chance.[31] That, along with Fred's recovery from a serious injury and substantial support from the fans, allowed not only a sensational escape from relegation, but also placed Fluminense in the finals of the Copa Sudamericana.[32][33] For the second year in a row, the club decided a continental cup. In a déjà vu of the previous year's Copa Libertadores, Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito.[34]







  • Campeonato Carioca (30):
    • 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1924, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1951, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1995, 2002, 2005[1]

Friendly Tournaments


In 1949, Fluminense Football Club was awarded the Olympic Cup by the International Olympic Committee.[18] The official 2009 kit featured the Olympic Cup as a 60th year celebration.[38]


Companies and institutions that Fluminense Football Club currently has partnership deals with include:[39][40][41]


Current Squad

As of March 13, 2010.[42][43][44]

Chairman Horcades, president Lula and Fluminense players in 2007

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Brazil GK Fernando Henrique
Brazil GK Klever
Brazil GK Rafael
Brazil GK Ricardo Berna
Brazil DF Cássio
Brazil DF Dieguinho
Brazil DF Digão
Brazil DF Gum
Brazil DF Júlio César
Brazil DF Leandro Euzébio
Brazil DF Mariano
Argentina MF Darío Conca
Brazil MF Diguinho
Brazil MF Diogo
Brazil MF Everton
Argentina MF Ezequiel González
No. Position Player
Brazil MF Fábio Neves
Brazil MF Fernando Silva
Brazil MF Ferreira
Brazil MF Marquinho
Brazil MF Neves
Brazil MF Thiaguinho
Brazil MF Willians
Brazil FW Adeílson
Brazil FW Alan
Brazil FW André Lima
Brazil FW Bruno Veiga
Brazil FW Dori
Brazil FW Fred (captain)
Brazil FW Matheus Paraná
Brazil FW Wellington Silva

Football Officials

As of September 2009, Fluminense Football Club was undergoing serious political turmoil, with no clearly defined chain of command.[45][46][47][48]

Notable Former Players

The most notable players for Fluminense Football Club so far have been:[49]


Fluminense Football Club took part in 36 of the 38 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971.[50] Since the number of participating teams has changed considerably over time, any accurate performance measurement must take this variable into account. In the two tables below, the performance field for a given position p in a universe of n teams was calculated using the formula:

x = \frac{n-p}{n} \times 100

This allows for an asymptotic limit of 100%, since p will never be zero.

Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1971 16 20 20% 1981 11 44 75%
1972 14 26 46% 1982 5 44 89%
1973 23 40 42% 1983 18 44 59%
1974 24 40 40% 1984 1 41 98%
1975 3 42 93% 1985 22 44 50%
1976 4 54 93% 1986 6 48 87%
1977 26 62 58% 1987 7 16 56%
1978 22 74 70% 1988 3 24 87%
1979 52 94 45% 1989 15 22 32%
1980 11 44 75% 1990 15 20 25%
Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1991 4 20 80% 2001 3 28 89%
1992 14 20 30% 2002 7 26 73%
1993 28 32 12% 2003 19 24 21%
1994 15 24 37% 2004 9 24 62%
1995 4 24 83% 2005 5 22 77%
1996 23 24 4% 2006 15 20 25%
1997 25 26 4% 2007 4 20 80%
2000 3 25 88% 2008 14 20 30%

Fluminense Football Club has an average performance of 56% in Série A, with a standard deviation of 28%.


Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:


Fluminense supporters in Maracanã

The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiro.[53] However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.4% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population.[54] Considering a universe of 185 million people,[55] that would account for numbers between 2.6 and 6.8 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on December 15, 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive amount of 194,000 people showed up at the Maracanã stadium.[56] This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.[57]

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque,[58][59] FIFA president of honour João Havelange,[10] musician Ivan Lins,[60] poet and actor Mario Lago,[61] journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta[62] and dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues.[62]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Fluminense - Forever Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/clubs/club=241/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  2. ^ "Thiago flies the Fluzão flag". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/tournaments/archive/clubworldcup/japan2008/news/newsid=716238.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  3. ^ "Brazil National Soccer League - List of Teams in Serie A". about.com Brazil Travel Guide. http://gobrazil.about.com/od/culturehistorylanguage/a/brasileirao.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  4. ^ "Action of a FARE partner at the Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro". Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE). http://www.farenet.org/default.asp?intPageID=7&intArticleID=1576. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  5. ^ "Horcades named president of Fluminense soccer team". SINA Corporation. http://english.sina.com/sports/1/2007/1128/134145.html. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  6. ^ "FLUOLIMPICO.COM.BR" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/fluolimpico/. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  7. ^ a b "FLUMEMÓRIA - HISTÓRIA - Um clube popular" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historia.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  8. ^ "Fluminense fiesta". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2002-08-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/tv_and_radio/world_football/2188923.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  9. ^ "How football conquered Brazil". 2009-05-18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/timvickery/2009/05/how_football_conquered_brazil.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  10. ^ a b c "Passion, carnival and crazy goals". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 2001-07-13. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/federation/news/newsid=78517.html. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  11. ^ "Southamerican Championship 1919". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssf.com/tables/19safull.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  12. ^ Napoleão, Antônio Carlos (2003) (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club: História, Conquistas e Glórias no Futebol. Mauad. p. 30. ISBN 9788574780788. http://books.google.com/books?id=N38fcax08dcC. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
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  14. ^ Mason, Tony (1995). Passion of the people? Football in South America. Verso. p. 54. ISBN 9780860914037. http://books.google.com/books?id=iIN81fOaLdkC. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  15. ^ a b c Rodrigues, Mário (2003) (in Portuguese). O negro no futebol brasileiro. Mauad. pp. 36,37,41,44,51,60,62,63,69,70,77,210,281. ISBN 9788574780962. http://books.google.com/books?id=4n3n63FoJQsC. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  16. ^ "Pó-de-arroz: provocação que virou símbolo" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-03-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/ESP/Noticia/Futebol/Fluminense/0,,MUL338483-4284,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  17. ^ "Fla consolida supremacia com seis títulos na década" (in Portuguese). Jornal O Dia. 2009-05-04. http://odia.terra.com.br/portal/ataque/campeaocarioca2009/html/2009/5/fla_consolida_supremacia_com_seis_titulos_na_decada_9969.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  18. ^ a b "Fluminense Football Club - Conquistas" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historiaconquistas.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  19. ^ "Santos and sinners". When Saturday Comes (WSC). 2003-02. http://www.wsc.co.uk/content/view/2584/29/. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  20. ^ "Brazil 1997 Championship". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1997.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  21. ^ "Brazil 1998 Championship - Second Level (Série B)". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1998l2.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  22. ^ "Brazil 1999 Third Level (Série C)". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br1999l3.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  23. ^ "Brazil 2001 Championship". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/tablesae/br2001.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  24. ^ "Fluminense volta à Libertadores após 23 anos" (in Portuguese). UOL Esporte. 2007-06-06. http://esporte.uol.com.br/futebol/ultimas/2007/06/06/ult59u122616.jhtm. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  25. ^ "Flu massacra Arsenal em noite de gala" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-03-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/ESP/Noticia/Futebol/Fluminense/0,,MUL338513-4284,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  26. ^ "Flu leva a melhor no Maraca e está na semifinal da Taça Libertadores" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-05-21. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Futebol/Libertadores/0,,MUL489835-9851,00-FLU+LEVA+A+MELHOR+NO+MARACA+E+ESTA+NA+SEMIFINAL+DA+TACA+LIBERTADORES.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  27. ^ "Flu flay Boca as Brazilians fly into final". The Guardian. 2008-06-06. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/jun/06/1. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  28. ^ "Fluminense in mourning after Maracana party turns to tears". The Guardian. 2008-07-04. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/jul/04/brazil. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  29. ^ "Balcão de negócios e alta rotatividade ajudam a explicar desespero do Flu" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-10-05. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1329995-9866,00-BALCAO+DE+NEGOCIOS+E+ALTA+ROTATIVIDADE+AJUDAM+A+EXPLICAR+DESESPERO+DO+FLU.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  30. ^ "Degola mais próxima: Fluminense tem 98% de chances de rebaixamento" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-10-09. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Futebol/Brasileirao/Serie_A/0,,MUL1335158-9827,00.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  31. ^ "Por xeque-mate contra queda, Cuca celebra troca de peças no Tricolor" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-11-04. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1366199-9866,00-POR+XEQUEMATE+CONTRA+QUEDA+CUCA+CELEBRA+TROCA+DE+PECAS+NO+TRICOLOR.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  32. ^ "Fred saves the day for Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/worldfootball/clubfootball/news/newsid=1148877.html. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  33. ^ "A média de público final do Campeonato Brasileiro 2009" (in Portuguese). O Globo. 2009-12-08. http://oglobo.globo.com/blogs/bolademeia/posts/2009/12/10/a-media-de-publico-final-do-campeonato-brasileiro-2009-248850.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  34. ^ "Fluminense luta até o fim, mas título fica novamente com a LDU, verdadeiro algoz" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-12-03. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1401289-9866,00-FLUMINENSE+LUTA+ATE+O+FIM+MAS+TITULO+FICA+NOVAMENTE+COM+A+LDU+VERDADEIRO+AL.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  35. ^ "Parreira happy to be home". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). http://www.fifa.com/worldfootball/clubfootball/news/newsid=1039452.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  36. ^ "Kirin Cup 1987". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssf.com/tablesk/kirin87.html. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  37. ^ "Trofeo Teresa Herrera 1977". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssf.com/tablest/teresa-herrera.html#77. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  38. ^ "New Fluminense football kits 2009-10". myfootballkits.co.uk. http://www.myfootballkits.co.uk/420/new-fluminese-football-kits-2009-10/. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  39. ^ "America e Fluminense oficializam parceria para a disputa da Segundona" (in Portuguese). FutRio. 2009-04-17. http://futnet.virgula.uol.com.br/america/noticias/?068876_america_e_fluminense_oficializam_parceria_para_a_disputa_da_segundona. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  40. ^ "Parceria com o Ituano-SP começa a render frutos para o Fluminense" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-05-04. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1107797-9866,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  41. ^ "Insatisfeita, Unimed pode encerrar parceria com Flu" (in Portuguese). Everything Sports Programming Network (ESPN) Brasil. 2009-06-02. http://espnbrasil.terra.com.br/fluminense/noticia/53540_INSATISFEITA+UNIMED+PODE+ENCERRAR+PARCERIA+COM+FLU. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  42. ^ "Futebol - Elenco Profissional" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://fluminense.com.br/futebol_elenco.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  43. ^ "Maurício viaja sexta-feira para a Rússia para assinar com o Terek Grozny" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1457313-9866,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  44. ^ "Kieza rescinde contrato em comum acordo com o Flu" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1490138-9866,00.html. Retrieved 2010-02-14. 
  45. ^ "Chefe do departamento médico do Fluminense é demitido" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2009-08-28. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1283961-9866,00-CHEFE+DO+DEPARTAMENTO+MEDICO+DO+FLUMINENSE+E+DEMITIDO.html. 
  46. ^ "Michael Simoni muito perto de voltar ao Fluminense" (in Portuguese). Diário LANCE!. 2009-09-04. http://lancenet.com.br/fluminense/noticias/09-09-04/612136.stm. 
  47. ^ "Tote Menezes não é mais vice de futebol do Fluminense" (in Portuguese). Jornal O Globo. 2009-09-03. http://oglobo.globo.com/esportes/brasileiro2009/mat/2009/09/03/tote-menezes-nao-mais-vice-de-futebol-do-fluminense-767449176.asp. 
  48. ^ "Horcades pode sofrer impeachment no Fluminense" (in Portuguese). Diário LANCE!. 2009-09-02. http://www.lancenet.com.br/fluminense/noticias/09-09-02/610125.stm. 
  49. ^ "FLUMEMÓRIA - HISTÓRIA - Ídolos" (in Portuguese). Fluminense Football Club. http://www.fluminense.com.br/memoria_historiaidolos.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  50. ^ "RETROSPECTO DO FLUMINENSE FOOTBALL CLUB NAS PRINCIPAIS COMPETIÇÕES" (in Portuguese). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/miscellaneous/fluretr.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  51. ^ "Adidas - Parceiros & Outros Esportes" (in Portuguese). Adidas Official Website for Brazil. http://www.adidas.com/br/performance/partners.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  52. ^ "Patrocinadora do Flu promete honrar contrato e confia em desempenho melhor" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL1180471-9866,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  53. ^ "Perfil dos torcedores do Rio" (in Portuguese). Jornal O Globo. http://oglobo.globo.com/esportes/mat/2009/06/05/perfil-dos-torcedores-do-rio-756224667.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  54. ^ "Brazilian Clubs with Most Fans". RSSSF Brazil. http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/miscellaneous/torcidas.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  55. ^ "Contagem da População 2007" (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 2007-12-21. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/contagem2007/contagem_final/tabela1_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  56. ^ "Best attendances in matches of Fluminense". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/miscellaneous/attfluminense.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  57. ^ "Best Attendances in Brazil" (in Portuguese). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). http://www.rsssfbrasil.com/miscellaneous/attendances.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  58. ^ "Brasil está em débito com Cartola" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. 2000-12-27. http://www.estadao.com.br/arquivo/arteelazer/2000/not20001227p4402.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  59. ^ "The lionised king of Rio". The Guardian. 2004-07-18. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/jul/18/fiction.features3. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  60. ^ "Tricolor Skylab se desespera com show na mesma hora da final em Quito" (in Portuguese). globoesporte.com. 2008-06-25. http://globoesporte.globo.com/Esportes/Noticias/Times/Fluminense/0,,MUL613943-9866,00-TRICOLOR+SKYLAB+SE+DESESPERA+COM+SHOW+NA+MESMA+HORA+DA+FINAL+EM+QUITO.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  61. ^ "MST e Fluminense presentes na última homenagem a Mário Lago" (in Portuguese). Jornal do Brasil Online. 2002-05-31. http://www.terra.com.br/exclusivo/noticias/2002/05/31/011.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  62. ^ a b Motta, Nelson; Gueiros, Pedro (2004) (in Portuguese). Fluminense: a breve e gloriosa história de uma máquina de jogar bola. Rio de Janeiro: Geração Editorial. pp. 1–9. ISBN 9788500015748. http://books.google.com/books?id=TuWDzbcxc_wC. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 

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