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Fluorescent lamps
.
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
^ Jump to: navigation , search Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamp: is a type of artificial light source in which the mercury vapour generated by a low wattage arc strikes the phosphor material to emit light.
  • ALOA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC stamhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prefix "CF" is used for all types of compact fluorescent lamps that comply with the American National Standards Institute definition of a self-supporting lamp with a single base.
  • Light Guide: Compact Fluorescent Lamp Identification 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightsearch.com [Source type: Reference]

.Top, two compact fluorescent lamps.^ Re: Compact fluorescent lamp life .
  • Re: Compact fluorescent lamp life 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC fins.actwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Re: Compact fluorescent lamp life 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC fins.actwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compact fluorescent lamp assembly .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mini Spiral Compact Fluorescent lamps .
  • Fluorescent Lamp & Tubes - Home 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bottom, two regular tubes.^ Top, two Compact fluorescent lamps, bottom, two regular tubes.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Left, matchstick shown for scale.
.
Typical F71T12 100 W bi-pin lamp used in tanning beds.
^ Some of our clients have mentioned that safe use of the tanning beds or getting regular sunshine in small doses , helps to relieve and considerably reduce their symptoms.

^ Let's assume that the existing incandescent downlights use a 100 watt incandescent lamp.
  • Lighting Design Lab Articles - Archived Articles - Restaurant Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC lightingdesignlab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, a simple inductor can be used in Europe, where the line voltage is 220 to 240 VAC, to operate a 4 foot lamp, which operates at 85 to 100 volts, depending upon design.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note the (Hg) symbol indicating it contains mercury.^ Note: This lamp contains Mercury.
  • QT18/35-4P Quad Tube 18W 3500K 4-Pin Compact Fluorescent Lamp,Light Bulb 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.replacementlightbulbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Note: This Hg lamp contains Mercury.

^ Hg is the periodic symbol of the element mercury.
  • DEP: Compact Fluorescent lamps 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the US this symbol is now required on all fluorescent bulbs that contain mercury.
Inside the lamp end of a bi-pin lamp
.A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor.^ C. to generate a gas containing a mercury vapor.
  • Method of recyclig fluorescent lamp invention 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps and tubes: Fluorescent tubes, including low mercury tubes.
  • California Law Requires Fluorescent Lamp Recycling for Disposal 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lamprecycling.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light.^ Because of the ultraviolet light, the phosphor emits various frequencies of visible light.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the ultraviolet light strikes atoms in the phosphors, it excites their electrons in just the same way that the mercury atoms were excited (6).
  • How energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) work: Explain that Stuff! 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: General]

^ This ultraviolet light causes the white phosphors coating the tube interior to glow or fluoresce.
  • PhotoNotes.org Dictionary - Fluorescent lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC photonotes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp.^ Some fluorescent lamps are even more efficient than that.
  • How Everything Works - Question 1578: Do fluorescent lamps really use less energy than incandescent bulbs? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insert the fluorescent lamp into the tube.
  • Pinball Pal - Warming Color Filter Kit 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.pinballpal.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, fluorescent lamps use less energy than traditional incandescent lamps.
  • Mercury Program Main Page » Waste Management » Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dep.state.fl.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lower energy cost typically offsets the higher initial cost of the lamp.^ However, you are paying energy costs for the operating time of the lamps, and the most efficient lamp is the one that is not on when it is not needed.
  • Lighting Design Lab Articles - How Often Should I Turn Off My Fluorescent Lighting? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightingdesignlab.com [Source type: General]
  • Fluorescent Bulb Hour Ratings 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lighttherapyonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn more » Nationwide, efforts to increase energy conservation and lower operating costs are resulting in the increasing use of fluorescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs.
  • EcoLights - Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Services 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecolights.com [Source type: General]

^ Longer life means fewer lamp replacements and lower maintenance costs, making this lamp perfect for applications where re-lamping is difficult.
  • OSRAM SYLVANIA - OSRAM SYLVANIA EXPANDS DURA-ONE ELECTRODELESS COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMP LINE 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.sylvania.com [Source type: News]

.The lamp is more costly because it requires a ballast to regulate the flow of current through the lamp.^ Fluorescent lamp ballast with adjustable lamp current .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Special dual lamp ballasts are required.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps always require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While larger fluorescent lamps have been mostly used in commercial or institutional buildings, the compact fluorescent lamp is now available in the same popular sizes as incandescents and is used as an energy-saving alternative in homes.^ Re: Compact fluorescent lamp life .
  • Re: Compact fluorescent lamp life 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC fins.actwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was first made commercially available in the 1920’s, the fluorescent lamp is now being used extensively in all the fields of energy applications.

^ Energy saving lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

Contents

History

Physical discoveries

.Fluorescence of certain rocks and other substances had been observed for hundreds of years before its nature was understood.^ Introduction Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until 1907, when Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp.

^ Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp in 1907.

^ In recent years, for the purpose of enhancing the lamp efficiency or downsizing the lamp, fluorescent lamps having a complicated shape such as a U tube and a twin tube having two U tubes connected to each other have been developed.

.By the middle of the 19th century, experimenters had observed a radiant glow emanating from partially evacuated glass vessels through which an electrical current passed.^ An ultraviolet ray generated from the glow discharged mercury vapor passes through a fluorescent material disposed in the fluorescent tube so as to form a visible light.
  • Method of recyclig fluorescent lamp invention 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you have studied electricity, you surely learned there about Ohm's Law , by which the current flowing through a device is inversely proportional to its electrical resistance R .
  • The Fluorescent Lamp: a plasma you can use 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An electrical charge is passed through mercury vapour ....

.One of the first to explain it about 1845 was the British (Irish) scientist Sir George G. Stokes from Cambridge University, who named the phenomenon fluorescence after fluorite, a strongly fluorescent mineral.^ LampRecycle.org One-stop source of information about spent fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp recycling.
  • WasteCap Resource Solutions » Fluorescent Lamp and Bulb Recycling 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.wastecapwi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the one of the first electrodes and the second electrode, to provide a dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1938 George Inman presented the first IES paper on fluorescent lamps.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This explanation relied on the nature of electricity and light phenomena as developed by the British scientists Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell in the 1840s.^ My main emphasis centered around the electric incandescent lamp, but interest in the entire field of lighting eventually developed.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not until the late 1800s and early 1900s did entrepreneurial scientists begin to develop fluorescent bulbs as light sources.
  • National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Museum of Electricity and Magnetism - Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the product of 79 years of the development of the lighting method that began with the invention of the electric light bulb by Thomas Edison.
  • Filipino Inventors - Inventions by Filipinos in the Philippines 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.txtmania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Little more was done with this phenomenon until 1856 when a German glassblower named Heinrich Geissler created a mercury vacuum pump that evacuated a glass tube to an extent not previously possible.^ The earliest ancestor of the fluorescent lamp is probably the device by Heinrich Geissler who, in 1856, obtained a bluish glow from a gas which was sealed in a tube and excited with an induction coil.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the glass tube in a state of low vacuum pressure, the mercury vaporizes and acts as the conductor between both cathodes, creating a mercury vapor arc resulting in the release of UV radiation of 253.7 nanometres.

^ A fluorescent lamp consists of a glass tube filled with a mixture of argon and mercury vapour.
  • fluorescent lamp -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.When an electrical current passed through a Geissler tube, a strong green glow on the walls of the tube at the cathode end could be observed.^ In this circuit, the current passes through the electrodes on both ends of the tube.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arc discharge (in a gas or vapor) Electric discharge characterized by a cathode fall that is small compared with that in a glow discharge.
  • Energy Saving Light Bulbs - Lamps and Tubes — Osram - Sylvania - Philips - GE 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.energy-saving-lightbulbs.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent light bulbs work by conducting an electric current through the tube that is filled with mercury and other inert gases.
  • Fluorescent Light Bulbs - CFL - Compact Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.expresslightbulbs.com [Source type: General]

.Because it produced some beautiful light effects, the Geissler tube was a popular source of amusement.^ The glass tubes contain mercury vapours which produce ultraviolet light when an electric current is passed through them.
  • PhotoNotes.org Dictionary - Fluorescent lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC photonotes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, such tubes are often used as photography studio softboxes and motion picture light sources owing to their energy efficiency and low heat output.
  • PhotoNotes.org Dictionary - Fluorescent lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC photonotes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LEDs are very efficient as they only emit one frequency of light, and because of this the light produced could be perceived as flat and lifeless.

More important, however, was its contribution to scientific research. .One of the first scientists to experiment with a Geissler tube was Julius Plücker who systematically described in 1858 the luminescent effects that occurred in a Geissler tube.^ When, prior to the occurrence of the discharge between the pair of electrodes toilluminate the fluorescent lamp, the discharge is caused to occur between the one of the first electrodes and the second electrode of the bulbs, and the discharge is then caused to occur between the pair of electrodes, the starting voltage for theillumination tube can be reduced.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A note about the power supply: This was probably one of my first electronics projects, back in the days when tubes were king (but in the process of being dethroned).

^ My experience is that the feared core saturation effects do not occur.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also made the important observation that the glow in the tube shifted position when in proximity to an electromagnetic field. .Alexandre Edmond Becquerel observed in 1859 that certain substances gave off light when they were placed in a Geissler tube.^ Phosphors are substances that give off light when they are exposed to light.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp is an electric lamp consisting of a glass tube, coated on the inside with a fluorescent substance that gives off light when acted upon by electricity.

^ Light/Dark Switch - Often, for certain low voltage lighting systems; you would like to turn off the lights during the bright light of the day.
  • Lamp/Lamp Control Electronic Circuits, page 1 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.discovercircuits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He went on to apply thin coatings of luminescent materials to the surfaces of these tubes.^ This in turn excites a white phosphor coating on the inside of the tube, which emits visible light throughout the surface of the tube.
  • Energy Savers: Compact Fluorescent Lamps 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.energysavers.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These inner components include two electrodes that emit a flow of electrons; mercury vapor, which is the source of ultraviolet radiation; argon gas, which helps in starting the lamp, and of course fluorescent power coating on the inner surface of the tube.

^ The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp.
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fluorescence occurred, but the tubes were very inefficient and had a short operating life.^ Fluorescent lamps produce very little heat and may be operated within 4 inches above the plant canopy.
  • T5, T8, T10, and T12 Fluorescent Grow Lamps - Plantlighting Hydroponics & Grow Lights 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.plantlightinghydroponics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the electrodes are usually the life-limiting element of fluorescent lamps, such electrode-less lamps can have a very long service life (although they also have a higher purchase price).

^ While all starters are physically interchangeable, the wattage rating of the starter should be matched to the wattage rating of the fluorescent tubes for reliable operation and long life.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "How does a fluorescent starter work?" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]

.Inquiries that began with the Geissler tube continued as even better vacuums were produced.^ Often the light output may decrease so much that the tube is considered useless and must be replaced even though it is still producing some light.
  • The Fluorescent Lamp - Lifetime 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lamptech.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most famous was the evacuated tube used for scientific research by William Crookes.^ However, using argon gas alone doesn't produce sufficient short-wave ultraviolet to greatly excite the phosphors used in most fluorescent tubes.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However the most efficient is to use a 40 watt tube (or two 20 watt tubes in series).
  • Fluorescent Light Electronic Circuits, page 1 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.discovercircuits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lamp/Lamp Control Electronic Circuits, page 1 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.discovercircuits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most light bulbs used by businesses contain mercury, including fluorescent tubes and high-intensity discharge lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Recycling 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC cetonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That tube was evacuated by the highly effective mercury vacuum pump created by Hermann Sprengel.^ Due to the suction force of a vacuum pump, not depicted, on the top end of the glass tube 32, the air is discharged from the inside of the glass bulb 32, thereby creating a negative pressure inside the glass tube 32, and the dispersion liquid 34 is suctioned.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After ejecting the gas in the glass tube 32 to create a vacuum, the entire outer surface of the glass tube 32 is heated by a heating apparatus that is not depicted.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After discharging the gas in the glass tube 2046 to create a vacuum, the entire outer surface of the glass tube 2046 is heated by a heating apparatus that is not depicted.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Research conducted by Crookes and others ultimately led to the discovery of the electron in 1897 by J. J. Thomson. .But the Crookes tube, as it came to be known, produced little light because the vacuum in it was too good and thus lacked the trace amounts of gas that are needed for electrically stimulated luminescence.^ One of the biggest advantage of using a fluorescent lamp as compared to the normal filament bulb is that it produces white light which is pleasant as well as good illumination whereas the bulb produces yellowish coloured light and uses more electricity.
  • What Is Inside A Fluorescent Lamp? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often the light output may decrease so much that the tube is considered useless and must be replaced even though it is still producing some light.
  • The Fluorescent Lamp - Lifetime 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lamptech.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using fluorescent lamps makes business and environmental sense because they consume one quarter as much electricity as incandescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Management for Businesses & Institutions | MassDEP 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Early discharge lamps

.While Becquerel was primarily interested in conducting scientific research into fluorescence, Thomas Edison briefly pursued fluorescent lighting for its commercial potential.^ In 1894 , D. McFarlane Moore created the Moore lamp, a commercial gas discharge lamp meant to compete with the incandescent light bulb of his former boss Thomas Edison .

^ Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp in 1907.

^ Fluorescent Lamp A low-pressure mercury electric- discharge lamp in which a phosphor coating transforms some of the ultraviolet energy generated by the discharge into light.
  • Fluorescent lamp - Information for Building And Construction 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC aec.cadinfo.net [Source type: General]

.He invented a fluorescent lamp in 1896 that used a coating of calcium tungstate as the fluorescing substance, excited by X-rays, but although it received a patent in 1907,[2] it was not put into production.^ The Fluorescent Lamp: a plasma you can use .
  • The Fluorescent Lamp: a plasma you can use 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fluorescent Lamp: A plasma you can use .
  • The Fluorescent Lamp: a plasma you can use 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.phy6.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insert the fluorescent lamp into the tube.
  • Pinball Pal - Warming Color Filter Kit 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.pinballpal.com [Source type: General]

.As with a few other attempts to use Geissler tubes for illumination, it had a short operating life, and given the success of the incandescent light, Edison had little reason to pursue an alternative means of electrical illumination.^ The gases used were nitrogen and carbon dioxide emitting respectively pink and white light, and had moderate success.
  • Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1894 , D. McFarlane Moore created the Moore lamp, a commercial gas discharge lamp meant to compete with the incandescent light bulb of his former boss Thomas Edison .

^ In the US, residential use of fluorescent lighting remains low (generally limited to kitchens, basements, hallways and other areas), but schools and businesses find the cost savings of fluorescents to be significant and only rarely use incandescent lights.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nikola Tesla made similar experiments in the 1890s, devising high frequency powered fluorescent bulbs that gave a bright greenish light, but as with Edison's devices, no commercial success was achieved.^ Compact fluorescent light bulbs manufacturing .
  • 2007 NAICS Definitions: 335110 Electric Lamp Bulb and Part Manufacturing 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Reference]
  • 2002 NAICS Definitions: 335110 Electric Lamp Bulb and Part Manufacturing 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Growshop : Lighting : Lighting Bulbs : Fluorescent lamp .

^ Fluorescent light bulb .
  • Compact fluorescent lamp - Wikimedia Commons 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.Although Edison lost interest in fluorescent lighting, one of his former employees was able to create a gas-based lamp that achieved a measure of commercial success.^ Fluorescent lamps need a ballast because they use a gas to create light.
  • FAQ’s | Green Lighting Ltd 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC greenlighting.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growshop : Lighting : Lighting Bulbs : Fluorescent lamp .

^ Fluorescent lamps use an entirely different method to create light.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1895 Daniel McFarlan Moore demonstrated lamps 2 to 3 meters (6.6 to 9.8 ft) in length that used carbon dioxide or nitrogen to emit white or pink light, respectively.^ The gases used were nitrogen and carbon dioxide emitting respectively pink and white light, and had moderate success.
  • Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury – this is used to emit UV light .
  • What Is Inside A Fluorescent Lamp? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamp: is a type of artificial light source in which the mercury vapour generated by a low wattage arc strikes the phosphor material to emit light.
  • ALOA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC stamhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with future fluorescent lamps, they were considerably more complicated than an incandescent bulb.^ Some fluorescent lamps are even more efficient than that.
  • How Everything Works - Question 1578: Do fluorescent lamps really use less energy than incandescent bulbs? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are about 2 to 4 times more efficient than incandescent (glowing filament) lamps.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What makes compact fluorescent and fluorescent bulbs more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs?
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After years of work, Moore was able to extend the operating life of the lamps by inventing an electromagnetically controlled valve that maintained a constant gas pressure within the tube.^ Premium fluorescent lamps with extended life.
  • Learn About Light - History of Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.geciasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Longer burns extend lamp life.

^ A fluorescent lamp's ballast works to control this.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Moore’s lamp was complicated, expensive to install, and required very high voltages, it was considerably more efficient than incandescent lamps, and it produced a more natural light than incandescent lamps.^ The lamp requires a high voltage, usually 300 to 500 V, to strike.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With incandescent (halogen) lamps the energy efficiency is in the lighting design, not the lamp.
  • Lighting Design Lab Articles - Archived Articles - Restaurant Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC lightingdesignlab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Firstly, they are very much more efficient than glow lamps, so they produce much more light for less power consumption.
  • 12 Volt fluorescent lamp drivers 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC ludens.cl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1904 onwards Moore’s lighting system was installed in a number of stores and offices.^ Efficiency should be assessed using the total lumen output and light distribution of the fixture system where the lamp is installed, not just the output of the screw-based assembly by itself.
  • Welcome To Home Energy Magazine Online 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC homeenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lighting system was improved by installing 36 recessed can lighting fixtures, each with its own ballast and replaceable compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), in place of incandescent lamp fixtures.
  • 2004 Congregations Award Winners : ENERGY STAR 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.energystar.gov [Source type: General]

^ Figure 3 – Office Building As an example of an upgrade to an existing lighting system, consider the case of a 25-storey building with 6500 luminaires (Figure 3).
  • Energy Efficiency in Buildings - Fluorescent Lamp and Ballast Options 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC oee.nrcan.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Its success contributed to General Electric’s motivation to improve the incandescent lamp, especially its filament.^ General Service Lamps "A" or "PS" incandescent lamps.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Incandescent Lamp A lamp in which light is produced by a filament heated to incandescence by an electric current.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CFLs can be installed in regular incandescent fixtures, and they consume less than one-third as much electricity as incandescent lamps do.
  • Energy Savers: Compact Fluorescent Lamps 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.energysavers.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

GE’s efforts came to fruition with the invention of a tungsten-based filament. .The extended lifespan of incandescent bulbs negated one of the key advantages of Moore’s lamp, but GE purchased the relevant patents in 1912. These patents and the inventive efforts that supported them were to be of considerable value when the firm took up fluorescent lighting more than two decades later.^ Some fluorescent lamps are even more efficient than that.
  • How Everything Works - Question 1578: Do fluorescent lamps really use less energy than incandescent bulbs? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These days, most fluorescent lamps are designed to light up almost instantly.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growshop : Lighting : Lighting Bulbs : Fluorescent lamp .

.At about the same time that Moore was developing his lighting system, another American was creating a means of illumination that also can be seen as a precursor to the modern fluorescent lamp.^ Growshop : Lighting : Lighting Bulbs : Fluorescent lamp .

^ C., when the fluorescent lamp 201 is illuminated.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent lamp recycling system EC&M® .
  • Fluorescent lamp recycling system 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecmweb.com [Source type: General]

.This was the Mercury-vapor lamp, invented by Peter Cooper Hewitt and patented in 1901 (US patent 889692 ).^ Mercury-vapor lamps .

^ Lamp positioning also affects the vaporization of mercury.
  • Welcome To Home Energy Magazine Online 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC homeenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical fluorescent lamp is basically a glass tube, filled with low pressure mercury vapor and a mix of additional gases, and having a filament at each end.
  • 12 Volt fluorescent lamp drivers 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC ludens.cl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hewitt’s lamp luminesced when an electric current was passed through mercury vapor at a low pressure.^ Fluorescent lamp: A glass enclosure in which light is produced when electricity is passed through mercury vapor inside the enclosure.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - F 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescent tube is essentially a low pressure mercury discharge lamp.

^ Lamp positioning also affects the vaporization of mercury.
  • Welcome To Home Energy Magazine Online 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC homeenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike Moore’s lamps, Hewitt's were manufactured in standardized sizes and operated at low voltages.^ Low Voltage Lamps Incandescent lamps that operate at 6 to 12 volts.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tubular fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts are very popular because of their instant-on characteristics, low audible hum, and compact size.
  • Silence of the Lamps 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC brneurosci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, up to four times the operating voltage of a fluorescent lamp is needed initially, when the lamp is switched on, in order to ionize the gas when starting.
  • fluorescent lamp -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The mercury-vapor lamp was superior to the incandescent lamps of the time in terms of energy efficiency, but the blue-green light it produced limited its applications.^ Mercury-vapor lamps .

^ It is 4 times as energy efficient as the best of the incandescent lightbulbs.
  • How Everything Works - Question 1578: Do fluorescent lamps really use less energy than incandescent bulbs? 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.howeverythingworks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compact fluorescent lamps are an energy-efficient option to common incandescent light bulbs.

.It was, however, used for photography and some industrial processes.^ It was, however, very close to the modern design, and had some applications in photography where color was not yet an issue, thanks to its much higher efficiency than incandescent lamps.

^ However, the conventional method using identifying marks requires a process and equipment for applying the identifying marks, thereby leading to higher costs.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CCFL in old FAX It is possible to use a CCFL and electronic ballast out off an old fax machine, however some fax machines have a colored CCFL tube .
  • Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mercury vapor lamps continued to be developed at a slow pace, especially in Europe, and by the early 1930s they received limited use for large-scale illumination.^ Lamp positioning also affects the vaporization of mercury.
  • Welcome To Home Energy Magazine Online 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC homeenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury-vapor lamps .

^ A recent study showed non-detectable levels of escaped mercury vapor even after crushing 1500 lamps (Bulb Eater® Air Emissions Report) .
  • Products | The Bulb Eater Fluorescent Lamp Crusher - Air Cycle 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.aircycle.com [Source type: General]

.Some of them employed fluorescent coatings, but these were primarily used for color correction and not for enhanced light output.^ Some MacBook Pro computers MacBook (All Models) Some PowerBook computers iBook computers Some iMac computers Apple Cinema Displays Apple Studio Displays These products use fluorescent lamp backlighting and reflective techniques to produce a bright image.
  • Fluorescent Lamp LCDs require a warm-up period 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides their uses to kill germs and create ozone, they are sometimes used by geologists to identify certain species of minerals by the color of their fluorescence .

^ This color filter kit will shift the color spectrum of the existing fluorescent lamp towards the more amber tone that a true incandescent light bulb emits.
  • Pinball Pal - Warming Color Filter Kit 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.pinballpal.com [Source type: General]

.Mercury vapor lamps also anticipated the fluorescent lamp in their incorporation of a ballast to maintain a constant current.^ Self-ballasted screw-in fluorescent lamp .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fluorescent lamp ballast with adjustable lamp current .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mercury is very important to a fluorescent lamp.

.Cooper-Hewitt had not been the first to use mercury vapor for illumination, as earlier efforts had been mounted by Way, Rapieff, Arons, and Bastian and Salisbury.^ In 1901 , Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp, which was emitting in the blue-green spectrum and thus was unfit for most practical purposes.

^ In 1901, Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp, which emitted light of a blue-green color, and thus was unfit for most practical purposes.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of particular importance was the mercury vapor lamp invented by Küch in Germany.^ Lamp positioning also affects the vaporization of mercury.
  • Welcome To Home Energy Magazine Online 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC homeenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury-vapor lamps .

^ A recent study showed non-detectable levels of escaped mercury vapor even after crushing 1500 lamps (Bulb Eater® Air Emissions Report) .
  • Products | The Bulb Eater Fluorescent Lamp Crusher - Air Cycle 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.aircycle.com [Source type: General]

.This lamp used quartz in place of glass to allow higher operating temperatures, and hence greater efficiency.^ In this version, the lamps are faded by varying the duty cycle so that higher power incandescent lamps can be used without much power loss.
  • Lamp/Lamp Control Electronic Circuits, page 1 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.discovercircuits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, one model can operate one, two, three, or four F54 lamps, while allowing remote mounting and a high-low switching option.
  • The T5 Fluorescent Lamp: Coming on Strong 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecmweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In comparison, the electrodes in cold cathode lamps operate at 400°F and have an incredibly strong iron thimble as a cathode, which allows for instant lamp starting and longer life.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although its light output relative to electrical consumption was better than other sources of light, the light it produced was similar to that of the Cooper-Hewitt lamp in that it lacked the red portion of the spectrum, making it unsuitable for ordinary lighting.^ Capsule Lamp A capsule-shaped light source.

^ Higher light output than standard T8 lamps.
  • Learn About Light - History of Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.geciasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric light sources : .

Neon lamps

.The next step in gas-based lighting took advantage of the luminescent qualities of neon, an inert gas that had been discovered in 1898. In 1909 Georges Claude, a French chemist, observed the red glow that was produced when running an electric current through a neon-filled tube.^ Fluorescent light bulbs work by conducting an electric current through the tube that is filled with mercury and other inert gases.
  • Fluorescent Light Bulbs - CFL - Compact Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.expresslightbulbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Incandescent Lamp A lamp in which light is produced by a filament heated to incandescence by an electric current.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the electrodes are energized, a flow of electric current passes through the inert gas.

He also discovered that argon emitted a blue glow. .While neon lighting was used around 1930 in France for general illumination, it was no more energy-efficient than conventional incandescent lighting.^ What makes compact fluorescent and fluorescent bulbs more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs?
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, it is immediately more efficient than an incandescent.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp? - Yahoo! Answers 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ No, I will not extend this to more than 2 locations!

.Neon lighting came to be used primarily for eye-catching signs and advertisements.^ Recommended use with Repti Glo 2.0 full spectrum terrarium lamp to create light conditions pleasing to the human eye.
  • Reptile Terrarium Lighting: Exo Terra Repti Glo 5.0 Tropical Terrarium T8 Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.drsfostersmith.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a suitable replacement for the bulbs that came in my Lowel Ego Light (a sort of studio light that uses two of these behind a diffuser) at a third of the price.
  • 5500K Color corrected Day Light Fluorescent Lamp Photo Bulb 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.handhelditems.com [Source type: General]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neon lighting was relevant to the development of fluorescent lighting, however, as Claude’s improved electrode (patented in 1915) overcame “sputtering”, a major source of electrode degradation.^ What is the difference between a fluorescent light and a neon light?
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patents in all subclasses Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Patents in class Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Sputtering occurred when ionized particles struck an electrode and tore off bits of metal.^ Metal electrodes at each end are coated with an alkaline earth oxide that gives off electrons easily.
  • fluorescent lamp -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The colliding ions are thirty times more energetic than usual and soon sputter enough metal off the tiny electrodes to destroy them.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This boils off electrons from the metal surface, sending them into the gas tube, ionizing the gas.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Claude’s invention required electrodes with a lot of surface area, it showed that a major impediment to gas-based lighting could be overcome.^ Variations of Embodiments 6 to 7 [0440] Although described based on specific examples indicated in embodiments 6 to 7 described above, the present invention is of course not limited to the specific examples indicated in such embodiments.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ FIGS. 4 and 5 show another embodiment of the invention in which the secondary light source is an EL element, such as an OLED 32 , which is formed directly upon outer surface 16 of glass tube 12 .

^ Essentially, an excess of electrons on the electrode surface forces some electrons into the gas.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The development of the neon light also was significant for the last key element of the fluorescent lamp, its fluorescent coating.^ Lighting fixture Fluorescent lamp .

^ What is the difference between a fluorescent light and a neon light?
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growshop : Lighting : Lighting Bulbs : Fluorescent lamp .

.In 1926 Jacques Risler received a French patent for the application of fluorescent coatings to neon light tubes.^ What is the difference between a fluorescent light and a neon light?
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patents in class Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It remained to Edmund Germer and coworkers to propose in 1926 to coat the tube with fluorescent powder which converts ultraviolet light emitted by a rare gas into better spectrally distributed light (also bringing up high pressure of the gas at the same time).

.The main use of these lamps, which can be considered the first commercially successful fluorescents, was for advertising, not general illumination.^ Table of Contents: fluorescent lamp Main .
  • fluorescent lamp -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • fluorescent lamp :: Related Articles -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent lamps were first introduced commercially in 1938.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamp in Main container.
  • CAMPA USA - Base Model Specifications 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.campausa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This, however, was not the first use of fluorescent coatings.^ However, when emphasis is placed on the start characteristic and efficiency of the lamp as described above, since an emitter is used, spatter from the emitter also causes the life of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp to end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, using argon gas alone doesn't produce sufficient short-wave ultraviolet to greatly excite the phosphors used in most fluorescent tubes.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of his patents, U.S. 2,158,849, detailed the base for the LUMILINE lamp, which was also used on the first fluorescent lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As has been noted above, Edison used calcium tungstate for his unsuccessful lamp.^ Introduction Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until 1907, when Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp.

^ Note that the chromaticity coordinate values used for this evaluation have been measured for a liquid crystal display apparatus in which lamps, etc.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Note: Traditional fluorescent lamps are usually straight or circular white glass tubes used in fixtures specially designed for them.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - F 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other efforts had been mounted, but all were plagued by low efficiency and various technical problems.^ In recent years, to cope with the problem of global warming and promote effective use of energy resources, efforts to reduce energy consumption have been made in various fields.

^ Low Power Factor and the Two Lamp ballast All the fluorecent-lamp circuits described above have the problem of low power-factor.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of particular importance was the invention in 1927 of a low-voltage “metal vapor lamp” by Friedrich Meyer, Hans-Joachim Spanner, and Edmund Germer, who were employees of a German firm in Berlin.^ GE paid $180,000 for U.S. Patent No 2,182,732 that had been issued to Friedrich Meyer, Hans J. Spanner and Edmund Germer.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultra-violet (UV) energy.
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Among the other inventors who claimed credit for developing the fluorescent lamp were French physicist A. E. Becquerel (1867), Nikola Tesla, Albert Hall (1927), Mark Winsor and Edmund Germer.
  • Filipino Inventors - Inventions by Filipinos in the Philippines 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.txtmania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A German patent was granted but the lamp never went into commercial production.^ Although the halogen lamp was introduced as well as the halogen lamp with an infrared coating on the bulb, these products did not make a serious inroad into the replacement of incandescent lamps in the home.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/eehammer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Electric later bought Germer's patent and under the impulsion of George Inman brought the fluorescent lamp to wide commercial use in 1938 .

^ General Electric later bought Germer's patent and under the direction of George Inman brought the fluorescent lamp to wide commercial use by 1938.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commercialization of fluorescent lamps

.All the major features of fluorescent lighting were in place at the end of the 1920s.^ Standard linear fluorescents, lamps with green end caps or green marking, compact fluorescents, high intensity discharge (HID), neon and high-pressure sodium lamps used in outdoor lighting all contain mercury.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Management for Businesses & Institutions | MassDEP 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when emphasis is placed on the start characteristic and efficiency of the lamp as described above, since an emitter is used, spatter from the emitter also causes the life of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp to end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Decades of invention and development had provided the key components of fluorescent lamps: economically manufactured glass tubing, inert gases for filling the tubes, electrical ballasts, long-lasting electrodes, mercury vapor as a source of luminescence, effective means of producing a reliable electrical discharge, and fluorescent coatings that could be energized by ultraviolet light.^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light of the fluorescent lamp is emitted as a result of the excitation of atoms those of the mercury vapor and the fluorescent coating).

^ Keywords: LED light , LED fluorescent tube , led lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

.At this point, intensive development was more important than basic research.^ We thought that the decimal point must be wrong, and that the correct figure was 3.5 LPW. But further European information was confirming, and in December 1934 we began U. S. development on a lamp obviously much more complicated and expensive than the incandescent.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most basic ballast is nothing more than a current limiting device, such as an inductor, resistor or capacitor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curiously, these two Cleveland development groups operated rather independently, - more in rivalry than in cooperation.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1934, Arthur Compton, a renowned physicist and GE consultant, reported to the GE lamp department on successful experiments with fluorescent lighting at General Electric Co., Ltd. in Great Britain (unrelated to General Electric in the United States).^ A fluorescent lamp ballast is an electrical transformer.
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A backlight unit including the fluorescent lamp of claim 1 as a light source.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lighting fixture Fluorescent lamp .

.Stimulated by this report, and with all of the key elements available, a team led by George E. Inman built a prototype fluorescent lamp in 1934 at General Electric’s Nela Park (Ohio) engineering laboratory.^ T5 LED fluorescent lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]
  • LED Fluorescent Lamp Products , China LED Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers, China LED Fluorescent Lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ T8 LED fluorescent lamp 18W .
  • LED Fluorescent Lamp Products , China LED Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers, China LED Fluorescent Lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ LED Fluorescent LAMP from CSS-LED All fields required.
  • Go Daddy Marketplace - LED Fluorescent LAMP - Our UNIQUE LEd Fluorescent Lamp... 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC shops.godaddy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was not a trivial exercise; as noted by Arthur A. Bright, “A great deal of experimentation had to be done on lamp sizes and shapes, cathode construction, gas pressures of both argon and mercury vapor, colors of fluorescent powders, methods of attaching them to the inside of the tube, and other details of the lamp and its auxiliaries before the new device was ready for the public.”
.In addition to having engineers and technicians along with facilities for R&D work on fluorescent lamps, General Electric controlled what it regarded as the key patents covering fluorescent lighting, including the patents originally issued to Hewitt, Moore, and Küch.^ A fluorescent lamp puts this invisible light to work, and so is more efficient .
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has generally been regarded as the foundation patent.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patents in class Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.More important than these was a patent covering an electrode that did not disintegrate at the gas pressures that ultimately were employed in fluorescent lamps.^ Fluorescent lamps are low-pressure gas discharge lamps.

^ These lamps are slightly less efficient than standard fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they lack electrodes, electrodeless fluorescent lamps have a longer lamp life than fluorescent lamps with electrodes, which are the major factor that determines the lamp life in conventional fluorescent lamps with electrodes, and as a result they are expected to become even more widespread in the future.

.This invention had been created by Albert W. Hull of GE’s Schenectady Research Laboratory, and was registered as US patent 1790153 .^ The first was known to us almost from the beginning; we learned of the second from our Research Laboratory, at about the middle of our development.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protect your Inventions * US Patent Office filing Provisional Patent Utility Patent PATENT INFO What Is a Patent?
  • Method of recyclig fluorescent lamp invention 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.While the Hull patent gave GE a basis for claiming legal rights over the fluorescent lamp, a few months after the lamp went into production the firm learned of a U.S. patent application that had been filed in 1927 for the aforementioned "metal vapor lamp" invented in Germany by Meyer, Spanner, and Germer.^ Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application .
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These metals are found in fluorescent lamps, batteries and electronic products.
  • Waste Minimization Cost Benefit Analysis Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Program 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.buildings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production of fluorescent lamps is done in four stages.

.The patent application indicated that the lamp had been created as a superior means of producing ultraviolet light, but the application also contained a few statements referring to fluorescent illumination.^ Fluorescent lamps use an entirely different method to create light.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application .
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What does the numbering on a fluorescent lamp mean?
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.Efforts to obtain a U.S. patent had met with numerous delays, but were it to be granted, the patent might have caused serious difficulties for GE. At first, GE sought to block the issuance of a patent by claiming that priority should go to one of their employees, Leroy J. Buttolph, who according to their claim had invented a fluorescent lamp in 1919 and whose patent application was still pending.^ He led the manufacturing effort on the fluorescent lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application .
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While one might argue the real inventor of the fluorescent lamp, it is clear that GE was the first to introduce it.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.GE also had filed a patent application in 1936 in Inman’s name to cover the “improvements” wrought by his group.^ GE strengthened its position when it purchased a German patent that preceeded Inman's.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some companies were working on the lamp at the same time as GE and some individuals had already filed for patents.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George E. Inman; the filing date was Apr 22, 1936.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1939 GE decided that the claim of Meyer, Spanner, and Germer had some merit, and that in any event a long interference procedure was not in their best interest.^ GE paid $180,000 for U.S. Patent No 2,182,732 that had been issued to Friedrich Meyer, Hans J. Spanner and Edmund Germer.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Meyer-Spanner-Germer patent did employ a heatable electrode, which could be used to "activate" the emission material.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (U. S.) was to purchase the mid-1920's patent of three independent German inventors, - Meyer, Spanner, and Germer.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They therefore dropped the Buttolph claim and paid $180,000 to acquire the Meyer, et al.^ GE paid $180,000 for U.S. Patent No 2,182,732 that had been issued to Friedrich Meyer, Hans J. Spanner and Edmund Germer.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

application, which at that point was owned by a firm known as Electrons, Inc. .The patent (US patent 2182732 ) was duly awarded in December 1939. This patent, along with the Hull patent, put GE on what seemed to be firm legal ground, although it faced years of legal challenges from Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., which claimed infringement on patents that it held.^ Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp in 1907.

^ FreshPatents.com is not affiliated with or endorsed by the USPTO or firms/individuals or products/designs/ideas related to listed patents.
  • Method of recyclig fluorescent lamp invention 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was the product of 79 years of the development of the lighting method that began with the invention of the electric light bulb by Thomas Edison.
  • Filipino Inventors - Inventions by Filipinos in the Philippines 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.txtmania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though the patent issue would not be completely resolved for many years, General Electric’s strength in manufacturing and marketing the bulb gave it a pre-eminent position in the emerging fluorescent light market.^ Fluorescent light bulbs come in many shapes and sizes.
  • Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patents in class Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What is the proper disposal of fluorescent light bulbs?
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sales of "fluorescent lumiline lamps" commenced in 1938 when four different sizes of tubes were put on the market used in fixtures manufactured by three leading corporations, two based in New York City.^ The fluorescent lamps were introduced into the U.S. market in 1938.
  • Filipino Inventors - Inventions by Filipinos in the Philippines 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.txtmania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lighting fixture Fluorescent lamp .

^ Fluorescent lamps use an entirely different method to create light.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the following year GE and Westinghouse publicized the new lights through exhibitions at the New York World’s Fair and the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco.^ This narrative covers our three-year development until the announcement of commercial availability in the spring of 1938, and the first major public use at the New York City World's Fair in 1939.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an announcement of that award it was stated in LIGHTING NEWS : "...In his first years at GE, he made valuable contributions working on problems related to filament lamp design and manufacture.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early months of 1902 he worked at the Bryan-Marsh factory, a manufacturer of incandescent lamps, in Marlboro, Massachusetts and later in the year was with the California Incandescent Lamp Company in San Francisco.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/ch31.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluorescent lighting systems spread rapidly during World War II as wartime manufacturing intensified lighting demand.^ Similar to the gas-discharge lighting systems known collectively as neon lighting, a fluorescent lamp mainly contains argon gas.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adaptation The process by which the visual system becomes accustomed to more or less light than it was exposed to during an immediately preceding period.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A feature of the invention is a dual-mode lighting system in which a fluorescent lamp provides a daytime lighting level and a secondary lighting system is disposed upon the fluorescent lamp.

.By 1951 more light was produced in the United States by fluorescent lamps than by incandescent lamps.^ Fluorescent lamps are about 2 to 4 times more efficient than incandescent (glowing filament) lamps.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp puts this invisible light to work, and so is more efficient .
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lighting fixture Fluorescent lamp .

Principles of operation

.The fundamental means for conversion of electrical energy into radiant energy in a fluorescent lamp relies on inelastic scattering of electrons.^ What does the numbering on a fluorescent lamp mean?
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Keywords: energy saving lamp , Fluorescent , lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ A fluorescent lamp ballast is an electrical transformer.
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.An incident electron collides with an atom in the gas.^ In a gas, electrical charge is carried by free electrons moving independently of atoms.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms in the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by a process of impact ionization.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An incident electron (emitted from the coils of wire forming the cathode electrode) collides with an atom in the gas (such as mercury, argon or krypton) used as the ultraviolet emitter.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the free electron has enough kinetic energy, it transfers energy to the atom's outer electron, causing that electron to temporarily jump up to a higher energy level.^ These collisions excite the atoms, bumping electrons up to higher energy levels.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a photon hits a phosphor atom, one of the phosphor's electrons jumps to a higher energy level and the atom heats up.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a gas, electrical charge is carried by free electrons moving independently of atoms.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The collision is 'inelastic' because a loss of energy occurs.^ This is why the collision is called 'inelastic' as some of the energy is absorbed.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This higher energy state is unstable, and the atom will emit an ultraviolet photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower, more stable, energy level.^ This higher energy state is unstable, and the atom will emit a photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower, more stable, energy level.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These collisions excite the atoms, bumping electrons up to higher energy levels.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a photon hits a phosphor atom, one of the phosphor's electrons jumps to a higher energy level and the atom heats up.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the photons that are released from the mercury atoms have wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum predominantly at wavelengths of 253.7 nm and 185 nm.^ In 1901 , Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp, which was emitting in the blue-green spectrum and thus was unfit for most practical purposes.

^ The mercury, which exists at a stable vapour pressure equilibrium point of about one part per thousand in the inside of the tube (with the noble gas pressure typically being about 0.3% of standard atmospheric pressure), is then likewise ionized, causing it to emit light in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum predominantly at wavelengths of 253.7 nm and 185 nm.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electrons in mercury atoms are arranged in such a way that they mostly release light photons in the ultraviolet wavelength range.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are not visible to the human eye, so they must be converted into visible light.^ This is not visible to the human eye, so must be converted into visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ultraviolet light produced by the gases is converted to visible light by fluorescent phosphors deposited on the glass tube's inside surface.

^ Efficiency HEAT/LIGHT RATIO. All lamps convert current into visible light and heat.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is done by making use of fluorescence.^ This is done by making use of fluorescence.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using fluorescent lamps makes business and environmental sense because they consume one quarter as much electricity as incandescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Management for Businesses & Institutions | MassDEP 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ultraviolet photons are absorbed by electrons in the atoms of the lamp's interior fluorescent coating, causing a similar energy jump, then drop, with emission of a further photon.^ To start a fluorescent lamp, electron emission from the electrodes may be induced.

^ The fluorescent lamp 500 is similar to the lamp of embodiment 1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This fluorescent conversion occurs in the phosphor coating on the inner surface of the fluorescent tube, where the ultra-violet photons are absorbed by electrons in the phosphor's atoms, causing a similar energy jump, then drop, with emission of a further photon.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The photon that is emitted from this second interaction has a lower energy than the one that caused it.^ The photon that is emitted from this second interaction has a lower energy than the one that caused it.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's capacitance should be few times lower than the one in series with the tube...

^ The UV light is absorbed by the bulb's fluorescent coating, which re- radiates the energy at lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) to emit visible light .

.The chemicals that make up the phosphor are chosen so that these emitted photons are at wavelengths visible to the human eye.^ These photons in turn stimulate a phosphor, which emits visible light photons.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chemicals that make up the phosphor are specially chosen so that these emitted photons are at wavelengths visible to the human eye.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp.
  • Light Corporation FAQ: questions & answers about fluorescent, industrial, high bay, lamps, ballasts, and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.The difference in energy between the absorbed ultra-violet photon and the emitted visible light photon goes toward heating up the phosphor coating.^ Because of the ultraviolet light, the phosphor emits various frequencies of visible light.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between a fluorescent light and a neon light?
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These photons in turn stimulate a phosphor, which emits visible light photons.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the light is turned on, the electric power heats up the cathode enough for it to emit electrons.^ From it electrons boil when heated by an electric current.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From it electrons boil when it is heated by an electric current.
  • Description Exercise 5: Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ebstc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the light is turned on, the electric power heats up the cathode enough for it to emit electrons.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms inside the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by a process of impact ionization.^ These electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms in the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by a process of impact ionization.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These small spiral compact fluorescent bulbs produce a soft, pleasing light and have electronic ballasts for instant on flicker free starting.
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

^ The ring bulb is formed into a ring shape so as to surround the center of the polygon.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a result of avalanche ionization, the conductivity of the ionized gas rapidly rises, allowing higher currents to flow through the lamp.^ As a result of avalanche ionization, the conductivity of the ionized gas rapidly rises, allowing higher currents to flow through the lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are negative resistance devices, so as more current flows through them (more gas ionized), the electrical resistance of the fluorescent lamp drops, allowing even more current to flow.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When current flows through the gas between the electrodes, the gas is ionized and emits ultraviolet radiation .
  • fluorescent lamp -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Construction

.
Close-up of the cathodes and anodes of a germicidal lamp (an essentially-similar design that uses no fluorescent phosphor, allowing the electrodes to be seen.
^ The fluorescent lamp 500 is similar to the lamp of embodiment 1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Black lights are essentially fluorescent lamps without a phosphor coating.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps designed for use in reprographic equipment.
  • US CODE: Title 42,6291. Definitions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www4.law.cornell.edu [Source type: Reference]

)
.A fluorescent lamp tube is filled with a gas containing low pressure mercury vapor and argon, xenon, neon, or krypton.^ T-12 fluorescent lamp contains about 12 milligrams of mercury [5] ).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent Lamp Recycling System locks in mercury vapor.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Recycling System locks in mercury vapor., Mercury Waste Solutions, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Fluorescent lamps are a type of gas discharge tube similar to neon signs and mercury or sodium vapor street or yard lights.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pressure inside the lamp is around 0.3% of atmospheric pressure.[3] .The inner surface of the bulb is coated with a fluorescent (and often slightly phosphorescent) coating made of varying blends of metallic and rare-earth phosphor salts.^ The inner surface of the bulb is coated with a fluorescent paint made of varying blends of metallic and rare-earth phosphor salts.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A phosphor coating 22 , such as a fluorescent coating, substantially covers inner surface 14 .

^ The inner surface has a portion that is substantially free of a phosphor coating.

.The bulb's cathode is typically made of coiled tungsten that is coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides (chosen to have a relatively low thermionic emission temperature).^ The bulb's cathode is typically made of coiled tungsten which is coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides (chosen to have a relatively low thermionic emission temperature).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To obtain the desired electron emission at low energy and low temperature, it is coated with an "emission mix" of mixed barium-strontium-calcium carbonates.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the electrodes at the end of the bulb stay at a low temperature while emitting light .
  • Cold-Cathode Fluorescent Lamp Circuits, CCFL Control 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

The unfiltered ultraviolet glow of a germicidal lamp is produced by a low pressure mercury vapor discharge (identical to that in a fluorescent lamp) in an uncoated fused quartz envelope.
.Fluorescent lamp tubes are typically straight and range in length from about 100 millimeters (3.9 in) for miniature lamps, to 2.43 meters (8.0 ft) for high-output lamps.^ The Ultra Slim Fluorescent is the only magnifying lamp of it's kind on the market, combining the largest diameter lens with the most technologically advanced, slimline design and a unique 28watt daylight, high light output tube.

^ The ballast takes advantage of a characteristic of fluorescent lamp whereby greater efficacy is obtained at high operating frequency above 10kHz.
  • Promoting Energy Efficiency and Conservation : Energy Management : Publications 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.emsd.gov.hk [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent lamps are so used because they produce a high amount of luminance per watt of input power.

.Some lamps have the tube bent into a circle, used for table lamps or other places where a more compact light source is desired.^ Lamp A light source; typically a bulb or tube.

^ Capsule Lamp A capsule-shaped light source.

^ Keywords: LED light , LED tube , LED lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]
  • LED Fluorescent Lamp Products , China LED Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers, China LED Fluorescent Lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

.Larger U-shaped lamps are used to provide the same amount of light in a more compact area, and are used for special architectural purposes.^ Capsule Lamp A capsule-shaped light source.

^ It is used mainly for special medicinal purposes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can use the lamps to provide under-shelf lighting.
  • Cold Cathode Information 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: Original source]

.Compact fluorescent lamps have several small-diameter tubes joined in a bundle of two, three, or four, or a small diameter tube coiled into a spiral, to provide a high amount of light output in little volume.^ Keywords: led tube , led fluorescent lamp , LED tube light .
  • LED Fluorescent Lamp Products , China LED Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers, China LED Fluorescent Lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ Keywords: LED light , LED fluorescent tube , led lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]
  • LED Fluorescent Lamp Products , China LED Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers, China LED Fluorescent Lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ Compact fluorescent lamp assembly .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Light-emitting phosphors are applied as a paint-like coating to the inside of the tube.^ The tube also contains a phosphor powder , coated along the inside of the glass.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is where the tube's phosphor powder coating comes in.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphors and the spectrum of emitted light .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The organic solvents are allowed to evaporate, then the tube is heated to nearly the melting point of glass to drive off remaining organic compounds and fuse the coating to the lamp tube.^ Verified Member ] Products/Services : LED bulb,LED spot light,LED lamp,high power led light,LED parts,LED candle light,LED tube,LED ceiling light,LED products,aluminum heat sink...
  • Energy Saving & Fluorescent Suppliers - Energy Saving Bulb, Fluorescent Lights, Fluorescent Lamp and more 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Fixed carbon is the part of the total carbon that remains when coal is heated in a closed vessel until all matter is driven off.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - F 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The socket plate of the transition chamber is provided with at least a single aperture or, in one embodiment, multiple apertures allowing heated air from the lamp chamber to flow through the socket plate and into the transition chamber.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Careful control of the grain size of the suspended phosphors is necessary; large grains, 35 micrometers or larger, lead to weak grainy coatings, whereas too many small particles 1 or 2 micrometers or smaller leads to poor light maintenance and efficiency.^ These lamps are intended for automotive interior component lighting applications.The lamps, depending on the size and rating, are well suited for a variety of applications from air controls and instrument clusters requiring a highlevel of light output to small control switches requiring a small compact light source.
  • Tech Library - JKL Components Corporation 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.jkllamps.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because, since alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3) is included in the blue phosphor particles 304B, mercury is easily adsorbed, and the mercury adsorbed to the surface of the blue phosphor particles 304B blocks light emitted from the blue phosphor particles 304B, the red phosphor particles 304R, and the green phosphor particles 304G, and this leads to a reduction in the luminance maintenance rate of the fluorescent lamp 300.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, since it has been confirmed that the luminance maintenance rate of lamp F is much less than lamps A, B, and C in which the blue phosphor particles are coated by lanthanum oxide, coating the blue phosphor particles with lanthanum oxide (or another metal oxide) is necessary.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Most phosphors perform best with a particle size around 10 micrometers. .The coating must be thick enough to capture all the ultraviolet light produced by the mercury arc, but not so thick that the phosphor coating absorbs too much visible light.^ Because of the ultraviolet light, the phosphor emits various frequencies of visible light.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This light then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This light then causes a phosphor to fluoresce , producing visible light .

.The first phosphors were synthetic versions of naturally-occurring fluorescent minerals, with small amounts of metals added as activators.^ At the same time, spent and broken fluorescent lamps need to be handled very carefully because they contain small amounts of mercury.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Management for Businesses & Institutions | MassDEP 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The suspension liquid has been formed by adding a predetermined amount of phosphor particles, CBBP particles, and nitrocellulose (NC), as a thickener, to butyl acetate, as an organic solvent.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Later other compounds were discovered, allowing differing colors of lamps to be made.^ In some cases, the glass that the lamp tubing is made from is also tinted to provide the desired light color.
  • Section 2: The Components of Fluorescent Lighting 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC nemesis.lonestar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the plurality of fluorescent lamps having the same or different shape are fitted in combinationto the main body so that they are placed on the same plane or at different levels from each other.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the inner bulb 106 and the outer bulb 107 are provided with phosphor layers 105, which are different in luminescence color from each other, color of light radiated from the fluorescent lamp 121 changes.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

[4]

Electrical aspects of operation

Different ballasts for fluorescent and discharge lamps
.Fluorescent lamps are negative differential resistance devices, so as more current flows through them, the electrical resistance of the fluorescent lamp drops, allowing even more current to flow.^ Fluorescent lamps are negative resistance devices, so as more current flows through them (more gas ionized), the electrical resistance of the fluorescent lamp drops, allowing even more current to flow.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you turn the lamp on, the current flows through the electrical circuit to the electrodes.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like most gas discharge tubes, fluorescent lamps are negative resistance devices.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Connected directly to a constant-voltage mains power supply, a fluorescent lamp would rapidly self-destruct due to the uncontrolled current flow.^ Self-ballasted screw-in fluorescent lamp .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fluorescent lamp ballast with adjustable lamp current .
  • Fluorescent lamp - Google Patent Search 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Connected directly to a constant-voltage mains power line, a fluorescent lamp would rapidly self-destruct due to the unlimited current flow.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To prevent this, fluorescent lamps must use an auxiliary device, a ballast, to regulate the current flow through the tube.^ Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps always require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamp ballasts.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp's ballast works to control this.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The terminal voltage across an operating lamp varies depending on the arc current, tube diameter, temperature, and fill gas.^ The voltage depends on the length/wattage of the lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An electromagnetic or electronic device used to start and maintain required circuit conditions (voltage and current) for fluorescent and other types of lamps.

^ When cold temperature and low voltage, the traditional fluorescent lamps usually blinks and takes time to light up, it delays our time and affects our work and living.

.A fixed part of the voltage drop is due to the electrodes.^ Its severe limitation is an electrode energy loss (voltage drop) of 100 volts or more, vs. See Fig.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A general lighting service T12 48 inch (1200 mm) lamp operates at 430 mA, with 100 volts drop.^ General Service Lamps "A" or "PS" incandescent lamps.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This lamp is a 10 watt T5 cool white fluorescent lamp that is 16.2 inches long, used in some 18 inch Lights of America fixtures.
  • EnergyFederation.org | LOA F10 T5 Bi-Pin Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.energyfederation.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent Lamp A low-pressure mercury electric-discharge lamp in which a phosphor coating transforms some of the ultraviolet energy generated by the discharge into light.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.High output lamps operate at 800 mA, and some types operate up to 1500 mA. The power level varies from 10 watts per foot (33 watts per meter) to 25 watts per foot (82 watts per meter) of tube length for T12 lamps.^ High power energy saving lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ T12 Fluorescent Lamp - 10,000k - 20 watt - 24 in.
  • Standard Flourescent Aquarium Bulbs 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.aquariumguys.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lens: 7" diameter, 3-diopter (1.75X magnification) glass lens.Light Source: 28 watt low heat 9120 watt equivalent,) high light output, daylight simulation bulb.Supplied with: tube, diffuser, table clamp.

[5]
.The simplest ballast for alternating current use is a series coil or choke, consisting of a winding on a laminated magnetic core.^ Using the toroidal ferrite core found on some flourescent la… step 7 Winding Now bend your magnet wire in half and wind it around your toroid.Cut the ends and using a Ohmmeter, identify the ends of L1 and L2.Solder the end of L1 to the begginig of L2.
  • Make cool gadgets from a deceased fluorescent lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballast An auxiliary device consisting of induction windings wound around a metal core and sometimes includes a capacitor for power correction.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The term “transformer” means a device consisting of 2 or more coils of insulated wire that transfers alternating current by electromagnetic induction from 1 coil to another to change the original voltage or current value.
  • US CODE: Title 42,6291. Definitions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www4.law.cornell.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The inductance of this winding limits the flow of AC current.^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternating Current (AC) Flow of electricity which cycles or alternates direction many times per second.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Loose magnetic coupling in the ballast core results in leakage inductance for current limiting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This type is still used, for example, in 120 volt operated desk lamps using relatively short lamps.^ Voltage: 120 Volts 60 hz Light output: 1700 lumens Energy used: : 26 watts Average life: 8,000 hours .
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, a simple inductor can be used in Europe, where the line voltage is 220 to 240 VAC, to operate a 4 foot lamp, which operates at 85 to 100 volts, depending upon design.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ballasts are rated for the size of lamp and power frequency.^ This necessitates the use of larger wire sizes to carry the increased amount of current needed with Lowe Power Factor (L.P.F) ballasts.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, running a compact fluorescent lamp base-up will result in hotter electronics and shorter average life (particularly with higher power rated ones).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low Power Factor and the Two Lamp ballast All the fluorecent-lamp circuits described above have the problem of low power-factor.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where the mains voltage is insufficient to start long fluorescent lamps, the ballast is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).^ Loose magnetic coupling in the ballast core results in leakage inductance for current limiting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method of 'starting' a fluorescent lamp .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equipped by the electronic ballast, a T5 fluorescent lamp can be started at low temperature and low voltage.

.Either form of inductive ballast may also include a capacitor for power factor correction.^ Either form of inductive ballast may also include a capacitor for power factor correction.
  • Fluorescent Lamp 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballast An auxiliary device consisting of induction windings wound around a metal core and sometimes includes a capacitor for power correction.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This necessitates the use of larger wire sizes to carry the increased amount of current needed with Lowe Power Factor (L.P.F) ballasts.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

230 V ballast for 18–20 W
.Many different circuits have been used to start and run fluorescent lamps.^ Fluorescent lamps use an entirely different method to create light.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's the difference between a compact fluorescent lamp and a fluorescent lamp?
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method of 'starting' a fluorescent lamp .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The choice of circuit is based on factors such as mains voltage, tube length, initial cost, long term cost, instant versus non-instant starting, temperature ranges and parts availability, etc.^ Instant start, trigger start, rapid start, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, that is exactly how it is done: "instant start" fluorescent tubes simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column and thereby start arc conduction.

^ After the first electrodes 103, 103 and the second electrode 104 have been preheated fully, the predetermined starting voltage is applied from the main circuit 118 of the high frequency lighting device 116 between the second electrode 104 and thefirst electrode 103 of the outer bulb 7, and between the pair of first electrodes 103, 103 of the illumination tube 102 (i.e., between the first electrode 103 of the inner bulb 106 and the first electrode 103 of the outer bulb 107).
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.The names of these different circuits vary by country and this can cause confusion.^ These are assorted circuits which produce pulses or continuous high voltage for various purposes around the house.

^ The switching device may have a function of causing a continuous variation between these modes.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Adjust |___| 2 = Common |___| 2 = Input |___| 2 = Output |___| 2 = Input ||| 3 = Output ||| 3 = Output ||| 3 = Input ||| 3 = Output 123 123 123 123 Note: Various manufacturers may label the pins differently than shown just to be confusing.

For example, pre-heat in this context has valid but different meanings in the US and elsewhere.
.Fluorescent lamps can run directly from a DC supply of sufficient voltage to strike an arc.^ V DC Fluorescent lamp CFL lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ When cold temperature and low voltage, the traditional fluorescent lamps usually blinks and takes time to light up, it delays our time and affects our work and living.

^ Old fluorescent designs (known as preheat lamps ) used a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see photo) that would initially connect the filaments in series and thereby "preheat" the filaments prior to striking the arc.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ballast must be resistive, and would consume about as much power as the lamp.^ Since only one of the seven manufacturers of fluorescent lamp ballasts is ``small,'' the Department concludes that today's final rule would not affect a ``substantial'' number of ``small'' manufacturers.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus care should be taken if attempting to use the ballast to power anything other than the original lamp.

^ We would estimate that ballast and circuit problems and development consumed a third of our whole development effort.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When operated from DC, the starting switch is often arranged to reverse the polarity of the supply to the lamp each time it is started; otherwise, the mercury accumulates at one end of the tube.^ Only one lamp on at a time.

^ In comparison, the electrodes in cold cathode lamps operate at 400°F and have an incredibly strong iron thimble as a cathode, which allows for instant lamp starting and longer life.
  • Litetronics International - Frequently Asked Questions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.litetronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's capacitance should be few times lower than the one in series with the tube...

.Fluorescent lamps are (almost) never operated directly from DC for those reasons.^ V DC Fluorescent lamp CFL lamp .
  • fluorescent lamp Products , China fluorescent lamp Manufacturers, China fluorescent lamp Suppliers, Made in China, Exporters, Factories - 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.diytrade.com [Source type: General]

^ Fluorescent lamps produce very little heat and may be operated within 4 inches above the plant canopy.
  • T5, T8, T10, and T12 Fluorescent Grow Lamps - Plantlighting Hydroponics & Grow Lights 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.plantlightinghydroponics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These days, most fluorescent lamps are designed to light up almost instantly.
  • Howstuffworks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work" 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, an inverter converts the DC into AC and provides the current-limiting function as described below for electronic ballasts.^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electronic ballast 204 is constituted from a DC/DC converter 206, a DC/AC inverter 208, a high voltage generation circuit 210, a tube current detection circuit 212, and a control circuit 214.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, one of the lead wires of the cold cathode fluorescent lamps 10A is electrically connected to the lighting apparatus 200 via a ballast capacitor 80 that is provided in each one of the plurality of cold cathode fluorescent lamps 10A. The ballast capacitor 80 enables causing the plurality of cold cathode fluorescent lamps 10A to be lit in parallel by an electronic ballast (inverter) 204 described below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Effect of temperature

.The light output and performance of fluorescent lamps is critically affected by the temperature of the bulb wall and its effect on the partial pressure of mercury vapor within the lamp.^ This is far below the hot bulb-wall temperatures of an incandescent or high-pressure mercury vapor lamps.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard, or NO (normal output) fluorescent aquarium bulbs usually come in aquarium kits and hoods and are popular fixtures for tanks with low intensity needs.
  • Standard Flourescent Aquarium Bulbs 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.aquariumguys.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It also causes problems for video recording as there can be a 'beat effect' between the periodic reading of a camera's sensor and the fluctuations in intensity of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Each lamp contains a small amount of mercury, which must vaporize to support the lamp current and generate light.^ Although the low wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had been developed for a long time, the high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had not been developed for the purpose of general lighting until Philips initially demonstrated their high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps in 1995.

^ Owing to the small diameter and size, T5 fluorescent lamps employ less mercury than T8, T9, T10 and T12 fluorescent lamps.

^ In a luminaire used to light a large area there may be multiple ballasts, for instance, more than one ballast, and multiple lamps, for instance more than two lamps, supported in each luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.At low temperatures the mercury is in the form of dispersed liquid droplets.^ The methods for forming the protective film 22 and the phosphor layer 24 are basically the same, except that the application liquids (dispersion liquid, suspension liquid) are different.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.As the lamp warms, more of the mercury is in vapor form.^ In 1901, Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp, which emitted light of a blue-green color, and thus was unfit for most practical purposes.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high intensity discharge lamp fixtures being superseded are commonly mercury vapor, metal halide, and high and low pressure sodium lamps of high wattage.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.At higher temperatures, self-absorption in the vapor reduces the yield of UV and visible light.^ The UV light is absorbed by the bulb's fluorescent coating, which re-radiates the energy at lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) (see stokes shift) to emit visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discharge Lamp A lamp in which light (or radiant energy near the visible spectrum) is produced by the passage of an electric current through a vapor or a gas.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Low Pressure Sodium Lamp A discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation of sodium vapor at low pressure producing a single wavelength of visible energy, i.e.
  • LIGHTOLIER - Lighting that Makes a Difference 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.lightolier.com [Source type: Reference]

Since mercury condenses at the coolest spot in the lamp, careful design is required to maintain that spot at the optimum temperature, around 40 °C.
.By using an amalgam with some other metal, the vapor pressure is reduced and the optimum temperature range extended upward; however, the bulb wall "cold spot" temperature must still be controlled to prevent migration of the mercury out of the amalgam and condensing on the cold spot.^ This is far below the hot bulb-wall temperatures of an incandescent or high-pressure mercury vapor lamps.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the controlling of the pressure of mercury vapor on the basis ofthe temperature of the cold spot, in an alternation, the pressure of mercury vapor may be controlled by means of amalgam.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Maintenance of the temperature of the cooledzone within the above-mentioned range can provide the optimum pressure of mercury vapor for the fluorescent lamp 1, thus permitting illuminance with high luminous efficiency.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fluorescent lamps intended for higher output will have structural features such as a deformed tube or internal heat-sinks to control cold spot temperature and mercury distribution.^ Fluorescent lamps specifically designed for cold temperature installations.
  • US CODE: Title 42,6291. Definitions 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www4.law.cornell.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Mercury is very important to a fluorescent lamp.

^ These lamps are intended for automotive interior component lighting applications.The lamps, depending on the size and rating, are well suited for a variety of applications from air controls and instrument clusters requiring a highlevel of light output to small control switches requiring a small compact light source.
  • Tech Library - JKL Components Corporation 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.jkllamps.com [Source type: Academic]

.Heavily-loaded small lamps, such as compact fluorescent lamps, also include heat-sink areas in the tube to maintain mercury vapor pressure at the optimum value.^ Mini Spiral Compact Fluorescent lamps .
  • Fluorescent Lamp & Tubes - Home 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Compact fluorescent lamps (1624) .

^ Mercury is very important to a fluorescent lamp.

[7]

Losses

.The efficiency of fluorescent lighting owes much to the fact that low pressure mercury discharges emit about 65% of their total light in the 254 nm line (another 10–20% of the light is emitted in the 185 nm line).^ The efficiency of fluorescent lighting owes much to the fact that low pressure mercury discharges emit about 65% of their total light at the 254 nm line (also about 10-20% of the light emitted in UV is at the 185 nm line).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphors emit visible light by receiving 254 [nm] light.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the low wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had been developed for a long time, the high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had not been developed for the purpose of general lighting until Philips initially demonstrated their high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps in 1995.

.The UV light is absorbed by the bulb's fluorescent coating, which re-radiates the energy at longer wavelengths to emit visible light.^ The UV light is absorbed by the bulb's fluorescent coating, which re-radiates the energy at lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) (see stokes shift) to emit visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CFLs provide high-quality light, smart technology, and design, requiring less energy while lasting longer than typical incandescent bulbs.
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

.The blend of phosphors controls the color of the light, and along with the bulb's glass prevents the harmful UV light from escaping.^ The blend of phosphors controls the color of the light, and along with the bulb's glass prevents the harmful UV light from escaping.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Flashlight bulbs , Fiber optic & lighting illuminators , LED drivers , Lighting transformers , Lighting controllers .
  • Fluorescent Lamp Socket Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ The inner surface of the bulb is coated with a fluorescent paint made of varying blends of metallic and rare-earth phosphor salts.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only a fraction of the electrical energy input into a lamp gets turned into useful light.^ A fluorescent lamp producing as much useful visible light energy may require only 1/3 to 1/4 as much electricity input.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most alternative energy solutions start at costs in the 10's of thousands of dollars and take decades for return on investment, CFL lamps costs 10's of dollars, and payback for frequently used lights is often about 2 years.
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

^ Voltage: 120 Volts 60 hz Light output: 1700 lumens Energy used: : 26 watts Average life: 8,000 hours .
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

.The ballast dissipates some heat; electronic ballasts may be around 90% efficient.^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of integral electronic ballasts, since they never have to work again, this is sometimes done by having them deliberately burn out some component to permanently cease operation.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some alternative embodiments the lid 18 of the ballast chamber may include only the top surface and not a sidewall structure.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A fixed voltage drop occurs at the electrodes.^ Its severe limitation is an electrode energy loss (voltage drop) of 100 volts or more, vs. See Fig.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the energy in the mercury vapor column is also dissipated, but about 85% is turned into visible and ultraviolet light.^ In 1901, Peter Cooper Hewitt demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp, which emitted light of a blue-green color, and thus was unfit for most practical purposes.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blacklights are a subset of fluorescent lamps that are used to provide long-wave ultraviolet light (at about 360nm wavelength).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not all the UV energy on the phosphor gets converted into visible light.^ This is not visible to the human eye, so must be converted into visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The internal phosphor coating very efficiently converts most of the UV to visible light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electric current passing through the low pressure gases emits quite a bit of UV (but not much visible light).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a modern lamp, for every 100 incident photons of UV impacting the phosphor, only 86 visible light photons are emitted (a quantum efficiency of 86%).^ The internal phosphor coating very efficiently converts most of the UV to visible light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphors and the spectrum of emitted light .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phosphors emit visible light by receiving 254 [nm] light.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The largest single loss in modern lamps is due to the lower energy of each photon of visible light, compared to the energy of the UV photons that generated them.^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This higher energy state is unstable, and the atom will emit a photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower, more stable, energy level.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Incident photons have an energy of 5.5 electron volts but produces visible light photons with energy around 2.5 electron volts, so only 45% of the UV energy is used.^ Voltage: 120 Volts 60 hz Light output: 1700 lumens Energy used: : 26 watts Average life: 8,000 hours .
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These small spiral compact fluorescent bulbs produce a soft, pleasing light and have electronic ballasts for instant on flicker free starting.
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

.If a so-called "two-photon" phosphor could be developed, this would improve the efficiency but much research has not yet found such a system.^ The two-component white phosphor mix developed later (above) proved much easier for color control because both constituents were broad-band emitters.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the period covered by this article, the two most important phosphors developed were magnesium tungstate (blue-white color) and zinc beryllium silicate (yellow-white color.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In various formulations and mixtures, these two phosphors together can produce a wide range of white colors that dominated the later development.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Cold cathode lamps

.Most fluorescent lamps use electrodes that operate in thermionic emission mode, meaning they are operated at a high enough temperature for the chosen material (normally a special coating) to liberate electrons across to the gas-fill by heat.^ This can happen in the last few hours of tube life when the cathode emission coating at one end is almost run out, and that cathode starts having difficulty emitting enough electrons into the gas fill, resulting in slight rectification and hence uneven light output in positive and negative going mains cycles.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the low wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had been developed for a long time, the high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps had not been developed for the purpose of general lighting until Philips initially demonstrated their high wattage T5 fluorescent lamps in 1995.

^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, there are also tubes that operate in cold cathode mode, whereby electrons are liberated only by the level of potential difference provided.^ However, some control gear will provide sufficient increased voltage to continue operating the tube in cold cathode mode, which will cause overheating of the tube end and rapid disintegration of the electrodes and their support wires until they are completely gone or the glass cracks wrecking the low pressure gas fill and stopping the gas discharge.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main principle of fluorescent tube operation is based around inelastic scattering of electrons.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when emphasis is placed on the start characteristic and efficiency of the lamp as described above, since an emitter is used, spatter from the emitter also causes the life of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp to end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This doesn't mean the electrodes are cold (and indeed, they can be very hot), but it does mean they are operating below their thermionic emission temperature.^ The bulb's cathode is typically made of coiled tungsten which is coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides (chosen to have a relatively low thermionic emission temperature).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the electrodes are usually the life-limiting element of fluorescent lamps, such electrodeless lamps can have a very long service life, although they also have a higher purchase price.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that the above problem is also shared by external electrode fluorescent lamps and hot cathode fluorescent lamps, not only cold cathode fluorescent lamps.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Because cold cathode lamps have no thermionic emission coating to wear out they can have much longer lives than is commonly available with thermionic emission tubes.^ When cold temperature and low voltage, the traditional fluorescent lamps usually blinks and takes time to light up, it delays our time and affects our work and living.

^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

^ There were also four types of drive current flowing in the cold cathode fluorescent lamps for the various charged pressures, 4 [mA], 6 [mA], 8 [mA], and 10 [mA].
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This quality makes them desirable for maintenance-free long-life applications (such as LCD backlight displays).^ Cold-cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) are used as backlighting for LCD displays in personal computer and TV monitors.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the electrodes are usually the life-limiting element of fluorescent lamps, such electrodeless lamps can have a very long service life, although they also have a higher purchase price.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the present invention aims to provide a backlight unit and a liquid crystal display apparatus that include such a fluorescent lamp.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Sputtering of the electrode may still occur, but electrodes can be shaped (e.g.^ Accordingly, when using rod-shaped electrodes, emitters having great spatter resistance are preferably disposed in positions on the rod-shaped electrodes on which spatter easily occurs, similarly to when cup-shaped electrodes are used.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although the shape of the electrode 17e is a bottomed tube, the shape is not limited to this, and may be a tube that is open on both ends, or a rod shape.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the charged gas pressure is medium to low (under 10 [Torr]), spatter occurs easily on the ends of the rod-shaped electrodes and to a 2/3 depth from the ends.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

into an internal cylinder) to capture most of the sputtered material so it isn't lost from the electrode.
.Cold cathode lamps are generally less efficient than thermionic emission lamps because the cathode fall voltage is much higher.^ These lamps are slightly less efficient than standard fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bulb's cathode is typically made of coiled tungsten which is coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides (chosen to have a relatively low thermionic emission temperature).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When cold temperature and low voltage, the traditional fluorescent lamps usually blinks and takes time to light up, it delays our time and affects our work and living.

.The increased fall voltage results in more power dissipation at tube ends, which doesn't contribute to light output.^ Voltage: 120 Volts 60 hz Light output: 1700 lumens Energy used: : 26 watts Average life: 8,000 hours .
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

^ The tube gets constant power supply (it lights during positive as well as during negative half-cycle, which means AC), and it doesn't turn off at all.

^ Therefore, you will need to find an AC wall adapter that produces an output voltage which will result in something close to what you need.

However, this is less significant with longer tubes. .The increased power dissipation at tube ends also usually means cold cathode tubes have to be run at a lower loading than their thermionic emission equivalents.^ The bulb's cathode is typically made of coiled tungsten which is coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides (chosen to have a relatively low thermionic emission temperature).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, once current is flowing from end-to-end, the impedance in the ballast circuit is much much lower than this capacitive path.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, since the sleeve-shaped bases 2072, when affixed to the gas exhaust tube 2031, do not cover the ends of the gas exhaust tube 2031 on the outer ends of the glass bulb 2015, stress on the gas exhaust tube 2031 can be suppressed, the load on the gas exhaust tube 2031 can be suppressed, and the cold cathode fluorescent lamps 2007 can be electrically connected and supported more reliably.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Given the higher tube voltage required anyway, these tubes can easily be made long, and even run as series strings.^ These require ballasts made for them.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use the one that produces the higher output voltage for a given set of input conditions (drive and pulse rate/width).

^ These tubes require more current than standard 4-foot tubes and require special ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are better suited for bending into special shapes for lettering and signage, and can also be instantly switched on or off.

Starting

.
A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch.
^ This circuit can be used to power a small strobe or fluorescent lamp.

^ Method of 'starting' a fluorescent lamp .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is the circuit diagram for a typical preheat lamp - one that uses a starter or starting switch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A: Fluorescent tube, B: Power (+220 volts), C: Starter, D: Switch (bi-metallic thermostat), E: Capacitor, F: Filaments, G: Ballast)
Fluorescent lamp-electronic ballast starter-movie VNr°0001.ogv
.
Starting a preheat lamp.
^ A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch) The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For preheat ballasts, wiring the filaments in parallel would probably result in insufficient current to either lamp for it to start reliably.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is the circuit diagram for a typical preheat lamp - one that uses a starter or starting switch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The automatic starter switch flashes orange each time it attempts to start the lamp.
.The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.^ A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch) The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, that is exactly how it is done: instant start fluorescent tubes simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column and thereby start arc conduction.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ballast performs two functions: current limiting and providing the starting kick to ionize the gas in the fluorescent tube(s).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For small lamps, it does not take much voltage to strike the arc and starting the lamp presents no problem, but larger tubes require a substantial voltage (in the range of a thousand volts).^ The lamp requires a high voltage, usually 300 to 500 V, to strike.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For small lamps, it does not take much voltage to strike the arc and starting the lamp presents no problem, but larger tubes require a substantial voltage (in the range of a thousand volts).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most alternative energy solutions start at costs in the 10's of thousands of dollars and take decades for return on investment, CFL lamps costs 10's of dollars, and payback for frequently used lights is often about 2 years.
  • Compact Fluorescent Lamp, 26 watt pkg of 6 $22.78USD - Spice Place 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.spiceplace.com [Source type: General]

Switchstart/preheat

.This technique uses a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see circuit diagram to the right) that initially connect the filaments in series with the ballast and thereby preheat the filaments prior to striking the arc.^ Old fluorescent designs (known as preheat lamps ) used a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see photo) that would initially connect the filaments in series and thereby "preheat" the filaments prior to striking the arc.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanisms of lamp failure at end of life .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the circuit is switched on, these combine with the series ballast to supply both high cathode heat, and high voltage across the lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that in North America, this is referred to as Preheat.^ Note: the information in this section might be inapplicable outside of North America.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Elsewhere this is referred to as Switchstart.[citation needed]
.These systems are standard equipment in 200–240 V countries (and for 100–120 V lamps up to about 30 watts), and generally use a glow starter.^ General Electric later bought Germer's patent and under the direction of George Inman brought the fluorescent lamp to wide commercial use by 1938.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Competitive lines of standardized-length cold-cathode lamps failed to obtain wide acceptance for these reasons.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the 1960s, four-pin thermal starters and manual switches were also used.^ Various starter-switch designs are possible, including the manual one still used on fluorescent desk lamps.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch) The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still another ballast design of short commercial life was the combination in a single metal box of the simple ballast and a four-contact thermal switch (before the Dench invention).
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Electronic starters are also sometimes used with these electromagnetic ballast lamp fittings.^ These are referred to as "electronic ballasts".
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, resistors RLMP1 and RLMP2 are used to detect if the lamp has been removed and to automatically restart the ballast when the lamp is re-inserted.
  • Fluorescent Lamp Control IC Does Dimming with Only 8 Pins | Jun 2009 Page of 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC powerelectronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch)
.The automatic glow starter shown in the photograph to the left consists of a small gas-discharge tube, containing neon and/or argon and fitted with a bi-metallic electrode.^ Starters may be either automatic or manual: Automatic - The common type are called a 'glow tube starter' (or just starter) and contains a small gas (neon, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cathode is the negative electrode of a vacuum tube or gas filled discharge tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The special bi-metallic electrode is the key to the automatic starting mechanism.
Electronic fluorescent lamp starters.
.When power is first applied to the lamp circuit, a glow discharge will appear over the electrodes of the starter.^ Morespecifically, when the switch SW1 is kept in an "ON" state, the output voltage from the main circuit 118 is applied between a pair of first electrodes 103, 103 (to the primary discharge path), and when the switch SW2 is kept in an "ON" state, the outputvoltage from the main circuit 118 is applied between the first electrode 103 and the second electrode of the outer bulb 107 (to the secondary discharge path).
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Now discharge by gently touching the lamp electrodes to anything electrically grounded.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, prior to the occurrence of discharge between the pair of firstelectrodes of the illumination tube to illuminate the fluorescent lamp, the discharge is caused to occur between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, and the discharge is then caused to occur between the pair of first electrodes ofthe illumination tube, the starting voltage for the illumination tube can be reduced.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.This glow discharge will heat the gas in the starter and cause the bi-metallic electrode to bend towards the other electrode.^ Next, mercury and a mixed gas of argon and neon was introduced to the glass bulb 4011 to 8 [kPa], and lastly the other electrode 4012 and the glass bulb 4011 are sealed via the glass bead 4014 by heating the glass bead 4014, creating the fluorescent lamp of working example 1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, when the electrically conductive material is metal, depending on the size thereof, an excessive rise in temperature of the electrode 20 can be suppressed due to the heat dissipation effect.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, to providea dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.When the electrodes touch, the two filaments of the fluorescent lamp and the ballast will effectively be switched in series to the supply voltage.^ Two effects are responsible for this: the waveshape of the voltage emitted by a standard phase-control dimmer interacts badly with many ballasts and it becomes difficult to sustain an arc in the fluorescent tube at low power levels.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Old fluorescent designs (known as preheat lamps ) used a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see photo) that would initially connect the filaments in series and thereby "preheat" the filaments prior to striking the arc.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This causes the filaments to glow and emit electrons into the gas column by thermionic emission.^ Because of thermionic emission, the filaments would readily emit electrons into the gas column, creating a glow discharge near the filaments.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When all the emission mix is gone, the cathode cannot pass sufficient electrons into the gas fill to maintain the discharge at the designed tube operating voltage.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A current is induced into the gas column using electromagnetic induction.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the starter's tube, the touching electrodes have stopped the glow discharge, causing the gas to cool down again.^ However, some control gear will provide sufficient increased voltage to continue operating the tube in cold cathode mode, which will cause overheating of the tube end and rapid disintegration of the electrodes and their support wires until they are completely gone or the glass cracks wrecking the low pressure gas fill and stopping the gas discharge.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now discharge by gently touching the lamp electrodes to anything electrically grounded.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, prior to the occurrence of discharge between the pair of firstelectrodes of the illumination tube to illuminate the fluorescent lamp, the discharge is caused to occur between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, and the discharge is then caused to occur between the pair of first electrodes ofthe illumination tube, the starting voltage for the illumination tube can be reduced.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

The bi-metallic electrode also cools down and starts to move back. .When the electrodes separate, the inductive kick from the ballast provides the high voltage to start the lamp.^ Moreover, lamps occasionally failed to start, even at that high voltage.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other cases, a separate starting aid must be provided.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another object of the invention is to provide a transition chamber having an open end between the lamp chamber and the ballast chamber of a compact fluorescent lamp luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The starter additionally has a capacitor wired in parallel to its gas-discharge tube, in order to prolong the electrode life.^ The cathode is the negative electrode of a vacuum tube or gas filled discharge tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a case enables strengthening the connection between the electrode 2019 and the lead wire 5108 in the direction of the tube axis of the glass bulb 2015.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thereafter, gas is discharged from the glass tube 2046 and the glass tube 2046 is filled with the noble gas (process F).
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Once the tube is struck, the impinging main discharge then keeps the cathode hot, permitting continued emission without the need for the starter to close.^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

^ The best way to validate this would be with a clear tube to see the cathode discharge activity.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As shown in FIG. 67, in the hot cathode fluorescent lamp 2074, the straight tube shaped glass bulb 2153 is filled with a discharge medium, and electrodes 2173 and 2193 have been disposed in the vicinity of the ends of the glass bulb 2153.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The starter does not close again because the voltage across the lit tube is insufficient to start a glow discharge in the starter.^ This 3-lead preheat ballast is a voltage-boosting "high leakage reactance autotransformer" used if the voltage across the tube is much over approx.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not possible where line voltage is 105 to 125 VAC because this is not sufficient to sustain the discharge where two lamps are in series.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, prior to the occurrence of discharge between the pair of firstelectrodes of the illumination tube to illuminate the fluorescent lamp, the discharge is caused to occur between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, and the discharge is then caused to occur between the pair of first electrodes ofthe illumination tube, the starting voltage for the illumination tube can be reduced.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tube strike is reliable in these systems, but glow starters will often cycle a few times before allowing the tube to stay lit, which causes undesirable flashing during starting.^ It's capacitance should be few times lower than the one in series with the tube...

^ In the unlikely event the starter had the initial failure, the tube will be damaged by prolonged excessive end glow.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have found some fixtures by "Lights of America" to suffer slightly impaired efficiency from a less smooth current waveform generated by an instant-start ballast system that starts "preheat" tubes instantly without a starter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The older thermal starters behaved better in this respect.)
.If the tube fails to strike, or strikes but then extinguishes, the starting sequence is repeated.^ If not, the starting sequence was repeated.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fixtures where a rapid start ballast runs two tubes, both tubes will go out when one fails.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch) The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With automated starters such as glow starters, a failing tube will cycle endlessly, flashing as the lamp quickly goes out because emission is insufficient to keep the lamp current high enough to keep the glow starter open.^ Many installations require 4-pin fluorescent lamps and compatible controllers for successful fluorescent dimming; these systems tend to keep the cathodes of the fluorescent tube fully heated even as the arc current is reduced, promoting easy thermionic emission of electrons into the arc stream.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The starter may keep cycling indefinitely if either it or one of the tubes is faulty.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high peak currents drawn by some electronic ballasts, it is often important to size wiring properly for these high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This causes flickering, and runs the ballast at above design temperature.^ In many environments the temperature of the lamps and ballasts in luminaires can become hotter than is optimal for maximum lumen output causing output from the lamps to decline.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Electronic ballasts should be designed to shut down the tube when the emission mix runs out as described above.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some more advanced starters time out in this situation, and do not attempt repeated starts until power is reset.^ More advanced starters would "trip out" in this situation and not attempt another start until manually reset.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the old days fluorescent fixtures had a starter or a power switch with a 'start' position which is in essence a manual starter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power it up and the bulbs will flash in some 5 step pattern, which will repeat until you interrupt power.

.Some older systems used a thermal over-current trip to detect repeated starting attempts.^ More advanced starters would "trip out" in this situation and not attempt another start until manually reset.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some electronic ballasts use programmed start: the output AC frequency is started above the resonance frequency of the output circuit of the ballast, and after the filaments are heated the frequency is rapidly decreased.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have found some fixtures by "Lights of America" to suffer slightly impaired efficiency from a less smooth current waveform generated by an instant-start ballast system that starts "preheat" tubes instantly without a starter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These require manual reset.
.Electronic starters use a more complex method to preheat the cathodes of a fluorescent lamp.^ Method of 'starting' a fluorescent lamp .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Old fluorescent designs (known as preheat lamps ) used a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see photo) that would initially connect the filaments in series and thereby "preheat" the filaments prior to striking the arc.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They commonly use a specially designed semiconductor switch.^ Various starter-switch designs are possible, including the manual one still used on fluorescent desk lamps.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tubes should only be used with their respective ballasts, and these ballasts should only be used with the tubes they were designed for.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides their uses to kill germs and create ozone, they are sometimes used by geologists to identify certain species of minerals by the color of their fluorescence.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are programmed with a predefined preheat time to ensure that the cathodes are fully heated and reduce the amount of sputtered emission mix to prolong the life of the lamp.^ Many installations require 4-pin fluorescent lamps and compatible controllers for successful fluorescent dimming; these systems tend to keep the cathodes of the fluorescent tube fully heated even as the arc current is reduced, promoting easy thermionic emission of electrons into the arc stream.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater efficiency of fluorescent lamps helps to reduce powerplant emissions.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when emphasis is placed on the start characteristic and efficiency of the lamp as described above, since an emitter is used, spatter from the emitter also causes the life of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp to end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Electronic starters contain a series of capacitors that are capable of producing a high voltage pulse of electricity across the lamp to ensure that it strikes correctly.^ A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamp: A glass enclosure in which light is produced when electricity is passed through mercury vapor inside the enclosure.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - F 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Use the one that produces the higher output voltage for a given set of input conditions (drive and pulse rate/width).

.Electronic starters only attempt to start a lamp for a short time when power is initially applied and will not repeatedly attempt to restrike a lamp that is dead and cannot sustain an arc.^ Then they do not emit electrons, and the arc can't be sustained.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one lamp on at a time.

^ More advanced starters would "trip out" in this situation and not attempt another start until manually reset.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This eliminates the re-striking of a lamp and the cycle of flashing that a failing lamp installed with a glow starter can produce.^ If the starting aid was automatic, this often led to the situation where an old fluorescent lamp would flash time and time again as the starter repeatedly tried to start the worn-out lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A preheat fluorescent lamp circuit using an automatic starting switch A preheat fluorescent lamp "starter" (automatic starting switch) The mercury atoms in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike" within the tube.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Instant start

.In some cases, a high voltage is applied directly: instant start fluorescent tubes simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column and thereby start arc conduction.^ In some cases, that is exactly how it is done: instant start fluorescent tubes simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column and thereby start arc conduction.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two effects are responsible for this: the waveshape of the voltage emitted by a standard phase-control dimmer interacts badly with many ballasts and it becomes difficult to sustain an arc in the fluorescent tube at low power levels.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Old fluorescent designs (known as preheat lamps ) used a combination filament/cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic switch (see photo) that would initially connect the filaments in series and thereby "preheat" the filaments prior to striking the arc.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These tubes can be identified by a single pin at each end of the tube.^ These tubes can be identified by: .
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, they are shorted out internally and are thus incompatible with preheat and rapid start ballasts (and they have only a single pin at each end!
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blackened ends are a somewhat reliable means of identifying bad tubes in 34 or 40 watt rapid start fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lamp holders have a "disconnect" socket at the low-voltage end to isolate the ballast and prevent electric shock.^ The lamp sockets will be wired to the ballasts and the ballasts will be wired to a source of electricity.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The ballasts, in one embodiment, are wired to connectors, such as AMP® connectors and then, either through a plug-in connection or a continuous wire, are wired to the lamp sockets, in a well-known manner.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This method may comprise isolating the ballasts from convective heat generated by the lamps of the luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Low-cost lighting fixtures with an integrated electronic ballast use instant start on preheat lamps, even if it reduces the lamp lifespan.^ Fixtures with 4 lamps usually have two ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US, residential use of fluorescent lighting remains low (generally limited to kitchens, basements, hallways and other areas), but schools and businesses find the cost savings of fluorescents to be significant and only rarely use incandescent lights.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More expensive fluorescent lamps use a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rapid start

.Newer rapid start ballast designs provide filament power windings within the ballast; these rapidly and continuously warm the filaments/cathodes using low-voltage AC. No inductive voltage spike is produced for starting, so the lamps must be mounted near a grounded (earthed) reflector to allow the glow discharge to propagate through the tube and initiate the arc discharge.^ Mount tube within 1/2" of grounded metal reflector".
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also has windings for each lamp filaments.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If so, the impinging arc then kept the filament/cathode warm.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some lamps a "starting aid" strip of grounded metal is attached to the outside of the lamp glass.^ This led to the design of a "starting stripe," a conducting carbon or metallic stripe drawn along the outside of the bulb, and connected to one end.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For fluorescent fixtures using rapid start or instant start ballasts, it is often necessary for the metal reflector to be connected to the electrical system's safety ground.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has proved an important aid to reliable lamp starting.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
A rapid-start "iron" (magnetic) ballast continually heats the cathodes at the ends of the lamps.
^ This is most likely the case with rapid or trigger start magnetic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heat generated by the lamps is exhausted out of the luminaire without air heated by the lamps from passing through a chamber housing ballasts of the luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The ballasts, in one embodiment, are wired to connectors, such as AMP® connectors and then, either through a plug-in connection or a continuous wire, are wired to the lamp sockets, in a well-known manner.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

This ballast runs two F40T12 lamps in series.

Semi-resonant start

Semi-Res.ogg
A Semi-resonant lamp starting
.Semi-resonant start was invented by Thorn Lighting for use with T12 fluorescent tubes, This starting method uses a double wound transformer and a circuit capacitor to start the lamp without flashing or flickering.^ The fluorescent lamp of working example 1 was created by the following method.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These advantages produced our early view of fluorescent lamps as most attractively a colored light source, as already mentioned.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lamp slowly starts over a period of about 3 – 5 seconds until it reaches full brightness without flickering.^ With no load and the new windings, the output reaches about 5 V in a fraction of a second.

^ FB (Full Brightness) is the point at which the lamp appears to be operating at the same intensity as if it were installed in a normal 115 VAC fixture.

^ Like a regular manual start preheat fluorescent fixture, the start switch, must be depressed until the lamp comes on at full brightness indicating that the filaments are adequately heated.

.These were mainly used in commercial installations because of their higher initial cost but they reduced maintenance costs over time as there are no starter switches to be replaced.^ In other words, specimen 1-2 of the present invention prevents reduced initial luminance when the lamps are lit and improves the luminance maintenance rate.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Several thousand of these were made and offered for sale, but failed commercially because of high cost, - ten times that of the simple ballast - large size, and troubles with the delicately balanced vibrator mechanism.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that the SEM photographs were taken at a magnification rate of 20,000 [times] with use of a Hitachi product Model No.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Semi-resonant start fixtures are now becoming obsolete as they were designed for T12 fluorescent tubes and will often malfunction with T8 counterparts causing erratic starting.^ In fixtures where a rapid start ballast runs two tubes, both tubes will go out when one fails.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the old days fluorescent fixtures had a starter or a power switch with a 'start' position which is in essence a manual starter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T8 Fluorescent Tube Light/Electronic Wall Lamp with 220 to 240V/50Hz Operating Voltage .
  • T8 Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

Electronic ballasts

Electronic ballast for fluorescent lamp, 2x58W
Electronic ballasts and different compact fluorescent lamps
.Electronic ballasts employ transistors to alter mains voltage frequency into high-frequency AC while also regulating the current flow in the lamp.^ More sophisticated ballasts may employ transistors or other semiconductor components to convert mains voltage into high-frequency AC while also regulating the current flow in the lamp.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excessive ballast current flows in this case.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These ballasts take advantage of the higher efficacy of lamps operated with higher-frequency current.^ Conventional lamp ballasts do not operate on direct current.
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use 120 V AC mains, the mains voltage is insufficient to light large fluorescent lamps so the ballast for these larger fluorescent lamps is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance (so as to limit the current flow).
  • Transwiki:Fluorescent lamp - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These amendments also created a review schedule for DOE to determine if any amended standard for fluorescent lamp ballasts is required.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Efficacy of a fluorescent lamp rises by almost 10% at a frequency of 10 kHz, compared to efficacy at normal power frequency.^ Compact Fluorescent Lamp with 110/220V Voltage and 15/20/25W Power .

^ Compact Fluorescent Lamp with 11 to 23W Output Power .

^ Working Example 1 [0398] Working example 1 describes an example of a fluorescent lamp 10 that is similar to fluorescent lamps described in previous embodiments.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

When the AC period is shorter than the relaxation time to de-ionize mercury atoms in the discharge column, the discharge stays closer to optimum operating condition.[9] .Electronic ballasts typically work in rapid start or instant start mode.^ Instant start, trigger start, rapid start, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the slightly popular 2-tube 20 watt "trigger start" ballasts are cheap and "fussy", and only work well if everything is optimum.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then I started to study app-notes of many different electronic ballasts for fluoro-tubes and got the idea what was wrong.

.Electronic ballasts are commonly supplied with AC power, which is internally converted to DC (with Bridge rectifier and Reservoir capacitor) and then back to a variable frequency AC waveform.^ Troubleshooting the electronic ballast module is similar to that of a switchmode power supply.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warning: electronic ballasts are switching power supplies and need to be serviced by someone qualified in their repair both for personal safety as well as continued protection from electrical and fire hazards.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Test the wall socket and/or AC adapter or other power supply for proper voltage with a multimeter.

.Depending upon the capacitance and the quality of constant-current pulse-width-modulation, this can largely eliminate modulation at 100 or 120 Hz.^ So, a simple inductor can be used in Europe, where the line voltage is 220 to 240 VAC, to operate a 4 foot lamp, which operates at 85 to 100 volts, depending upon design.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At high rates with a low uF value high voltage capacitor, the output will essentially be HV DC with a specific value dependent on input voltage, pulse rate and width, and load.

^ Some types (usually iron ballasts) may produce an annoying 120 Hz (or 100 Hz) flicker.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low cost ballasts mostly contain only a simple oscillator and series resonant LC circuit.^ However, the circuit described in the section: Super Simple Inverter only requires off-the-shelf components but has a pitiful efficiency.

^ Ballasts and Circuits Like all other electric discharges thru gases, the fluorescent lamp requires a current-limiting element in series with it, called the ballast (Fig.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low Power Factor and the Two Lamp ballast All the fluorecent-lamp circuits described above have the problem of low power-factor.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When turned on, the oscillator starts, and the LC circuit charges.^ If the circuit does not start oscillating, interchange the F winding connections to Q1 and Q2.

.After a short time the voltage across the lamp reaches about 1 kV and the lamp ignites.^ Output current capability would be about 5 times greater but at the same maximum (no load) voltage.

^ As the voltage rises on the lamps, one will reach threshold first, and fire.

^ When the circuit is switched on, these combine with the series ballast to supply both high cathode heat, and high voltage across the lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process is too fast to preheat the cathodes, so the lamp instant-starts in cold cathode mode.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Competitive lines of standardized-length cold-cathode lamps failed to obtain wide acceptance for these reasons.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is used in cold-cathode lamps that have relatively huge cylinders of iron for electrodes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cathode filaments are still used for protection of the ballast from overheating if the lamp does not ignite.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus care should be taken if attempting to use the ballast to power anything other than the original lamp.

^ In a luminaire used to light a large area there may be multiple ballasts, for instance, more than one ballast, and multiple lamps, for instance more than two lamps, supported in each luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A few manufacturers use positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors to disable instant starting and give some time to preheat the filaments.^ A Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistor provides current to power the tube filaments and then increases to a high resistance while the lamp is running.

^ SV (Starting Voltage) is the minimum input voltage required to preheat the filaments before the lamp will turn on (current is lower until filaments are hot).

^ Older 'dumber' toasters often were more sophisticated in their operation using a combination of time and temperature.

.More complex electronic ballasts use programmed start.^ In a luminaire used to light a large area there may be multiple ballasts, for instance, more than one ballast, and multiple lamps, for instance more than two lamps, supported in each luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The proposed standards could not be met by most types of magnetic fluorescent lamp ballasts and would likely result in the increased use of electronic ballasts.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballasts of the type used in compact fluorescent lamp luminaires will drive one or more lamps, thus in an eight lamp luminaire there will often be four ballasts.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The output AC frequency is started above the resonance frequency of the output circuit of the ballast; and after the filaments are heated, the frequency is rapidly decreased.^ The DC/AC inverter 108 generates an alternating rectangular current having a predetermined frequency and sends the alternating rectangular current to the high voltage generation circuit 210.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Switches SW1 to SW4 are disposed between the output terminals 116a to 116d and the main circuit 118 of the high frequency lighting device 122.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the circuit is switched on, these combine with the series ballast to supply both high cathode heat, and high voltage across the lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the frequency approaches the resonant frequency of the ballast, the output voltage will increase so much that the lamp will ignite.^ Compact Fluorescent Lamp with 50/60Hz Frequency and 110 to 130V or 220 to 240V Operating Voltage .

^ When the circuit is switched on, these combine with the series ballast to supply both high cathode heat, and high voltage across the lamp.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high frequency voltage is inputted from the base 206 to illuminate the fluorescent lamp 201 through discharge of mercury vapor having a low pressure.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.If the lamp does not ignite, an electronic circuit stops the operation of the ballast.^ These amendments also created a review schedule for DOE to determine if any amended standard for fluorescent lamp ballasts is required.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A switching operation of the switching device of the lighting circuit adjusts illuminance of the fluorescent lamp 1.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ballasts and Circuits Like all other electric discharges thru gases, the fluorescent lamp requires a current-limiting element in series with it, called the ballast (Fig.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nowadays, many electronic ballasts are controlled by a PIC microcontroller or similar, and these are sometimes called digital ballasts.^ The Department concludes that an electronic ballast standard is technologically feasible as these products are currently available and comprise roughly half of the market.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Digital ballasts can apply quite complex logic to lamp starting and operation.^ Replacement ballasts must be labeled for replacement use, have output leads which, when fully extended, are less than the length of the lamp it is intended to operate and be shipped in packages of ten or less.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But if the lamp is deactivated or otherwise fails to start, the high starting currents and voltages continue, and overheat the ballast.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, ballasts and circuits must commonly provide for reliable lamp starting by supplying a momentary voltage higher than that subsequently required for normal operation.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This enables functions such as testing for broken electrodes and missing tubes before attempting to start, auto detect tube replacement, and auto detection of tube type, such that a single ballast can be used with several different tubes, even those that operate at different arc currents, etc.^ A setting for this suction allows the liquid level to reach a predetermined height of the glass tube 32, by using an optical sensor 45 to detect the liquid level.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ One attempt we made to predict life was accelerated starting tests, - on and off every few seconds.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a case enables strengthening the connection between the electrode 2019 and the lead wire 5108 in the direction of the tube axis of the glass bulb 2015.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Once such fine grained control over the starting and arc current is achievable, features such as dimming, and having the ballast maintain a constant light level against changing sunlight contribution are all easily included in the embedded microcontroller software, and can be found in various manufacturers' products.^ Moral: Pre-heat the electrodes before starting the discharge and maintain auxiliary current in the electrodes if the discharge current is low (e.g, when dimming).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ballast includes separate windings for the filaments and a high voltage winding that is on a branch magnetic circuit that is loosely coupled and thus limits the current once the arc is struck.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since introduction in the 1990s, high frequency ballasts have been used in general lighting fixtures with either rapid start or pre-heat lamps.^ Trigger start fixtures are similar to rapid start fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the high voltage windings of rapid start or trigger start ballasts are open or shorted, then the lamp will not start.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heat generated by the lamps is exhausted out of the luminaire without air heated by the lamps from passing through a chamber housing ballasts of the luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These ballasts convert the incoming power to an output frequency in excess of 20 kHz.^ This is due to the fact that these ballasts (low-power-factor type) have a full-wave-bridge rectifier and a filter capacitor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In trigger start fixtures that use one ballast to power two 20 watt tubes, sometimes both tubes will blink or intermittently dim.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have heard, however, of problems with these relating to radio frequency interference from the ballasts and tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This increases lamp efficiency. .These are used in several applications, including new generation tanning lamp systems, whereby a 100 watt lamp (e.g., F71T12BP) can be lit using 65 to 70 watts of actual power while obtaining the same luminous flux (measured in lumens) as magnetic ballasts.^ The ballast should say that it is rated for use with 34 watt lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heat generated by the lamps is exhausted out of the luminaire without air heated by the lamps from passing through a chamber housing ballasts of the luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These ballasts operate with voltages that can be almost 600 volts, requiring some consideration in housing design, and can cause a minor limitation in the length of the wire leads from the ballast to the lamp ends.^ These require ballasts made for them.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballast(s) - these are available for either 1 or 2 lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special dual lamp ballasts are required.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

End of life

.The end of life failure mode for fluorescent lamps varies depending how they are used and their control gear type.^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An external electrode 6013 has been formed on an end of the lamp 6012, and an internal electrode 20 similar to the electrode 20 of the fluorescent lamp pertaining to embodiment 2 has been disposed on the other end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Emission mix

.
Closeup of the filament on a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp showing white thermionic emission mix coating on the central portion of the coil.
^ But while that patent describes the low-pressure mercury discharge lamp, it makes no mention of any fluorescent coating.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To obtain the desired electron emission at low energy and low temperature, it is coated with an "emission mix" of mixed barium-strontium-calcium carbonates.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high intensity discharge lamp fixtures being superseded are commonly mercury vapor, metal halide, and high and low pressure sodium lamps of high wattage.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Typically made of a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides, the coating is sputtered away through normal use, often eventually resulting in lamp failure.
.The "emission mix" on the tube filaments/cathodes is necessary to enable electrons to pass into the gas via thermionic emission at the tube operating voltages used.^ This is called thermionic emission - the boiling off of electrons from the surface of the cathode.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Affixing the bases 2072 to the gas exhaust tube 2031 with use of solder or electrically conductive adhesive enables reducing the load to the gas exhaust tube 2031 farther than insertion and affixation by elastic force, and is therefore preferable.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This 3-lead preheat ballast is a voltage-boosting "high leakage reactance autotransformer" used if the voltage across the tube is much over approx.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mix is slowly sputtered off by bombardment with electrons and mercury ions during operation, but a larger amount is sputtered off each time the tube is started with cold cathodes.^ The tube gets constant power supply (it lights during positive as well as during negative half-cycle, which means AC), and it doesn't turn off at all.

^ There are all sorts of devices that use 'cold' cathodes - neon lamps and signs, fluorescent backlight tubes, and helium neon laser tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, spatter amount refers to the total quantity of scattered component of the emitter 4011 and the metal sleeve 4012a that are deposited on, and adhere to, the inner wall of the glass bulb 4011, after such ingredients have scattered due to ion bombardment resulting from the cold cathode operation.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The method of starting the lamp has a significant impact on this.^ The cathodes in most bi-pin lamps are made for Rapid Start, which is a starting method that is easier on the filaments.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lamps operated for typically less than 3 hours each switch-on will normally run out of the emission mix before other parts of the lamp fail.^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Even so, the total space for either of these circuits excluding the battery, power switch, and energy storage capacitor may be less than 0.1 cubic inch!

^ Thus care should be taken if attempting to use the ballast to power anything other than the original lamp.

.The sputtered emission mix forms the dark marks at the tube ends seen in old tubes.^ However, this "brute force" procedure consumed much of the emission mix from bombardment and sputtering.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the instant-starting of our original Lumiline design, the sputtering of emission mix at every start limited life to a few hundred starts.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This causes the discharge path to be formed also in the vicinity of the end surfaces of the other ends of the inner and outer bulbs, thus leading to occurrence of light emission around the end surfaces.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.When all the emission mix is gone, the cathode cannot pass sufficient electrons into the gas fill to maintain the discharge at the designed tube operating voltage.^ In process F, gas is discharged from the glass tube 32 and the glass tube 32 is filled with the noble gas.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The cathode is the negative electrode of a vacuum tube or gas filled discharge tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these requirements indicate preference for a low, slim, high-voltage, low-current, low-wattage, cool-bulb design.
  • http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC home.frognet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ideally, the control gear should shut down the tube when this happens. .However, some control gear will provide sufficient increased voltage to continue operating the tube in cold cathode mode, which will cause overheating of the tube end and rapid disintegration of the electrodes and their support wires until they are completely gone or the glass cracks, wrecking the low pressure gas fill and stopping the gas discharge.^ After heating is stopped, the glass tube 2046 is filled with a predetermined amount of noble gas.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thereafter, gas is discharged from the glass tube 2046 and the glass tube 2046 is filled with the noble gas (process F).
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In process F, gas is discharged from the glass tube 32 and the glass tube 32 is filled with the noble gas.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Ballast electronics

.This may occur in compact fluorescent lamps with integral electrical ballasts or in linear lamps.^ Compact fluorescent lamps manufacturers .

^ Fluorescent lamp ballasts.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chamber houses the compact fluorescent lamps.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Ballast electronics failure is a somewhat random process that follows the standard failure profile for any electronic device.^ The Department concludes that an electronic ballast standard saves a significant amount of energy.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To prevent any interference that cannot be solved by electronic ballast designers, the Department is not establishing a standard for T8 ballasts, thereby allowing magnetic T8 ballasts for such applications.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In determining the economic justification of the Proposed Rule, which is the same as today's final rule, the Department considered the burdens and benefits of an electronic ballast standard.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is an initial small peak of early failures, followed by a drop and steady increase over lamp life.^ It is another object of the invention to increase the life expectancy of the ballasts in a compact florescent lamp luminaire by controlling the temperature build up of the ballasts.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the fluorescent lamp ballast industry, there is one ``small'' manufacturer who produces both ``affected'' magnetic and electronic ballasts.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Life of electronics is heavily dependent on operating temperature—it typically halves for each 10 °C temperature rise.^ Also, when the electrically conductive material is metal, depending on the size thereof, an excessive rise in temperature of the electrode 20 can be suppressed due to the heat dissipation effect.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The quoted average life of a lamp is usually at 25 °C ambient (this may vary by country).^ For instance, the lamp shown as 25 may be a one hundred twenty watt lamp and in this configuration eight lamps would be installed in the luminaire.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The average thickness is not limited to 2 [.mu.m], and may vary in a range from 0.5 [.mu.m] to 4 [.mu.m] inclusive.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The average life of the electronics at this temperature is normally greater than this, so at this temperature, not many lamps will fail due to failure of the electronics.^ The starting voltage is remarkably higher than the lamp voltage of the illumination tube 102 during the normal lightingmode.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The metal sleeve 4012a is formed from a metal that is heat-resistant to a temperature greater than or equal to the sintering temperature of the emitter (for example, 550[.degree.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, when the difference in length of the members 6010 in the tube axis X direction is greater than or equal to 2 [mm], the orientation of the lamps 6008 can be detected by the difference in length.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In some fittings, the ambient temperature could be well above this, in which case failure of the electronics may become the predominant failure mechanism.^ This may be the case when running equipment from batteries as well as from a wall adapter that outputs a DC voltage or the enhanced adapter described in the section: Converting an AC output wall adapter to DC .

^ More specifically, the cold spot is exposed directly to an ambient air in the latter case, thus providing a lower stability in temperature.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the temperature in the base 9a is relatively high and the temperature of the coldspot is also higher than a standard value, ventilating holes may be formed in the base 9a for ventilating the ambient air.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Similarly, running a compact fluorescent lamp base-up will result in hotter electronics, which can cause shorter average life (particularly with higher power rated ones).^ Compact Fluorescent Lamp with 11 to 23W Output Power .

^ Compact fluorescent lamps (1624) .

^ Compact fluorescent lamps (1741) .
  • T8 Fluorescent Lamp Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Electronic ballasts should be designed to shut down the tube when the emission mix runs out as described above.^ Properly designed electronic ballasts should be very reliable.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fixtures where a rapid start ballast runs two tubes, both tubes will go out when one fails.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballasts in particular are designed for a particular wattage, type and size, and tube configuration.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of integral electronic ballasts, since they never have to work again, this is sometimes done by having them deliberately burn out some component to permanently cease operation.^ (If some will burn out, can I replace it as well?"
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some electronic ballasts draw odd current waveforms with high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you want to get an idea of some typical modern electronic ballast designs, see the International Rectifier web site.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Phosphor

.The phosphor drops off in efficiency during use.^ It is however preferable to use the three-bandfluorescent type phosphor in view of luminous efficiency.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.By around 25,000 operating hours, it will typically be half the brightness of a new lamp (although some manufacturers claim much longer half-lives for their lamps).^ Typical output with a 12 VDC 2 A power supply or battery will be around 12,000 V. Current at full voltage is typically around 1 to 2 mA. Higher currents are available but the output voltage will drop.

^ They also have a much longer life - 6,000 to 20,000 hours compared to 750 to 1000 hours for a standard incandescent.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FB (Full Brightness) is the point at which the lamp appears to be operating at the same intensity as if it were installed in a normal 115 VAC fixture.

.Lamps that do not suffer failures of the emission mix or integral ballast electronics will eventually develop this failure mode.^ The usual failure mode is depletion of the emission mix on the filaments.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are miniaturized fluorescent lamps that usually have premium phosphors which often come packaged with an integral ballast (either iron or electronic).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire safety and reliability of electronic ballasts that are not in close proximity to the lamps is unknown.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They still work, but have become dim and inefficient. .The process is slow, and often only becomes obvious when a new lamp is operating next to an old one.^ At one time, most fluorescent lamps were "cool white" which is a plain-old white with a color like that of of average sunlight.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is designed to operate one 42 Watt compact fluorescent lamp, specifically the LOA 9142B which has a standard medium screw base containing the starting capacitor.

^ Line 2 (N) o---------+-------|- (bipin or circline) -|--------+ '------------------------' Note: The interlock normally present on most rapid/trigger start fixtures have been removed to permit one lamp to operate if other is removed.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Loss of mercury

.Mercury is slowly absorbed into glass, phosphor, and tube electrodes throughout the lamp life, where it can no longer function.^ Specifically, the head of a gas exhaust apparatus, not depicted, is attached to the glass tube 32 on the mercury pellet 254 side.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In view of these facts, when the phosphor layer is formed through application on the straight tube bulb, which is formed of glass having the sodium oxide content of 1.0 vol.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Next, mercury and a mixed gas of argon and neon was introduced to the glass bulb 4011 to 8 [kPa], and lastly the other electrode 4012 and the glass bulb 4011 are sealed via the glass bead 4014 by heating the glass bead 4014, creating the fluorescent lamp of working example 1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Newer lamps now have just enough mercury to last the expected life of the lamp.^ The big electrodes have enough material to last before other effects cause lamp failure.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commercial type will last longer and the lamp life is better as well.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ballast must provide enough power to the filaments for starting but once started, the lamp that is on will operate normally and there should be no degradation in performance or expected lamp life (except to the extent that the unlit lamp's filaments might be kept hot).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Loss of mercury will take over from failure of the phosphor in some lamps.^ For instance, mercury vapor, metal halide, and high and low pressure sodium lamps take time to start, turn on and get up to full lumen output.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The failure symptoms are similar, except loss of mercury initially causes an extended run-up time to full light output, and finally causes the lamp to glow a dim pink when the mercury runs out and the argon base gas takes over as the primary discharge.^ Next, mercury and a mixed gas of argon and neon was introduced to the glass bulb 4011 to 8 [kPa], and lastly the other electrode 4012 and the glass bulb 4011 are sealed via the glass bead 4014 by heating the glass bead 4014, creating the fluorescent lamp of working example 1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, an experiment related to luminous efficiency was also performed on a cold cathode fluorescent lamp whose partial pressure rate of argon gas is 40[%].
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, sodium that is a component of the glass bulb elutes into a discharge space, and a reaction between the sodium and the mercury also causes the depletion of the mercury and reduction in luminance.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]

Phosphors and the spectrum of emitted light

Light from a fluorescent tube lamp diffracted by a CD shows the individual bands of color.
.The spectrum of light emitted from a fluorescent lamp is the combination of light directly emitted by the mercury vapor, and light emitted by the phosphorescent coating.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In such compact fluorescent light fixtures, sometimes referred to as "luminaires," a plurality of compact fluorescent lamps is arranged inside a dome structure.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spectral lines from the mercury emission and the phosphorescence effect give a combined spectral distribution of light that is different than those produced by incandescent sources.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because if the difference in length is larger than 8 [mm], there is a long non-phosphor layer area that does not contribute to light emission, and maintaining an effective light emission length is difficult.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The light is generally cooler - less yellow - than incandescents - this may be undesirable and result in less than pleasing contrast with ordinary lamps and ceiling fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relative intensity of light emitted in each narrow band of wavelengths over the visible spectrum is in different proportions compared to that of an incandescent source.^ Also, for each lamp, 10 [minutes] after lighting the lamp, the relative chromaticity difference from lamp D [.DELTA.x, .DELTA.y] (in this description, defined as initial chromaticity shift) was measured on the CIE 1931 chromaticity scale, and the average values of the five lamps were compared.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, the phosphors used for emitting red, green, and blue light are not limited to being one type per each wavelength, and combinations of a plurality of types may be used.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is a 350BL blacklight lamp, using a different phosphor that emits a band of slightly shorter UV wavelengths in the UV-A range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colored objects are perceived differently under light sources with differing spectral distributions.^ Some fluorescent lamp colors (especially warm white, white, and cool white) have a spectral distribution that dims most reds and most greens.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other halophosphate whites, whether of differing spectral quality or different shade of "warmth/coolness" include "supermarket white", "sign white", "north light", "merchandising white", etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, some people find the color rendition produced by some fluorescent lamps to be harsh and displeasing.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp of working example 1 was created by the following method.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Working Example 1 [0398] Working example 1 describes an example of a fluorescent lamp 10 that is similar to fluorescent lamps described in previous embodiments.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A healthy person can sometimes appear to have an unhealthy skin tone under fluorescent lighting.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such compact fluorescent light fixtures, sometimes referred to as "luminaires," a plurality of compact fluorescent lamps is arranged inside a dome structure.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ "Natural" fluorescent lamps make skin tones look pinkish, unlike the usual halophosphate types which make skin tones look green-yellowish.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extent to which this phenomenon occurs is related to the light's spectral composition, and may be gauged by its color rendering index (CRI).^ Color rendering index: 82 .
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

Color temperature

The light spectra of different grow lamps
.Correlated color temperature (CCT) is a measure of the "shade" of whiteness of a light source, again by comparison with a blackbody.^ When used as a light source for a backlight unit as described later, measures against ultraviolet radiation are necessary for the reasons described below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The luminance (in this description defined as initial luminance) was measured in each lamp after 10 [minutes] had passed since first lighting the lamp, and for each type of lamp, an average of the five lamps was used in the comparison.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Typical incandescent lighting is 2700 K, which is yellowish-white.^ They typically have a standard screw base that can be installed into nearly any table lamp or lighting fixture that accepts an incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For certain installations, typically large bay installations, dome style fixtures that are arranged in a grid pattern above an area to be lighted have replaced incandescent and strip lamp fixtures.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Halogen lighting is 3000 K. Fluorescent lamps are manufactured to a chosen CCT by altering the mixture of phosphors inside the tube.^ Since only one of the seven manufacturers of fluorescent lamp ballasts is ``small,'' the Department concludes that today's final rule would not affect a ``substantial'' number of ``small'' manufacturers.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Warm-white fluorescents have CCT of 2700 K and are popular for residential lighting.^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W=White, CW=Cool white, WW=Warm white, BL/BLB=Black light, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oue LED Fluorescent Lamp T8 series using top quality Ultra Bright White and Warm White LED and High Lumens Light Output.
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

.Neutral-white fluorescents have a CCT of 3000 K or 3500 K. Cool-white fluorescents have a CCT of 4100 K and are popular for office lighting.^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since mixing red light with green light makes yellow, the white light of a cool white lamp still looks white.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This twin U tube compact fluorescent light gives a soft white light equivalent to a 50 watt incandescent lamp.
  • 12 volt DC compact fluorescent lights, 3 to 30 watts in spiral, double U tube, or bulbed, soft white and daylight, quantity discounts. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.storesonlinepro.com [Source type: Reference]

.Daylight fluorescents have a CCT of 5000 K to 6500 K, which is bluish-white.^ "Daylight" is a bluish white, and does not have as bad a surplus of yellow as the other halophosphate whites.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DC compact fluorescent lights, 3 to 30 watts in spiral, double U tube, or bulbed, soft white and daylight, quantity discounts.
  • 12 volt DC compact fluorescent lights, 3 to 30 watts in spiral, double U tube, or bulbed, soft white and daylight, quantity discounts. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.storesonlinepro.com [Source type: Reference]

^ V DC 9W Daylight White Compact Fluorescent Lamp .
  • 12 volt DC compact fluorescent lights, 3 to 30 watts in spiral, double U tube, or bulbed, soft white and daylight, quantity discounts. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.storesonlinepro.com [Source type: Reference]

.High CCT lighting generally requires higher light levels.^ Also, the percentage of visible light generated by the phosphor particles to outside the lamp declines, and the required luminance cannot be achieved.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The secondary can thus no longer generate the high EMF required to start the plasma conducting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high frequency lighting device 116 starts the lighting of the fluorescent lamp 101 at a low starting voltage so that the discharge is generated in the primary discharge path after the starting voltage has been applied to the secondarydischarge path at the start of lighting of the fluorescent lamp 101 to generate discharge therein.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.At dimmer illumination levels, the human eye perceives lower color temperatures as more natural, as related through the Kruithof curve.^ More specifically, the cold spot is exposed directly to an ambient air in the latter case, thus providing a lower stability in temperature.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, an improved external appearance of the luminescent lamp 201 can be provided and there is no formation of a local areahaving a lower temperature, when illuminating.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, an improved externalappearance of the luminescent tube can be provided and there is no formation of a local area having a lower temperature, when illuminating.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.So, a dim 2700 K incandescent lamp appears natural and a bright 5000 K lamp also appears natural, but a dim 5000 K fluorescent lamp appears too pale.^ Oue LED Fluorescent Lamp T8 series using top quality Ultra Bright White and Warm White LED and High Lumens Light Output.
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very efficient so runs cool and consumes much less power than incandescent lamps (don't know how it compares to compact fluorescents).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Daylight-type fluorescents look natural only if they are very bright.^ "Natural" fluorescent lamps make skin tones look pinkish, unlike the usual halophosphate types which make skin tones look green-yellowish.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "My fluorescent tubes look like a they have a writhing snake inside trying to get out."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When today's standards go into effect, they will essentially require fluorescent lamp ballasts for F40 and F96 lamps to be the electronic type.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Color rendering index

.Color rendering index (CRI) is a measure of how well colors can be perceived using light from a source, relative to light from a reference source such as daylight or a blackbody of the same colot temperature.^ Color rendering index: 82 .
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When used as a light source for a backlight unit as described later, measures against ultraviolet radiation are necessary for the reasons described below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In such compact fluorescent light fixtures, sometimes referred to as "luminaires," a plurality of compact fluorescent lamps is arranged inside a dome structure.
  • Compact fluorescent lamp high bay luminaire - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.By definition, an incandescent lamp has a CRI of 100. Real-life fluorescent tubes achieve CRIs of anywhere from 50 to 99. Fluorescent lamps with low CRI have phosphors that emit too little red light.^ New from Alert is their 5050-60L light featuring:60 high-intensity LEDs with a 100,000-hour life.A recessed switch...
  • DPL-25G Dual 13-watt Fluorescent Lamp from Alert Stamping & Manufacturing Co. Inc. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC directory.pten.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electric current passing through the low pressure gases emits quite a bit of UV (but not much visible light).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiring diagram of Low Power 220 VAC Fluorescent Lamp .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Skin appears less pink, and hence "unhealthy" compared with incandescent lighting.^ Very efficient so runs cool and consumes much less power than incandescent lamps (don't know how it compares to compact fluorescents).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light is generally cooler - less yellow - than incandescents - this may be undesirable and result in less than pleasing contrast with ordinary lamps and ceiling fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lamps look slightly pinkish in color, sometimes purplish when compared to warmer colored light such as incandescent light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Colored objects appear muted. .For example, a low CRI 6800 K halophosphate tube (an extreme example) will make reds appear dull red or even brown.^ Even when the connection portion is formed at the corresponding end portions of the ring bulbs by the burner blast breaking process, the straight tube portions of the ring bulbs have a low strain in glass, thus making it possible to preventcracks from occurring on the bulbs during the connection process and improve the strength of the connection portion.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, triphosphor lamps often make reds and greens look slightly brighter than normal, unlike halophosphate lamps which usually make these colors look dimmer than normal.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impure reds and greens will look less red and less green as well as darker - making them look more brown.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the eye is relatively less efficient at detecting red light, an improvement in color rendering index, with increased energy in the red part of the spectrum, may reduce the overall luminous efficacy.^ Color rendering index: 82 .
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to enhance the luminous efficiency of the conventional circular fluorescent lamp (type name of "FCL") having the outside diameter of 29 mm by at least 10%, it is necessary to reduce the outside diameter thereof to 65% or less.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since mixing red light with green light makes yellow, the white light of a cool white lamp still looks white.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Lighting arrangements use fluorescent tubes in an assortment of tints of white.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I have a application in mind that will use a DC power source around 100 volts and fluorescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sometimes this is because of the lack of appreciation for the difference or importance of differing tube types. .Mixing tube types within fittings can improve the color reproduction of lower quality tubes.^ It is known that lowering the pressure of the mixed gas improves luminous efficiency.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Phosphor composition

.Some of the least pleasant light comes from tubes containing the older halophosphate type phosphors (chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3(F, Cl):Sb3+, Mn2+).^ Known phosphor such as three-band fluorescent type phosphor or halophosphate are applicable as the phosphor for forming the phosphor layer 7.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, the phosphors used for emitting red, green, and blue light are not limited to being one type per each wavelength, and combinations of a plurality of types may be used.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Starters may be either automatic or manual: Automatic - The common type are called a 'glow tube starter' (or just starter) and contains a small gas (neon, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bad color reproduction is due to the fact that this phosphor mainly emits yellow and blue light, and relatively little green and red.^ Each of the phosphor particles 26 is one of three types, the three types being red phosphor particles that emit red light, green phosphor particles that emit green light, and blue phosphor particles that emit blue light.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that the weight ratio of blue phosphor particles (BAM), red phosphor particles (YOX), and green phosphor particles (LAP) in the phosphor particles was 2:1:1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is because, since alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3) is included in the blue phosphor particles 304B, mercury is easily adsorbed, and the mercury adsorbed to the surface of the blue phosphor particles 304B blocks light emitted from the blue phosphor particles 304B, the red phosphor particles 304R, and the green phosphor particles 304G, and this leads to a reduction in the luminance maintenance rate of the fluorescent lamp 300.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the absence of a reference, this mixture appears white to the eye, but the light has an incomplete spectrum.^ There are still other specialty whites, including ones with a mixture of "broad spectrum" and "triphosphor" phosphor formulations to get a spectrum more like that of daylight.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The CRI of such lamps is around 60.
.Since the 1990s, higher quality fluorescent lamps use either a higher CRI halophosphate coating, or a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, that have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.^ Nowadays, there are "triphosphor" fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since only one of the seven manufacturers of fluorescent lamp ballasts is ``small,'' the Department concludes that today's final rule would not affect a ``substantial'' number of ``small'' manufacturers.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.High CRI halophosphate and triphosphor tubes give a more natural color reproduction to the human eye.^ Triphosphor lamps do not distort colors as badly as halophosphate lamps, and triphosphor's color distortions are usually not as unpleasant as those of halophosphate.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symptom is the ends of the tube glowing brightly, either yellow-orange or a color closer to the normal tube color, sometimes even one end glowing yellow-orange and one end glowing a more normal color.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, triphosphor lamps often make reds and greens look slightly brighter than normal, unlike halophosphate lamps which usually make these colors look dimmer than normal.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The CRI of such lamps is typically 82–100.
Fluorescent lamp spectra
Typical fluorescent lamp with "rare earth" phosphor Fluorescent lighting spectrum peaks labelled.png A typical "cool white" fluorescent lamp utilizing two rare earth doped phosphors, Tb.3+, Ce3+:LaPO4 for green and blue emission and Eu:Y2O3 for red.^ Concerning the three-band fluorescent type phosphor, BaMg.sub.2Al.sub.16O.sub.27:Eu.sup.2+is applicable as the blue type phosphor having a luminescent peak wavelength in the vicinity of 450 nm, (La, Ce, Tb)PO.sub.4 as the green type phosphorhaving the luminescent peak wavelength in the vicinity of 540 nm, and Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu.sup.3+as the red type phosphor having the luminescent peak wavelength in the vicinity of 610 nm.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that the weight ratio of blue phosphor particles (BAM), red phosphor particles (YOX), and green phosphor particles (LAP) in the phosphor particles was 2:1:1.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A warm white lamp's spectrum has a surplus of yellow and violet-blue, and a shortage of red, green, and green-blue.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For an explanation of the origin of the individual peaks click on the image. Note that several of the spectral peaks are directly generated from the mercury arc. .This is likely the most common type of fluorescent lamp in use today.^ Since only one of the seven manufacturers of fluorescent lamp ballasts is ``small,'' the Department concludes that today's final rule would not affect a ``substantial'' number of ``small'' manufacturers.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

An older style halophosphate phosphor fluorescent lamp Spectrum of halophosphate type fluorescent bulb (f30t12 ww rs).png Halophosphate phosphors in these lamps usually consist of trivalent antimony and divalent manganese doped calcium halophosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(Cl, F):Sb3+, Mn2+). .The color of the light output can be adjusted by altering the ratio of the blue emitting antimony dopant and orange emitting manganese dopant.^ The phosphor layer 2021 includes red phosphor, green phosphor, and blue phosphor that convert ultraviolet radiation emitted from the mercury into red, green, and blue light respectively.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, the phosphors used for emitting red, green, and blue light are not limited to being one type per each wavelength, and combinations of a plurality of types may be used.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The mixture percentage of the three colors of phosphor particles is a weight ratio of 38.8 [wt %] blue phosphor particles, 28.8 [wt %] green phosphor particles, and 36.4 [wt %] red phosphor particles, to the total weight.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The color rendering ability of these older style lamps is quite poor.^ Many of these, like most triphosphor lamps, have color temperature designations.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, triphosphor lamps often make reds and greens look slightly brighter than normal, unlike halophosphate lamps which usually make these colors look dimmer than normal.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lamps look slightly pinkish in color, sometimes purplish when compared to warmer colored light such as incandescent light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Halophosphate phosphors were invented by A.H. McKeag et al. in 1942.
"Natural sunshine" fluorescent light Spectra-Philips 32T8 natural sunshine fluorescent light.png An explanation of the origin of the peaks is on the image page.
Yellow fluorescent lights Yellow fluorescent light spectrum.png The spectrum is nearly identical to a normal fluorescent bulb except for a near total lack of light below 500 nanometers. This effect can be achieved through either specialized phosphor use or more commonly by the use of a simple yellow light filter. These lamps are commonly used as lighting for photolithography work in cleanrooms and as "bug repellent" outdoor lighting (the efficacy of which is questionable).
Spectrum of a "blacklight" bulb Fluorescent Black-Light spectrum with peaks labelled.gif There is typically only one phosphor present in a blacklight bulb, usually consisting of europium-doped strontium fluoroborate, which is contained in an envelope of Wood's glass.

Usage

.Fluorescent light bulbs come in many shapes and sizes.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have used it with fluorescent tubes of many sizes: F6-T5, F13-T5, F15-T12, and F20-T12.

.The compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) is becoming more popular.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information, see the separate document on Compact Fluorescent Lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lights of America 9042 CFL Ballast is from a fluorescent wall fixture.

.Many compact fluorescent lamps integrate the auxiliary electronics into the base of the lamp, allowing them to fit into a regular light bulb socket.^ Fits into standard household light bulb bases.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the US, residential use of fluorescent lighting remains low (generally limited to kitchens, basements, garages, and other areas), but schools and businesses find the cost savings of fluorescents to be significant and rarely use incandescent lights.^ His Web site ( http://www.misty.com/~don/ ) is a valuable resource for information relating to lighting technology in general and also includes additional articles dealing with fluorescent and other discharge lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since solder has good conductivity, low thermal conductivity, and also a low cost, solder is generally a preferable material for the power supply terminal 504.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Tax incentives and environmental awareness result in higher use in places such as California.
.In other countries, residential use of fluorescent lighting varies depending on the price of energy, financial and environmental concerns of the local population, and acceptability of the light output.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent lamps only make full light output in a somewhat narrow temperature range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional electronic flash and other strobe related schematics will be found in the document: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics .

In East and Southeast Asia it is very rare to see incandescent bulbs in buildings anywhere.
.Some countries are encouraging the phase-out of incandescent light bulbs and substitution of incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps or other types of energy-efficient lamps.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other UV fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His Web site ( http://www.misty.com/~don/ ) is a valuable resource for information relating to lighting technology in general and also includes additional articles dealing with fluorescent and other discharge lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advantages

Luminous efficacy

.Fluorescent lamps convert more of the input power to visible light than incandescent lamps.^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A typical 100 watt tungsten filament incandescent lamp may convert only 2% of its power input to visible white light, whereas typical fluorescent lamps convert about 22% of the power input to visible white light.^ Color codes on fluorescent lamps may include the color temperature or 1/100 of the color temperature.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since only one of the seven manufacturers of fluorescent lamp ballasts is ``small,'' the Department concludes that today's final rule would not affect a ``substantial'' number of ``small'' manufacturers.
  • Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: FluorescentLamp Ballasts Energy Conservation Standards | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] See the table in the luminous efficacy article.
.The efficacy of fluorescent tubes ranges from about 16 lumens per watt for a 4 watt tube with an ordinary ballast to as high as about 100 lumens per watt for a 32 watt tube with modern electronic ballast, commonly averaging 50 to 67 lm/W overall.^ This 3-lead preheat ballast is a voltage-boosting "high leakage reactance autotransformer" used if the voltage across the tube is much over approx.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of the straight tube portions 5a has a tube inside diameter of from 12 to 20 mm and a thickness of from 0.8 to 1.5 mm, and in the embodiment of the present invention, the tube inside diameter is of about 16 mm and the thickness is of about1.2 mm.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the slightly popular 2-tube 20 watt "trigger start" ballasts are cheap and "fussy", and only work well if everything is optimum.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most compact fluorescents above 13 watts with integral electronic ballasts achieve about 60 lm/W. Lamps are rated by lumens after 100 hours of operation.^ The ballast should say that it is rated for use with 34 watt lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BTW, most low-power-factor screw-in 120 VAC compact fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts work fine "as-is" with about 160 volts DC or squarewave.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The above includes most simple "PL"/twin-tube compact fluorescent lamps with removable bulbs with two pins, as well as most compact fluorescent bulbs with "choke" type ballasts running from 120 volts AC. Should you need anything more energy-efficient than this, then there is the world of electronic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .For a given fluorescent tube, a high-frequency electronic ballast gives about 10% efficacy improvement over an inductive ballast.^ This 3-lead preheat ballast is a voltage-boosting "high leakage reactance autotransformer" used if the voltage across the tube is much over approx.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high peak currents drawn by some electronic ballasts, it is often important to size wiring properly for these high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ballast for an instant start fixture has a loosely coupled high voltage transformer winding providing about 500 to 600 V for starting in addition to the series inductor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is necessary to include the ballast loss when evaluating the efficacy of a fluorescent lamp system; this can be about 25% of the lamp power with magnetic ballasts, and around 10% with electronic ballasts.^ BTW, most low-power-factor screw-in 120 VAC compact fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts work fine "as-is" with about 160 volts DC or squarewave.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The above includes most simple "PL"/twin-tube compact fluorescent lamps with removable bulbs with two pins, as well as most compact fluorescent bulbs with "choke" type ballasts running from 120 volts AC. Should you need anything more energy-efficient than this, then there is the world of electronic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiring diagram of Low Power 220 VAC Fluorescent Lamp .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluorescent lamp efficacy is dependent on lamp temperature at the coldest part of the lamp.^ Fluorescent lamps only make full light output in a somewhat narrow temperature range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under these conditions, five sample cold cathode fluorescent lamps were continuously lit for 5,000 [hours] at an atmospheric temperature of 25[.degree.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Starting may also be erratic, although most compact fluorescent lamps seem to start OK at temperatures near freezing.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In T8 lamps this is in the center of the tube. .In T5 lamps this is at the end of the tube with the text stamped on it.^ Also, in the fluorescent lamp of the present invention, the gas exhaust tube may extend outward from the at least one of the pinch-sealed ends, and the base may be affixed to an extending portion of the gas exhaust tube.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescent lamp of claim 12, whereinthe gas exhaust tube extends outward from the at least one of the pinch-sealed ends, and the base has been affixed to an extending portion of the gas exhaust tube.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ FL1 is a fairly conventional looking 4" long T5 fluorescent lamp without end-caps.

.The ideal temperature for a T8 lamp is 25 °C (77 °F) while the T5 lamp is ideally at 35 °C (95 °F).^ Under these conditions, five sample cold cathode fluorescent lamps were continuously lit for 5,000 [hours] at an atmospheric temperature of 25[.degree.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lamp type ---> F4-T5 F6-T5 F13-T5 V(in) I(in) I(in) I(in) ------------------------------------------------------------- 3 V .9/.6 A - - 4 V 1.1/.7 A 1.1/.8 A - 5 V 1.3/.8 A 1.2/.9 A - 6 V - 1.4/1.0 A 1.6/.95 A 7 V - - 1.7/1.0 A 8 V - - 1.8/1.2 A 9 V - - 2.1/1.3 A 10 V - - 2.2/1.4 A Notes on Low Power Fluorescent Lamp Inverter 2 .

Life

.Typically a fluorescent lamp will last between 10 to 20 times as long as an equivalent incandescent lamp when operated several hours at a time.^ An external electrode 6013 has been formed on an end of the lamp 6012, and an internal electrode 20 similar to the electrode 20 of the fluorescent lamp pertaining to embodiment 2 has been disposed on the other end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Working Example 1 [0398] Working example 1 describes an example of a fluorescent lamp 10 that is similar to fluorescent lamps described in previous embodiments.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The higher initial cost of a fluorescent lamp is usually more than compensated for by lower energy consumption over its life.^ Why Small Fluorescent lamps Cost More than 4-Foot Ones .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The longer life may also reduce lamp replacement costs, providing additional saving especially where labour is costly.^ It may pay to replace both tubes, especially if significant labor costs are involved.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As illustrated in FIG. 40, working example 1 has a lower spatter amount than comparative examples 1 and 2, leading to a longer life of the fluorescent lamp.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Embodiment 3 aims to provide a fluorescent lamp that prevents a reduced initial luminance and improves luminance maintenance rate when the lamp is lit.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Therefore they are widely used by businesses and institutions, but not as much by households.

Lower luminosity

.Compared with an incandescent lamp, a fluorescent tube is a more diffuse and physically larger light source.^ Patents in class Fluorescent light source .
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A backlight unit including the fluorescent lamp of claim 1 as a light source.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

.In suitably designed lamps, light can be more evenly distributed without point source of glare such as seen from an undiffused incandescent filament; the lamp is large compared to the typical distance between lamp and illuminated surfaces.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the one of the first electrodes and the second electrode, to provide a dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescent lamp 1 having the above-described structure is illuminated by the action of a not-shown high frequency lighting circuit.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

Lower heat

.About two-thirds to three-quarters less heat is given off by fluorescent lamps compared to an equivalent installation of incandescent lamps.^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence, an electrodeless fluorescent lamp can be more easily made in the shape of an incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compact fluorescents are being heavily promoted as energy savings alternatives to incandescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This greatly reduces the size, cost, and energy consumption of air-conditioning equipment.

Disadvantages

Frequent switching

If the lamp is installed where it is frequently switched on and off, it will age rapidly. .Under extreme conditions, its lifespan may be much shorter than a cheap incandescent lamp.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WARNING: Almost any uF value cap charged to 350+ VDC will result in a shocking experience if touched and may be lethal under the wrong conditions.

^ Under these conditions, five sample cold cathode fluorescent lamps were continuously lit for 5,000 [hours] at an atmospheric temperature of 25[.degree.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Each start cycle slightly erodes the electron-emitting surface of the cathodes; when all the emission material is gone, the lamp cannot start with the available ballast voltage.^ Slimline (the single pin) lamps have a slightly heavier cathode to tolerate the starting cycle.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballast(s) - these are available for either 1 or 2 lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is called thermionic emission - the boiling off of electrons from the surface of the cathode.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fixtures intended for flashing of lights (such as for advertising) will use a ballast that maintains cathode temperature when the arc is off, preserving the life of the lamp.^ These ballasts often don't work well with cool temperatures, slightly low line voltages, or slightly weak lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps and fixtures using iron ballasts are basically pretty inert when unplugged.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Health and safety issues

.If a fluorescent lamp is broken, a very small amount of mercury can contaminate the surrounding environment.^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

^ A broken filament in a fluorescent tube used in a preheat type fixture (with a starter) will almost always result in a totally dead lamp as there will be no power to the starter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why Small Fluorescent lamps Cost More than 4-Foot Ones .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 99% of the mercury is typically contained in the phosphor, especially on lamps that are near their end of life.^ However, when emphasis is placed on the start characteristic and efficiency of the lamp as described above, since an emitter is used, spatter from the emitter also causes the life of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp to end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[13] The broken glass is usually considered a greater hazard than the small amount of spilled mercury. .The EPA recommends airing out the location of a fluorescent tube break and using wet paper towels to help pick up the broken glass and fine particles.^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A setting for this suction allows the liquid level to reach a predetermined height of the glass tube 32, by using an optical sensor 45 to detect the liquid level.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Of course, don't go out of your way to get cut on the broken glass!
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any glass and used towels should be disposed of in a sealed plastic bag.^ Also, there is a fluorescent lamp in which a base of a bottomed cylinder is disposed so as to cover the so-called bead glass sealed end (see Japanese Patent No.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, the inventor is considering using so-called pinch sealing in place of bead sealing in the glass bulb sealing process.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Vacuum cleaners can cause the particles to become airborne, and should not be used.[14]
.Fluorescent lamps emit a small amount of ultraviolet (UV) light.^ There is even a UV-B emitting fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other UV fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

.A 1993 study in the US found that UV exposure from sitting under fluorescent lights for eight hours is equivalent to only one minute of sun exposure.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] Very sensitive individuals may experience a variety of health problems relating to light sensitivity that is aggravated by artificial lighting.
UV light can affect sensitive paintings, especially watercolors and many textiles. .Valuable art work must be protected from light by additional glass or transparent acrylic sheets put between the lamp(s) and the painting.^ His Web site ( http://www.misty.com/~don/ ) is a valuable resource for information relating to lighting technology in general and also includes additional articles dealing with fluorescent and other discharge lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a risk of a hindrance to lighting the lamp due to the discharge gas, which had been sealed inside the interior of the glass bulb, leaking from the cracked places.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lamps A to E basically have the same structure except that the glass bulb materials and protective film materials are different.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.Nocturnal exposure to light in the short wavelength ranges (below 530 nm) generated by some fluorescent lamps may interfere with mammalian circadian rhythms due to its suppressing effect on melatonin production.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His Web site ( http://www.misty.com/~don/ ) is a valuable resource for information relating to lighting technology in general and also includes additional articles dealing with fluorescent and other discharge lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[16] Suppression of melatonin has been linked to cancer in some studies.
.Fluorescent lamps with magnetic ballasts flicker at a normally unnoticeable frequency of 100 or 120 hertz and this flickering can cause problems for some individuals with light sensitivity,[17] they are listed as problematic for some individuals with autism, epilepsy,[18] lupus,[19] chronic fatigue syndrome, and vertigo.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[20] .Newer fluorescent lights without magnetic ballasts have essentially eliminated flicker.^ Call Magnetek, a ballast manufacturer on 1-800-BALLAST. Ask for a copy of their Troubleshooting & Maintenance Guide for Linear Fluorescent Lighting Systems.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In rare cases, fluorescent lighting can also induce depersonalization and derealization, subsequently, it can worsen depersonalization disorder symptomology.[21] .Research on these rare cases is very limited and cause and effect often cannot be duplicated.^ It is very rare for one of these ballasts to actually catch fire, although it does happen.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The non-visible 100–120 Hz flicker from fluorescent tubes powered by electromagnetic ballasts are associated with headaches and eyestrain.^ The voltage across the tube is higher and the tube will sometimes draw more power, but the current flowing through the ballast is less.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I have a application in mind that will use a DC power source around 100 volts and fluorescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fluorescent tubes, it is more common if the bulb is cold or not fully warmed up, brand new or not-yet broken in, or if the ballast is of poor quality or there is a bulb/ballast mismatch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individuals with high flicker fusion threshold are particularly affected by electromagnetic ballasts: their EEG alpha waves are markedly attenuated and they perform office tasks with greater speed and decreased accuracy.^ Since these ballasts include rectification, filtering, and operate the tubes at a high frequency, they also usually eliminate or greatly reduce the 100/120 Hz flicker associated with iron ballasted systems.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Ordinary people have better reading performance using high frequency (20 kHz – 60 kHz) electronic ballasts than electromagnetic ballasts.^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This 3-lead preheat ballast is a voltage-boosting "high leakage reactance autotransformer" used if the voltage across the tube is much over approx.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high peak currents drawn by some electronic ballasts, it is often important to size wiring properly for these high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.The flicker of fluorescent lamps, even with electromagnetic ballasts, is so rapid that it is unlikely to present a hazard to individuals with epilepsy.^ A fluorescent lamp of the present invention comprises: .
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

[24] .Early studies suspected a relationship between the flickering of fluorescent lamps with electromagnetic ballasts and repetitive movement in autistic children.^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, to providea dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the one of the first electrodes and the second electrode, to provide a dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Variation 7 [0521] The fluorescent lamp pertaining to variation 7 differs from variation 6 in the shape of the lead wire and the connection condition between the electrode and the lead wire.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[25] .However, these studies had interpretive problems[26] and have not been replicated.^ I have heard, however, of problems with these relating to radio frequency interference from the ballasts and tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ballast

Magnetic single-lamp ballasts have a low power factor
.Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to stabilize the current through the lamp, and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the arc discharge.^ The lamp requires a high voltage, usually 300 to 500 V, to strike.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interrupting current through the inductor provides the starting voltage.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special dual lamp ballasts are required.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This increases the cost of fluorescent light fixtures, though often one ballast is shared between two or more lamps.^ Fixtures with 4 lamps usually have two ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lights of America 9042 CFL Ballast is from a fluorescent wall fixture.

.Electromagnetic ballasts with a minor fault can produce an audible humming or buzzing noise.^ There may be an audible buzz from the ballast.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ballast may be obviously burned and smelly, overheated, or have a loud hum or buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Magnetic ballasts are usually filled with a tar-like potting compound to reduce emitted noise.^ Also, dispersing a titanium compound or a cerium compound in the protective film enables reducing the amount of ultraviolet radiation emitted from the fluorescent lamp over a case of not dispersing a compound in the protective film.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is most likely the case with rapid or trigger start magnetic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hum is eliminated in lamps with a high-frequency electronic ballast.^ A lighting apparatus comprising: a main body; a plurality of fluorescent lamps recited in claim 3; and a high frequency lighting circuit, which supplies lamp electricity to the fluorescent lamps at a high frequency of at least 10 kHz.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescent lamp 121 is connected to the high frequency lighting device 122 shown in FIG. 16.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescent lamp 1 having the above-described structure is illuminated by the action of a not-shown high frequency lighting circuit.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Energy lost in magnetic ballasts can be significant, on the order of 10% of lamp input power.^ Multiple lamp fixtures in countries with 110 VAC power usually have special ballasts with separate windings for this purpose.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that the efficiency [cd/m.sup.2] acquired from the cold cathode fluorescent lamps is divided by input power [W] to arrive at the luminance values in FIG. 11.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For rapid start ballasts, this could be as simple as wiring all connections to the lamps in parallel - if the ballast has enough current available to power both sets of filaments for starting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] Electronic ballasts reduce this loss.

Power quality and radio interference

.Simple inductive fluorescent lamp ballasts have a power factor of less than unity.^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Based on the results indicated in FIG. 4, lamp A pertaining to embodiment 1 was found to have a substantially equal chromaticity shift to lamps B and C, and in both the chromaticity shift is less than or equal to 0.005.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since this type of dipping method enables forming the power supply terminal 504 simply and inexpensively, the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 1 can be manufactured inexpensively.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Inductive ballasts include power factor correction capacitors.^ This is due to the fact that these ballasts (low-power-factor type) have a full-wave-bridge rectifier and a filter capacitor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For multiple ballasts or total wattages over 50 watts, it may be important to consider the effective current drawn by low-power-factor electronic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For less than 50 watts, the current drawn by low-power-factor electronic ballasts is usually not a problem.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simple electronic ballasts may also have low power factor due to their rectifier input stage.^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is due to the fact that these ballasts (low-power-factor type) have a full-wave-bridge rectifier and a filter capacitor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Troubleshooting the electronic ballast module is similar to that of a switchmode power supply.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluorescent lamps are a non-linear load and generate harmonic currents in the electrical power supply.^ Power is supplied to an electrode in the discharge lamp and the discharge lamp is lit through this lead-in wire.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since this type of dipping method enables forming the power supply terminal 504 simply and inexpensively, the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 1 can be manufactured inexpensively.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A lighting apparatus comprising: a main body; a plurality of fluorescent lamps recited in claim 3; and a high frequency lighting circuit, which supplies lamp electricity to the fluorescent lamps at a high frequency of at least 10 kHz.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.The arc within the lamp may generate radio frequency noise, which can be conducted through power wiring.^ Power is supplied to an electrode in the discharge lamp and the discharge lamp is lit through this lead-in wire.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Wiring diagram of Low Power 220 VAC Fluorescent Lamp .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since solder has good conductivity, low thermal conductivity, and also a low cost, solder is generally a preferable material for the power supply terminal 504.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Suppression of radio interference is possible. .Very good suppression is possible, but adds to the cost of the fluorescent fixtures.^ It is also possible to suppress costs since the process and equipment for applying identifying marks is unnecessary.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Operating temperature

.Fluorescent lamps operate best around room temperature.^ Color codes on fluorescent lamps may include the color temperature or 1/100 of the color temperature.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps only make full light output in a somewhat narrow temperature range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A switching operation of the switching device of the lighting circuit adjusts illuminance of the fluorescent lamp 1.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.At much lower or higher temperatures, efficiency decreases.^ This shows that although lowering the charged pressure was generally thought to improve luminous efficiency, depending on the drive current, lowering the charged pressure too much can actually decrease luminous efficiency.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.At below-freezing temperatures standard lamps may not start.^ Starting may also be erratic, although most compact fluorescent lamps seem to start OK at temperatures near freezing.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is designed to operate one 42 Watt compact fluorescent lamp, specifically the LOA 9142B which has a standard medium screw base containing the starting capacitor.

^ These lamps are marketed as germicidal lamps, and ones in standard fluorescent lamp sizes have part numbers that start with G instead of F. These lamps will work in standard fluorescent lamp fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Special lamps may be needed for reliable service outdoors in cold weather.^ There are special lamps with heavy glass jackets and/or with krypton gas filling for cold weather/freezer applications.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some experimentation with the core gap may be needed to optimize performance for a given lamp type and input voltage.

^ FIG. 66 is an enlarged view of a relevant portion of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 2073 (hereinafter may be simply called "lamp 2073") in the present embodiment.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Certain applications such as outdoor signaling for traffic, railways, etc., using fluorescent lamps do not benefit from the so-called waste heat generated by incandescent lamps in melting snow and ice which can build up and obstruct visibility.^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that the chromaticity coordinate values used for this evaluation have been measured for a liquid crystal display apparatus in which lamps, etc.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Lamp shape

.Fluorescent tubes are long, low-luminance sources compared with high pressure arc lamps and incandescent lamps.^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

^ In view of obtaining luminous power, which is comparable to the conventional smaller-circular structure fluorescent lamp, the length of thestraight tube bulb is within the range of from 800 to 2500 mm.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, low luminous intensity of the emitting surface is useful because it reduces glare.^ It is however preferable to use the three-bandfluorescent type phosphor in view of luminous efficiency.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, problems with using a nickel electrode include low spatter resistance and a short lifetime.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, it was found that when the charged pressure is reduced, the luminance maintenance rate decreases.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Lamp fixture design must control light from a long tube instead of a compact globe.^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 20 watt fixtures use a multi-purpose ballast designed to be usable with a few different wattages of lamps, and which typically sends about 16 watts of power to a 20 watt tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They typically have a standard screw base that can be installed into nearly any table lamp or lighting fixture that accepts an incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) replaces regular incandescent bulbs.^ Replacing fluorescent lamp or fixture components .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the first electrode and the second electrode of the bulb, to providea dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, some CFLs will not fit some lamps, because the harp (heavy wire shade support bracket) is shaped for the narrow neck of an incandescent lamp.^ In addition, the plurality of fluorescent lamps having the same or different shape are fitted in combinationto the main body so that they are placed on the same plane or at different levels from each other.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hence, an electrodeless fluorescent lamp can be more easily made in the shape of an incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high peak currents drawn by some electronic ballasts, it is often important to size wiring properly for these high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CFLs tend to have a wide housing for their electronic ballast close to the bulb's base, and so may not fit some lamps.^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the ballast is not rated to operate the bulb type being used, the bulb life will probably be shortened and the ballast life may be shortened.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high peak currents drawn by some electronic ballasts, it is often important to size wiring properly for these high peak currents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flicker problems

The "beat effect" problem created when shooting photos or film under standard fluorescent lighting.
.Fluorescent lamps using a magnetic mains frequency ballast do not give out a steady light; instead, they flicker at twice the supply frequency.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This results in fluctuations not only with light output but color temperature as well,[28] which may pose problems for photography and people who are sensitive to the flicker.^ Fluorescent lamps only make full light output in a somewhat narrow temperature range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The funny elongated or circular shape may result in a less optimal lighting pattern.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light is generally cooler - less yellow - than incandescents - this may be undesirable and result in less than pleasing contrast with ordinary lamps and ceiling fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even among persons not sensitive to light flicker, a stroboscopic effect can be noticed, where something spinning at just the right speed may appear stationary if illuminated solely by a single fluorescent lamp.^ C., when the fluorescent lamp 201 is illuminated.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternatively, it is possible to cause a primary discharge for illumination to occur only between the one of the first electrodes and the second electrode, to provide a dimmer illumination of the fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.This effect is eliminated by paired lamps operating on a lead-lag ballast.^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem with premature lamp failures using Instant Start ballast lies in the fundamental difference in the basic operating principles between Rapid Start and Instant Start lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike a true strobe lamp, the light level drops in appreciable time and so substantial "blurring" of the moving part would be evident.^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are about 2 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent lamps at producing light at the wavelengths that are useful to humans.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stress may cause cracks to develop easily, and discharge gas filling an inner part of the glass bulb may leak from the cracks, hindering lighting the lamp.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In some circumstances, fluorescent lamps operated at mains frequency can also produce flicker at the mains frequency (50 or 60 Hz) itself, which is noticeable by more people.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operating frequency: 50 or 60Hz .
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the plurality of fluorescent lamps having the same or different shape are fitted in combinationto the main body so that they are placed on the same plane or at different levels from each other.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.This can happen in the last few hours of tube life when the cathode emission coating at one end is almost run out, and that cathode starts having difficulty emitting enough electrons into the gas fill, resulting in slight rectification and hence uneven light output in positive and negative going mains cycles.^ In fixtures where a rapid start ballast runs two tubes, both tubes will go out when one fails.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cathode is the negative electrode of a vacuum tube or gas filled discharge tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's capacitance should be few times lower than the one in series with the tube...

.Mains frequency flicker can also sometimes be emitted from the very ends of the tubes, if each tube electrode produces slightly different light output pattern on each half-cycle.^ They also produce slightly less light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes one or both tubes will glow dimly and/or flicker.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symptom is the ends of the tube glowing brightly, either yellow-orange or a color closer to the normal tube color, sometimes even one end glowing yellow-orange and one end glowing a more normal color.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flicker at mains frequency is more noticeable in the peripheral vision than it is in the center of gaze.^ The electric toothbrush schematic is more interesting since it uses a high frequency inductive coupling rather than a direct connection.

^ The tab of the LM317 is connected to the center pin - keep this in mind because the chip will have to be on a heat sink if it will be dissipating more than a watt or so.

beat effect
.New fluorescent lamps may show a twisting spiral pattern of light in a part of the lamp.^ These lamps are marketed as germicidal lamps, and ones in standard fluorescent lamp sizes have part numbers that start with G instead of F. These lamps will work in standard fluorescent lamp fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ FIGS. 49A, 49B, 49C, and 49D show the mounting conditions of a fluorescent lamp 6038 in the sockets 6006 and 6037.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This effect is due to loose cathode material and usually disappears after a few hours of operation.^ Also, when the electrically conductive material is metal, depending on the size thereof, an excessive rise in temperature of the electrode 20 can be suppressed due to the heat dissipation effect.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, providing the emitter 4012b on at least the inner face of the metal sleeve 4012a enables preventing the emitter 4012b from spatter due to ion bombardment resulting from the cold cathode operation, and thus enables longer preservation of the emitter effect.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[29]
.Electromagnetic ballasts may also cause problems for video recording as there can be a 'beat effect' between the periodic reading of a camera's sensor and the fluctuations in intensity of the fluorescent lamp.^ There may be an audible buzz from the ballast.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, there are "triphosphor" fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other UV fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fluorescent lamps using high-frequency electronic ballasts do not produce visible light flicker, since above about 5 kHz, the excited electron state half-life is longer than a half cycle, and light production becomes continuous.^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are about 2 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent lamps at producing light at the wavelengths that are useful to humans.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Operating frequencies of electronic ballasts are selected to avoid interference with infrared remote controls.^ I have heard, however, of problems with these relating to radio frequency interference from the ballasts and tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the biggest advantages of the electronic ballasts over older ballasts with the inductors (or transformers) is that the tube is run on high frequency so that it doesn't turn off at any time.

^ Other complaints have resulted due to erratic behavior of electronic equipment using infra red remote controls.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Poor quality (or failing) electronic ballasts may have insufficient Reservoir Capacitance or have poor regulation, thereby producing considerable 100/120 Hz modulation of the light.^ Some types (usually iron ballasts) may produce an annoying 120 Hz (or 100 Hz) flicker.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For multiple ballasts or total wattages over 50 watts, it may be important to consider the effective current drawn by low-power-factor electronic ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dimming

Lighting Systems can save up to 85% compared to fittings with magnetic ballasts
.Fluorescent light fixtures cannot be connected to the same dimmer switch used for incandescent lamps.^ Ordinary dimmers cannot be used with compact fluorescents.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Replacing fluorescent lamp or fixture components .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hereunder, a method of manufacturing the glass bulbs 202a, 202b used in the fluorescent lamp 201 according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Two effects are responsible for this: the waveshape of the voltage emitted by a standard phase-control dimmer interacts badly with many ballasts, and it becomes difficult to sustain an arc in the fluorescent tube at low power levels.^ Then they do not emit electrons, and the arc can't be sustained.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiring diagram of Low Power 220 VAC Fluorescent Lamp .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is due to the fact that these ballasts (low-power-factor type) have a full-wave-bridge rectifier and a filter capacitor.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dimming installations require a compatible dimming ballast. .These systems keep the cathodes of the fluorescent tube fully heated even as the arc current is reduced, promoting easy thermionic emission of electrons into the arc stream.^ This is called thermionic emission - the boiling off of electrons from the surface of the cathode.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent tubes failing in this manner normally draw reduced current.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, FIG. 18C is a front view of the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 6038 being inserted into the cold cathode fluorescent lamp socket 6006 (see FIG. 49), and FIG. 49D is a side view of the socket.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

CFLs are available which work in conjunction with a suitable dimmer.

Disposal and recycling

.The disposal of phosphor and particularly the toxic mercury in the tubes is an environmental issue.^ See the document: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Small Switchmode Power Supplies Nasty chemicals: While the phosphors on the inside of fluorescent tubes are not particularly poisonous, there is a small amount of metallic mercury and contact with this substance should be avoided.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Governmental regulations in many areas require special disposal of fluorescent lamps separate from general and household wastes.^ Special dual lamp ballasts are required.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An external electrode 6013 has been formed on an end of the lamp 6012, and an internal electrode 20 similar to the electrode 20 of the fluorescent lamp pertaining to embodiment 2 has been disposed on the other end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures includes many additional schematics for fluorescent ballasts including those for Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs).

.For large commercial or industrial users of fluorescent lights, recycling services are available in many nations, and may be required by regulation.^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is not done, starting may be erratic or may require you to run your hand over the tube to get it to light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31] In some areas, recycling is also available to consumers.[32]

Tube designations

.Lamps are typically identified by a code such as F##T##, where F is for fluorescent, the first number indicates the power in watts (or where lamps can be operated at different power levels, the length in inches), the T indicates that the shape of the bulb is tubular, and the last number is the diameter in eighths of an inch (sometimes in millimeters, rounded to the nearest millimeter).^ DD - Diameter of tube in of eighths of an inch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As shown in FIG. 67, in the hot cathode fluorescent lamp 2074, the straight tube shaped glass bulb 2153 is filled with a discharge medium, and electrodes 2173 and 2193 have been disposed in the vicinity of the ends of the glass bulb 2153.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Electrode length L1=5.5 [mm], outer diameter P1=2.7 [mm], and bottom thickness t=0.2 [mm] (inner diameter P2=2.3 [mm]) Note that the electrode length L1, the outer diameter P1, the inner diameter P2, and the bottom thickness t can vary in the ranges indicated below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Typical diameters are T12 or T38 (11/2" or 38.1 mm) for residential bulbs with old magnetic ballasts, T8 or T26 (1" or 25.4 mm) for commercial energy-saving lamps with electronic ballasts, and T5 or T16 (5/8" or 15.875 mm) for very small lamps, which may even operate from a battery powered device.^ "I have been experimenting with 15 W T8 lamps running from a dimmable electronic ballast.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newest fixtures may use totally electronic ballasts which are less likely to buzz.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if there are small capacitors inside the ballast(s) or for RFI prevention, these are not likely to bite.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fluorescent tube diameter designation comparison
Tube diameter designations Tube diameter measurements Extra
Imperial-based Metric-based Inches Millimeters Socket Notes
T2 N/A 2/8" approx 7 Osram's Fluorescent Miniature (FM) tubes only
T4 N/A 4/8" 12 G5 bipin Slim lamps. Power ratings and lengths not standardized (and not the same) between different manufacturers
T5 T16 5/8" 15.875 G5 bipin Original 4–13 W range from 1950s or earlier.[33]
Two newer ranges high efficiency (HE) 14–35 W, and high output (HO) 24–80 W introduced in the 1990s[34]
T8 T26 8/8" 1" 25.4 G13 bipin/Single Pin/Recessed Double contact From the 1930s,[35] more common since the 1980s.[36]
T9 T29 9/8" 11/8" 28.575 Circular fluorescent tubes only
T12 T38 12/8" 11/2" 38.1 G13 bipin/single pin, recessed double contact Also from the 1930s, not as efficient as new lamps.[37]
T17 N/A 17/8" 21/8" 53.975 Mogul Bipin Large size for F90T17 (preheat) and F40T17/IS (Instant Start)
PG17 N/A 17/8" 21/8" 53.975 Recessed Double Contact General Electric's Power Groove tubes only

Reflectors

Cross section of a typical fluorescent lamp with and without a reflector
Some lamps have an internal opaque reflector. Coverage of the reflector ranges from 120 degrees to 310 degrees of the lamp's circumference. .Often, a lamp is marked as a reflector lamp by adding the letter "R" in the model code, so a F##T## lamp with a reflector would be coded as "FR##T##". VHO lamps with reflectors may be coded as VHOR. No such designation exists for the amount of reflector degrees the lamp has.^ Also, in the fluorescent lamp of the present invention, any of silicon, titanium, strontium and calcium may be added to the electrode material in a content amount that is less than or equal to half of a content amount of the yttrium oxide.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Line powered devices - including little ones - may have an added danger of high power at high voltage AND are often non-isolated (no power transformer).

^ Osram/Sylvania brand lamps often have D8 immediately preceding the color code.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reflector lamps are used when light is only desired to be emitted in a single direction, or when an application requires the maximum amount of light.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ballast for 150 W DC Metal Halide Lamp for a lamp similar to those used in video projection applications.

^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, these lamps can be used in tanning beds or in backlighting electronic displays.^ Next, as an example of a liquid crystal display apparatus, a liquid crystal television using the backlight unit 100 is shown.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, upon investigating direct and indirect visual influences of light from a lamp due to chromaticity shift, the inventors found that a chromaticity shift (.DELTA.x.sup.2+.DELTA.y.sup.2).sup.1/2 of over 0.01 causes the color of the lamp to turn yellowish, and for example when used for a backlight of a liquid crystal display apparatus, has a negative influence on color reproduction on the liquid crystal display screen, and is not preferable.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.An internal reflector is more efficient than standard external reflectors.^ These tubes require more current than standard 4-foot tubes and require special ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lamps are slightly less efficient than standard fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another example is color matched aperture lights (30 degrees of opening, give or take) are used in the food industry for quality control purposes, to allow robotic inspection of cooked goods.^ Measurement of Spatter Amount [0411] Spatter amount was measured by lighting the fluorescent lamps of working example 1 and comparative examples 1 and 2 with use of a high-frequency lighting circuit for 6000 [hours] under the conditions of a 25[.degree.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ultraviolet Radiation Absorption [0671] For example, in recent years, as liquid crystal televisions have become larger, polycarbonate having good measurement stability is being used for the diffusion sheet blocking the opening of the backlight unit.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Oue LED Fluorescent Lamp T8 series using top quality Ultra Bright White and Warm White LED and High Lumens Light Output.
  • LEDs-LUX offer Energy Saving LED Lighting for Office and Commerce Use! LED Light Panel, LED Fluorescent Lamp, LED Ceiling Light Panel, LED Down Light, LED Sopt Light, LED Wall Mounted Light, LED Stand Light 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC leds-lux.com [Source type: Academic]

.Aperture lamps have a clear break in the phosphor coating, typically of 30 degrees, to concentrate light in one direction and provide higher brightness luminance in the beam than can be achieved by uniform phosphor coatings.^ A uniform brightness can also be provided.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Aperture lamps include reflectors over the non-aperture area. .Aperture lamps were commonly used in photocopiers in the 1960s and 1970s where a bank of fixed tubes was arranged to light up the image to be copied, but are rarely found nowadays.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The luminance (in this description defined as initial luminance) was measured in each lamp after 10 [minutes] had passed since first lighting the lamp, and for each type of lamp, an average of the five lamps was used in the comparison.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ UV light (e.g., EPROM erasers and PCB photoresist activation), sunlamps, plant lights and special purpose specific wavelength lamps such as reprography and copier lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aperture lamps can produce a concentrated beam of light suitable for edge-lit signs.^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some ballasts do not make fluorescent lamps produce full light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This unevenness in film thickness influences the light emitting property of the lamps 2007 when lit.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[38]

Slimline lamps

.Slimline lamps operate on an instant start ballast and are recognizable by their single-pin bases.^ Slimline (the single pin) lamps have a slightly heavier cathode to tolerate the starting cycle.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instant Start ballasts are really designed to be used with the standard T12 single pin Slimline lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With only minor modifications at most, a conventional single lamp ballast can be connected to a pair of lamps in such a way that only one will light at any given time.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

High output/very high output lamps

.High-output lamps are brighter and draw more electrical current, have different ends on the pins so they cannot be used in the wrong fixture, and are labeled F##T##HO, or F##T##VHO for very high output.^ Also, for example, when the charged pressure is 40 [Torr], a drive current of 4 [mA] is not enough to improve the luminous efficiency by 5[%] or more over the reference lamp, and a drive current of 6 [mA] is enough.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A ballast is a simple transformer with a very high impedance secondary winding which makes its current self-limiting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps and fixtures using iron ballasts are basically pretty inert when unplugged.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since about the early to mid 1950s to today, General Electric developed and improved the Power Groove lamp with the label F##PG17. These lamps are recognizable by their large diameter (17/8" or 21/8"), grooved tube shape and an R17d cap on each end of them.^ As shown in FIG. 67, in the hot cathode fluorescent lamp 2074, the straight tube shaped glass bulb 2153 is filled with a discharge medium, and electrodes 2173 and 2193 have been disposed in the vicinity of the ends of the glass bulb 2153.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Moreover, since the sleeve-shaped bases 2072, when affixed to the gas exhaust tube 2031, do not cover the ends of the gas exhaust tube 2031 on the outer ends of the glass bulb 2015, stress on the gas exhaust tube 2031 can be suppressed, the load on the gas exhaust tube 2031 can be suppressed, and the cold cathode fluorescent lamps 2007 can be electrically connected and supported more reliably.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Other tube shapes

.U-shaped tubes are FB##T##, with the B meaning "bent". Most commonly, these have the same designations as linear tubes.^ The bent portions are disposed between the plurality of straight tube portions so that the straight tube portions are disposed on substantially the same plane.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each of the ring bulbs is composed, into a polygon such as a rectangular shape, of the plurality of straight tube portions and the bent portions through which the straight tube portions are connected to each other.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the four straight tube portions having the same length are connected through three bent portions, the straight tube portions of thebulb forms a rectangular shape.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Circular bulbs are FC##T#, with the diameter of the circle (not circumference or watts) being the first number, and the second number usually being 9 (29 mm) for standard fixtures.^ The measurements of the lamp 2007 described below are values corresponding to the measurements of the glass bulb 2015 that has a 6.0 [mm] outer diameter and a 5.0 [mm] inner diameter.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In order to enhance the luminous efficiency of the conventional circular fluorescent lamp (type name of "FCL") having the outside diameter of 29 mm by at least 10%, it is necessary to reduce the outside diameter thereof to 65% or less.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The second electrode 104, which has the same structure as the first electrode 103, is placed in the one end portion (i.e., the end portion of the of the outer bulb 107, on which the connectionportion 108 is formed) of the outer bulb 107.
  • Fluorescent lamp including a multi-ringed bulb - US7443092 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

Colors

.Color is usually indicated by WW for warm white, EW for enhanced (neutral) white, CW for cool white (the most common), and DW for the bluish daylight white.^ W=White, CW=Cool white, WW=Warm white, BL/BLB=Black light, etc.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other early whites were "warm white" and "daylight".
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another slightly common halophosphate white is "white", which is between "cool white" and "warm white" in color.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BLB is used for blacklight-blue lamps commonly used in bug zappers.^ The lamps using the blue phosphor particles of specimen 1 of the present invention, comparative example 1, and comparative example 2 are, respectively, specimen 1-2 of the present invention, comparative example 1-2, and comparative example 2-2.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is a 350BL blacklight lamp, using a different phosphor that emits a band of slightly shorter UV wavelengths in the UV-A range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lamps are one variety of UV lamps used in electric bug killers.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BL is used for blacklight lamps commonly used in nightclubs.^ There is a 350BL blacklight lamp, using a different phosphor that emits a band of slightly shorter UV wavelengths in the UV-A range.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other non-standard designations apply for plant lights or grow lights.^ Additional electronic flash and other strobe related schematics will be found in the document: Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics .

.Philips and Osram use numeric color codes for the colors. On tri-phosphor and multi-phosphor tubes, the first digit indicates the color rendition index of the lamp.^ The lamps using the blue phosphor particles of specimen 1 of the present invention, comparative example 1, and comparative example 2 are, respectively, specimen 1-2 of the present invention, comparative example 1-2, and comparative example 2-2.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some 20 watt fixtures use a multi-purpose ballast designed to be usable with a few different wattages of lamps, and which typically sends about 16 watts of power to a 20 watt tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, a prepared straight tube shaped glass tube 2046 is immersed into a tank containing a phosphor suspension liquid.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.If the first digit on a lamp says 8, then the CRI of that lamp will be approximately 85. The last two digits indicate the color temperature of the lamp in kelvins (K).^ Triphosphor lamps come in various warm and cool shades, usually designated by "color temperature".
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these, like most triphosphor lamps, have color temperature designations.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Color codes on fluorescent lamps may include the color temperature or 1/100 of the color temperature.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, if the last two digits on a lamp say 41, that lamp's color temperature will be 4100 K, which is a common tri-phosphor cool white fluorescent lamp.^ Color codes on fluorescent lamps may include the color temperature or 1/100 of the color temperature.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp of working example 1 was created by the following method.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Halophosphate tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
27 Warm white 50–79 2700
33 Cool white 50–79 4100
83 Medium warm white 80 3000
84 Cool white (high CRI) 80 4100
Tri-phosphor tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
827 Warm white ~85 2700
835 White ~85 3500
841 Cool white ~85 4100
850 Sunlight ~85 5000
865 Cool daylight ~85 6500
880 Skywhite ~85 8000
Multi-phosphor tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
927 Warm white ~95 2700
941 Cool white ~95 4100
950 Sunlight ~98 5000
965 Cool daylight ~95 6500
Special purpose tubes
Numeric code Fluorescent
lamp type
Notes
05 Germicidal lamps No phosphors used at all,
using an envelope of fused quartz.
08 Black-light lamps
09 Sun-tanning lamps

Common tube ratings

.This section lists the more common tube ratings for general lighting.^ It's a 3 U-section tube inside a light weight glass floodlight reflector.

^ In fluorescent tubes, it is more common if the bulb is cold or not fully warmed up, brand new or not-yet broken in, or if the ballast is of poor quality or there is a bulb/ballast mismatch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's why the tube has 10% more light power when being run on electronic ballasts.

Many more tube ratings exist, often country-specific. .The Nominal Length may not exactly match any measured dimension of the tube.^ Ballasts must generally be fairly closely matched to the lamp in terms tube wattage, length, and diameter.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For some tube sizes, the nominal length (in feet) is the required spacing between centers of the lighting fixtures to create a continuous run, so the tubes are a little shorter than the nominal length.^ Also, when the difference in length of the members 6010 in the tube axis X direction is greater than or equal to 2 [mm], the orientation of the lamps 6008 can be detected by the difference in length.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, some "shop light" fixtures that you may think are dual 40 watt are actually dual 25 watt 4-foot fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is not done, starting may be erratic or may require you to run your hand over the tube to get it to light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tube Diameter in 18 in (3.175 mm) Nominal Length Nominal watts
T5 6 in, 150 mm 4 W
T5 9 in, 225 mm 6 W
T5 12 in, 300 mm 8 W
T5 21 in, 525 mm 13 W
T8 18 in, 450 mm 15 W
T12 2 ft, 600 mm 20 W
T12 4 ft, 1200 mm 40 W
T12 5 ft, 1500 mm 65 W, 80 W
T12 6 ft, 1800 mm 75 W, 85 W
T12 8 ft, 2400 mm 125 W

European energy saving tubes

.In the 1970s, Thorn Lighting introduced an energy saving 8 ft retrofit tube in Europe, designed to run on the existing 125 W (240 V) series ballast but with a different gas fill and operating voltage, the tube operated at only 100 W. Increased efficiency meant that the tube produced only 9% lumen reduction for a 20% power reduction.^ Different brands of ballasts are designed a little differently.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's why the tube has 10% more light power when being run on electronic ballasts.

^ The design includes: Line operated voltage doubler power supply.

[39] .This first energy saving tube design remains a T12 tube even today.^ For the most common T12 (1.5 inch) tube, the wattage (except for newer energy saving types) is usually 5/6 of the length in inches.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A specific warning has been issued about replacing 40 W tubes with 34 W energy saving tubes, for example.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will in some way say near the F40 designation that it is an energy-saving tube.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, follow-on retrofit replacements for all the other original T12 tubes were T8, which helped with creating the required electrical characteristics and saving on the then new (and more expensive) polyphosphor/triphosphor coatings, and these were even more efficient.^ These tubes require more current than standard 4-foot tubes and require special ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are still other specialty whites, including ones with a mixture of "broad spectrum" and "triphosphor" phosphor formulations to get a spectrum more like that of daylight.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is usually necessary to match the original and replacement fairly closely.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that because these tubes were all designed as retrofit tubes to be fitted in T12 fittings running on series ballasts on 220–240 V supplies, they could not be used in 120 V mains countries with inherently different control gear designs.^ The tube gets constant power supply (it lights during positive as well as during negative half-cycle, which means AC), and it doesn't turn off at all.

^ The main difference being the photo control circuit consisting of D3, D4, Q1, Q2, R3, C6, and CDS1.

^ One of the biggest advantages of the electronic ballasts over older ballasts with the inductors (or transformers) is that the tube is run on high frequency so that it doesn't turn off at any time.

Tube Diameter in 18 in (3.175 mm) Nominal Length Nominal watts Notes
T8 2 ft, 600 mm 18 W retrofit replacement for 2 ft T12 20 W
T8 4 ft, 1200 mm 36 W retrofit replacement for 4 ft T12 40 W
T8 5 ft, 1500 mm 58 W retrofit replacement for 5 ft T12 65 W
T8 6 ft, 1800 mm 70 W retrofit replacement for 6 ft T12 75/85 W
T12 8 ft, 2400 mm 100 W retrofit replacement for 8 ft T12 125 W
.By around 1980 (in the UK, at least), most new fluorescent fittings were designed to take only the newer, retrofit tubes (end-caps won't take T12 tubes, except for 8 ft length).^ For the most common T12 (1.5 inch) tube, the wattage (except for newer energy saving types) is usually 5/6 of the length in inches.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fluorescent tubes, it is more common if the bulb is cold or not fully warmed up, brand new or not-yet broken in, or if the ballast is of poor quality or there is a bulb/ballast mismatch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual fluorescent tubes are identified by several letters and numbers and will look something like 'F40CW-T12' or 'FC12-T10'.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earlier T12 tubes still remain available as spares but only fit in older fittings.^ These are not common and are only used where there is not enough room to fit enough standard F40 tubes to make enough light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

US energy saving tubes

.In the 1990s(?), various energy saving tubes were introduced in the US, but unlike the T8 tubes introduced in Europe, they are not retrofits and required new matching ballasts to drive them.^ For the most common T12 (1.5 inch) tube, the wattage (except for newer energy saving types) is usually 5/6 of the length in inches.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fluorescent tubes, it is more common if the bulb is cold or not fully warmed up, brand new or not-yet broken in, or if the ballast is of poor quality or there is a bulb/ballast mismatch.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tubes should only be used with their respective ballasts, and these ballasts should only be used with the tubes they were designed for.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Running a T8 tube with a ballast for T12 will reduce lamp life and can increase energy consumption.^ "I have been experimenting with 15 W T8 lamps running from a dimmable electronic ballast.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fixtures where a rapid start ballast runs two tubes, both tubes will go out when one fails.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the biggest advantages of the electronic ballasts over older ballasts with the inductors (or transformers) is that the tube is run on high frequency so that it doesn't turn off at any time.

[40] .The tube type should always match the markings on the light fixture.^ It is a good idea to replace the starter whenever tubes are replaced in these types of fixtures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are a type of gas discharge tube similar to neon signs and mercury or sodium vapor street or yard lights.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please do not confuse these with other wattage tubes/fixtures of the same physical dimensions which are also sometimes called "shop lights".
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tube Diameter in 18 in (3.175 mm) Nominal Length Nominal watts Notes
T8 2 ft 17 W
T8 4 ft 34 W
T8 5 ft 40 W
T8 8 ft 59 W
T12 4 ft 25 W Shoplite

New T5 tubes

.In 1990s, a new set of T5 tubes was designed.^ Always try a new set of fluorescent tubes and starter (where used) before considering other possible failures.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lengths of these tubes are designed to fit within 300 mm modular units (such as modular ceilings, modular cupboards, etc.^ These will usually state on the label: "Mount tube within 1/2 inch of grounded metal reflector".
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such a case, the image sensor may have a measurement precision of 0.5 [mm] units.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, when the difference in length of the members 6010 in the tube axis X direction is greater than or equal to 2 [mm], the orientation of the lamps 6008 can be detected by the difference in length.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

), each being a multiple of 300 mm, less a constant fixed amount for end-caps and the construction of the unit end. .The use of T5 tubes (rather than T8 or T12) allows the tubes to be fitted into smaller spaces, and the smaller light source also enables more accurate control of beam direction by means of optics (reflectors and lenses in the luminaire).^ Somehow I was under the impression that a watt of fluorescent lighting produced many more candles than a watt of incandescent lighting, but obviously, I overestimated the ratio."
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A setting for this suction allows the liquid level to reach a predetermined height of the glass tube 32, by using an optical sensor 45 to detect the liquid level.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When used as a light source for a backlight unit as described later, measures against ultraviolet radiation are necessary for the reasons described below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Each tube length is available in both a lower power high efficiency (HE) version, and a higher power (but lower efficiency) high output (HO) version.^ This design can easily be modified for many other uses at lower or higher power.

^ I tested this by subbing both a fast recovery and high efficiency rectifier - no difference.

^ Unlike many of the others, this circuit powers both both filaments in the tube but is otherwise very similar.

.The loading (watts per unit length) of the T5 HE tubes is similar to the original 4/6/8/13 W T5 tubes, and some manufacturers produce a range of fittings spanning both these ranges of tubes.^ Some of the slightly popular 2-tube 20 watt "trigger start" ballasts are cheap and "fussy", and only work well if everything is optimum.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every simple compact fluorescent tube electronic ballast has one of these, the value of which is 2n2/1000V. I suggest using one of them or any with the similar properties.

^ The same may be true of some cheaper two-tube 40 watt "shop light" ballasts.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When originally developed in Europe, operation from both switchstart series ballasts and electronic ballasts was specified, but electronic ballasts were rapidly taking over at the time, particularly in the commercial lighting space where these tubes are most commonly used, and switchstart series ballast operation is no longer specified by manufacturers, only electronic ballasts.^ These tubes should only be used with their respective ballasts, and these ballasts should only be used with the tubes they were designed for.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naturally, the good ballasts have no "dead-time" in their operation cycles.

^ The 25 watt tubes should only be used with appropriate 25 watt shop light ballasts, and these ballasts should only be used with these tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tube Diameter in 18 in (3.175 mm) Length Watts HE Watts HO Notes
T5 563 mm (22.2 in) 14 W 24 W fits within a 600 mm modular unit
T5 863 mm (34.0 in) 21 W 39 W fits within a 900 mm modular unit
T5 1,163 mm (45.8 in) 28 W 54 W fits within a 1200 mm modular unit
T5 1,463 mm (57.6 in) 35 W, 49 W 80 W fits within a 1500 mm modular unit

Other fluorescent lamps

Black lights
Blacklights are a subset of fluorescent lamps that are used to provide near ultraviolet light (at about 360 nm wavelength). .They are built in the same fashion as conventional fluorescent lamps but the glass tube is coated with a phosphor that converts the short-wave UV within the tube to long-wave UV rather than to visible light.^ The internal phosphor coating very efficiently converts most of the UV to visible light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inside of the tube is coated with a phosphor which produces visible light when excited with ultra-violet (UV) radiation.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other UV fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are used to provoke fluorescence (to provide dramatic effects using blacklight paint and to detect materials such as urine and certain dyes that would be invisible in visible light) as well as to attract insects to bug zappers.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The fluorescents will probably not make full light when they first get started.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The present invention was achieved in view of the above problem, and an aim thereof is to provide a fluorescent lamp that achieves a favorable luminance maintenance rate and a substantially equal initial luminance to borosilicate glass even when soda glass is used as the glass material.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

So-called .blacklite blue lamps are also made from more expensive deep purple glass known as Wood's glass rather than clear glass.^ However, since doping a composition ratio of more than 2.0 [mol %] of iron oxide stains the glass, doping a composition ratio of iron oxide in a range from 0.01 [mol %] to 2.0 [mol %] inclusive is preferable.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Why Small Fluorescent lamps Cost More than 4-Foot Ones .
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, although the glass bulb of the fluorescent lamp is made of soda glass, since the protective film is made of silica, the fluorescent lamp obtains an initial luminance equivalent to the initial luminance of a fluorescent lamp whose glass bulb is made of borosilicate glass.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The deep purple glass filters out most of the visible colors of light directly emitted by the mercury-vapor discharge, producing proportionally less visible light compared with UV light.^ They also produce slightly less light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electric current passing through the low pressure gases emits quite a bit of UV (but not much visible light).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thereafter, the glass tube 2046 is heated in a furnace 2057, and the flushed-out mercury is transferred to the electrode 2194 on the first sealed portion side.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This allows UV-induced fluorescence to be seen more easily (thereby allowing blacklight posters to seem much more dramatic).^ Hence, an electrodeless fluorescent lamp can be more easily made in the shape of an incandescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The blacklight lamps used in bug zappers do not require this refinement so it is usually omitted in the interest of cost; they are called simply blacklite (and not blacklite blue).^ The lamp requires a high voltage, usually 300 to 500 V, to strike.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamps using the blue phosphor particles of specimen 1 of the present invention, comparative example 1, and comparative example 2 are, respectively, specimen 1-2 of the present invention, comparative example 1-2, and comparative example 2-2.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the conventional method using identifying marks requires a process and equipment for applying the identifying marks, thereby leading to higher costs.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Tanning lamps
The lamps used in tanning beds contain a different phosphor blend (typically 3 to 5 or more phosphors) that emits both UVA and UVB, provoking a tanning response in most human skin. .Typically, the output is rated as 3% to 10% UVB (5% most typical) with the remaining UV as UVA. These are mainly F71, F72 or F73 HO (100 W) lamps, although 160 W VHO are somewhat common.^ These lamps do have substantial UV-A output, but mainly at a small cluster of wavelengths around 365 nanometers.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this way, although the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 10 is superior in terms of initial luminance and luminance maintenance rate, in terms of the property of blocking ultraviolet radiation, soda glass is inferior to borosilicate glass.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The typical fixture consists of: Lamp holder - the most common is designed for the straight bipin base bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One common phosphor used in these lamps is lead-activated barium disilicate, but a europium-activated strontium fluoroborate is also used.^ These lamps 10A are lit by a lighting apparatus 200 (FIG. 17) that is one of the constituent elements of the backlight unit 100A. The lighting apparatus 200 is described later.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The lamps using the blue phosphor particles of specimen 1 of the present invention, comparative example 1, and comparative example 2 are, respectively, specimen 1-2 of the present invention, comparative example 1-2, and comparative example 2-2.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These are miniaturized fluorescent lamps that usually have premium phosphors which often come packaged with an integral ballast (either iron or electronic).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early lamps used thallium as an activator, but emissions of thallium during manufacture were toxic.^ Thermal emission is the primary process used in "hot cathode" lamps which include standard fluorescent tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, manufacturing the cold cathode fluorescent lamp 1 with use of solder that does not contain lead is preferable in consideration of the environment.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Conventional compact fluorescent lamps for backlights employ a so-called bead glass sealing technique in which the glass bulb ends that are constituent elements of the lamps are sealed during the manufacturing process with use of a cylindrical bead glass.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[41]
Grow lamps
Grow lamps contain phosphor blends that encourage photosynthesis, growth, and/or flowering in plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and other light-dependent organisms. .These often emit light in the red and blue color range, which is absorbed by chlorophyll and used for photosynthesis in plants.^ These are not common and are only used where there is not enough room to fit enough standard F40 tubes to make enough light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, triphosphor lamps often make reds and greens look slightly brighter than normal, unlike halophosphate lamps which usually make these colors look dimmer than normal.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 25 watt tubes should only be used with appropriate 25 watt shop light ballasts, and these ballasts should only be used with these tubes.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
Infrared lamps
Lamps can be made with a lithium metaluminate phosphor activated with iron. This phosphor has peak emissions between 675 and 875 nanometers, with lesser emissions in the deep red part of the visible spectrum.[43]
Bilirubin lamps
Deep blue light generated from a europium-activated phosphor is used in the light therapy treatment of jaundice; light of this color penetrates skin and helps in the break up of excess bilirubin.[43]
Germicidal lamps
Germicidal lamps depend on the property that UV light kills most germs. Germicidal lamps contain no phosphor at all (technically making them gas discharge lamps rather than fluorescent) and their tubes are made of fused quartz that is transparent to the .UV light emitted by the mercury discharge.^ Please note that non-fluorescent (high pressure mercury vapor discharge) sunlamps generally emit more UV-B rays rather than the tanning-range UV-A rays.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phosphor layer 2021 includes red phosphor, green phosphor, and blue phosphor that convert ultraviolet radiation emitted from the mercury into red, green, and blue light respectively.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fluorescent lamps are a type of gas discharge tube similar to neon signs and mercury or sodium vapor street or yard lights.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The UV emitted by these tubes will kill germs and ionize oxygen to ozone. .In addition it can cause eye and skin damage and should not be used or observed without eye and skin protection.^ Others have phosphors that convert shortwave UV to medium wave UV. (Caution: Some specialty UV lamps emit shortwave or medium wave UV which is harmful and should not be used without appropriate protection or in an enclosure which prevents the escape of harmful UV radiation.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides their uses to kill germs and create ozone, they are sometimes used by geologists to identify certain species of minerals by the color of their fluorescence.^ Fluorescent tubes sometimes also "swirl" before being broken in, or if they are underpowered by an incorrect or low quality ballast.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They use a high frequency or RF magnetic field to create a time varying electric field which in turn drives a discharge which is very similar to the discharge in an ordinary fluorescent lamp.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When used in this fashion, they are fitted with filters in the same way as blacklight-blue lamps are; the filter passes the short-wave UV and blocks the visible light produced by the mercury discharge.^ They also produce slightly less light.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most UV gets through this, along with much of the dimly visible deep-violet 404.7 nanometer line of mercury.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are also used in some EPROM erasers.^ I used this circuit based on this design to build an EPROM eraser, using the 4 watt G4T5 germicidal tube.

Germicidal lamps have designations beginning with G (meaning 'Germicidal'), rather than F, for example G30T8 for a 30-watt, 1-inch (2.5 cm) diameter, 36-inch (91 cm) long germicidal lamp (as opposed to an F30T8, which would be the fluorescent lamp of the same size and rating).
Electrodeless lamps
Electrodeless induction lamps are fluorescent lamps without internal electrodes. They have been commercially available since 1990. A current is induced into the gas column using electromagnetic induction. .Because the electrodes are usually the life-limiting element of fluorescent lamps, such electrodeless lamps can have a very long service life, although they also have a higher purchase price.^ E-lamps are electrodeless fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An external electrode 6013 has been formed on an end of the lamp 6012, and an internal electrode 20 similar to the electrode 20 of the fluorescent lamp pertaining to embodiment 2 has been disposed on the other end.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following describes such a case as variation 2 of the fluorescent lamp pertaining to embodiment 2.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Cold-cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL)
Cold-cathode fluorescent lamps are used as backlighting for .LCD displays in personal computer and TV monitors.^ In recent years, even in liquid crystal display apparatuses, there is a demand for larger liquid crystal monitors for personal computers, liquid crystal television receivers, etc., and in response to this demand, there is also a demand for large-size, large-diameter fluorescent lamps for backlights.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples: TV and monitor CRTs, most vacuum tubes (or valves), vacuum fluorescent displays (like those on your VCR).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are also popular with computer case modders in recent years.

Science demonstrations

.Fluorescent lamps can be illuminated by means other than a proper electrical connection.^ There are other UV fluorescent lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp 350 has the same structure as the fluorescent lamp 300 pertaining to embodiment 3-1 of the present invention other than the phosphor layer.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, employing this structure enables suppressing, more than in conventional bead sealing, the load on the glass bulb 2154 that experiences great processing strain, and electrically connecting the hot cathode fluorescent lamp 2207 to the lead-in wires and the socket 2284 of the housing 2209 while supporting the hot cathode fluorescent lamp 2207.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These other methods however result in very dim or very short-lived illumination, and so are seen mostly in science demonstrations.^ However, note that these ballasts do not seem to be very tolerant of any sort of fault in the lamp circuit itself and may fail instantly if there is a short, open, intermittent connection, or wrong type or size lamp.

.Static electricity or a Van de Graaff generator will cause a lamp to flash momentarily as it discharges a high voltage capacitance.^ This is not possible where line voltage is 105 to 125 VAC because this is not sufficient to sustain the discharge where two lamps are in series.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lamp requires a high voltage, usually 300 to 500 V, to strike.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When power is first applied, a high voltage (several hundred volts) is needed to initiate the discharge.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Tesla coil will pass high frequency current through the tube, and since it has a high voltage as well, the gases within the tube will ionize and emit light'. Capacitive coupling with high-voltage power lines[44] can light a lamp continuously at low intensity, depending on the intensity of the electrostatic field.^ The electric current passing through the low pressure gases emits quite a bit of UV (but not much visible light).
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ripple is at 2X the power line frequency.

^ At that point, feedback is sustained via current flowing through the tube.

.Also, placing a bulb half way up a 2 way radio antenna while transmitting will illuminate the bulb due to the RF energy.^ There is a risk of a hindrance to lighting the lamp due to the discharge gas, which had been sealed inside the interior of the glass bulb, leaking from the cracked places.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Film and video use

.Special fluorescent lights are often used in film and video production.^ The following describes a cold cathode fluorescent lamp and backlight unit (lighting apparatus) pertaining to embodiment 8 with use of the drawings.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ "I have a application in mind that will use a DC power source around 100 volts and fluorescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluorescent lamps are about 2 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent lamps at producing light at the wavelengths that are useful to humans.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brand name Kino Flo are used to create softer fill light and are cooler than traditional halogen light sources.^ When used as a light source for a backlight unit as described later, measures against ultraviolet radiation are necessary for the reasons described below.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and ZrO.sub.2 have a low transmissivity for light having a wavelength of 200 [nm] or less, namely less than 30% and 20% respectively.
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ "I have a application in mind that will use a DC power source around 100 volts and fluorescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These fluorescent lights are designed with special high-frequency ballasts to prevent video flickering and high color-rendition index bulbs to approximate daylight color temperatures.^ Thus, there are cool white, warm white, colored, and black light fluorescent (long wave UV) lamps.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fluorescent lamp was the first major advance to be a commercial success in small scale lighting since the tungsten incandescent bulb.
  • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These have high transmissivity (nearly 100%) for light with a wavelength of 254 [nm].
  • FLUORESCENT LAMP, BACKLIGHT UNIT AND LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY - Patent application 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gribben, John; "The Scientists; A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors"; Random House; 2004; pp 424–432; ISBN 978-0812967883
  2. ^ US patent 865367 Fluorescent Electric Lamp
  3. ^ The pressure of the mercury vapor alone is about 0.8 Pa (8 millionths of atmospheric pressure), in a T12 40-watt lamp. See Kane and Sell 2001 page 185.
  4. ^ Raymond Kane, Heinz Sell Revolution in lamps: a chronicle of 50 years of progress (2nd ed.), The Fairmont Press, Inc. 2001 ISBN 0881733784 chapter 5
  5. ^ General Electric TP111R, pages 10–11
  6. ^ Kane and Sell 2001 page 182 and following
  7. ^ Kane and Sell 2001, page 188
  8. ^ Kane and Sell 2001, pages 196–197
  9. ^ Kane and Sell 2001, page 182
  10. ^ General Electric, Fluorescent Lamps TP 111 R page 8
  11. ^ General Electric Fluorescent Lamps TP111R, page 20
  12. ^ Klipstein, Donald L.. "Light and Lighting Facts and Bits of Data!". http://members.misty.com/don/. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  13. ^ Floyd, et al. (2002), quoted on page 184 of Toolkit for identification and quantification of mercury releases (PDF)
  14. ^ Fluorescent lamp cleanup [1] Accessed 22 Apr 2009
  15. ^ Lytle et al., "An Estimation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk from Ultraviolet Radiation Emitted by Fluorescent Lamps"; Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed (1993)
  16. ^ "Prevention of melatonin suppression by nocturnal lighting: relevance to cancer.". 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17554209. 
  17. ^ "Working with Light Sensitivity". http://www.jan.wvu.edu/soar/vision/light.html. 
  18. ^ "Accommodation Ideas for Employees with Epilepsy". http://www.jan.wvu.edu/media/epilepsy.html. 
  19. ^ "Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Lupus". http://www.jan.wvu.edu/media/Lupus.html. 
  20. ^ "Accommodating People with Vertigo". http://www.jan.wvu.edu/enews/2004/Enews_V2-I1.htm#four. 
  21. ^ Simeon D, Knutelska M, Nelson D & Guralnik O. (2003) Feeling unreal: a depersonalization disorder update of 117 cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (9): 990-7 PMID 14628973
  22. ^ Küller R, Laike T (1998). "The impact of flicker from fluorescent lighting on well-being, performance and physiological arousal". Ergonomics 41 (4): 433–47. doi:10.1080/001401398186928. 
  23. ^ Veitch JA, McColl SL (1995). "Modulation of fluorescent light: flicker rate and light source effects on visual performance and visual comfort". Light Res Tech 27 (4): 243–256. doi:10.1177/14771535950270040301. http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/fulltext/nrcc38944/. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  24. ^ Binnie CD, de Korte RA, Wisman T (1979). "Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy". Epilepsia 20 (6): 725–7. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1979.tb04856.x. PMID 499117. 
  25. ^ Colman RS, Frankel F, Ritvo E, Freeman BJ (1976). "The effects of fluorescent and incandescent illumination upon repetitive behaviors in autistic children". J Autism Child Schizophr 6 (2): 157–62. doi:10.1007/BF01538059. PMID 989489. 
  26. ^ Turner M (1999). "Annotation: Repetitive behaviour in autism: a review of psychological research". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40 (6): 839–49. doi:10.1017/S0021963099004278. PMID 10509879. 
  27. ^ GE TP 111 R
  28. ^ "Exposure and Color Temperature Variations When Photographing Under Fluorescent Lights"
  29. ^ General Electric Fluorescent Lamps TP 111R, Dec. 1978, page 22
  30. ^ LampRecycle.org Commercial Lighting: Lamp Recyclers
  31. ^ EPA.gov Mercury-Containing Light Bulb (Lamp) Regulatory Framework
  32. ^ EPA.gov Mercury-Containing Light Bulb (Lamp) Collection and Recycling Programs Where You Live
  33. ^ Funke and Oranje, "Gas Discharge Lamps"; N.V Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken (1951)
  34. ^ "EC&M: The T5 Fluorescent Lamp: Coming on Strong". 2003-09-01. http://ecmweb.com/ops/electric_fluorescent_lamp_coming/. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  35. ^ "Covington, E. J. The Story Behind This Account of Fluorescent Lamp Development". http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  36. ^ "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: T-8 lamp retrofits". http://ateam.lbl.gov/Design-Guide/DGHtm/t.8lampretrofits.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  37. ^ "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: History and problems of T12 fluorescent lamps". http://ateam.lbl.gov/Design-Guide/DGHtm/historyandproblemsoft12fluorescentlamps.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  38. ^ http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/Philips%20TL%20Aperture.htm. Aperture lamps, retrieved 2009 11 15
  39. ^ Thorn Lighting Technical Handbook
  40. ^ "Lighting Design Lab: http://www.lightingdesignlab.com/commercial/articles/Energy_Code.htm". 1995-11-01. http://ecmweb.com/ops/electric_fluorescent_lamp_coming/. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  41. ^ Kane and Sell page 120
  42. ^ Goins, GD and Yorio, NC and Sanwo, MM and Brown, CS (1997). "Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting". Journal of Experimental Botany (Soc Experiment Biol) 48 (7): 1407. doi:10.1093/jxb/48.7.1407. 
  43. ^ a b Kane and Sell pg. 122
  44. ^ "Richardbox.com at Internet Archive". http://web.archive.org/web/20080121014457/http://www.richardbox.com/. 

External links

.
  • T5 Fluorescent Systems — Lighting Research Center Research about the improved T5 relative to the previous T8 standard
  • NASA: The Fluorescent Lamp: A plasma you can use
  • Video How Fluorescent Tubes are Manufactured
  • Museum of Electric Lamp Technology
  • R. N. Thayer (1991-10-25).^ You are comparing the price of the common F40CW-T12 lamp manufactured by the zillions and sold in home centers for about $1 with specialty bulbs used in a relatively few devices like battery powered fluorescent lanterns and makeup mirrors.
    • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The lamp is a small U-shaped hot cathode fluorescent lamp made of tubing roughly 11mm diameter.

    ^ His Web site ( http://www.misty.com/~don/ ) is a valuable resource for information relating to lighting technology in general and also includes additional articles dealing with fluorescent and other discharge lamps.
    • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."The Fluorescent Lamp: Early U. S. Development".^ The development of the mercury vapor high intensity discharge (HID) lamp actually predates the fluorescent (the latter being introduced commercially in 1938, four years after the HID).
    • Fluorescent Lamps, Ballasts, and Fixtures 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC members.misty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Report courtesy of General Electric Company. http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/thayer.html. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  • Wiebe E. Bijker,Of bicycles, bakelites, and bulbs: toward a theory of sociotechnical change MIT Press, 1995, Chapter 4, preview available at Google Books, on the social construction of fluorescent lighting

Simple English


Fluorescent light bulbs are a kind of light bulb that uses very hot gas to light up. They work by heating the gas until it turns into plasma - in this way, the electrons and positive nucleii separate and can move across the light bulb to carry charge. When this charge is carried across, it lights up the bulb by current, the flow of charge. It is this flow of charge that allows energy to be dropped from the battery or mains supply to the light bulb and give out light energy.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

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