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Average daily calorie consumption
Food is any substance, composed of carbohydrates, water, fats and proteins , that can be eaten or drunk by animals, including humans, for nutrition or pleasure.[1] Items considered food may be sourced from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus. .Although many human cultures sought food items through hunting and gathering, today most cultures use farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of a local nature included but playing a minor role.^ Describes the foods eaten and methods of preparation used from the times of prehistoric peoples, through classical Greek and Roman times and the Middle Ages, to developments in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

^ Collins, K.C. and L. Hunter, Foxfire 11 : the old homeplace, wild plant uses, preserving and cooking food, hunting stories, fishing, and more affairs of plain living .

^ Kinderlehrer, J., The art of cooking with love and wheat germ (and other natural foods) .

.Most traditions have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions using various spices or combinations of flavors unique to that culture.^ Zaslavsky, N., Meatless Mexican home cooking : traditional recipes that celebrate the regional flavors of Mexico .

^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Ortiz, E.L., Cooking with the young chefs of France : contemporary interpretations of traditional cuisine .

Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy etc), and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy. .Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods and manufacturing.^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

^ Broiling, in this context, means to cook food directly under a heat source.

^ Describes food customs and preparation in China, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by-way-of food, not just by consumption.
Many cultures study the dietary analysis of food habits. While evolutionarily speaking (as opposed to culturally) humans are omnivores, religion and social constructs such as morality or environmentalism will often affect which foods they will consume. Food safety is also a concern with foodborne illness claiming many lives each year typically due to contaminated or dirty water or undercooked meats. In English, food is often used metaphorically or figuratively, as in "food for thought".

Contents

Food sources

Almost all foods are of plant or animal origin. However water and salt (both inorganic substances) are important parts of the human diet. Salt is added as a flavoring but is typically a preservative in canned foods in modern times. Salt has a long history of being used to preserve meats and fish to the point where it has been used as a means of payment (see salary etymology).
.Other foods not from animal or plant sources include various edible fungi, such as mushrooms.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

.Fungi and ambient bacteria are used in the preparation of fermented and pickled foods such as leavened bread, alcoholic drinks, cheese, pickles, and yogurt.^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, appliances, equipment, cooking techniques, and nutrition.

^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, equipment, appliances, and cooking techniques.

Many cultures eat seaweed, a protist, or blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) such as Spirulina.[2] Additionally baking soda, another inorganic substance, is used in food preparation. In Japanese culture, seaweed (known as Nori) is used to wrap sushi or sashimi.

Plants

Foods from plant sources
.Many plants or plant parts are eaten as food.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

^ And what was eaten when the clubs got together...was women's food: dainty, light, frothy, sweet, creamy, and decorated...But weren't many Americans starving in the Thirties?
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

.There are around 2,000 plant species which are cultivated for food, and many have several distinct cultivars.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

[3]
.Seeds of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans because they contain nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

In fact, the majority of food consumed by human beings are seed-based foods. .Edible seeds include cereals (such as maize, wheat, and rice), legumes (such as beans, peas, and lentils), and nuts.^ Jenner, A., The amazing legume : cooking with lentils, dry beans & dry peas .

Oilseeds are often pressed to produce rich oils, such as sunflower, rapeseed (including canola oil), and sesame.[4] One of the earliest food recipes made from ground chickpeas is called hummus, which can be traced back to Ancient Egypt times. Seeds are typically high in unsaturated fats and, in moderation, are considered a health food, although not all seeds are edible. Large seeds, such as those from a lemon pose a choking hazard, whereas seeds from apples and cherries contain poison cyanide.
Fruits are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within. .Many plants have evolved fruits that are attractive as a food source to animals, so that animals will eat the fruits and excrete the seeds some distance away.^ Hey Kabuk, I have a slight news flash for you, 95% of the things you eat daily have some form of horrific animal cruelty.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diets of most cultures. Some botanical fruits, such as tomatoes, pumpkins and eggplants, are eaten as vegetables.[5] (For more information, see list of fruits.)
Vegetables are a second type of plant matter that is commonly eaten as food. These include root vegetables (such as potatoes and carrots), leaf vegetables (such as spinach and lettuce), stem vegetables (such as bamboo shoots and asparagus), and inflorescence vegetables (such as globe artichokes and broccoli). Many herbs and spices are highly-flavorsome vegetables.[6]

Animals

Various raw meats
Animals can be used as food either directly, or indirectly by the products they produce. Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from either muscle systems or from organs. Food products produced by animals include milk produced by mammals, which in many cultures is drunk or processed into dairy products such as cheese or butter. In addition birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a popular sweetener in many cultures. .Some cultures consume blood, some in the form of blood sausage, as a thickener for sauces, a cured salted form for times of food scarcity, and others use blood in stews such as civet.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

[7] Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural dietary or ideological reasons , Vegetarians do not consume meat while Vegans do not consume any food that comes or contains ingredients that come from an animal source.

Evolution

Taste

Animals, specifically humans, have 5 different types of tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (Japanese for delicious). As animals have evolved, the tastes that provide the most energy (sugar and fats) are the most pleasant to eat while others, such as bitter, are not enjoyable for evolutionary purposes.[8]

Sweet

Regarded as the most pleasant taste, sweet is almost always a type of sugar, usually a simple sugar such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose, a molecule of both combined.[9] Complex carbs are long chains and thus do not have the sweet taste. Artificial sweeteners such as sucralose are used to mimic the sugar molecule, giving one the sense of sweet, without the calories.

Sour

The sour taste is usually regarded as unpleasant. Sour is caused by acids, such as vinegar or ethanol. Sour foods include citrus, specifically lemons and limes. Sour is evolutionarily significant as it is a sign for a food that may have gone rancid due to bacteria.[10] Most foods however, are slightly acidic as they help stimulate the taste buds and enhance flavor.

Salty

Salty is the taste of sodium or salt. It is found in almost every food in low to moderate proportions to enhance flavor, although eating pure salt is extremely unpleasant. There are many different types of salt: sea salt, fleur de sel, mined salt and grey salt to name a few. Its significance is that the body needs and maintains a delicate salt (electrolyte) balance (see kidney). Too much salt with little water will result in dehydration and death. Common salts are iodized, meaning they include iodine, a nutrient that promotes thyroid function. Some canned foods, notably soups or packaged broths, tend to be high in salt as a means of preserving the food longer. Salt works as a preservative because salt promotes water excretion in microorganisms such as bacteria. Similarly, dried foods also promote food safety.[11]

Bitter

Bitter is a highly unpleasant taste characterized by having a sharp pungent taste. Dark, unsweetened chocolate, coffee (caffeine), lemon peel and some types of fruit are known to be bitter.

Umami

Umami is the least known of the tastes in Western culture but has a long tradition in Asian cuisine. Umami is the taste of glutamates, especially monosodium glutamate.[12] It is characterized as savory, meaty and delicious. Salmon and mushrooms are foods high in umami.

Presentation

It is known that when presented with food, the consumer "eats" with their eyes first. Food presented in a clean and appetizing way will encourage a good taste, possibly even if it actually tastes average or so-so.[13] .Similarly, food is usually garnished with a main ingredient in the dish so that the consumer will know what to expect when prior to consumption.^ Introduces the basic ingredients, utensils and equipment, and safety aspects of cooking and provides recipes for soups, main dishes, vegetables, and other foods.

^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

For example, a lemon curd would appropriately be garnished with some lemon slices so that the eater will anticipate a satisfying lemon taste. Messy or poorly plated food are not appetizing to eat as they psychologically trigger thoughts of uncleanliness.

Production

Food is traditionally obtained through farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of subsistence locally important. More recently, there has been a growing trend towards more sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, which is partly fueled by consumer demand, encourages biodiversity, local self-reliance and organic farming methods.[14] Major influences on food production are international organizations, (e.g. the World Trade Organization and Common Agricultural Policy), national government policy (or law), and war.[15]

Preparation

.While some food can be eaten raw, many foods undergo some form of preparation for reasons of safety, palatability, or flavor.^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

.At the simplest level this may involve washing, cutting, trimming or adding other foods or ingredients, such as spices.^ PM Mrsbuttersworth Other culture's foods may seem disgusting to us, but we eat some pretty freaky s**t, too.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Hjernespreng "Other culture's foods may seem disgusting to us, but we eat some pretty freaky s**t, too.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduces the basic ingredients, utensils and equipment, and safety aspects of cooking and provides recipes for soups, main dishes, vegetables, and other foods.

.It may also involve mixing, heating or cooling, pressure cooking, fermentation, or combination with other food.^ Staebler, E. and B. Martin, Food that really schmecks; Mennonite country cooking as prepared by my Mennonite friend, Bevvy Martin, my mother and other fine cooks .

^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Includes a variety of simple experiments involving food and cooking principles examining such questions as the effects of heat on different foods, the difference between baking powder and baking soda, and the role of salt.

In a home, most food preparation takes place in a kitchen. Some preparation is done to enhance the taste or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; and others may be involved in cultural identity. A meal is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place.[16]

Animal preparation

Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse
The preparation of animal-based food will usually involve slaughter, evisceration, hanging, portioning and rendering. In developed countries, this is usually done outside the home in slaughterhouses which are used to process animals en mass for meat production. Many countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example, the United States has established the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, which requires that an animal be stunned before killing. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as kosher shechita and dhabiĥa halal. Strict interpretations of kashrut require the animal to be fully aware when its carotid artery is cut.[17]
On the local level, a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts and pre-wrapped for commercial sale or wrapped to order in butcher paper. In addition, fish and seafood may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fish monger at the local level. However fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for preservation of quality.[18]

Cooking

Cooking with a Wok in China
The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. .Cooking technique, known as culinary art, generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result.^ Cooking Club of America., The art of cooking : recipes & techniques .

^ Carson, J., Colonial Virginia cookery : procedures, equipment, and ingredients in colonial cooking .

^ Culinary Arts Institute., Encyclopedia of nutrition & cooking .

.Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual cooking.^ Includes lists of cooking utensils, terms, and special ingredients.

^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Also includes an explanation of cooking techniques and uses of various utensils as well as riddles, jokes, and puzzles.

[19] The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural and religious considerations that impact upon it.[20]
.Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties.^ Provides complete directions for craft projects using cooking crystals, transparent plastic pellets which melt when heated in the oven and give the appearance of stained glass.

^ Brown, A., I'm just here for the food : food + heat = cooking .

[21] There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs at Homo erectus campsites dating from 420,000 years ago.[22] Boiling as a means of cooking requires a container, and was practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC with the introduction of pottery.[23]

Cooking equipment and methods

.There are many types of cooking equipment used for cooking.^ Describes the many different objects found on a beach, how to preserve them for a collection, and how to use them in handicrafts and in cooking.

.Ovens are one type of cooking equipment which can be used for baking or roasting and offer a dry-heat cooking method.^ Instructions for sewing such useful camping items as a backpack, duffle bag, and tent and for cooking over a camp fire or with an easily constructed reflector oven or roasting pit.

^ Provides complete directions for craft projects using cooking crystals, transparent plastic pellets which melt when heated in the oven and give the appearance of stained glass.

.Different cuisines will use different types of ovens, for example Indian culture uses a Tandoor oven is a cylindrical clay oven which operates at a single high temperature,[24] while western kitchens will use variable temperature convection ovens, conventional ovens, toaster ovens in addition to non-radiant heat ovens like the microwave oven.^ Toole, J., Cooking en concert with microwave : blending the best of both cooking worlds with your microwave oven, the maid in the kitchen .

^ Examines the scientific principles of heat and cold through the cooking of a variety of recipes from different countries and cultures.

^ Provides complete directions for craft projects using cooking crystals, transparent plastic pellets which melt when heated in the oven and give the appearance of stained glass.

Ovens may be wood-fired, coal-fired, gas, electric, or oil-fired.[25]
Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan, sauce pot, frying pan, pressure cooker, etc. .These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as steaming, simmering, boiling, and poaching for moist methods; while the dry methods include sautéing, pan frying, or deep-frying.^ Also includes an explanation of cooking techniques and uses of various utensils as well as riddles, jokes, and puzzles.

^ Introduces kitchen equipment and basic cooking rules and includes simple recipes for cakes, cookies, sandwiches, soups, salads, beverages, and other dishes.

^ Includes recipes for sandwiches, soups, salads, and desserts with hints on cooking techniques and handling kitchen equipment.

[26]
Traditional asado
.In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking.^ Basic introduction to cooking, with additional historical and cultural background information.

^ Describes the many different objects found on a beach, how to preserve them for a collection, and how to use them in handicrafts and in cooking.

A grill operates with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal grid and sometimes a cover. .An open bit barbecue in the American south is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by wood, liquid propane or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for smoking.^ Kelly, D., Grilling & barbecuing : food and fire in regional American cooking .

[27] .A Mexican style of barbecue is called barbacoa, which involves the cooking of meats and whole sheep over open fire.^ New York: Putnam's.Calls to fires, an injured friend, and cooking disasters threaten to keep a group of fire fighters from enjoying Thanksgiving dinner.

In Argentina, asado is prepared on a grill held over an open pit or fire made upon the ground, on which a whole animal is grilled or in other cases smaller cuts of the animal.[28]

Raw food

Many types of sushi ready to be eaten
.Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in their raw state.^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

.Salads consisting of raw vegetables or fruits are common in many cuisines.^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

Sashimi in Japanese cuisine consists of raw sliced fish or other meat, and sushi often incorporates raw fish or other seafood as well. Steak tartare and salmon tartare are dishes made from diced or ground raw beef or salmon respectively, mixed with various ingredients and served with baguette, brioche or frites.[29] .In Italy, carpaccio is a dish of very thin sliced raw beef, drizzled with a vinaigrette made with olive oil.^ Cremona, M., Cooking with Maltese olive oil : Maltese and Mediterranean dishes .

[30] The health food movement known as raw foodism promotes a mostly vegan diet of raw fruits, vegetables and grains prepared in various ways, including juicing, food dehydration, sprouting, and other methods of preparation that do not heat the food above 118 °F (48 °C).[31]

Restaurants

Tom's Restaurant, a restaurant in New York
Many cultures produce food for sale in restaurants for paying customers. .These restaurants often have trained chefs who prepare the food, while trained waitstaff serve the customers.^ Describes food customs and preparation in Mexico, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in Korea, describing typical dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in China, describing regional dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

The term restaurant is credited to the French from the 19th century, as it relates to the restorative nature of the bouillons that were once served in them. However, the concept pre-dates the naming of these establishments, as evidence suggests commercial food preparation may have existed during the age of the city of Pompeii, as well as an urban sales of prepared foods in China during the Song Dynasty. The coffee shops or cafes of 17th century Europe may also be considered an early version of the restaurant.[32] In 2005 the United States spent $496 billion annually for out-of-home dining. Expenditures by type of out-of-home dining was as follows, 40% in full-service restaurants, 37.2% in limited service restaurants (fast food), 6.6% in schools or colleges, 5.4% in bars and vending machines, 4.7% in hotels and motels, 4.0% in recreational places, and 2.2% in other which includes military bases.[33]

Food manufacture

Packaged household food items
Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase. .This can be as simple as a butcher preparing meat, or as complex as a modern international food industry.^ Describes the basic procedures and equipment needed in preparing and cooking simple foods in an outdoor setting.

^ Zabert, A. and International Cookbook Services., The art of cooking : preparing and presenting fine food .

Early food processing techniques were limited by available food preservation, packaging and transportation. This mainly involved salting, curing, curdling, drying, pickling, fermentation and smoking.[34] .Food manufacturing arose during the industrial revolution in the 19th century.^ Discusses the everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, and common foods of pioneers who traveled west on the Oregon Trail during the nineteenth century.

[35] This development took advantage of new mass markets and emerging new technology, such as milling, preservation, packaging and labeling and transportation. .It brought the advantages of pre-prepared time saving food to the bulk of ordinary people who did not employ domestic servants.^ Describes the kinds of foods grown and prepared by the Pilgrims during their first years in America, and their dependence upon Native people to ward off starvation.

^ Walsh, M., Guerrilla cooking : the survival manual for people who don't like to cook or don't have time to cook .

^ Describes the foods eaten and methods of preparation used from the times of prehistoric peoples, through classical Greek and Roman times and the Middle Ages, to developments in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

[36]
At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands. There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies.[37] Advanced technologies have also come to change food manufacture. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated processing and packaging methods, and logistics and distribution advances, can enhance product quality, improve food safety, and reduce costs.[36]

Commercial trade

International exports and imports

Food imports in 2005
The World Bank reported that the European Union was the top food importer in 2005, followed at a distance by the USA and Japan. Food is now traded and marketed on a global basis. The variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season.[38] Between 1961 and 1999, there has been a 400% increase in worldwide food exports.[39] Some countries are now economically dependent on food exports, which in some cases account for over 80% of all exports.[40]
In 1994, over 100 countries became signatories to the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in a dramatic increase in trade liberalization. This included an agreement to reduce subsidies paid to farmers, underpinned by the WTO enforcement of agricultural subsidy, tariffs, import quotas and settlement of trade disputes that cannot be bilaterally resolved.[41] .Where trade barriers are raised on the disputed grounds of public health and safety, the WTO refer the dispute to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which was founded in 1962 by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization.^ New York., The Wise encyclopedia of cookery : one of the world's most definitive reference books on food and cooking .

^ Department of Health and Social Security [and the] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food [and the] Welsh Office.

Trade liberalization has greatly affected world food trade.[42]

Marketing and retailing

Packaged food aisles of supermarket in Portland, Oregon, United States of America.
Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer. It is the chain of activities that brings food from "farm gate to plate."[43] .The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies.^ Most grocery store food ads promoted the product, not the company or brand.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Many foods were still sold in bulk; company connection was not advertised.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Del Monte Kitchens Cookbook , Del Monte Kitchens [San Francisco:1972] [NOTE: Throughout American food history, companies promoted their products through cookbooks and brochures.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one can of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and manufacture cans.[44] .The food marketing system is the largest direct and indirect non-government employer in the United States.^ This is the largest fish market in the world and an amazing scene of commerce and food.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Categories: Food and Drink In Washington state, we have a screwed up system where the state has a monopoly on liquor via the state-owned liquor stores .
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Describes the different kinds of food and methods of cooking that had been common to Indians in each of five areas of the United States.

.In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day, into the local village marketplace.^ Madison, D. and L. Smith, Local flavors : cooking and eating from America's farmers' markets .

Here food was sold to grocers for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers.[20][36] .With the onset of industrialization, and the development of the food processing industry, a wider range of food could be sold and distributed in distant locations.^ When I first moved to Seattle in 1990, I had a hard time finding Mexican restaurants that could scratch the Mexican food itch I developed in California and Texas.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them.[20][45]
In the 20th century supermarkets were born. .Supermarkets brought with them a self service approach to shopping using shopping carts, and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs.^ Garfunkel, T., The kosher companion : a guide to food, cooking, shopping, and services .

In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized, out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world.[46]
.Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large companies control a large proportion of supermarkets.^ Categories: Food and Drink Photos I saw these slabs of marble at a local market and got very hungry.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. Nevertheless, less than ten percent of consumer spending on food goes to farmers, with larger percentages going to advertising, transportation, and intermediate corporations.[47]

Prices

.Consumers worldwide faced rising food prices, it was reported on March 24, 2008. Reasons for this development are freak weather, dramatic changes in the global economy, including higher oil prices, lower food reserves and growing consumer demand in China and India.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

In the long term, prices are expected to stabilize. Farmers will grow more grain for both fuel and food and eventually bring prices down. .Already this is happening with wheat, with more crops to be planted in the United States, Canada and Europe in 2009. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization projects that consumers still face at least until 2018 more expensive food.^ Describes the different kinds of food and methods of cooking that had been common to Indians in each of five areas of the United States.

^ A collection of recipes from more than thirty countries contributed by young people living in the United States who themselves, or whose parents, have emigrated to this country.

It is rare that the spikes are hitting all major foods in most countries at once. .Food prices rose 4 percent in the United States 2007, the highest rise since 1990, and are expected to climb as much again 2008. As of December 2007, 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls.^ Describes the different kinds of food and methods of cooking that had been common to Indians in each of five areas of the United States.

^ A collection of recipes from more than thirty countries contributed by young people living in the United States who themselves, or whose parents, have emigrated to this country.

In China, the price of pork has jumped 58 percent in 2007. In the 1990s and 1980s, farm subsidies and support programs allowed major grain exporting countries to hold large surpluses, which could be tapped during food shortages to keep prices down. But new trade policies have made agricultural production much more responsive to market demands—putting global food reserves at their lowest since 1983.[48]
Food prices are rising, wealthier Asian consumers are westernizing their diets, and farmers and nations of the third world are struggling to keep up the pace. .The past five years have seen rapid growth in the contribution of Asian nations to the Global Fluid and Powdered Milk Manufacturing industry, which in 2008 accounts for more than 30% of production, while China alone accounts for more than 10% of both production and consumption in the Global Fruit and Vegetable Processing and Preserving industry.^ More than 100 recipes for antipasto, soups, vegetables, meat, fish, pasta, dessert, and other specialties.

^ A collection of recipes from more than thirty countries contributed by young people living in the United States who themselves, or whose parents, have emigrated to this country.

The trend is similarly evident in industries such as Soft Drink and Bottled Water Manufacturing, as well as Global Cocoa, Chocolate and sugar Confectionery Manufacturing, forecast to grow by 5.7% and 10.0% respectively during 2008 in response to soaring demand in China and Southeast Asian markets.[49]

Famine and hunger

Italian €2 commemorative coin of 2004 celebrating the World Food Programme
Food deprivation leads to malnutrition and ultimately starvation. This is often connected with famine, which involves the absence of food in entire communities. This can have a devastating and widespread effect on human health and mortality. .Rationing is sometimes used to distribute food in times of shortage, most notably during times of war.^ Discusses everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, most important foods, and celebrations of people on southern plantations before the Civil War.

[15]
Starvation is a significant international problem. Approximately 815 million people are undernourished, and over 16,000 children die per day from hunger-related causes.[50] Food deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using famine scales.[51]

Food aid

Food aid can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no longer required.[52] Conversely, badly managed food aid can create problems by disrupting local markets, depressing crop prices, and discouraging food production. Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence can develop.[53] Its provision, or threatened withdrawal, is sometimes used as a political tool to influence the policies of the destination country, a strategy known as food politics. Sometimes, food aid provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of donor countries.[54] International efforts to distribute food to the neediest countries are often co-ordinated by the World Food Programme.[55]

Safety

Salmonella bacteria is a common cause of foodborne illness, particularly in undercooked chicken and chicken eggs
Foodborne illness, commonly called "food poisoning," is caused by bacteria, toxins, viruses, parasites, and prions. .Roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version.^ It is easy to sit there and talk about the food that those people eat until till you are put in there situation.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ramen-making robot was built by 60-year-old shop owner Yoshihira Uchida, who spent about 20 million yen on its construction.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Seriously though, once you remove that roadblock that oh-so-many people call a conscience, food like this is fine.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The two most common factors leading to cases of bacterial foodborne illness are cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food from other uncooked foods and improper temperature control.^ Most of these menus are from California, but the food was also served in New York and other major metropolitan areas.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ PM ginakim I checked out the 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World and my goodness, the only one I could see myself eating is the Pacha and Balut.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM Mrsbuttersworth Other culture's foods may seem disgusting to us, but we eat some pretty freaky s**t, too.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Less commonly, acute adverse reactions can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and disinfectants. .Food can also be adulterated by a very wide range of articles (known as 'foreign bodies') during farming, manufacture, cooking, packaging, distribution or sale.^ Discusses the everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, and common foods of pioneers who settled in the Midwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

^ During the Depression (as is now) food/soup kitchen cooks were experts at maximizing whatever they had on hand to serve that night.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ Discusses the everyday life, cooking methods, common foods, and hardships and celebrations during the Gold Rush in California.

These foreign bodies can include pests or their droppings, hairs, cigarette butts, wood chips, and all manner of other contaminants. .It is possible for certain types of food to become contaminated if stored or presented in an unsafe container, such as a ceramic pot with lead-based glaze.^ Categories: Books and such Food and Drink As usual, we had a generous Christmas with lots of great presents.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[56]
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Flowchart
Food poisoning has been recognized as a disease of man since as early as Hippocrates.[57] The sale of rancid, contaminated or adulterated food was commonplace until introduction of hygiene, refrigeration, and vermin controls in the 19th century. Discovery of techniques for killing bacteria using heat and other microbiological studies by scientists such as Louis Pasteur contributed to the modern sanitation standards that are ubiquitous in developed nations today. This was further underpinned by the work of Justus von Liebig, which led to the development of modern food storage and food preservation methods.[58] In more recent years, a greater understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses has led to the development of more systematic approaches such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), which can identify and eliminate many risks.[59]
Recommended measures for ensuring food safety include maintaining a clean preparation area with foods of different types kept separate, ensuring an adequate cooking temperature, and refrigerating foods promptly after cooking.[60]

Allergies

.Some people have allergies or sensitivities to foods which are not problematic to most people.^ As part of the release, they have a little party with wine and some food in addition to letting people people up their wine.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ It's a bit unusual for some people I think to consider Scotch paired with food, but as I mentioned, whisky and oysters are fab .
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

^ Discusses everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, most important foods, and celebrations of people on southern plantations before the Civil War.

This occurs when a person's immune system mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it. .About 2% of adults and 8% of children have a food allergy.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

[61] The amount of the food substance required to provoke a reaction in a particularly susceptible individual can be quite small. In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are gluten, corn, shellfish (mollusks), peanuts, and soy.[61] .Allergens frequently produce symptoms such as diarrhea, rashes, bloating, vomiting, and regurgitation.^ Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen, and bloody diarrhea.
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the allergen.[61]
Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency, such as anaphylactic shock, hypotension (low blood pressure), and loss of consciousness. An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although latex products can induce similar reactions.[61] Initial treatment is with epinephrine (adrenaline), often carried by known patients in the form of an Epi-pen or Twinject.[62][63]

Diet

A package of halal-certified frozen food (steamed cabbage buns) from Jiangsu province, China

Cultural and religious diets

.Dietary habits are the habitual decisions a person or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat.^ "Prohibition, with its tremendous impact on the eating habits of the country, also had a great deal to do with the introduction of Italian food to the masses.
  • TheFood Timeline: popular American decade foods, menus, products & party planningtips 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: General]

^ It's better to eat balut, a nutitious food, than burgers and fries that can make you fat at unhealthy.:) .
  • The 6 Most Terrifying Foods in the World | Cracked.com 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Categories: Food and Drink I spent way too much time today making and eating Parmesan crisps today.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

[64] .Although humans are omnivores, many cultures hold some food preferences and some food taboos.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion. For example, only kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and halal foods by Islam, in the diet of believers.[65] In addition, the dietary choices of different countries or regions have different characteristics. This is highly related to a culture's cuisine.
Children in this photograph from a Nigerian orphanage show symptoms of malnutrition, with four illustrating the gray-blond hair symptomatic of kwashiorkor.

Diet deficiencies

Dietary habits play a significant role in the health and mortality of all humans. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy results in either starvation or excessive reserves of adipose tissue, known as body fat.[66] Poor intake of various vitamins and minerals can lead to diseases which can have far-reaching effects on health. For instance, 30% of the world's population either has, or is at risk for developing, Iodine deficiency.[67] It is estimated that at least 3 million children are blind due to vitamin A deficiency.[68] Vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy.[69] Calcium, Vitamin D and phosphorus are inter-related; the consumption of each may affect the absorption of the others. Kwashiorkor and marasmus are childhood disorders caused by lack of dietary protein.[70]

Moral, ethical, and health conscious diet

.Many individuals limit what foods they eat for reasons of morality, or other habit.^ Briefly outlines some of the many reasons that water is necessary for life, from growing plants, cooking food, and washing things to staying cool.

For instance vegetarians choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. .Others choose a healthier diet, avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary fiber and antioxidants.^ Milkon, P.A., Cooking healthy with BCV's shortcuts : delicious recipes lower in fat/cholesterol/sodium with no refined sugar plus nutrient data .

[71] Obesity, a serious problem in the western world, leads to higher chances of developing heart disease, diabetes, and many other diseases.[72] .More recently, dietary habits have been influenced by the concerns that some people have about possible impacts on health or the environment from genetically modified food.^ Lamb, L.E., What you need to know about food & cooking for health .

[73] Further concerns about the impact of industrial farming (grains) on animal welfare, human health and the environment are also having an effect on contemporary human dietary habits. This has led to the emergence of a counterculture with a preference for organic and local food.[74]

Nutrition

Between the extremes of optimal health and death from starvation or malnutrition, there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as scurvy, obesity or osteoporosis, as well as psychological and behavioral problems. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.
.Nutrients in food are grouped into several categories.^ Categories: Food and Drink A group of us had a very tasty and fun meal at the Harvest Vine , a tapas restaurant just outside of downtown Seattle.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

Macronutrients means fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients are the minerals and vitamins. Additionally food contains water and dietary fiber.

Legal definition

.Some countries list a legal definition of food.^ I'm not sure USA Today is really the definitive source for all things food, but based on the one place on the list I've been ( Goode Company Bar.
  • Tonynet Explorer: Food and Drink Archives 22 September 2009 13:28 UTC www.tonychor.com [Source type: General]

These countries list food as any item that is to be processed, partially processed or unprocessed for consumption. The listing of items included as foodstuffs include any substance, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans. In addition to these foodstuffs, drink, chewing gum, water or other items processed into said food items are part of the legal definition of food. .Items not included in the legal definition of food include animal feed, live animals unless being prepared for sale in a market, plants prior to harvesting, medicinal products, cosmetics, tobacco and tobacco products, narcotic or psychotropic substances, and residues and contaminants.^ Describes food customs and preparation in Mexico, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Pringle, L.P. and P. Breeden, Wild foods : a beginner's guide to identifying, harvesting and cooking safe and tasty plants from the outdoors .

^ Describes food customs and preparation in China, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

[75]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Although some consider that the definition of food is nutrition only, such as the Australian Taxation Office that has a formal definition of food. ATO Interpretative Decision - GST and psyllium husks
  2. ^ McGee, 333-334.
  3. ^ McGee ,253.
  4. ^ McGee, Chapter 9.
  5. ^ McGee, Chapter 7.
  6. ^ McGee, Chapter 6.
  7. ^ Davidson, 81-82.
  8. ^ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/28063.php
  9. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  10. ^ States "having an acid taste like lemon or vinegar : she sampled the wine and found it was sour. • (of food, esp. milk) spoiled because of fermentation." New Oxford American Dictionary
  11. ^ http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Fe-Ge/Food-Preservatives.html
  12. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  13. ^ http://www.brain-food.org/blog/you-first-eat-with-your-eyes
  14. ^ Mason
  15. ^ a b Messer, 53-91.
  16. ^ Mead, 11-19
  17. ^ McGee, 142-143.
  18. ^ McGee, 202-206
  19. ^ McGee Chapter 14.
  20. ^ a b c Mead, 11-19.
  21. ^ McGee
  22. ^ Campbell, 312.
  23. ^ McGee, 784.
  24. ^ Davidson, 782-783
  25. ^ McGee, 539,784.
  26. ^ McGee, 771-791
  27. ^ Davidson, 356.
  28. ^ Asado Argentina
  29. ^ Davidson, 786-787.
  30. ^ Robuchon, 224.
  31. ^ Davidson, 656
  32. ^ Davidson, 660-661.
  33. ^ United States Department of Agriculture
  34. ^ Aguilera, 1-3.
  35. ^ Miguel, 3.
  36. ^ a b c Jango-Cohen
  37. ^ Hannaford
  38. ^ The Economic Research Service of the USDA
  39. ^ Regmi
  40. ^ CIA World Factbook
  41. ^ World Trade Organization, The Uruguay Round
  42. ^ Van den Bossche
  43. ^ Wansink, Marketing Nutrition, 501-3.
  44. ^ Smith, 501-3.
  45. ^ Benson
  46. ^ Humphery
  47. ^ Magdoff, Fred (Ed.) "[T]he farmer's share of the food dollar (after paying for input costs) has steadily declined from about 40 percent in 1910 to less than 10 percent in 1990."
  48. ^ CNN "[Food prices rising across the world" 24 March 2008
  49. ^ May 2008, Global Trends: - Food Production and Consumption: The China Effect, IBISWorld
  50. ^ World Health Organization
  51. ^ Howe, 353-372
  52. ^ World Food Programme
  53. ^ Shah
  54. ^ Kripke
  55. ^ United Nations World Food program
  56. ^ a b National Institute of Health, MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
  57. ^ Hippocrates, On Acute Diseases.
  58. ^ Magner, 243-498
  59. ^ USDA
  60. ^ http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/basics/index.html
  61. ^ a b c d National Institute of Health
  62. ^ About Epipen, Epipen.com
  63. ^ About Twinject, Twinject.com
  64. ^ Wansink, Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think
  65. ^ Simoons
  66. ^ Nicklas
  67. ^ Merson, 245
  68. ^ Merson, 231.
  69. ^ Merson, 464.
  70. ^ Merson, 224.
  71. ^ Carpenter
  72. ^ Merson, 266-268.
  73. ^ Parekh,187-206.
  74. ^ Schor
  75. ^ United Kingdom Office of Public Sector Information

References

  • Aguilera, Jose Miguel and David W. Stanley. Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering. Springer, 1999. ISBN 0-8342-1256-0.
  • Asado Argentina. About Asado Argentina. Retrieved from http://www.asadoargentina.com/about-asado-argentina/ on 2007-05-28.
  • Campbell, Bernard Grant. Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations. Aldine Transaction: 1998. ISBN 0-202-02042-8.
  • Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Finley, Carrie E. Healthy Eating Every Day. Human Kinetics, 2005. ISBN 0-7360-5186-4.
  • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd ed. .UK: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.^ Melbourne ; New York: Oxford University Press.

    ^ Delhi ; New York: Oxford University Press.

    The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005. . Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0200e/a0200e00.htm on 2006-09-29.
  • Hannaford, Steve. Oligopoly Watch: Top 20 world food companies. Retrieved from http://www.oligopolywatch.com/2005/10/06.html on 2006-09-23.
  • Howe, P. and S. Devereux. Famine Intensity and Magnitude Scales: A Proposal for an Instrumental Definition of Famine. 2004.
  • Humphery, Kim. Shelf Life: Supermarkets and the Changing Cultures of Consumption. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-62630-7.
  • Jango-Cohen, Judith. The History Of Food. .Twenty-First Century Books, 2005. ISBN 0-8225-2484-8.
  • Jurgens, Marshall H. Animal Feeding and Nutrition.^ Stevens, D., The first book of vegetarian cooking : more than 300 recipes combining great taste with good nutrition .

    Kendall Hunt, 2001. ISBN 0-7872-7839-4.
  • Kripke, Gawain. Food aid or hidden dumping?. Oxfam International,March 2005. Retrieved from http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/briefingpapers/bp71_food_aid_240305 on 2007-05-26.
  • Lawrie, Stephen; R A Lawrie. Lawrie's Meat Science. Woodhead Publishing: 1998. ISBN 1-85573-395-1.
  • Magdoff, Fred; Foster, John Bellamy; and Buttel, Frederick H. Hungry for Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food, and the Environment. September 2000. ISBN 1-58367-016-5.
  • Mason, John. Sustainable Agriculture. Landlinks Press: 2003. ISBN 0-643-06876-7.
  • Merson, Michael H.; Black, Robert E.; Mills, Anne J. International Public Health: Disease, Programs, Systems, and Policies. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2005.
  • McGee, Harold. .On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.^ Brooks, K. and G. Bosker, The global kitchen : the authoritative reference on cooking, seasoning, and dieting with ethnic and natural foods .

    ^ A textbook introduction to foods, including discussions of cooking terminology, kitchen utensils and sanitation, nutrition, shopping, and eating out.

    ^ Lehrer, S., Cooking at cooktique : over 200 international food classics from a teaching kitchen .

    .New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
  • Mead, Margaret.^ New York, N.Y.: Simon & Schuster.

    ^ New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster.

    ^ New York: Simon & Schuster Joanne Weir ; photographs by Penina Meisels.

    The Changing Significance of Food. In Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (Ed.), Food and Culture: A Reader. UK: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-91710-7.
  • Messer, Ellen; Derose, Laurie Fields and Sara Millman. Who's Hungry? and How Do We Know?: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. United Nations University Press, 1998. ISBN 92-808-0985-7.
  • National Institute of Health. Food poisoning. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia F. May 11, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/pdf/foodallergy.pdf on 2006-09-29.
  • Nicklas, Barbara J. Endurance Exercise and Adipose Tissue. CRC Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8493-0460-1.
  • Parekh, Sarad R. The Gmo Handbook: Genetically Modified Animals, Microbes, and Plants in Biotechnology. Humana Press,2004. ISBN 1-58829-307-6.
  • Regmi, Anita (editor).Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption and Trade. Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA, May 30, 2001. stock #ERSWRS01-1.
  • Schor, Juliet; Taylor, Betsy (editors). Sustainable Planet: Roadmaps for the Twenty-First Century. Beacon Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8070-0455-3.
  • Shah, Anup. Food Dumping (Aid) Maintains Poverty. Causes of Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/FoodDumping.asp on 2006-09-29.
  • Simoons, Frederick J. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. ISBN 0-299-14250-7.
  • Smith, Andrew (Editor). “Food .Marketing,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, , New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • The Economic Research Service of the USDA. Global Food Markets: Briefing Rooms.^ New York: New American Library.

    ^ New York., The Wise encyclopedia of cookery : one of the world's most definitive reference books on food and cooking .

    ^ New York: Four Winds Press.

    Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/ on 2006-09-29.
  • United Kingdom Office of Public Sector Information. Food Safety Act 1990 (c. 16). .Retrieved from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900016_en_2.htm#mdiv1 on 2006-11-08.
  • United States Department of Agriculture, USDA Economic Research Service: The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America.^ Describes the different kinds of food and methods of cooking that had been common to Indians in each of five areas of the United States.

    ^ Department of Health and Social Security [and the] Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food [and the] Welsh Office.

    "Briefing Rooms, Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Food Expenditure Tables". Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/CPIFoodAndExpenditures/Data/ on 2007-06-06.
  • Van den Bossche, Peter. The Law and Policy of the bosanac Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Materials. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-82290-4.
  • World Food Programme. .Breaking out of the Poverty Trap: How We Use Food Aid.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

    Retrieved from http://www.wfp.org/food_aid/introduction/index.asp?section=12&sub_section=1 on 2006-09-29.
  • World Health Organization. WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en/ on 2006-09-29.
  • World Trade Organization. The Uruguay Round. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/trade_resources/history/wto/urug_round.htm on 2006-09-29.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FOOD (like the verb "to feed," from a Teutonic root, whence O. Eng. foda; cf. "fodder"; connected with Gr. irar€7a®at, to feed), the general term for what is eaten by man and other creatures for the sustenance of life. The scientific aspect of human food iS dealt with under Nutrition and Dietetics.

Infancy

The influence of a normal diet upon the health of man (we exclude here the question of diet in illness, which must depend on the abnormal conditions existing) begins at the earliest stage of his life. No food has as yet been found so suitable for the young of all animals as their mother's milk. This, however, has not been from want of seeking. Dr Brouzet (Sur l'education medicinale des enfants, i. p. 165) had such a bad opinion of human mothers, that he expressed a wish for the state to interfere and prevent them from suckling their children, lest they should communicate immorality and disease! A still more determined pessimist was the famous chemist Van Helmont, who thought life had been reduced to its present shortness by our inborn propensities, and proposed to substitute bread boiled in beer and honey for milk, which latter he calls "brute's food." Baron Justus von Liebig, as the result of his chemical researches, introduced a "food for infants," which in more modern days has been followed by a multiplication of patent foods. A close imitation of human milk may also be made by the addition to fresh cow's milk of half its bulk of soft water, in each pint of which has been mixed a heaped-up teaspoonful of powdered "sugar' of milk" and a pinch of phosphate of lime. These artificial substitutes for the natural nutriment have their value where for any reason it is not available. The wholesomest food, however, for the first six months is certainly mother's milk alone. A vigorous baby can indeed bear with impunity much rough usage, and often appears none the worse for a certain quantity of farinaceous food; but the majority do not get habituated to it without an exhibition of dislike which indicates rebellion of the bowels. It is only when the teeth are on their way to the front, as shown by dribbling, that the parotid glands secrete an active saliva capable of digesting bread stuffs. Till then anything but milk must be given tentatively, and considered in the light of a means of education for its future mode of nutrition.
The time for weaning should be fixed partly by the child's age, partly by the growth of the teeth. The first group of teeth nine times out of ten consists of the lower central front teeth, which may appear any time during the sixth and seventh month. The mother may then begin to diminish the number of suckling times; and by a month she can have reduced them to twice a day, so as to be ready when the second group makes its way through the upper front gums to cut off the supply altogether. The third group, the lateral incisors and first grinders, usually after the first anniversary of birth, give notice that solid food can be chewed. But it is prudent to let dairy milk form a considerable portion of the fare till the eye-teeth are cut, which seldom happens till the eighteenth or twentieth month.

Childhood and Youth

At this stage of life the diet must obviously be the best which is a transition from that of infancy to that of adult age. Growth is not completed, but yet entire surrender of every consideration to the claim of growth is not possible, nor indeed desirable. Moreover, that abundance of adipose tissue, or reserve new growth, which a baby can bear is an impediment to the due education of the muscles of the boy or girl. .The supply of nutriment need not be so continuous as before, but at the same time should be more frequent than for the adult.^ Johnson, R., The American table : more than 400 recipes that make accessible for the first time the full richness of American regional cooking .

Up to at least fourteen or fifteen years of age the rule should be four meals a day, varied indeed, but nearly equal in nutritive power and in quantity, that is to say, all moderate, all sufficient. The maturity the body then reaches involves a hardening and enlargement of the bones and cartilages, and a strengthening of the digestive organs, which in healthy young persons enables us to dispense with some of the watchful care bestowed upon their diet. Three full meals a day are generally sufficient, and the requirements of mental training may be allowed to a certain extent to modify the attention to nutrition which has hitherto been paramount.

Adults

It is only necessary here to refer to the article on Dietetics (see also Vegetarianism) for a discussion of the food of normal adults; and to such headings as Dietary (for fixed allowances) or Cookery. Different staple articles of food are dealt with under their own headings. For animals other than man see the respective articles on them.
Among numerous books on the subject, in addition to those enumerated under Dietetics, see Sir Henry Thompson's Foods and Feeding (1894); Hart's Diet in Sickness and Health (1896); Knight, Food and its Functions (1895).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to food article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Most common English words: respect « that's « Christian « #745: food » trying » states » wished

Etymology

Old English fōda, from Proto-Germanic *fod-, by Grimm's law from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂, *poh₂ (to protect).

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
food
Plural
countable and uncountable; plural foods
food (countable and uncountable; plural foods)
  1. (uncountable) Any substance that is or can be consumed by living organisms, especially by eating, in order to sustain life.
    The innkeeper brought them food and drink.
  2. (uncountable, figuratively) Anything intended to supply energy or nourishment of an entity or idea.
    That is food for thought.
  3. (countable) A foodstuff.
    This shop stocks many hundreds of different foods.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

See also

External links

Anagrams


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Cookbook:Table of Contents article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Wikimedia Cookbook
A collection of recipes from around the world

Featured Recipe

.
A plate of spaghetti alla carbonara
Spaghetti alla carbonara is an Italian pasta dish based on eggs, pecorino romano, guanciale, and black pepper.^ Add 1 can of cream of mushrooms soup, beaten eggs, black pepper, poultry seasoning, chicken broth, and cooked chicken pieces.

^ Take cooked noodles, spaghetti, pasta or rice as a base for your casserole.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ Quick Cooking Cereals: Small pasta like angel hair, bow or even shells can be boiled in minutes to form the base for a main dish or salad.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

It was created in the middle of the 20th century.

Featured Ingredient

A plate of plain spaghetti
.Pasta, or alimentary paste, is a class of foods made from an unleavened dough formed into a variety of shapes (most commonly, thin strips called "noodles").^ We’re braising pumpkin that is cut in a cylinder shape, then cooling it down and wrapping it with a brick dough, which is a thin French pastry dough.

^ Deaths and less severe reactions were linked most commonly to restaurants foods.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are more easily incorporated into foods (other than fruit juices) when they are converted to ester forms.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a carbohydrate-rich basis for many meals.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world for food to man (Gen 1:29), with the exception mentioned (Gen 2:17).^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

The use of animal food was probably not unknown to the antediluvians. There is, however, a distinct law on the subject given to Noah after the Deluge (Gen 9:2ff). .Various articles of food used in the patriarchal age are mentioned in Gen 18:6ff; Gen 25:34; Gen 27:3f; Gen 43:11.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

Regarding the food of the Israelites in Egypt, see Ex 16:3; Num 11:5. In the wilderness their ordinary food was miraculously supplied in the manna. They had also quails (Ex 16:11ff; Num 11:31).
In the law of Moses there are special regulations as to the animals to be used for food (Lev. 11; Deut 14:3ff). The Jews were also forbidden to use as food anything that had been consecrated to idols (Ex 34:15), or animals that had died of disease or had been torn by wild beasts (Ex 22:31; Lev 22:8). (See also for other restrictions Ex 23:19; Ex 29:13ff; Lev 3:4ff; Lev 9:18f; Lev 22:8; Deut 14:21.) But beyond these restrictions they had a large grant from God (Deut 14:26; Deut 32:13f).
.Food was prepared for use in various ways.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Bennett, B., Cooking out of the box : the easy way to turn prepared convenience foods into delicious family meals .

The cereals were sometimes eaten without any preparation (Lev 23:14; Deut 23:25; 2Kg 4:42). Vegetables were cooked by boiling (Gen 25:30ff; 2Kg 4:38f), and thus also other articles of food were prepared for use (Gen 27:4; Prov 23:3; Ezek 24:10; Lk 24:42; Jn 21:9). Food was also prepared by roasting (Ex 12:8; Lev 2:14). (See also Cook)
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Food is one of the resourses the player collects for Age of Empires and Age of Mythology.
In order to train units and advance through the ages, food is usually needed.

Ways to get Food

.1. Hunt Animals: Animals are a good source of food, the only disadvantage being that they are scattered all over the map.^ Hunt Foods Company., Hunt's good for you cooking : includes easy & timesaving recipes .

Some animals run away from units. Some attack units. Some animals cannot be hunted (Birds, turtles).Note that in AoE, the food content of an animal deteriorates over time.
2. Gather/forage from berry bushes. There are usually not many forage bushes on the map.
3. Farm: And get food. In AoEIII and AoC, the farms are unlimited.In Aoe, farms must be built by villagers, if not already provided in the scenario, and contain a limited quantity of food.
4. Markets: You can trade gold for food.In AoE, markets are the prerequisites of farms (see above).
5. Fishing: Fishing boats, caravels, and sometimes villagers can usually gather fish if there is a signifigant amount of water on the map.
6. Fish traps: similar to farms built by fishing boats in AoEII have 600 food in them and are built by using 100 wood
In AoE, docks and trading posts (AoEIII) are another ways to get food, and act as a market. Also usually only villagers can get food.

Cheats to get Food

Age of Empires: Pepperoni Pizza
Age of Empires II: Cheese Steak Jimmy's
Age of Empires III: Medium Rare Please
Age of Mythology: JUNK FOOD NIGHT

This page is extracted from Age of Empires.

This article uses material from the "Food" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|200px|Different plants that are eaten.]]

[[File:|thumb|200px|Different kinds of meat.]]

Food is material that comes from animals or plants, eaten by living things to provide energy and nutrition. Food contains the nutrition that people need to be healthy. People need to eat protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals to be healthy. Liquids used for energy and nutrition are often called "drinks".

Food for humans is mostly made through farming or gardening, and includes animal and vegetable sources. Some people refuse to eat food from animal origin, like meat, eggs and products with milk in them. Not eating meat is called vegetarianism. Not eating or using any animal products is called veganism.

Basic foods consumed by humans
Plant source Animal source

Food produced by farmers or gardeners can be transformed by industrial processes (the food industry). Processed food usually contains several natural ingredients and food additives (such as preservative, antioxidants, emulsifiers, flavour enhancers, etc.).

At home, food is prepared in the kitchen, by the cook. The cook sometimes uses a cookbook. Examples of cooking utensils are pressure cooker, pot, and pan.

Food can also be prepared and served in restaurants (often workers, or in the evening for entertainment) or refectory (in particular for kids in school).

The utensils used may be a plate, knife, fork, chopsticks, spoon, bowl, or spork.

Most people do not grow their own food, so they have to buy food that was grown by someone else. People buy most of their food in stores, shops, or markets. But some people still grow most or all of their own food.

People may buy food and take it home to cook it, or buy food that is ready to eat from a street vendor, or in a restaurant.

Food-related issues

Food shortage is still a big problem in the world today. Many people do not have enough money to buy the food that they need. Bad weather or other problems sometimes destroy the growing food in one part of the world. When people do not have enough food, we say that they are hungry. If they do not eat enough food for a long time, they will become sick and die from starvation. In areas where many people do not have enough food, we say that there is famine there.

Food can make people sick if it is contaminated by micro-organisms, heavy metals, or chemicals.

If people do not eat the right foods, they can become sick. If people do not eat enough protein, they get the disease called kwashiorkor. If they do not eat enough vitamin B1 (thiamine), they get the disease called beriberi. If people eat too much food, they can become overweight or obese. This is also bad for people's health.

Food in religions

Many cultures or religions have food taboos. That means they have rules what people should not eat, or how the food has to be prepared. Examples of religious food rules are the Kashrut of Judaism and the Halal of Islam, that say that pig meat cannot be eaten. In Hinduism, beef is not allowed to be eaten.

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rue:Їджіня

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Coconut, which are similar to those in the above article.








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