The Full Wiki

Fly: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Fly

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flies
Fossil range: 245–0 Ma
Middle Triassic - Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Diptera
Linnaeus, 1758
Suborders
.True flies are insects of the order Diptera (di = two, and ptera = wing) on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax.^ Diptera or two-winged flies.

^ A family of parasitic two-winged insects.

^ A large group of insects, including mosquitoes, gnats and houseflies, that possess a single pair of wings.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.The presence of a single pair of wings distinguishes true flies from other insects with "flie" in their name, such as mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies, stoneflies, whiteflies, fireflies, alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, sawflies, caddisflies, butterflies or scorpionflies.^ A method for studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects.
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus adult flies have only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name-- Diptera (di - two, pteron - wing).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Nematocera include generally small, delicate insects with long antennae such as mosquitoes, crane-flies, midges and their relatives.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some true flies have become secondarily wingless, especially in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, or among those that are inquilines in social insect colonies.^ Those insects that reveal their ornaments in flight (e.g., Calotarsa), fly in a slow dignified manner that allows their decorations to be seen (Sivinski & Petersson 1996).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ E. Genitalia It has been argued that the notorious complexity of some male insect genitalia, including those of certain Diptera, is in fact ornamentation, but ornamentation on a tactile level (Eberhard 1985).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Larvae highly varied: predators on aphids, in social insect nests, in decaying vegetation, aquatic (especially in polluted waters - rat-tailed maggots), herbivorous.
  • diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.cofc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diptera is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species of mosquitos, gnats, midges and others, although under half of these (about 120,000 species) have been described.^ There have been about 150,000 species of flies formally described by scientists; thus about 1 in every 10 animals described is a fly.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A large group of insects, including mosquitoes, gnats and houseflies, that possess a single pair of wings.
  • Auckland Allergy Clinic – Allergies and Allergy Terminology 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.allergyclinic.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Nutritional suitability of six algal species for rearing the pestiferous midge, Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in the laboratory.

[1] .It is one of the major insect orders both in terms of ecological and human (medical and economic) importance.^ Age structure of insect populations of medical importance.
  • Mem�rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Age Structure of Adult Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

^ I have sorted them into the major insect orders and passed on the different groups to the relevant curators.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ The major morphological feature which distinguishes flies from other insects is their reduced hind wings, termed halteres.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Diptera, in particular the mosquitoes (Culicidae), are of great importance as disease transmitters, acting as vectors for malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, encephalitis and other infectious diseases.^ Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae).
  • American Entomological Institute 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.amentinst.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several are very important disease vectors (malaria, yellow fever, filarasis, encephalitis).
  • diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.cofc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many species are particularly important as vectors of disease in man, other animals, and plants.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Anatomy and biology

Portrait of a housefly (Musca domestica)
An image of a house fly eye surface by using scanning electron microscope at 450× magnification
.Flies are well adapted for aerial movement, and typically have short and streamlined bodies.^ The female blow fly typically lays her eggs on the body of a recently killed animal.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second segment of the thorax, which bears the wings and contains the flight muscles, is greatly enlarged, with the other two segments being reduced to mere collar-like structures.^ Because of the reliance on the forewings for flight, the mesothorax has become enlarged to contain the enormous flight muscles, and the pro- and metathorax are correspondingly reduced.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As in some other structures discussed previously, it is not clear whether the terminal segments are enlarged to send a message or if the great size serves a mechanical function and is secondarily used in courtships.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A few other groups of insects have also convergently attained a similar two-winged form, such as male coccoids (Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.The third segment bears the halteres, which help to balance the insect during flight.^ The halteres are small, club-like structures that function as balancing organs during flight.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

A further adaptation for flight is the reduction in number of the neural ganglia, and concentration of nerve tissue in the thorax, a feature that is most extreme in the highly dervied Muscomorpha infraorder.[2]
A scan of a house fly taken at 40 magnifications under a scanning electron microscope.
.Flies have a mobile head with eyes, and, in most cases, have large compound eyes on the sides of the head, with fives small ocelli on the top.^ Projections from the heads of acalypterate flies: a) Stalk-eyes on a male Achias sp.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Antlers, projections from the head capsule, occur, to one extent or another, in five families of flies (Wilkinson & Dodson 1996).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Like stalk-eyes, abdominal enlargements may evolve into “honest advertisements” if only the largest females can fly with the most swollen abdomens.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The antennae take a variety of forms, but are often short, to reduce drag while flying.^ Fly larvae have an enormous variety of feeding habits, and individual species often have very precise requirements.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Brachycera includes more compact, robust flies with short antennae.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Flies consume only liquid food, and their mouthparts and digestive tract show various modifications for this diet.^ The mouthparts of flies are also characteristically suctorial and many have large fleshy pads with drainage canals termed pseudotracheae for efficient liquid uptake.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They typically consume liquid food such as nectar and other plant exudates, or often decomposing organic matter.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I've been to HOW many shows at the Independent, and finally hit up Fly Bar beforehand only last week?
  • Fly Bar - Western Addition/NOPA - San Francisco, CA 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.The most apparently primitive flies have piercing blade-like mandibles and fleshy palps, but these have become adapted into numerous different forms in different groups.^ Like stalk-eyes, abdominal enlargements may evolve into “honest advertisements” if only the largest females can fly with the most swollen abdomens.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Catching a big fish with an expertly placed fly can be one of the most satisfying feelings you're ever likely to experience.
  • Learn How To Fly Fish, Fly Fishing Tips, Casting Techniques, Fly Patterns, Fishing Knots 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.betterflyfishing.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, I attempt to correlate certain forms of decoration with different types of mating systems in various taxa of flies.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

These include both the fine stilleto-like sucking mouthparts of mosquitos, and the fleshy proboscis of houseflies. .The gut typically includes large diverticulae, allowing the insect to store small quantities of liquid after a meal.^ The Nematocera include generally small, delicate insects with long antennae such as mosquitoes, crane-flies, midges and their relatives.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Reproduction and development

.The genitalia of female flies are rotated to a varying degree from the position found in other insects.^ A method for studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects.
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult female drain /moth flies most often lay their eggs in masses on the surface of gelatinous film found in drains and sewers.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major morphological feature which distinguishes flies from other insects is their reduced hind wings, termed halteres.
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some flies this is a temporary rotation during mating, but in others, it is a permanent torsion of the organs that occurs during the pupal stage.^ Some flies have mouthparts modified for stabbing and piercing other insects, such as the predatory robber-flies (Asilidae) and dance flies (Empididae).
  • Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At least some of the ornamented robber flies both forage for food and display to mates on substrates, e.g., tree trunks (Wilcox & Martin 1936).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mating behaviors are often complex and include movements of head and legs, organs ornamented in other taxa (e.g., section “Conclusion: the locations of ornaments”).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This torsion may lead to the anus being located below the genitals, or, in the case of 360° torsion, to the sperm duct being wrapped around the gut, despite the external organs being in their usual position.^ In most cases, these differences result from one sex, usually the male, being adapted to perceive pheromones or acoustic cues.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When flies mate, the male initially flys on top of the female, facing in the same direction, but then turns round to face in the opposite direction.^ Male ornaments that appear to be solely directed to females are more widespread, but still are concentrated in the anterior regions of the body, the head, and fore and mid legs.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Just why does stroking a female’s head with tarsal plumes improve the reproductive success of a male robber fly?
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What may have originally been propaganda to intimidate rival males has come under scrutiny from females and is now used as a factor in mate choice.
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some species, this forces the male to lie on its back in order for its genitalia to remain engaged with those of the female, but in most cases, the torsion of the male genitals allows the male to mate while remaining upright.^ Females of most species deposit 20 to 40 larvae directly onto the host or substitute.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E. Genitalia It has been argued that the notorious complexity of some male insect genitalia, including those of certain Diptera, is in fact ornamentation, but ornamentation on a tactile level (Eberhard 1985).
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most females feed during the warmer parts of the day, but some species prefer the hours at dawn or dusk.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leads to flies having more reproduction abilities than most insects and at a much quicker rate.^ Its residual persistence tests, surface had more influence on the results than the environment, rate, or residual aging period.
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The larvae of some species of flesh flies are beneficial in that they prey on eggs, nymphs or larvae of more harmful insects.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lufenuron was most active on masonite, with deposits on plywood being more active than on oily-frass masonite.
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is why the flies come in great populations due to their ability to mate effectively and in a short period of time during the mating season.^ There was wide variation in population numbers during short periods, and a continuous output of nulliparous females during all months.
  • Mem�rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Age Structure of Adult Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

^ That's a pretty short time frame in terms of risk exposure due to climate change.
  • After Climategate, some insurers now doubt climate science? | SciGuy | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do males of the dance fly Empis borealis refuse to mate?
  • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www4.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.The female lays her eggs as close to the food source as possible, and development is generally rapid, allowing the larva to consume as much food as possible in a short period of time before transforming into the adult.^ The larvae use earthworms as a food source.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each adult female phorid will lay approximately 500 eggs.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female will lay about 20 eggs at a time and will lay about 40 eggs in a 12 hour period.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In extreme cases, the eggs hatch immediately after being laid, while a few flies are ovoviviparous, with the larva hatching inside the mother.^ Phorid flies develop by egg, larva, pupa and adult.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each adult female begins laying eggs a few days after hatching, laying a total of five to six batches of 75 to 100 small., white oval eggs.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eggs hatch from 1 to 3 days into yellowish-white maggots or larvae.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Larval flies, or maggots, have no true legs, and often little demarcation between the thorax and abdomen; in the more derived species, even the head is not clearly distinguishable from the rest of the body.^ An unusual oral exchange between a tachinid fly ( Myiopharus pirioni Aldrich) and a larval leaf beetle ( Procalus sp).
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Often confused with Horse flies, Deer flies are a little smaller in size.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE SCOOP: If you're looking to catch up with a friend, or have more a of a chill evening, Fly Bar is a good place to grab a drink or two.
  • Fly Bar - Western Addition/NOPA - San Francisco, CA 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.In some species, there are small prolegs on some segments, but maggots are more commonly entirely limbless.^ It does seem odd that there are some UK species missing from the national collection but it has not been a collection priority for a while.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ The larvae of some species of flesh flies are beneficial in that they prey on eggs, nymphs or larvae of more harmful insects.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eyes and antennae are reduced, or even absent, and the abdomen also lacks appendages such as cerci.^ Why do dolichopodids seem to bear so many and such various ornaments, on antennae, faces, mouthparts, legs and abdomens?
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

This general lack of features is an adaptation to the extremely food rich environment, such as within rotting organic matter, or as an endoparasite.[2]
.The pupae take various forms, and in some cases develop inside a silk cocoon.^ Inside this case, the true pupa forms.When fully formed, the adult fly breaks open the end of the pupal case and emerges.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After emerging from the pupa, the adult fly rarely lives more than a few days, and serves mainly to reproduce and to disperse in search of new food sources.^ Adult flies emerge in ten to 14 days and the life cycle is repeated.
  • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more .
  • Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.electricdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ A fast decrease in the number of pupae occurred on the seventh day owing to the formation of adults (Figure 7).
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

Classification

Fly cleaning.ogv
Cleaning
The Nematocera are usually recognized by their elongated bodies and feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera tend to have a more roundly proportioned body and very short antennae. A more recent classification has been proposed in which the Nematocera is split into two suborders, the Archidiptera and the Eudiptera, but this has not yet gained widespread acceptance among dipterists.
  1. Suborder Nematocera (77 families, 35 of them extinct) – long antennae, pronotum distinct from mesonotum. .In Nematocera, larvae are either eucephalic or hemicephalic and often aquatic.
  2. Suborder Brachycera (141 families, 8 of them extinct) – short antennae, the pupa is inside a puparium formed from the last larval skin.^ The hardened larval skin which is left behind still exhibits most of the characteristics which are used in larval identification; thus determination can often be made on the basis of the skin alone.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These larvae pass through 3 instars and pupate in the last larval skin.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Inside this case, the true pupa forms.When fully formed, the adult fly breaks open the end of the pupal case and emerges.
    • Fly Control - Flies, Drain Flies, Cluster Flies, Flys, House Flies, Black Flys, Fruit Flies 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Brachycera are generally robust flies with larvae having reduced mouthparts.^ In general, the body shapes of flies fall into a few familiar categories, ranging from the willowy (e.g., Tipulidae) to the robust (e.g., Muscidae).
    • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1. Infraorders Tabanomorpha and Asilomorpha – these comprise the majority of what was the Orthorrhapha under older classification schemes. The antennae are short, but differ in structure from those of the Muscomorpha.
    2. Infraorder Muscomorpha – (largely the Cyclorrhapha of older schemes). Muscomorpha have 3-segmented, aristate (with a bristle) antennae and larvae with three instars that are acephalic (maggots).
Most of the Muscomorpha are further subdivided into the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae based on whether or not they have a calypter (a wing flap that extends over the halteres).
Beyond that, considerable revision in the taxonomy of the flies has taken place since the introduction of modern cladistic techniques, and much remains uncertain. The secondary ranks between the suborders and the families are more out of practical or historical considerations than out of any strict respect for phylogenetic classifications (some modern cladists tend to spurn the use of Linnaean rank names). .Nearly all classifications in use now, including this article, contain some paraphyletic groupings; this is emphasized where the numerous alternative systems are most greatly at odds.^ The fact that the specimens are all double bagged and in a sealed container with massive warning labels all over them should give some hint to how bad they are!
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ We have moved things around so that the collection just follows the numbering system of one of the most used catalogues.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ So it is with some sadness that I have now nearly packed it all up and am ready for our move to the Darwin Centre on Tuesday.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

See list of families of Diptera.
Dipterans belong to the taxon Mecopterida, that also contains Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and Trichoptera. Inside it, they are sometimes classified closely together with Mecoptera and Siphonaptera in the superorder Antliophora.[3]

Evolution

.Diptera are usually thought to derive from Mecoptera or a strictly related group.^ On selected family-group names in Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera), and related nomenclature M. SPIES ( Germany ) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 10KB) free .
  • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

First true dipterans are known from the Middle Triassic, becoming widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic [4].

Flies in culture

.Flies have often been used in mythology and literature to represent agents of death and decay, such as the Biblical fourth plague of Egypt, or portrayed as nuisances (e.g., in Greek mythology, Myiagros was a god who chased away flies during the sacrifices to Zeus and Athena, and Zeus sent a fly to bite the horse Pegasus causing Bellerophon to fall back to Earth when he attempted to ride to Mount Olympus), though in a few cultures the connotation is not so negative (e.g., in the traditional Navajo religion, Big Fly is an important spirit being).^ During peak emergence, large numbers of midges fly into residential and industrial areas causing annoyance and damage.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often confused with Horse flies, Deer flies are a little smaller in size.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blow flies have played a role in medicine: species such as the green bottle fly and the black blow fly were once commonly used to clean open wounds in humans because the maggots tend to feed only on decayed tissue.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Emily Dickinson's poem "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died" also makes reference to flies in the context of death. .In fact, many flies, such as the genus Hydrotaea are used in forensic cases to determine time of death for many corpses.^ Several of us have commented on this fact that when using malaise traps (tent like trap for catching small flying insects) there is always an abundance of them.
  • NaturePlus: Curator of Diptera's Blog 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nhm.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ House flies, flesh flies, bottle flies and blow flies breed in similar substances such as decaying organic materials, garbage,animal excrement or decaying animal corpse.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many areas such as the American Southwest, blow flies are the most common type of flies found in and around houses and other human habitations.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In William Golding's Lord of the Flies, the fly is a symbol of the children involved.
.Not surprisingly, in art and entertainment, flies are also used primarily to introduce elements of horror or the simply mundane; an example of the former is the 1958 science fiction film The Fly (remade in 1986), in which a scientist accidentally exchanges parts of his body with those of a fly.^ Killer flies: Truth is stranger than science fiction.
  • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Invasive Diptera: Using molecular markers to investigate cryptic species and the global spread of introduced flies.
  • FLYTREE: Publications & Products 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.inhs.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fly Bodies and Body Parts .
  • Fly Slot Cars : Electric Dreams, New Slot Cars, Vintage Slot Cars; Scalextric, Fly, Carrera, Slot.it, Ninco, Proto Slot-Kit, 1/32 scale, 1/24 scale and more 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.electricdreams.com [Source type: News]

.Examples of the latter include trompe l'oeil paintings of the fifteenth century such as Portrait of a Carthusian by Petrus Christus, showing a fly sitting on a fake frame [5], a 2001 art project by Garnet Hertz in which a complete web server was implanted into a dead fly [1], and various musical works (such as Yoko Ono's album Fly, U2's song "The Fly," Dave Matthews' song "The Fly" and Béla Bartók's "From the Diary of a Fly").^ Projected publication date: 200903 Dowling, Robert, 1827-1886.Portrait painters Australia Biography.Art, Australian Australia History.
  • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.Damien Hirst's famous work titled A Thousand Years featured a severed cow's head contained in a box with thousands of flies and a bug zapper, creating an entire life cycle within a glass box.The ability of flies to cling to almost any surface has also inspired the title of Human Fly for stunt performers whose stunts involve climbing buildings, including both real life and fictional individuals.^ Adult flies emerge in ten to 14 days and the life cycle is repeated.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of life, including flies, moves toward or away from light, an attribute that has interested both scientists and poets (“Ah sun-flower!
  • Florida Entomologist, v. 81, n. 3, p. 282 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Aside from the fictional and conceptual role flies play in culture, there are practical roles that flies can play (e.g., flies are reared in large numbers in Japan to serve as pollinators of sunflowers in greenhouses), especially the maggots of various species.^ During peak emergence, large numbers of midges fly into residential and industrial areas causing annoyance and damage.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blow flies have played a role in medicine: species such as the green bottle fly and the black blow fly were once commonly used to clean open wounds in humans because the maggots tend to feed only on decayed tissue.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, there are about 1200 species of blow flies, and in North America there are 80.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maggots

Maggots being used to treat a wound
.Some types of maggots found on corpses have been found to be of great use to forensic scientists; specifically Forensic Entomology.^ CURTIS,J. 1825.    BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY: being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland.

.By their stage of development, these maggots (and other insects) can be used to give an indication of the time elapsed since death, as well as the place the organism died.^ These residual insecticides are applied outdoors to window frames, door frames, soffits and eaves as well as any other areas that are vulnerable to entry.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Results may have practical effects since, as time evolves, less adult females are produced, with subsequent less egg laying and less rate in the production of adult insects.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Results may have practical effects since, as time evolves, less adult females are produced, with subsequent less egg laying and less rate in the production of adult insects Figure 6.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

The lack of maggot presence is also telling in an investigation.
Maggot species can be identified using their DNA. .The size of the house fly maggot is 10–20 mm (⅜–¾ in).^ The Fruit fly is about one third the size of the house or filth fly.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the height of the summer season, a generation of flies (egg to adult) may be produced in 12–14 days.^ Mean number of Aedes Aegypti adults during 12-day incubation with regard to different homeopathic dynamizations of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil.
  • Homeopathy Forums - Forbidden medicine? - Page 1 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC forums.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Days Ago 12:14 PM by Andy B .
  • North Eastern Fly Fishing 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.njflyfishing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven- and 14-d-old adult offspring from each host plant were tested for susceptibility to acephate in 12 laboratory bioassays (2 colonies X 3 hosts X 2 ages).
  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/Labinsects/toxicology.htm 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some other families of Insecta, such as Histeridae, feed on maggots. Thus, the lack of maggots would increase the estimated time of death.
.Other types of maggots are bred commercially, as a popular bait in angling, and a food for carnivorous pets such as reptiles or birds.^ In many areas such as the American Southwest, blow flies are the most common type of flies found in and around houses and other human habitations.
  • Flies, drain flies, drain flys, fly control, cluster flies, house flies, fly, blow flies, fruit flies, 3 February 2010 15:31 UTC www.flycontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maggots have been used in medicine to clean out necrotic wounds and in food production, particularly of cheeses designed to rot as part of their 'aging' process. (casu marzu).

References

  1. ^ B. M. Wiegmann & D. K. Yeates (1996). "Tree of Life: Diptera". http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/ftp/bwiegman/fly_html/diptera.html#about. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed.. Oxford University Press. pp. 493–499. ISBN 0-19-510033-6. 
  3. ^ "Taxon: Superorder Antliophora". The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=102510. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  4. ^ V. A. Blagoderov, E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski (2002). "Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies". in A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke. History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-0026-X. http://palaeoentomolog.ru/New/diptera.html. 
  5. ^ "Portrait of a Carthusian, 1446". Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2006. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/optg/hod_49.7.19.htm. 

Biology

  • Harold Oldroyd The Natural History of Flies. .New York: W. W. Norton.1965.
  • Eugène Séguy Diptera: recueil d'etudes biologiques et systematiques sur les Dipteres du Globe (Collection of biological and systematic studies on Diptera of the World).^ A systematic study of Phytalmia (Diptera, Tephritidae).
    • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systematics of Robustagramm a, a new genus of New World Sphaeroceridae (Diptera).
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systematics of Bitheca , a new genus of New World Sphaeroceridae (Diptera).
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    11 vols. Text figs. Part of Encyclopedie Entomologique, Serie B II: Diptera. 1924-1953.
  • Eugène Seguy. .La Biologie des Dipteres 1950. pp.^ Biology and life cycle of the family Chironomidae (Ciclo de Vide y Biologia de la Familia Chironomidae).

    609. 7 col + 3 b/w plates, 225 text figs.

Classification

.
  • Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E., and Zumbado, M. (Editors) 2009 Manual of Central American Diptera.^ Taxonoomy and biology of Central American Robber Flies with an illustrated key to genera (Diptera: Asilidae).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ J.F. McAlpine, et al (Editors), Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ IN Manual of Central American Diptera, B.V. Brown, ed.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .Volume 1
    NRC Research Press, Ottawa ISBN 978-0-660-19833-0
  • Colless, D.H. & McAlpine, D.K.1991 Diptera (flies) , pp.^ AN: 44909292 ISBN: 9781742177618 ANL ANL contributed cataloguing Fruit-flies Control Victoria.Diptera Victoria.
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Contributions to the Systematics and Ecology of Aquatic Diptera - A Tribute to Ole A. Sæther."    THE CADDIS PRESS, pp.

    ^ Copenhagen, Denmark Cannings, R.A., 1997, Robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of the Yukon, Pp.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    717-786. In: The Division of Entomology. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra (spons.), The insects of Australia.Melbourne Univ. .Press, Melbourne.
  • Griffiths, G.C.D. The phylogenetic classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha, withspecial reference to the structure of the male postabdomen. Ser.^ The male genital tract and aedeagal components of the Diptera with a discussion of their phylogenetic significance.
    • FLYTREE: Publications & Products 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.inhs.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A study of terminal abdominal structures of male Diptera (Two-winged flies).
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    Ent. 8, 340 pp. [Dr. W. Junk, N. V., The Hague] (1972).
  • Willi Hennig Die Larvenformen der Dipteren. 3. Teil. Akad.-Verlag, Berlin. 185 pp., 3 pls. .1948
  • Willi Hennig (1954) Flugelgeader und System der Dipteren unter Berucksichtigung der aus dem Mesozoikum beschriebenen Fossilien.^ Contributed By: Smithsonian Institution Libraries Tags: Diptera Dipteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokótra / von Th.

    ^ [Schaeffer1916NewDipteraAsilidae.pdf] Schmidt, E., 1954, Auf der Spur von Kellemisch Betrachtungen an Libellen und anderen Insekten-Stiefkindern in Sud-Kleinasien, Sonderdruck aus Entomologische Zeitschrift, 64.
    • Roy Beckemeyer's Asilidae References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.windsofkansas.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publication Info: Wien :Aus der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei,1910.

    Beitr. Ent. 4: 245-388 (1954).
  • F. Christian Thompson. ."Sources for the Biosystematic Database of World Diptera (Flies)" (PDF).^ Revision of the horse fly genera Lissimas and Cydistomyia (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini) of Australia I.M. MACKERRAS, D.M. SPRATT & D.K. YEATES (Australia) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apiformyia , a new genus of Australian bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) with affinities to the New World Heterostylum Macquart DAVID K. YEATES (Australia) Abstract & excerpt (PDF; 20KB) free .
    • Zootaxa; Diptera 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.mapress.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cunomyia, a distinctive new hilarine fly genus from the Tasmanian World Heritage Area (Diptera: Empididae).
    • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www4.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .United States Department of Agriculture, Systematic Entomology Laboratory.^ Invitational Seminar, Department of Entomology, Sind Agricultural University, Tandojam, Sind, Pakistan, January 17, 1983.

    ^ In: Biosystematic Database of World Diptera, a CD produced and circulated by F.C. Thompson of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States National Museum.
    • University of Guelph Insect Collection - Stephen A. Marshall 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pakistan, January 3-30, 1983, invited by the United Nations Development Program, to develop an aquatic entomology research and teaching program at the Sind Agricultural University, Tandojam, Sind.

    .http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/names/BDWDsour.pdf.
     
  • Willi Hennig: Diptera (Zweifluger).^ PANDORA electronic collection Publisher site http://www.environment.gov.auArchived at ANL http://nla.gov.au/nla.arc-113122 .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Publisher site http://www.deewr.gov.auArchived at ANL http://nla.gov.au/nla.arc-97167 .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ACT Health http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=sendfile&ft=p&fid=1238634638&sid .
    • Recent Australian Government Publications December 2009 - Dewey Classified" 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nla.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    Handb. Zool. Berl. 4 (2 ) (31):1-337. General introduction with key to World Families. In German.

Evolution

.
  • Blagoderov, V.A., Lukashevich, E.D. & Mostovski, M.B. 2002. Order Diptera.^ Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous 2779 specimens Diptera 585 Eucorethrina convexa Lukashevich Archizelmira kazachstanica Rohdendorf Mesosolva longivena Mostovski .

    In: Rasnitsyn, A.P. and Quicke, D.L.J. The History of Insects, Kluwer Publ., Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 227-240.

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Fly article)

From Wikisource

The Fly
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

The Fly may refer to:
  • The Fly (1794), a poem by William Blake.
  • The Fly (1926), a poem by Osip Mandelstam.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. zebub, (Eccl 10:1; Isa 7:18). This fly was so grievous a pest that the Phoenicians invoked against it the aid of their god Baal-zebub. The prophet Isaiah (Isa 7:18) alludes to some poisonous fly which was believed to be found on the confines of Egypt, and which would be called by the Lord. .Poisonous flies exist in many parts of Africa, for instance, the different kinds of tsetse.
  2. Heb.^ Insecticide-treated cattle for controlling tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae): some questions answered, many posed.
    • References 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.nri.org [Source type: Academic]

    'arob, the name given to the insects sent as a plague on the land of Egypt (Ex 8:21ff; Ps 7845; Ps 10531). The LXX. render this by a word which means the "dog-fly," the cynomuia. The Jewish commentators regarded the Hebrew word here as connected with the word arab, which means "mingled;" and they accordingly supposed the plague to consist of a mixed multitude of animals, beasts, reptiles, and insects. .But there is no doubt that "the arab" denotes a single definite species.^ There are a number of other paths that might lead to ornamentation, any one of which could result in a world with only a single species being inhabited by ornamented animals.
    • Florida Entomologist, v. 80, n. 1, p. 142 31 January 2010 12:37 UTC www.fcla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Some interpreters regard it as the Blatta orientalis, the cockroach, a species of beetle. These insects "inflict very painful bites with their jaws; gnaw and destroy clothes, household furniture, leather, and articles of every kind, and either consume or render unavailable all eatables."
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with FLY (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

For things moving through the air, see flight.

A fly (plural: flies) is a kind of insect.

Scientists use the word fly for all the insects in the order (a group of similar animals) Diptera. Flies have only two wings; most other insects have four wings. A few flies have no wings at all and cannot fly.

Kinds of flies

There are many different kinds of flies. Scientists have named 85,000 kinds (species). Houseflies are grey or black and can be found wherever people are. Horse flies and deer flies can bite people and animals. Fruit flies can be found near fruit that is too ripe. Hoverflies look like small wasps, but they have no sting.


Some flies do not have the word fly in their name, so some people do not know they are flies. Mosquitoes are flies that bite people and can carry diseases, such as malaria. Midges are flies that look like mosquitoes, but some midges do not bite. Gnats are small flies that sometimes are in big groups called swarms.

Some insects have the word fly in their names, but they are not flies at all.

Fireflies are a kind of beetle that can make light.

Dragonflies and damselflies are from the order Odonata and are not real flies.

Butterflies are not flies. They belong in the order Lepidoptera, along with moths.

Look up Diptera in Wikispecies, a directory of species
koi:Гут



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fly, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message