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Foča
Фоча
Location of Foča within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 44°30′N 18°47′E / 44.5°N 18.783°E / 44.5; 18.783
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Government
 - Mayor Zdravko Krsmanović (SPRS)[1]
Area
 - Total 1,180 km2 (455.6 sq mi)
Population (2008)
 - Total 40,513
 - Municipality ?
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 58
Website www.opstinafoca.rs.ba
Panorama of the city

Foča (Cyrillic: Фоча), is a town and municipality in southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina on the Drina river, in the Foča Region of the Republika Srpska entity.

Contents

History

Early history

The town was known as Hvoča (Хвоча) during medieval times. It was then known as a trading centre on route between Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) and Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey).

During the Second World War local Serbs faced genocidal atrocities by Ustaše. T The municipality is also the site of the legendary Battle of Sutjeska between the Tito's Yugoslav Partisans and the German army. A monument to the Partisans killed in the battle was erected in the village of Tjentište.

Bosnian War and after

In 1992, the city came under the control of Serbian paramilitaries. All of the Bosniaks were expelled from the area. 2,704 people from Foča are missing or were killed during the war,1 the majority of whom are Bosniaks. Foča was also the site of a rape camp in Partizan hall which was set up by the Serb authorities in which hundreds of Bosniak women were raped.[2]

Once the Serb forces cleared Eastern Bosnia of much of its Bosniak civilian population, the towns and villages were securely in their hands. All of the Serb forces (ie. the military, police, paramilitaries and sometimes, villagers too) applied the same pattern: houses and apartments of the expelled population were systematically ransacked or burnt down; remaining members of the Bosniak civilian population were rounded up or captured, and sometimes beaten or killed in the process.

Men and women were separated, with many of the men detained in the camps. The women were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions, and where they were mistreated in many ways including being raped repeatedly. Serb soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them.[3] (Years later at the ICTY, the former Bosnian Serb leader and Republika Srpska president Biljana Plavšić confirmed under a plea bargain the occurrence of these mass rapes in Foča during the war.[4]). During judgement of Serb soldier Novislav Djajic Bavarian Appeals Chamber found that found that acts of genocide were committed in June 1992 within the administrative district of Foča.[5]

On 22 April 1992, the Serb Army blew up the Aladža Mosque. Eight more mosques, from the 16th and 17th centuries, were also damaged or fully destroyed.

In 1995 the Dayton Agreement created a territorial corridor linking the once-besieged Bosnian city of Gorazde to the Muslim-Croat Federation; as consequence, the northern part of Foča was separated to create the city of Foča-Ustikolina.

The city was renamed Srbinje (Serbian: Србиње), literally "place of the Serbs" (from Srbi Serbs and -nje which is a Slavic locative suffix). In 2004, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the name change unconstitutional, and reverted it to Foča, until the National Assembly of Republika Srpska passes an appropriate law.

Population

1971

48,741 total

  • Bosniaks - 25,766 (52,86%)
  • Serbs - 21,458 (44,02%)
  • Croats - 218 (0,44%)
  • Yugoslavs - 102 (0,20%)
  • Others - 1,197 (2,48%)

1991

According to the 1991 census Foča municipality had a total population of 40,513. The ethnic distribution was:

The town of Foča itself had a total population of 16,628, including:

  • Serbs 8,713 (52.39%)
  • Bosniaks 7,029 (42.27%)
  • others 886 (5.34%)

2005

No census has been taken since 1991, but data gathered from municipal sources places the current population at around 24,000, nearly all of whom are Serbs.

Current

In more recent years since , around 4,000 Muslims have returned to their homes and several mosques have opened.[6] It is not known how many returnees have stayed permanently.

Features

Foča is the capital of the municipality of Foča and of the Foča Region.

It houses some faculties (including the Medical and Orthodox Theological Faculty of Saint Basil of Ostrog.) from the Srpsko Sarajevo University. It is also home to one of seven seminaries in the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Seminary of Saint Peter of Sarajevo and Dabar-Bosna. There was also of until 1992 the home of one of Bosnia's most important Islamic high schools, the Madrassa of Mehmed-paša.

The third largest Serbian Orthodox Church church building in the Balkans is due to be built in Foča.

Sutjeska which is the oldest National Park in Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the municipality.

Gallery

Twin towns - Sister cities

Foča is twinned with:

See also

References

External links

Coordinates: 43°30′N 18°47′E / 43.5°N 18.783°E / 43.5; 18.783


The word Foca can refer to:

  • Foča, a town in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Foča massacres, atrocities perpetrated in the town of Foča during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War
  • Foča Region, one of the seven regions of Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Foça, a town in Turkey, known as Phocaea in ancient times
  • Foça Islands, an island group in the Bay of Izmir, Turkey
  • Foca camera, a brand of French-made rangefinder cameras
  • An alternative spelling of Phocas, a Byzantine emperor between 602 and 610


The acronym FOCA can refer to

See also


The word Foca can refer to:

  • Foča, a town in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Foča massacres, atrocities perpetrated in the town of Foča during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War
  • Foča Region, one of the seven regions of Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Foça, a town in Turkey, known as Phocaea in ancient times
  • Foça Islands, an island group in the Bay of Izmir, Turkey
  • Foca camera, a brand of French-made rangefinder cameras
  • An alternative spelling of Phocas, a Byzantine emperor between 602 and 610


The acronym FOCA can refer to

See also


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