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.
Some of the many different games known as football.
^ Consuming Passions: A Working Paper Outlining Some of the Key Changes in Football Club Support, with Regard to Commercial Changes in the Game.

From top left to bottom right: Association football, Australian rules football, International rules football, Rugby Union, Rugby League, and American Football.
.Football is the name of several similar team sports, all with similar origins which involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with the foot in an attempt to score a goal.^ He was also named first team All-OAC. .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ He nailed all three of his field-goal attempts of 32, 25, and 32 yards; and all four extra points.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO—Six members of the 2007 Otterbein football team were selected to All-Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC) teams, the OAC released today.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football, more commonly known as just "football" or "soccer". However, the word football is applied to whichever form of football is the most popular in each particular part of the world.^ Otterbein, 8-1 overall, needs just one more win to set a school record for most wins in a season.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Capital has the series at 41-38-3, however, since football was not recognized as an official varsity sport at Capital until 1923.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in Particular at Football Matches..

.Hence, the English language word "football" is applied to "gridiron football," a name associated with American football and Canadian football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, Rugby league, Rugby union and some related games.^ Association Football and English Society 1863-1915 .

^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ With the win, Otterbein cracked the Top 25 in both the American Football Coaches Association poll, 24th, and D3football.com poll, 25th.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

These variations are known as "codes".

Contents

Common elements

The various codes of football share the following elements in common:
  • Two teams of usually between 11 and 18 players; some variations that have fewer players (five or more per team) are also popular.
  • A clearly defined area in which to play the game.
  • Scoring goals or points, by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line.
  • Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between two goalposts.
  • The goal or line being defended by the opposing team.
  • Players being required to move the ball—depending on the code—by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball.
  • Players using only their body to move the ball.
.In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts.^ "Mike (Detwiler) is probably the most under-utilized player in our offense," said Loth.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.Other features common to several football codes include: points being mostly scored by players carrying the ball across the goal line; and players receiving a free kick after they take a mark or make a fair catch.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron scored on a 92-yard kickoff return and was named OAC “player of the week” on special teams.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.Peoples from around the world have played games which involved kicking or carrying a ball, since ancient times.^ You add Jack Rafferty and Dan Gendron to the mix and we have four pretty good ball carriers on the field at the same time.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein gained 122 rushing yards on 20 carries, throwing the ball just two times in the quarter.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Cardinals have played to a 6-2 record since losing to Ohio Northern, 27-14, at home in the fourth game of last season.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

However, most of the modern codes of football have their origins in England[1].

Etymology

.While it is widely assumed that the word "football" (or "foot ball") references the action of the foot kicking a ball, there is a historical explanation, which is that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot.^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Defensively, we played a second-straight solid football game,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[2] .These games were usually played by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by aristocrats.^ In J.H. Goldstein (ed), Sports, Games and Play .

.There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation, and the word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not just those that involved kicking a ball.^ Just play smart football.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Cardinals played a near flawless game—committing just one turnover—against one of the best defenses in the nation on their way to their third-consecutive win.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.In some cases, the word football has even been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the ball.^ The game ball will be delivered to the Otterbein captains via air mail as an Army soldier is expected to parachute onto the field with the football at 1:56 p.m.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Present day codes and families

Association football and descendants

An indoor soccer game at an open air venue in Mexico. .The referee has just awarded the red team a free kick.
  • Association football, also known as football, soccer, footy and footie
  • Indoor/basketball court varieties of Football:
    • Five-a-side football — played throughout the world under various rules including:
      • Futsal — the FIFA-approved five-a-side indoor game
      • Minivoetbal — the five-a-side indoor game played in East and West Flanders where it is hugely popular
      • Papi fut the five-a-side game played in outdoor basketball courts (built with goals) in Central America.
    • Indoor soccer — the six-a-side indoor game, known in Latin America, where it is often played in open air venues, as fútbol rápido ("fast football")
    • Masters Football six-a-side played in Europe by mature professionals (35 years and older)
  • Paralympic football — modified Football for athletes with a disability.^ Defiance, under fourth-year head coach Robert Taylor, comes into the game off a 35-9 nonconference loss to Adrian last Saturday in Defiance.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The senior class enters today’s game with a 20-19 record over its four years of play and has an opportunity to leave Otterbein with a winning record, something not done since the class of 1982.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    [3] Includes:
  • Beach soccer — football played on sand, also known as beach football and sand soccer
  • Street football — encompasses a number of informal varieties of football
  • Rush goalie — is a variation of football in which the role of the goalkeeper is more flexible than normal
  • Headers and volleys — where the aim is to score goals against a goalkeeper using only headers and volleys
  • Crab football — players stand on their hands and feet and move around on their backs whilst playing football as normal
  • Swamp soccer — the game is played on a swamp or bog field

Rugby school football and descendants

  • Rugby football
  • Gridiron football
    • American football — called "football" in the United States and Canada, and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand.^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

      ^ For additional information, see below: Kieran Johnson —Named first team All-OAC and second team Football Gazette All-North Region in 2006.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      Sometimes called "tackle football" to distinguish it from the touch versions
    • Indoor football, arena football — an indoor version of American football
    • Nine-man football, eight-man football, six-man football — versions of tackle football, played primarily by smaller high schools that lack enough players to field full 11-man teams
    • Touch football (American) — non-tackle American football
      • Flag football — non-tackle American football, like touch football, in which a flag that is held by velcro on a belt tied around the waist is pulled by defenders to indicate a tackle
    • Street football (American) — American football played in backyards without equipment and with simplified rules
    • Canadian football — called simply "football" in Canada; "football" in Canada can mean either Canadian or American football depending on context
      • Canadian flag football — non-tackle Canadian football
      • Nine-man football — similar to nine-man American football, but using Canadian rules; played by smaller schools in Saskatchewan that lack enough players to field full 12-man teams

Irish and Australian varieties

International rules football test match from the 2005 International Rules Series between Australia and Ireland at Telstra Dome, Melbourne, Australia.
These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the requirement to bounce or solo (toe-kick) the ball while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
.
  • Australian rules football — officially known as "Australian football", and informally as "football", "footy" or "Aussie rules". In some areas (erroneously) referred to as "AFL", which is the name of the main organising body and competition
    • Auskick — a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children
    • Metro footy (or Metro rules footy) — a modified version invented by the USAFL, for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches)
    • Kick-to-kick - informal versions of the game
    • 9-a-side footy — a more open, running variety of Australian rules, requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area (includes contact and non-contact varieties)
    • Rec footy — "Recreational Football", a modified non-contact touch variation of Australian rules, created by the AFL, which replaces tackles with tags
    • Touch Aussie Rules — a non-contact variation of Australian Rules played only in the United Kingdom
    • Samoa rules — localised version adapted to Samoan conditions, such as the use of rugby football fields
    • Masters Australian football (a.k.a.^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      ^ Capital still had a one more chance, recovering the ensuing squib kick at the Otterbein 48-yard line with 38 seconds to play.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      ^ Stelzer, a two-year letterman on the defensive line, has registered 31 total tackles on the year (13 solo, 18 assisted.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      Superules) — reduced contact version introduced for competitions limited to players over 30 years of age
    • Women's Australian rules football — played with a smaller ball and (sometimes) reduced contact version introduced for women's competition
  • Gaelic football — Played predominantly in Ireland. Sometimes referred to as "football" or "gaah" (from 'GAA', the acronym for Gaelic Athletic Association)
  • International rules football — a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players

Surviving mediæval ball games

.
The ball is hit into the air at the 2006 Royal Shrovetide Football match.
^ The game ball will be delivered to the Otterbein captains via air mail as an Army soldier is expected to parachute onto the field with the football at 1:56 p.m.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

(Photographer: Gary Austin.)

Inside the UK

Outside the UK

Surviving UK school games

Harrow football players after a game at Harrow School.
Games still played at UK public (independent) schools:

Recent inventions and hybrid games

  • Keepie uppie (keep up)
    is the art of juggling with a football using feet, knees, chest, shoulders, and head.
    • Footbag
      is a small bean bag or sand bag used as a ball in a number of keepie uppie variations, including hacky sack (which is a trade mark).
  • Freestyle football
a modern take on keepie uppie where freestylers are graded for their entertainment value and expression of skill.

Based on FA rules

Based on rugby

  • Force ’em backs a.k.a. forcing back, forcemanback

Hybrid games

Tabletop games and other recreations

Based on Football (soccer)

Based on rugby

  • Penny rugby

Based on American football

Based on Australian football

History

Early history

Ancient games

Ancient Greek football player balancing the ball. Depiction on an Attic Lekythos.
.The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet.^ Otterbein used the big play to break the game open.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bethany is known to start most games with a trick play,” Loth said.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a team game known as "επισκυρος" (episkyros) or phaininda, which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c.150-c.215 AD). The Roman politician Cicero (106-43 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. These games appear to have resembled rugby football. .Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis.^ The game ball will be delivered to the Otterbein captains via air mail as an Army soldier is expected to parachute onto the field with the football at 1:56 p.m.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[5][6]
Documented evidence of an activity resembling football can be found in the Chinese military manual Zhan Guo Ce compiled between the 3rd century and 1st century BC.[7] It describes a practice known as cuju (蹴鞠, literally "kick ball"), which originally involved kicking a leather ball through a small hole in a piece of silk cloth which was fixed on bamboo canes and hung about 9 m above ground. During the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), cuju games were standardized and rules were established. Variations of this game later spread to Japan and Korea, known as kemari and chuk-guk respectively. .By the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907), the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball and cuju games had become professionalized, with many players making a living playing cuju.^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ We came prepared and played as well as I thought we would.” Senior place-kicker and punter B.J. Wanninger was selected “player of the game” by the Otterbein coaching staff.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ If anyone has attended one of our games, they will realize that the decisions and plays he makes to help us through tough situations are what makes him so valuable."
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.September 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Also, two different types of goal posts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field.^ Brewer, who also handles the punting for Otterbein, made all five of his extra-point attempts along with the 21-yard field goal.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Trailing 13-3 at the half, Otterbein came out in the second half and scored first, a 23-yard field goal by Shirvanian made it a 13-6 game.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Woodfork made 60 tackles, broke up five pass attempts and forced two fumbles in 2009.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

A revived version of Kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine.
The Japanese version of cuju is kemari (蹴鞠), and was developed during the Asuka period. This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). The game appears to have died out sometime before the mid-19th century. It was revived in 1903 and is now played at a number of festivals.
An illustration from the 1850s of Australian Aboriginal hunter gatherers. .Children in the background are playing a football game, possibly Marn Grook.^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Defensively, we played a second-straight solid football game,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Paul played an outstanding football game,” Loth said.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[8]
.There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world.^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ In the kicking game,” Loth continued, “we graduated B.J. Wanninger, but David Brewer played a lot last year as the number-two kicker.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit (Eskimo) people in Greenland.[9] .There are later accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk.^ Otterbein responded after converting on 3rd and 15 and, two plays later, Rafferty scored on a one-yard run to tie the game at 27.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. .In 1610, William Strachey of the Jamestown settlement, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman.^ The senior class enters today’s game with a 20-19 record over its four years of play and has an opportunity to leave Otterbein with a winning record, something not done since the class of 1982.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Cardinals have played to a 6-2 record since losing to Ohio Northern, 27-14, at home in the fourth game of last season.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.In Victoria, Australia, indigenous people played a game called Marn Grook ("ball game").^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

An 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, quotes a man called Richard Thomas as saying, in about 1841, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." It is widely believed that Marn Grook had an influence on the development of Australian rules football (see below).
.The Māori in New Zealand played a game called Ki-o-rahi consisting of teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target.^ Whoever has the most big plays or stops the other team from having big plays will probably win the game,” Loth said.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ After going into the half trailing 13-7, B-W came out firing in the second half and scored 20 unanswered points.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Cardinals made it a two-possession game following Brewer’s 36-yard field goal with 4:34 to play.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and since their influence on modern football games is minimal, most do not class them as football.^ The senior class enters today’s game with a 20-19 record over its four years of play and has an opportunity to leave Otterbein with a winning record, something not done since the class of 1982.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse (as its modern descendant is called) is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football."
.These games and others may well go far back into antiquity and may have felt the growing pains of the elected officials also influenced which later affected football games.^ Northern comes into the game off back-to-back losses to nationally-ranked teams, losing on the road at 8th-ranked North Central, 20-3, Sept.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Junior running back Colton Coy, who entered the game averaging 121 rushing yards a game, scored Otterbein’s other touchdown, an 8-yard run.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ We were obviously working on developing other areas of our offense during that game, but we need to get back to our commitment to being balanced on offense for us to have continued success this season.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England.

Medieval and early modern Europe

.The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England.^ Scotland against England: Football and popular culture.

.The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation, but the only pre-Norman reference is to boys playing "ball games" in the ninth century Historia Brittonum.^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein will play Bethany (WV) the next two seasons in its only out-of-conference game.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.Reports of a game played in Brittany, Normandy, and Picardy, known as La Soule or Choule, suggest that some of these football games could have arrived in England as a result of the Norman Conquest.^ Coach Loth said Saturday’s game could come down to the big play.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

An illustration of so-called "mob football".
.These forms of football, sometimes referred to as "mob football", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people, struggling to move an item such as an inflated pig's bladder, to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church.^ Capital is the most talented team that we have played up to this point,” said head coach Joe Loth, who is in his sixth season at his alma mater.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein did set a school record for most points in a season, 362, surpassing the 1960 team, who scored 352.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Brady Collins —Named “special teams player of the week” twice by the Otterbein football coaching staff.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below).
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about 1174–1183. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:
.After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game.^ Trailing 13-3 at the half, Otterbein came out in the second half and scored first, a 23-yard field goal by Shirvanian made it a 13-6 game.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ We have to go out there and do the things we have been doing all year long to win games.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ After going into the half trailing 13-7, B-W came out firing in the second half and scored 20 unanswered points.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. .Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents
.^ The first, coming with 1:04 to play in the first half, was set up by a 74-yard reception by junior wide receiver Tanner McCormick.
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^ Come Saturday, many on the team know they will be creating a special memory for Cardinal fans and members of the Westerville community who have watched the program blossom.
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[10]
.Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked.^ Whoever has the most big plays or stops the other team from having big plays will probably win the game,” Loth said.
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^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
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^ Offensively, we did a much better job this past game of being balanced—the first game of the season we really ran the ball,” said head coach Joe Loth, who is in his seventh season at his alma mater.
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.An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from 1280 at Ulgham, Northumberland, England: "Henry...^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

^ The game ball will be delivered to the Otterbein captains via air mail as an Army soldier is expected to parachute onto the field with the football at 1:56 p.m.
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while playing at ball.. ran against David"[11]. .The first definite reference to a football game comes in 1321 at Shouldham, Norfolk, England: "[d]uring the game at ball as he kicked the ball, a lay friend of his...^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

ran against him and wounded himself".[11]
.In 1314, Nicholas de Farndone, Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time.^ Professional football and working class culture: English theories and Scottish evidence.

A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [rageries de grosses pelotes de pee] in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." This is the earliest reference to football.
.In 1363, King Edward III of England issued a proclamation banning "...handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games", showing that "football" — whatever its exact form in this case — was being differentiated from games involving other parts of the body, such as handball.^ We were obviously working on developing other areas of our offense during that game, but we need to get back to our commitment to being balanced on offense for us to have continued success this season.” .
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King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in 1409, when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".[11][12]
There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. .This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: "[t]he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet... kicking in opposite directions" The chronicler gives the earliest reference to a football pitch, stating that: "[t]he boundaries have been marked and the game had started.[11]
Other firsts in the mediæval and early modern eras:
.
  • "a football", in the sense of a ball rather than a game, was first mentioned in 1486.[12] This reference is in Dame Juliana Berners' Book of St Albans.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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    ^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

    ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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    It states: "a certain rounde instrument to play with ...it is an instrument for the foote and then it is calde in Latyn 'pila pedalis', a fotebal."[11]
  • a pair of football boots was ordered by King Henry VIII of England in 1526.[13]
  • women playing a form of football was in 1580, when Sir Philip Sidney described it in one of his poems: "[a] tyme there is for all, my mother often sayes, When she, with skirts tuckt very hy, with girles at football playes."[14]
  • the first references to goals are in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1584 and 1602 respectively, John Norden and Richard Carew referred to "goals" in Cornish hurling. .Carew described how goals were made: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelue [twelve] score off, other twayne in like distance, which they terme their Goales".[15] He is also the first to describe goalkeepers and passing of the ball between players.
  • the first direct reference to scoring a goal is in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600; published 1659): "I'll play a gole at camp-ball" (an extremely violent variety of football, which was popular in East Anglia).^ On the ensuing Ohio Northern possession, Otterbein sophomore linebacker Shane Centers picked off a Kyle Simmons pass and returned it 36 yards for a score to put the Cardinals up, 28-10, with 10:23 to play in the first half.
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    ^ Rafferty scored on the first play from scrimmage in the third overtime on a 25-yard run.
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    ^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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    Similarly in a poem in 1613, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe".

Calcio Fiorentino

An illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino field and starting positions, from a 1688 book by Pietro di Lorenzo Bini.
.In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" ("historic kickball") in the Piazza Santa Croce.^ The senior class enters today’s game with a 20-19 record over its four years of play and has an opportunity to leave Otterbein with a winning record, something not done since the class of 1982.
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^ Bethany is known to start most games with a trick play,” Loth said.
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^ Yates scored Otterbein’s first touchdown of the game, a 7-yard run with 2:34 to play in the first period.
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The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino. .This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game.^ Defensively, we played a second-straight solid football game,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth.
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^ Paul played an outstanding football game,” Loth said.
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^ Who Rules the People's Game?: FIFA versus UEFA in the struggle for the control of world Football.

The game was not played after January 1739 (until it was revived in May 1930).

Official disapproval and attempts to ban football

.Numerous attempts have been made to ban football games, particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms.^ He made nine of 12 field-goal attempts, including a 23-yarder in overtime at John Carroll in the final game of the season, sending Otterbein to its first appearance in the NCAA Division III Football Championship.
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^ Temporal regulation and intertemporal substitution: The effect of banning alcohol at college football games.

^ He connected on a 21-yard field goal, his only attempt in the game, and made all five of his extra-point attempts.
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This was especially the case in England and in other parts of Europe, during the Middle Ages and early modern period. .Between 1324 and 1667, football was banned in England alone by more than 30 royal and local laws.^ Rangers is a Black Club: Race, identity and local football in England.

^ Freedom of trade under the Common Law and European Community Law: The case of the football bans.

The need to repeatedly proclaim such laws demonstrated the difficulty in enforcing bans on popular games. King Edward II was so troubled by the unruliness of football in London that on April 13, 1314 he issued a proclamation banning it: "Forasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large balls from which many evils may arise which God forbid; we command and forbid, on behalf of the King, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future."
The reasons for the ban by Edward III, on June 12, 1349, were explicit: football and other recreations distracted the populace from practicing archery, which was necessary for war. .In 1424, the Parliament of Scotland passed a Football Act that stated it is statut and the king forbiddis that na man play at the fut ball under the payne of iiij d - in other words, playing football was made illegal, and punishable by a fine of four pence.^ Running back Eric Yates made it 13-0 on a four-yard touchdown reception with 8:53 to play in the first quarter.
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By 1608, the local authorities in Manchester were complaining that: "With the ffotebale...[there] hath beene greate disorder in our towne of Manchester we are told, and glasse windowes broken yearlye and spoyled by a companie of lewd and disordered persons ..."[16] That same year, the word "football" was used disapprovingly by William Shakespeare. Shakespeare's play King Lear contains the line: "Nor tripped neither, you base football player" (Act I, Scene 4). Shakespeare also mentions the game in A Comedy of Errors (Act II, Scene 1):
Am I so round with you as you with me,
That like a football you do spurn me thus?
You spurn me hence, and he will spurn me hither:
If I last in this service, you must case me in leather.
"Spurn" literally means to kick away, thus implying that the game involved kicking a ball between players.
.King James I of England's Book of Sports (1618) however, instructs Christians to play at football every Sunday afternoon after worship.^ Capital has the series at 41-38-3, however, since football was not recognized as an official varsity sport at Capital until 1923.
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^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

[17] The book's aim appears to be an attempt to offset the strictness of the Puritans regarding the keeping of the Sabbath.[18]

Establishment of modern codes

English public schools

.While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools (known as private schools in other countries) are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes.^ Other key returnees on offense include senior wide receivers Josh Bope (42 rec./521 yds.
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First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. .Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.^ Who Rules the People's Game?: FIFA versus UEFA in the struggle for the control of world Football.

^ Otterbein did set a school record for most points in a season, 362, surpassing the 1960 team, who scored 352.
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.Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
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^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
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.Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" (or "carrying") games first became clear.^ Yates scored the game’s final points, an 8-yard run with 2:15 to play, which was set up by an interception from Otterbein junior safety Justin Hochstetler.
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^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ He made nine of 12 field-goal attempts, including a 23-yarder in overtime at John Carroll in the final game of the season, sending Otterbein to its first appearance in the NCAA Division III Football Championship.
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The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in 1519. Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".[19]
.Richard Mulcaster, a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".[20] Among his contributions are the earliest evidence of organised team football.^ Although Baldwin-Wallace is 9-11 over its last 20 regular-season games, the Yellow Jackets boast one of the winningest programs in college football.
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^ Professional football and working class culture: English theories and Scottish evidence.

^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO—The 2008 Otterbein College football team continues to make school history, becoming the first team from the college to advance into the NCAA Division III Football Championship .
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Mulcaster's writings refer to teams ("sides" and "parties"), positions ("standings"), a referee ("judge over the parties") and a coach "(trayning maister)". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:
[s]ome smaller number with such overlooking, sorted into sides and standings, not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously ... may use footeball for as much good to the body, by the chiefe use of the legges.[21]
In 1633, David Wedderburn, a teacher from Aberdeen, mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called "Vocabula." Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball ("strike it here"). There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. .It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players ("drive that man back").^ Glass, a two-year letterman at defensive back, ranks tenth on the team with 34 tackles, including 22 solo stops in 2007.
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^ A few other players, including Austin Weaver and Chase Bowman, will compete to start at defensive back opposite Woodfork.
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^ King, who was named defensive player of the week, finished the game with eight tackles, including two for a loss of 11 yards.
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[citation needed]
.A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby's Book of Games, written in about 1660.[22] Willughby, who had studied at Bishop Vesey's Grammar School, Sutton Coldfield, is the first to describe goals and a distinct playing field: "a close that has a gate at either end.^ Sophomore tight end Mike Detwiler scored a minute later, a 5-yard pass from Rafferty, while Yates notched his third touchdown of the game, an 8-yard run, to close out the scoring with 30 seconds to play in the third quarter.
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^ A 29-yard field goal from senior B.J. Wanninger followed to give Otterbein the lead for good, 10-7, with 2:59 to play in the second quarter.
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^ Otterbein responded on their first possession by moving the ball 42 yards on 11 plays that resulted in a 35-yard field goal by senior place-kicker Alek Shirvanian (Dearborn Heights, Mich./Annapolis).
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The gates are called Goals." His book includes a diagram illustrating a football field. .He also mentions tactics ("leaving some of their best players to guard the goal"); scoring ("they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win") and the way teams were selected ("the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness").^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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^ Rowley, a first team All-OAC selection at wide receiver, topped all Otterbein receivers, making 56 catches for 802 yards and seven touchdowns.
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^ Otterbein and Mount Union, with seven players selected, were the only two teams in the 10-member OAC to have five or more players selected to the academic teams.
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He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball".[citation needed]
.English public schools were the first to codify football games (in particular Eton (1815)[23] and Aldenham (1825)[23]) They also devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ He made nine of 12 field-goal attempts, including a 23-yarder in overtime at John Carroll in the final game of the season, sending Otterbein to its first appearance in the NCAA Division III Football Championship.
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[24] .In the earliest manifestations of these rules, players were "off their side" if they simply stood between the ball and the goal which was their objective.^ The success on both sides of the ball has created excitement within the locker room for both the players and coaches.
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^ They’re good on both sides of the ball.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at the each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby, Harrow and Cheltenham, during in the period of 1810–1850.[24]
.By the early 19th century, (before the Factory Act of 1850), most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.^ Shooting stars: Footballers and working class culture in twentieth century Scotland.

^ In R. Holt (ed), Sport and the Working Class in Modern Britain .

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. .Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.^ Who Rules the People's Game?: FIFA versus UEFA in the struggle for the control of world Football.

^ Consuming Passions: A Working Paper Outlining Some of the Key Changes in Football Club Support, with Regard to Commercial Changes in the Game.

Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse). .The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
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^ After a Hunter two-point conversion, Marietta led, 25-22, with 59 seconds to play in the game.
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.For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters, making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.^ Colton Coy scored on a 13-yard run to put the Cards up for good 14-7 with 13:27 to play in the game.
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^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Yates scored the game’s final points, an 8-yard run with 2:15 to play, which was set up by an interception from Otterbein junior safety Justin Hochstetler.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game." in 1823. This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. .The act of 'taking the ball in is arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball as the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,[25] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.^ Senior running back Eric Yates carried the ball nine times for 60 yards.
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^ Senior punter B.J. Wanninger, an Academic All-OAC selection in 2007, returns and is expected to pick up place-kicking duties this season.
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The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules. .The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.^ Otterbein tallied three more rushing touchdowns—two from junior running back Eric Yates and one from sophomore running back Colton Coy—to take a 31-7 lead into the locker room at the half.
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^ They have also finished in the top half of the OAC three out of their four years, something that has only been done one other time, 23 years ago.
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^ Otterbein is scheduled to close out regular-season play at home next Saturday, hosting John Carroll (3-6, 3-5) on senior day.
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.Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields.^ Collins, a senior from Galena (Olentangy), garnered the Harry Ewing Award for his leadership and dedication to Otterbein football, both on and off the field of play.
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^ (Annapolis High School), put Otterbein on the scoreboard first, hitting a 26-yard field goal with 2:01 to play in the first quarter.
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^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO – The Otterbein football team will do something this weekend that it has never done before—take the field in postseason play.
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However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them (see Surviving UK school games below).

Firsts

Clubs
.Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the eighteenth century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the mid-eighteenth century and ceased playing matches in 1796[26][27].^ Collins, a senior from Galena (Olentangy), garnered the Harry Ewing Award for his leadership and dedication to Otterbein football, both on and off the field of play.
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.The first documented club to bear the title "football club" is one in Edinburgh, Scotland, during the period 1824-41.[28][29] The club forbade tripping but allowed pushing and holding and the picking up of the ball.^ Rowley picked up 78 yards and one touchdown.
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^ Both interceptions came in the second half in Otterbein territory, one on the Otterbein 29-yard line and the other on the 41-yard line.
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^ The win was Otterbein’s first over the Polar Bears in 18 seasons, the last one coming in 1989, a 14-7 decision.
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[30]
.Two clubs which claim to be the world's oldest existing football club, in the sense of a club which is not part of a school or university, are strongholds of rugby football: the Barnes Club, said to have been founded in 1839, and Guy's Hospital Football Club, in 1843. Neither date nor the variety of football played is well-documented, but such claims nevertheless allude to the popularity of rugby before other modern codes emerged.^ Playing at home: British football and a sense of place.

^ Defensively, we played a second-straight solid football game,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth.
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^ Football hooligan violence before the First World War: Preliminary sociological reflections on some research findings.

In 1845, three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football.[31] This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. .For instance, Dublin University Football Club—founded at Trinity College, Dublin in 1854 and later famous as a bastion of the Rugby School game—is the world's oldest documented football club in any code.^ Who Rules the People's Game?: FIFA versus UEFA in the struggle for the control of world Football.

^ In R. Giulianotti and J. Williams, Football, Identity and Modernity: Fans and Players in the World Game .

^ In R. Giulianotti and J. Williams (eds), Football, Identity and Modernity: Fans and Players in the World Game .

Competitions
.One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since 1858. It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football, although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.^ The senior class enters today’s game with a 20-19 record over its four years of play and has an opportunity to leave Otterbein with a winning record, something not done since the class of 1982.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
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^ This is the first year since I’ve been the head coach that we have had all juniors and seniors in the two-deep,” Loth said.
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.The first football trophy tournament was the Caledonian Challenge Cup, donated by the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne, played in 1861 under the Melbourne Rules.^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[32] The oldest football league is a rugby football competition, the United Hospitals Challenge Cup (1874), while the oldest rugby trophy is the Yorkshire Cup, contested since 1878. The South Australian Football Association (30 April 1877) is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. .The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup (1867) and the oldest national soccer competition is the English FA Cup (1871).^ Hosts and Champions, Soccer Cultures, National Identities and the USA World Cup .

.The Football League (1888) is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.^ Merry Christmas from the SAFA [12/23/2009] The Scottish Amateur Football Association The SAFA Wishes All Member Leagues and Associations, Clubs, Players, Officials And Support...
  • The SAFA � Scottish Amateur Football Association - The Home of Amateur Football in Scotland 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.scottishamateurfa.co.uk [Source type: General]

The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5 1870 at the Oval under the authority of the FA. The first Rugby international took place in 1871.
Modern balls
Richard Lindon (seen in 1880) is believed to have invented the first footballs with rubber bladders.
In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders, more specifically pig's bladders, which were inflated. Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the ball to keep their shape.[33] However, in 1851, Richard Lindon and William Gilbert, both shoemakers from the town of Rugby (near the school), exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.[34] Lindon also won medals for the invention of the "Rubber inflatable Bladder" and the "Brass Hand Pump".
In 1855, the U.S. inventor Charles Goodyear — who had patented vulcanized rubber — exhibited a spherical football, with an exterior of vulcanized rubber panels, at the Paris Exhibition Universelle. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U.S.A.[35]
Modern ball passing tactics
."Scientific" football is first recorded in 1839 from Lancashire[36] and in the modern game in Rugby football from 1862[37] and from Sheffield FC as early as 1865[38][39] .^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
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^ That win, however, is not officially recognized by Capital, who claims the series actually began in 1927 with a 39-6 Otterbein victory, making the series record 41-36-3.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a draw, 7-7, in Frankfurt in 1992.
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.The first side to play a passing combination game was the Royal Engineers AFC in 1869/70[40][41][42] By 1869 they were "work[ing] well together", "backing up" and benefiting from "cooperation"[43].^ The Cardinals countered quickly, mounting a nine play, 70-yard drive, capped off by a 1-yard run by sophomore running back Colton Coy to tie the score at 7-7 with 8:31 to play in the first quarter.
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^ The Cardinals started slowly, the first score—a 1-yard run by junior running back Eric Yates—came with 3:38 to play in the first quarter.
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^ Schlosser completed six of nine pass attempts for 41 yards and one touchdown before suffering his injury at the end of the first quarter.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

By 1870 the Engineers were passing the ball: "Lieut. .Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"[44] Passing was a regular feature of their style[45] By early 1872 the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"[46] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March 1872, the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: "Mr Absey dribbling the ball half the length of the field delivered it to Wallis, who kicking it cleverly in front of the goal, sent it to the captain who drove it at once between the Nottingham posts"[47] The first side to have perfected the modern formation was Cambridge University AFC[48][49][50] and introduced the 2-3-5 "pyramid" formation[51][52].^ Fans who get their kicks off the field.

^ On the ensuing Ohio Northern possession, Otterbein sophomore linebacker Shane Centers picked off a Kyle Simmons pass and returned it 36 yards for a score to put the Cardinals up, 28-10, with 10:23 to play in the first half.
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^ Capital is the most talented team that we have played up to this point,” said head coach Joe Loth, who is in his sixth season at his alma mater.
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Cambridge rules

In 1848, at Cambridge University, Mr. H. de Winton and Mr. J.C. Thring, who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School, called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. The rules clearly favour the kicking game. Handling was only allowed for a player to take a clean catch entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. .The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities (but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football).^ Merry Christmas from the SAFA [12/23/2009] The Scottish Amateur Football Association The SAFA Wishes All Member Leagues and Associations, Clubs, Players, Officials And Support...
  • The SAFA � Scottish Amateur Football Association - The Home of Amateur Football in Scotland 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.scottishamateurfa.co.uk [Source type: General]

Sheffield rules

By the late 1850s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. .Sheffield Football Club, founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.^ Paper presented to International Conference for Euro 96 at Leicester City Football Club, 30/31 May 1996 .

^ Association Football and English Society 1863-1915 .

^ Paper presented at the Football in Europe conference, Leicester City Football Club, May 30-31 1996 .

[53] However, the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield rules. The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule.
The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks, corner kicks, handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.[54] By the 1870s they became the dominant code in the north and midlands of England. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in 1877.

Australian rules

An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in 1866. (A wood engraving by Robert Bruce.)
Various forms of football were played in Australia during the Victorian gold rush, from which emerged a distinct and locally popular sport. While these origins are still the subject of much debate the popularisation of the code that is known today as Australian Rules Football is currently attributed to Tom Wills.
Wills wrote a letter to Bell's Life in Victoria & Sporting Chronicle, on July 10, 1858, calling for a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter[55]. This is considered by historians to be a defining moment in the creation of the new sport. .Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules[56] , the first recorded of which occurred on July 31, 1858. On 7 August 1858, Wills umpired a relatively well documented schoolboys match between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College.^ This marks the first meeting between the two schools.
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^ The Cardinals, 9-2 overall and 8-1 in the OAC, made history this season, setting school single-season records for best start (8-0), most wins (9), and most points (427); and advanced into the NCAA Division III Football Championship for the first time in school history.
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^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO—The 2008 Otterbein College football team continues to make school history, becoming the first team from the college to advance into the NCAA Division III Football Championship .
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Following these matches, organised football matches rapidly increased in popularity.
.Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club (the oldest surviving Australian football club) on May 17, 1859. The first members included Wills, William Hammersley, J.B. Thompson and Thomas H. Smith.^ Paper presented at the Football in Europe conference, Leicester City Football Club, May 30-31 1996 .

^ Paper presented to International Conference for Euro 96 at Leicester City Football Club, 30/31 May 1996 .

^ Merry Christmas from the SAFA [12/23/2009] The Scottish Amateur Football Association The SAFA Wishes All Member Leagues and Associations, Clubs, Players, Officials And Support...
  • The SAFA � Scottish Amateur Football Association - The Home of Amateur Football in Scotland 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.scottishamateurfa.co.uk [Source type: General]

They met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs.
The backgrounds of the original rule makers makes for interesting speculation as to the influences on the rules. Wills, an Australian of convict heritage was educated in England. He was a rugby footballer, a cricketer and had strong links to indigenous Australians. At first he desired to introduce rugby school rules. Hammersley was a cricketer and journalist who emigrated from England. Thomas Smith was a school teacher who emigrated from Ireland. The committee members debated several rules including those of English public school games. Despite including aspects similar to other forms of football there is no conclusive evidence to point to any single influence. .Instead the committee decided on a game that was more suited to Australian conditions and Wills is documented to have made the declaration "No, we shall have a game of our own".[57] The code was distinctive in the prevalence of the mark, free kick, tackling, lack of an offside rule and that players were specifically penalised for throwing the ball.^ His ability to throw the deep ball really opened up the ball game for us.” .
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^ Free safety Justin Ross made 12 tackles, four unassisted, to lead the defense.
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The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. .They were redrafting several times during the 1860s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.^ They have also finished in the top half of the OAC three out of their four years, something that has only been done one other time, 23 years ago.
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.A significant re-write in 1866 by H C A Harrison's committee to accommodate rules from the Geelong Football Club made the game, which had become known as "Victorian Rules", increasingly distinct from other codes.^ Who Rules the People's Game?: FIFA versus UEFA in the struggle for the control of world Football.

^ Consuming Passions: A Working Paper Outlining Some of the Key Changes in Football Club Support, with Regard to Commercial Changes in the Game.

.It used cricket fields, a rugby ball, specialised goal and behind posts, bouncing with the ball while running and later spectacular high marking.^ Otterbein got the ball first in overtime and was unable to capitalize, missing a 35-yard field goal.
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^ The Cardinals used up 8:24 on the 14-play, 66-yard drive leading up to the field goal.
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^ The Yellow Jackets moved the ball down field and had a first-and-goal from the Otterbein six-yard line.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

The form of football spread quickly to other other Australian colonies. .Outside of its heartland in southern Australia the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown other parts of the world at an amateur level and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.^ Football since the war.

^ Football hooligan violence before the First World War: Preliminary sociological reflections on some research findings.

^ Football hooliganism before the First World War.

Football Association

.
The first football international, Scotland versus England.
^ Scotland against England: Football and popular culture.

^ The missionary position: Football in the societies of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

^ Scoring Away from Home: A statistical survey of Scotland football fans at international matches in Romania and Sweden.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football.
During the early 1860s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. .In 1862, J. C. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules).^ Junior running back Colton Coy, who leads the conference at 109 yards a game, is one of three rushing threats in the Cardinals backfield.
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^ The cornerback thwarted Ohio Northern’s comeback attempt, forcing and recovering a fumble on the Otterbein 37-yard line with Ohio Northern driving with just under one minute to play in the game.
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^ Wilmington quarterback Reynolds, who was injured and had to leave the game in the third quarter, completed 11 of 18 pass attempts for 133 yards and one touchdown.
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In early October 1863 another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.
.At the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, London on the evening of October 26, 1863, representatives of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area met for the inaugural meeting of The Football Association (FA).^ Association Football and English Society 1863-1915 .

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. .Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association.^ This marks the first meeting between the two schools.
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All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December 1863. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. .However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of 1863. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with (carrying) the ball and hacking (kicking opposing players in the shins).^ Otterbein gained 122 rushing yards on 20 carries, throwing the ball just two times in the quarter.
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^ Sophomore running back Colton Coy led the Cardinals with 75 yards and two touchdowns on 23 carries, and also threw a 4-yard touchdown pass.
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^ Rafferty led the way with 301 yards passing and two touchdowns and also carried the ball for 72 yards on 12 carries and two touchdowns.
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The two contentious FA rules were as follows:
.
IX. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.^ Otterbein got the ball first in overtime and was unable to capitalize, missing a 35-yard field goal.
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^ Rowley, a first team All-OAC selection at wide receiver, topped all Otterbein receivers, making 56 catches for 802 yards and seven touchdowns.
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^ DeLong also went over the century mark for receiving yards for the fourth time in 2007, making nine catches for 139 yards and a touchdown.
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.X. If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.^ The success on both sides of the ball has created excitement within the locker room for both the players and coaches.
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^ Senior running back Eric Yates carried the ball nine times for 60 yards.
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^ The coaching staff plans to use both players in various formations together this season, helping keep the duo on the field at the same time.
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At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. M. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. .He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football (later known in some countries as soccer).^ Senior running back Eric Yates carried the ball nine times for 60 yards.
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^ Eric Yates did a nice job of running the football against Baldwin-Wallace,” Loth said.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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.The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games (most notably Australian football): for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark, which entitled him to a free kick; and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at goal, from 15 yards (13.5 metres) in front of the goal line.^ The success on both sides of the ball has created excitement within the locker room for both the players and coaches.
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^ Otterbein responded on their first possession by moving the ball 42 yards on 11 plays that resulted in a 35-yard field goal by senior place-kicker Alek Shirvanian (Dearborn Heights, Mich./Annapolis).
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^ Rowley, a first team All-OAC selection at wide receiver, topped all Otterbein receivers, making 56 catches for 802 yards and seven touchdowns.
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Rugby football

A rugby scrum in 1871.
In Britain, by 1870, there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU). (Ironically, Blackheath now lobbied to ban hacking.) .The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. These rules allowed passing the ball.^ Fries was also named first team All-OAC. He graded out at 82 percent and allowed just one pass sack in 2008.
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.They also included the try, where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.^ Capital still had a one more chance, recovering the ensuing squib kick at the Otterbein 48-yard line with 38 seconds to play.
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^ The final drive, beginning at the Otterbein 3-yard line with 3:47 to play, featured three clutch conversions, the first coming with Otterbein facing a 3rd-and-8 on its own 5-yard line.
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^ The Yellow Jackets moved the ball down field and had a first-and-goal from the Otterbein six-yard line.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Rugby league
In 1895, disputes amongst members of the RFU led to a breakaway faction creating its own rules and competitions. .Over time this has developed into a distinct code of football known as rugby league.^ Otterbein advanced into the NCAA Division III Football Championship for the first time in school history.
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^ This is the first year for the D-III Football Senior Classic, which is sponsored by the Collegiate Development Football League.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

North American football codes

.As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
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^ The winner of Saturday’s game between Otterbein and Franklin will face the winner of the game between host North Central (10-0) and Thomas More (8-2) Nov.
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^ Colton Coy scored on a 13-yard run to put the Cards up for good 14-7 with 13:27 to play in the game.
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.Students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football, a variant of the association football codes, as early as the 1820s.^ ESPN News is scheduled to announce the 32-team field for the 2009 NCAA Division III Football Championship, 3 p.m., Sunday.
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^ Although Baldwin-Wallace is 9-11 over its last 20 regular-season games, the Yellow Jackets boast one of the winningest programs in college football.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.
The "Tigers" of Hamilton, Ontario, circa 1906. Founded 1869 as the Hamilton Foot Ball Club, they eventually merged with the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team still active in the Canadian Football League.
^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO – Five Otterbein players have earned spots on the 2009 Football Academic All-Ohio Athletic Conference Team, the league office announced Wednesday.
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^ They are still ranked among the top 35 teams in the country, which says a lot about their program.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

[60]
.The first game of rugby in Canada is generally said to have taken place in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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^ Baldwin-Wallace scored the game’s first 10 points, a 24-yard field goal from junior place-kicker John McGraw and a 1-yard run from junior running back John McGraw to give the Yellow Jackets a 10-0 lead with 6:26 to play in the first quarter.
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.The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded football club in Canada.^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a draw, 7-7, in Frankfurt in 1992.
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.In 1869, the first game played in the United States under rules based on the FA code occurred, between Princeton and Rutgers.^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
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.This is also often considered to be the first U.S. game of college football, in the sense of a game between colleges (although the eventual form of American football would come from rugby, not association football).^ The Cardinals, 6-0 overall and 5-0 in the OAC, come into the game locked in a first-place tie with Mount Union (6-0, 5-0) in league play.
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^ With the win, Otterbein cracked the Top 25 in both the American Football Coaches Association poll, 24th, and D3football.com poll, 25th.
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^ Fifty years down the road when we come back and watch, we’ll be able to say we were that first class that made a difference in the school's football program.” .
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.Modern American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal, and Harvard University in 1874. At the time, Harvard students are reported to have played the Boston Game — a running code — rather than the FA-based kicking games favored by U.S. universities.^ Sophomore tight end Mike Detwiler scored a minute later, a 5-yard pass from Rafferty, while Yates notched his third touchdown of the game, an 8-yard run, to close out the scoring with 30 seconds to play in the third quarter.
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^ Colton Coy scored on a 13-yard run to put the Cards up for good 14-7 with 13:27 to play in the game.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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.This made it easy for Harvard to adapt to the rugby-based game played by McGill and the two teams alternated between their respective sets of rules.^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
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^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
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^ The two teams have been playing for possession of the cup ever since.
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.Within a few years, however, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rugby rules and had persuaded other U.S. university teams to do the same.^ They are a traditional power in the OAC and they have the same type of team this year.” .
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In 1876, at the Massasoit Convention, it was agreed by these universities to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations. .Princeton, Rutgers and others continued to compete using soccer-based rules for a few years before switching to the rugby-based rules of Harvard and its competitors.^ A few other players, including Austin Weaver and Chase Bowman, will compete to start at defensive back opposite Woodfork.
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U.S. colleges did not generally return to soccer until the early twentieth century.
Rutgers College Football Team, 1882
.In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, devised a number of major changes to the American game.^ Despite the fast start—Otterbein is ranked 21st by both D3football.com and the American Football Coaches Association—Otterbein head coach Joe Loth said nothing has changed in his approach to the game.
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.Camp's two most important rule innovations in establishing American football as distinct from the rugby football games on which it is based are scrimmage and down-and-distance rules.^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
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^ More importantly, it’s the seniors’ last game and it’s the most important game we will have played this season.
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Scrimmage refers to the practice of starting action by delivering the ball from the ground to another player's hand. Camp's original rule allowed this delivery to be done only with the feet; the rule was soon changed to allow the ball to be passed by hand. The rule also established a distinct line of scrimmage which separates the two teams from each other. .When a player is tackled, he is ruled down and play stops, while the teams reset on either side of the line of scrimmage.^ Whoever has the most big plays or stops the other team from having big plays will probably win the game,” Loth said.
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^ Woodfork, a senior from Columbus (South), made 60 stops, including a team-high 38 unassisted tackles.
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^ Tyler Evans —Named second team All-OAC. Made 57 stops and led the team in tackles for a loss, with 15.5.
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Play then resumes with the delivery of the ball. .Teams are given a limited number of downs to achieve a certain distance (always measured in yards).^ The Cardinal defense and special teams took over in the second half, limiting B-W to just 86 yards of offense.
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.In American football, teams are given four downs to advance the ball ten yards, after which possession of the ball changes.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
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^ Senior running back Nate Kmic opened and closed Mount Union’s four scoring possessions with runs of 56 and one yards.
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^ McCormick led the Otterbein receiving corps, catching four balls for 94 yards and two touchdowns.
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In Canadian football, teams are allowed three downs to advance ten yards. These rules created a fundamental distinction between the North American codes and rugby codes. Rugby is still fundamentally a continuous-action game, while North American codes are organized around running discrete "plays", as defined as starting with the delivery from "scrimmage" and ending with the "down".
.American football, in its early years, was an excessively violent game, plagued with several deaths and life-changing injuries every year.^ Despite the fast start—Otterbein is ranked 21st by both D3football.com and the American Football Coaches Association—Otterbein head coach Joe Loth said nothing has changed in his approach to the game.
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.The violence became so drastic that President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to shut down the game in 1905, should rules not be changed to minimize this violence.^ Shutting down Mount Union’s big-play opportunities ranks high on Loth’s priority list as Otterbein prepares for Saturday’s game.
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Several rule changes were put into place that year, but the most enduring has been the introduction of the legal forward pass, which, like Camp's rule changes of the 1880s, fundamentally changed the nature of the sport. When it became legal to throw the ball forward, an entire new method of advancing the ball emerged. .As a result, players became more specialized in their roles, as the different positions on the team required different skill sets.^ Positional players of the game were senior guard Nate Russell (offensive line), junior running back Eric Yates (offensive skill), senior linebacker Eric Burnsides (defensive front six), senior linebacker Corey Spellman (defensive secondary), and senior place-kicker/punter B.J. Wanninger (special teams).
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^ Otterbein and Mount Union, with seven players selected, were the only two teams in the 10-member OAC to have five or more players selected to the academic teams.
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^ Senior place-kicker B.J. Wanninger hit all three of his field-goal attempts to earn OAC special teams player of the week honors.
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.Thus, some players are primarily involved in running with the ball (the running back) while others specialize in throwing (the quarterback), catching (the wide receiver), or blocking (the offensive line).^ We were able to both run and throw the ball effectively.
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^ In addition to Coy, other players of the game were senior tackle Andy Fries (offensive line), junior wide receiver Ryan Rowley (offensive skill), senior tackle Dexter Hopkins (defensive front six), senior cornerback John Wahler (defensive secondary), and senior punter/place-kicker B.J. Wanninger (special teams).
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^ Other players earning team honors were: Doug Tima, a senior offensive tackle from Bucyrus, “offensive line player of the year”; Josh Bope, a junior wide receiver from Plain City (Jonathan Alder), “offensive skill player of the year”; Matt Lisi, a defensive tackle from Columbus (Upper Arlington), “defensive front six player of the year”; Justin Ross, a senior free safety from Canal Winchester, “defensive secondary player of the year”; and Brady Collins, a freshman fullback from Galena (Olentangy), “special teams player of the year”.
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.With the advent of free substitution rules in the 1940s and 1950s, teams could deploy separate offensive and defensive "platoons" which led to even greater specialization.^ Defensively, junior cornerback Tony Furr (Johnstown/Johnstown-Monroe) led the team in tackles with nine.
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^ The defensive end made 57 stops and led the team in tackles for a loss, with 15.5, this season.
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^ Defensive back Justin Ross, defensive back Brett Glass, punter B.J. Wanninger and offensive lineman Mike Young were named to the first team.
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.Over the years Canadian football absorbed some developments in American football, but also retained many unique characteristics.^ This is the first year for the D-III Football Senior Classic, which is sponsored by the Collegiate Development Football League.
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One of these was that Canadian football, for many years, did not officially distinguish itself from rugby. For example, the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884 was the forerunner of the Canadian Football League, rather than a rugby union body. (The Canadian Rugby Union, today known as Rugby Canada, was not formed until 1965.) American football was also frequently described as "rugby" in the 1880s.

Gaelic football

In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. .One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.^ Capital is the most talented team that we have played up to this point,” said head coach Joe Loth, who is in his sixth season at his alma mater.
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^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
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^ Otterbein, meanwhile, fields one of its most experienced teams since Loth returned to his alma mater in 2003.
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"Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.
By the 1870s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.
.There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.^ Capital has the series at 41-38-3, however, since football was not recognized as an official varsity sport at Capital until 1923.
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.The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887. Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.^ Otterbein and Heidelberg played the first intercollegiate football game in Germany in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
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^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a draw, 7-7, in Frankfurt in 1992.
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.The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football).^ They have also finished in the top half of the OAC three out of their four years, something that has only been done one other time, 23 years ago.
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^ We have to treat this like any other game,” said Loth, who is in his sixth season at his alma mater.
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Split in Rugby football

An English cartoon from the 1890s lampooning the divide in rugby football which led to the formation of rugby league. The caricatures are of Rev. Frank Marshall, an arch-opponent of player payments, and James Miller, a long-time opponent of Marshall. .The caption reads: Marshall: "Oh, fie, go away naughty boy, I don't play with boys who can’t afford to take a holiday for football any day they like!"^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO – The Otterbein football team will do something this weekend that it has never done before—take the field in postseason play.
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.Miller: "Yes, that's just you to a T; you’d make it so that no lad whose father wasn’t a millionaire could play at all in a really good team.^ Rowley, a first team All-OAC selection at wide receiver, topped all Otterbein receivers, making 56 catches for 802 yards and seven touchdowns.
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^ Our guys realize that this is a team that we have to take seriously and be ready to play on Saturday.” .
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^ It really makes a difference because in past years they may have just been trying to be nice with encouragement.
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For my part I see no reason why the men who make the money shouldn’t have a share in the spending of it."
The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. Professionalism was beginning to creep into the various codes of football.
.In England, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.^ The team, standing at 7-1, travels to play league-leading and top-ranked Mount Union this Saturday in Alliance.
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^ But three plays later, Ohio Northern returned the favor as Otterbein senior cornerback Chad Woodfork forced and recovered a fumble to seal the win.
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^ Against Ohio Northern, Woodfork forced and recovered a fumble on the same play to seal the 38-36 victory.
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.This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.^ Fifty years down the road when we come back and watch, we’ll be able to say we were that first class that made a difference in the school's football program.” .
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^ Both teams will be working on streaks—Otterbein seeking to extend its win streak to three while Ohio Northern, 0-2 overall and 0-1 in the OAC, attempting to halt its losing streak at two.
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.In 1895, following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU).^ Following the interception, Northern mounted an 11-play, 80-yard drive resulting in a 6-yard touchdown run from junior quarterback Simmons.
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^ Following Ohio Northern, the Cardinals travel to Wilmington next Saturday while Ohio Northern hosts two-time defending national champion Mount Union.
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The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line-out. .This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.^ King, who was named defensive player of the week, finished the game with eight tackles, including two for a loss of 11 yards.
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^ Senior receiver Ryan Rowley hauled in eight balls for 107 yards and two scores in the game while Yates did not play due to injury.
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^ The Cardinals made it a two-possession game following Brewer’s 36-yard field goal with 4:34 to play.
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Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. .The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name rugby league was used officially in England.^ Doug Tima —Named first team All-OAC and “offensive lineman of the week” four times this season by the Otterbein football coaching staff.
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Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

Globalisation of association football

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris on May 21, 1904. Its first president was Robert Guérin. The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Reform of American football

.Both forms of rugby and American football were noted at the time for serious injuries, as well as the deaths of a significant number of players.^ With the win, Otterbein cracked the Top 25 in both the American Football Coaches Association poll, 24th, and D3football.com poll, 25th.
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.By the early 20th century in the U.S.A., this had resulted in national controversy and American football was banned by a number of colleges.^ The Cardinals moved up in the national rankings to 18th in the American Football Coaches Association poll and 19th in D3football.com.
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Consequently, a series of meetings was held by 19 colleges in 1905–06. This occurred reputedly at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt. He was considered a fancier of the game, but he threatened to ban it unless the rules were modified to reduce the numbers of deaths and disabilities. The meetings are now considered to be the origin of the National Collegiate Athletic Association.
.One proposed change was a widening of the playing field.^ Capital place-kicker Garrett Bennington had just hit a 27-yard field goal one play earlier.
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However, Harvard University had just built a concrete stadium and therefore objected to widening, instead proposing legalisation of the forward pass. .The report of the meetings introduced many restrictions on tackling and two more divergences from rugby: the forward pass and the banning of mass formation plays.^ Junior defensive end Chaz Horsley tallied seven stops along with two tackles for a loss, including a pass sack.
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^ Bowman had seven stops vs. Bethany while Woodfork had six tackles, a forced fumble, and two pass-breakups.
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^ Austin Schlosser runs for three TD's and passes for two more against the Berg .
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The changes did not immediately have the desired effect, and 33 American football players were killed during 1908 alone. However, the number of deaths and injuries did gradually decline.

Further divergence of the two rugby codes

.Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players.^ The team, standing at 7-1, travels to play league-leading and top-ranked Mount Union this Saturday in Alliance.
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^ Otterbein and Mount Union, with seven players selected, were the only two teams in the 10-member OAC to have five or more players selected to the academic teams.
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^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO – Five Otterbein players have earned spots on the 2009 Football Academic All-Ohio Athletic Conference Team, the league office announced Wednesday.
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In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year. .However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.^ The Cardinals played a near flawless game—committing just one turnover—against one of the best defenses in the nation on their way to their third-consecutive win.
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This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux.
.During the second half of 20th century, the rules changed further.^ Donnie Reinhart brings down Marque Jones during second half action.
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.In 1966, rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: a team could retain possession of the ball for no more than four tackles.^ If you look at our tackling statistics this season, they are much more spread out than they have been in the past.” .
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^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO – Five Otterbein players have earned spots on the 2009 Football Academic All-Ohio Athletic Conference Team, the league office announced Wednesday.
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^ Senior cornerback Chad Woodfork tallied four tackles, including a pass sack for a loss of nine yards on Baldwin-Wallace’s last possession of the game.
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The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six (in 1971), and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.
.With the advent of full-time professionals in the early 1990s, and the consequent speeding up of the game, the five metre off-side distance between the two teams became 10 metres, and the replacement rule was superseded by various interchange rules, among other changes.^ Woodfork, a two-time All-Ohio Athletic Conference first team selection, will play for the South team.
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^ Northern comes into the game off back-to-back losses to nationally-ranked teams, losing on the road at 8th-ranked North Central, 20-3, Sept.
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^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

The laws of rugby union also changed significantly during the 20th century. .In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul, and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.^ The Cardinals made it a two-possession game following Brewer’s 36-yard field goal with 4:34 to play.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ David Brewer, a junior, is expected to take over punting and place-kicking duties from B.J. Wanninger, who graduated.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ The score extended the Cardinal lead to 14-3 right after the Crusaders had kicked a field goal on the previous possession.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.In 1995, rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players.^ The Cardinals finished at 9-1 overall, and in second place at 8-1, one game behind Mount Union, in the Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC).
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Senior running back Nate Kmic opened and closed Mount Union’s four scoring possessions with runs of 56 and one yards.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

.Although the original dispute between the two codes has now disappeared — and despite the fact that officials from both forms of rugby football have sometimes mentioned the possibility of re-unification — the rules of both codes and their culture have diverged to such an extent that such an event is unlikely in the foreseeable future.^ Toss in the fact that the two most recent meetings between the two schools have been close; Saturday’s game could be a barn burner.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ We’re going to try and keep those two guys on the field as much as possible.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ When we’re in a two-back offense, they’ll both be on the field.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Football today

A player takes a free kick, while the opposition form a "wall", in Association football

Use of the word "football" in English-speaking countries

.The word "football", when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.^ Although Baldwin-Wallace is 9-11 over its last 20 regular-season games, the Yellow Jackets boast one of the winningest programs in college football.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it.
Players assemble at the line of scrimmage in an American football game.
.Of the 45 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, 42 use "football" in their organizations official names (only Canada, Samoa and United States use "soccer").^ Academic All-District IV team members are selected through voting by CoSIDA, a 2,000-member organization consisting of sports public relations professionals for colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

"Soccer" is the prevailing term for association football in the U.S, Canada, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand where other codes of football are dominant, but the name "soccer" (or "soccer football") was originally a slang abbreviation of "association". .The term used for association football is going through a period of transition in recent times.^ Any time you go on the road in the OAC it is a challenge,” said Otterbein head football coach Joe Loth, who is in his seventh season at his alma mater.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

In 2005, Australia's association football governing body changed its name from "soccer" to "football" to align with the general international usage of the term.[61] In 2007, New Zealand followed suit citing "the international game is called football".[62]

Use of the word "football" in non-English-speaking countries

.Generally around the world today the word "football" and direct translations as such (such as Spanish fútbol and German Fußball/Fussball) is in widespread use as the name for association football.^ WESTERVILLE, OHIO—D3football.com named three members of the Otterbein football team to its All-North Region team, released today by D3football.com.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

In Francophone Quebec, where Canadian football is more popular, the sport of association football is known as soccer and the Canadian code as football.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Marples, M (1954). A History of Football. Secker and Warburg, London
  2. ^ Sports historian Bill Murray, quoted by The Sports Factor, "Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport" (Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, May 31, 2002) and Michael Scott Moore, "Naming the Beautiful Game: It's Called Soccer" (Der Spiegel, June 7, 2006). See also: ICONS Online (no date) "History of Football"; and Professional Football Researchers Association, (no date) "A Freendly Kinde of Fight: The Origins of Football to 1633". Access date for all references: February 11, 2007.
  3. ^ Summers, Mark. "The Disability Football Directory". http://www.disabilityfootball.co.uk. 
  4. ^ Sean Fagan, Breaking The Codes, RL1908.com, 2006
  5. ^ E. Norman Gardiner: "Athletics in the Ancient World", Courier Dover Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-486-42486-3, p.229
  6. ^ William Smith: "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities", 1857, p.777
  7. ^ He, Jin (2001). An Analysis of Zhan Guo Ce. Beijing: Peking University Press. ISBN 7-301-05101-8, p. 59-82
  8. ^ From William Blandowski's Australien in 142 Photographischen Abbildungen, 1857, (Haddon Library, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge)
  9. ^ Richard Hakluyt, Voyages in Search of The North-West Passage, University of Adelaide, December 29, 2003
  10. ^ Stephen Alsford, FitzStephen's Description of London, Florilegium Urbanum, April 5, 2006
  11. ^ a b c d e Francis Peabody Magoun, 1929, "Football in Medieval England and Middle-English literature" (The American Historical Review, v. 35, No. 1).
  12. ^ a b Online Etymology Dictionary (no date), "football"
  13. ^ Vivek Chaudhary, “Who's the fat bloke in the number eight shirt?” (The Guardian, February 18, 2004.)
  14. ^ Anniina Jokinen, Sir Philip Sidney. "A Dialogue Between Two Shepherds" (Luminarium.org, July 2006)
  15. ^ Richard Carew. "EBook of The Survey of Cornwall". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext06/srvcr10.txt. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  16. ^ International Olympic Academy (I.O.A.) (no date), “Minutes 7th International Post Graduate Seminar on Olympic Studies”
  17. ^ John Lord Campbell, The Lives of the Lords Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England, vol. 2, 1851, p. 412
  18. ^ [[William Maxwell Hetherington, 1856, History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, Ch.1 (Third Ed.)]
  19. ^ A history of Winchester College. by Arthur F Leach. Duckworth, 1899 ISBN 1444658840
  20. ^ footballnetwork.org , 2003, “Richard Mulcaster”
  21. ^ Francis Peabody Magoun. (1938) History of football from the beginnings to 1871. p.27. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  22. ^ Francis Willughby, 1660–72, Book of Games
  23. ^ a b Richard William Cox; Dave Russell and Wray Vamplew (2002). Encyclopedia of British Football. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 9780714652498. 
  24. ^ a b Julian Carosi, 2006, "The History of Offside"
  25. ^ example of ball handling in early football from English writer William Hone, writing in 1825 or 1826, quotes the social commentator Sir Frederick Morton Eden, regarding "Foot-Ball", as played at Scone, Scotland:
    The game was this: he who at any time got the ball into his hands, run [sic] with it till overtaken by one of the opposite part; and then, if he could shake himself loose from those on the opposite side who seized him, he run on; if not, he threw the ball from him, unless it was wrested from him by the other party, but no person was allowed to kick it. (William Hone, 1825–26, The Every-Day Book, "February 15." Access date: March 15, 2007.)
  26. ^ THE SURREY CLUB Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Sunday, October 07, 1849; pg. 6.New Readerships
  27. ^ Football: The First Hundred Years. The Untold Story. Adrian Harvey. 2005. Routledge, London
  28. ^ John Hope, Accounts and papers of the football club kept by John Hope, WS, and some Hope Correspondence 1787-1886 (National Archives of Scotland, GD253/183)
  29. ^ http://www.nas.gov.uk/about/071112.asp
  30. ^ The Foot-Ball Club in Edinburgh, 1824-1841 - The National Archives of Scotland
  31. ^ "Rugby chronology". Museum of Rugby. http://www.rfu.com/microsites/museum/page.aspx?section=89&sectionTitle=World+Rugby+Chronology. Retrieved April 24, 2006. 
  32. ^ History of the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne
  33. ^ Soccer Ball World - Early History (Accessed June 9, 2006)
  34. ^ The exact name of Mr Lindon is in dispute, as well as the exact timing of the creation of the inflatable bladder. It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon, who was actually Richards Lindon's son, and created the ball in 1862 (ref: Soccer Ball World), whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in 1870 (ref: Guardian article). Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
  35. ^ soccerballworld.com, (no date) "Charles Goodyear's Soccer Ball" Downloaded 30/11/06.
  36. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Sunday, January 13, 1839.New Readerships
  37. ^ Blackwood's Magazine, Published by W. Blackwood, 1862, page 563
  38. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Saturday, January 07, 1865; Issue 2,229: "The Sheffield party, however, eventually took a lead, and through some scientific movements of Mr J Wild, scored a goal amid great cheering"
  39. ^ Bell's life in london, November 26th 1865, issue 2275: "We cannot help recording the really scientific play with which the Sheffield men backed each other up
  40. ^ Wall, Sir Frederick (2005). 50 Years of Football, 1884-1934. Soccer Books Limited. ISBN 1-8622-3116-8. 
  41. ^ [Cox, Richard (2002) The encyclopaedia of British Football, Routledge, United Kingdom]
  42. ^ History of Football
  43. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 18 December 1869
  44. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 5 November 1870,issue 2
  45. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 18 November 1871,issue 2, 681
  46. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 17 February 1872,issue 2694
  47. ^ The Derby Mercury (Derby, England), Wednesday, March 20, 1872; Issue 8226
  48. ^ Murphy, Brendan (2007). From Sheffield with Love. Sports Book Limited. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-899807-56-7. 
  49. ^ Association Football, chapter by CW Alcock, The English Illustrated Magazine 1891, page 287
  50. ^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football, the First Hundred Years. Routledge. pp. 273, ref 34–119. ISBN 0-415-35019-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=TxoZ0S-GC7MC. 
  51. ^ Csanadi Arpad, Hungerian coaching manual "Soccer", Corvina, Budapest 1965
  52. ^ Wilson Jonathon, Inverting the pyramid: a History of Football Tactics , Orion, 2008
  53. ^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football, the First Hundred Years. Routledge. pp. 95–99. ISBN 0415350190. http://books.google.com/books?id=TxoZ0S-GC7MC. 
  54. ^ Murphy, Brendan (2007). From Sheffield with Love. Sports Book Limited. pp. 41–43. ISBN 9781899807 56 7. 
  55. ^ "Letter from Tom Wills". MCG website. http://www.mcg.org.au/default.asp?pg=footballdisplay&articleid=37. Retrieved 2006-07-14. 
  56. ^ "The Origins of Australian Rules Football". MCG website. http://www.mcg.org.au/default.asp?pg=footballdisplay&articleid=36. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  57. ^ Sport: Touchstone of Australian Life from the Australian Broadcasting Commission. First broadcast on Thursday 17/05/01
  58. ^ Peter Shortell. Hacking - a history, Cornwall Referees Society, 2 October 2006
  59. ^ John Simkin. Ebenezer Cobb Morley, Spartacus Educational. Accessed 22 May 2008
  60. ^ "Canadian Football Timelines (1860– present)". Football Canada. http://www.footballcanada.com/history_timeline.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  61. ^ Soccer to become football in Australia (SMH.com.au. December 17, 2004) "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football".
  62. ^ NZ Football - The Local Name Of The Global Game (NZFootball.co.nz. April 27, 2006) "The international game is called football and were part of the international game so the game in New Zealand should be called football".

References

  • Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1-58648-252-1
  • Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football Association; Naldrett Press, London
  • Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1-874427-65-8

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes regarding association football, called also Soccer.

Unsourced

  • Football's a difficult business and aren't they prima donnas? .
  • If you're in the penalty area and don't know what to do with the ball, put it in the net and we'll discuss the options later.^ When you’re in-season, you’re in such a routine, such a project oriented one week at a time process that you don’t think about all that outside stuff.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    .
  • "Someone said 'football is more important than life and death to you' and I said 'Listen, it's more important than that'."
  • Of the nine red cards this season we probably deserved half of them.^ Any time you go on the road in the OAC it is a challenge,” said Otterbein head football coach Joe Loth, who is in his seventh season at his alma mater.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition, the offensive line has allowed just 12 sacks this season, and the Cards leads the conference in red-zone offense.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Whoever wins the turnover battle on Saturday probably wins the ballgame,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth, who is in his seventh season at his alma mater.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    .
  • As long as no-one scored, it was always going to be close.^ Senior running back Nate Kmic opened and closed Mount Union’s four scoring possessions with runs of 56 and one yards.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • Football, bloody hell!
  • You can't say my team aren't winners. They've proved that by finishing fourth, third and second in the last three years.
  • That's great, tell him he's Pele and get him back on.
    • John Lambie, Partick Thistle manager, when told a concussed striker did not know who he was.
  • Tell the Kraut to get his ass up front. We don't pay a million for a guy to hang around in defence.
    • NY Cosmos executive, on Beckenbauer's positioning.
  • I'm a firm believer that if the other side scores first you have to score twice to win.^ Rafferty, making his first start as a Cardinal, threw for two touchdowns and ran for another two scores in a 58-41 win at Wilmington last Saturday.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The running back scored four times, including the first three Otterbein touchdowns, in a 48-7 OAC win over Muskingum Saturday in Westerville.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein scored the game’s first 14 points and never trailed, generating a season-high 615 yards of total offense in the win at Wilmington.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • Playing with wingers is more effective against European sides like Brazil than English sides like Wales. .
  • We're going to start the game at nil-nil and go out and try to get some goals.^ We’re trying to work through that now and develop our game plan based upon what our guys do best.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ We have to go out there and do the things we have been doing all year long to win games.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ We’re going to try and keep those two guys on the field as much as possible.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • Today's top players only want to play in London or for Manchester United. That's what happened when I tried to sign Alan Shearer and he went to Blackburn.
  • Our goalkeeper didn't have a save to make in 90 minutes, and yet he still ended up conceding four goals.
  • I've told the players we need to win so that I can have the cash to buy some new ones.^ We’ve been able to retain the majority of good players and it has led to a winning formula.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein, 8-1 overall, needs just one more win to set a school record for most wins in a season.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ We’ve got to win the turnover battle, be able to run the football and stop the run,” Loth listed as some keys for success against Baldwin-Wallace.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • Eighteen months ago they (Sweden) were arguably one of the best three teams in Europe, and that would include Germany, Holland, Russia and anybody else if you like.^ They have also finished in the top half of the OAC three out of their four years, something that has only been done one other time, 23 years ago.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Overall, Loth hopes his team carries over the momentum of the big win a week ago, but would like to see the group clean up some of its special teams play.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Defensively,” Loth continued, “they have one of the best run-stopping defenses in the country.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • We probably got on better with the likes of Holland, Belgium, Norway and Sweden, some of whom are not even European.
  • It's a game we've got to win. It's also a game we've not got to lose. .
  • We are really quite lucky this year because Christmas falls on Christmas Day.^ It really makes a difference because in past years they may have just been trying to be nice with encouragement.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • The one thing I didn't expect is the way we didn't play. .
  • Winning all the time is not necessarily good for the team.^ Capital leads the all-time series, 41-38-3, which began with a 60-0 Otterbein win in 1894.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ We know to have any chance at all we have to win Saturday,” said Otterbein head coach Joe Loth about his team’s chances for an NCAA bid.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Coy, an All-OAC first team selection last season, opened the 2009 campaign in good form by rushing for 153 yards and two touchdowns in the team’s 28-7 season opening win Saturday at Bethany (WV).
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

  • The mere fact that he's injured stops him getting injured again, if you know what I mean
  • I dreamt of playing for a club like Manchester United, and now here I am at Liverpool.
  • I was alone up front, with Danny Murphy playing between me, myself and the midfield.
  • I couldn't settle in Italy - it was like living in a foreign country. .
  • Football is a simple game; 22 men chase a ball for 90 minutes and at the end, the Germans win.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ It's a whole new ball game: Sports television, the cultural industries and the condition of football in England in 1993.

    ^ Our guys never panicked and believed the whole time that we were going to come back and win that game in the end.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    .
    • Gary Lineker after losing the 1990's World Cup semifinal to Germany by penalty shootout.
  • Steven Gerrard was awesome today.^ Williams, J. (1992b) Football Spectators and Italia '90: A report on the behaviour and control of European football fans at the World Cup Finals, 1990.

    We were just laughing in the dressing room that at one stage we thought he was heading his own crosses in.
    • Gareth Southgate on Gerrard.
  • Football is fulfilled with surprises. .There may be something inside football that make you to even wear pantyhose.^ You’ve got to make them drive the football.” .
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    .
    • Ahmet Çakar, after Fenerbahçe eleminates Sevilla at Champions League last 16 match.^ The Yellow Jackets, 1-3 overall, fell to 1-2 in league play after losing to defending national champion Mount Union, 30-0, on the road last Saturday in Alliance.
      • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

      Before he claimed "If Fenerbahçe eleminates, I will wear bikini next show."


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Football (soccer) article)

From Wikiversity

soccer
Soccer
The game of soccer was invented in the late 19th century in Great Britain. Ever since, it has spread around the world and is now officialy its most popular sport, and has evolved into a major part of daily life.
Lesson 1, learning how to play the game.
Soccer is a very simple sport. To learn soccer, you need to be predominantly fit and practice a lot.
Requirements:
  • Need good endurance and stamina for running.
  • Need good strong leg muscles.
  • Need good awareness and confidence.

Getting started

The game of soccer looks very simple. You kick a ball around. In reality, its not as simple as you think. There are two teams, each with 11 players. The positions are...
Goalkeeper
The goalkeeper stands in the goal, and is allowed to use his hands to catch the ball but only within the goalkeeper's box. The ball is shot at the goal by the other team's forward when they get the chance. If it goes past him and enters the goal, a goal is conceded. Goalkeepers can dive for the ball, grab it, or kick it. Learn how to be a goalkeeper more in this article. Goalkeeping
Defenders
Defenders are often placed near the goal, as they are on the pitch, they can move around anyway, but should stop the other teams forwards from approaching the goal by tackling them. They can then run for the goal with the ball, or pass it with their foot to another player.
Mid-fielders
Mid-fielders do not only stay midfield, but rather generally run 18yd box to 18yd box, for a mixture of attack and defense. They often shoot at the goal and score, but can defend and keep the ball in one teams hands.
Forwards
Designed to score, the forwards attempt to score into the other players net which the goalkeeper attempts to catch. If the opponent misses and the forward scores, they score a goal. Any player, though, even a goalkeeper, is allowed to score a goal.

Learning to play the game

.The game is played on a large field, which has two goals equally apart and positioned.^ WVU leads Pitt 31-9 with 9 minutes to go.Pitt miraculously rallies and "wins" the game 31-31 on a long field goal on the last play of the game.The tie is one of WVU's worst "defeats" ever.It still hurts.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ A 29-yard field goal from senior B.J. Wanninger followed to give Otterbein the lead for good, 10-7, with 2:59 to play in the second quarter.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Michigan State clearly had the game in hand, leading 21-10, and Gardner was attempting a 39-yard field goal with just over two minutes to play.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

On each half is a team. There is also the sidelines, which go around the perimeter pitch. .If the ball goes out of the line on the sides of the pitch, the opposing team that did not knock it out gets a throw in.^ On this side of the ball View From The Stands credits the defensive line for its role in stopping the McLean ground game all game long, and called out several big hits from linebackers and defensive backs ...

^ Cassity runs the ball to the ECU 1 yd.line and gets driven out of bounds at the 1 to preserve the 3 pt.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Our running game slams into a traffic jam at the line of scrimmage, then our fourth-down pass gets batted out of bounds.

If it happens on the goal-lines (the line next to the goal), it changes. If the team that defends that side got it out, the opponents get a corner kick where the kick it from a corner. .If the team that was attacking that side gets it out, the defenders get a goal kick, where they can kick from the goal.^ With the score 37-34, State engineers a comeback of their own getting into field goal range, but the kick goes wide right and ECU wins.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ ABOVE: Kevin Ditch kicks his second field goal of the game, a 39 yarder, as time runs out in the firSt half.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ You know--where each team gets the ball for 10 plays then they swap sides and do it all over again.

1. Getting started
To start playing soccer, you should train for a few weeks before playing. Start by getting a ball and start trying to run with it. This is called dribbling, you use your feet to move the ball as you move. To stop the ball, place your foot on the top. Use whatever foot you feel comfortable with to dribble it. A simple way to dribble it is tap it lightly and jog slowly keeping yourself aware. Keep doing this for a while to start learning, to properly kick a ball.
2. Passing
Passing is the art of kicking a ball so you give it to another player on your team. You pass a ball by tapping it lightly with the inside of your foot and it should go in the aimed direction. Keep practicing in speed and accuracy for a while. Try doing this with a partner to make it more efficient.
3. Shooting
To shoot a ball, you kick it full force. When you kick it full force, it should speed on the ground in one direction. Do this for a while. Then learn how to evaluate it with your foot. Elevate it by shoving your foot under it while you kick. To maintain a ball's height, when you elevate it, place your knee slightly downwards as you kick it, and its height will be stunted.
4. Heading a ball.
Football players can use their heads to play football. To either pass or shoot at the goal, if a ball comes at your face, you should tap it in the appropriate direction with your head, this is heading a ball. Use it only to shoot when right next to a goal. Use it to pass anywhere else on the field.
5. Tackling.
To get the ball off the opposing team you can intercept passes, but another and more difficult way, is tackling. You tackle a player when they are dribbling the ball, by kicking it out of their dribble. It is not that easy, as they can revert direction and keep the ball out of your way. Be careful when tackling as if you hit the player, it will be classed as a foul, which then may result in a yellow or red card. Yellow is a warning, red sends you off. If a foul is committed in the box around the goal of your team. It is classed as a penalty, where the other team get a free shot right up at the goal.
You can slide tackle other players, by sliding onto the ground with your foot forwards to get the ball off them.
6. Assisting
.A lot of players in football don't score goals.^ "There's a lot of energy around our football program and hopefully the new uniforms will help our players get a better understanding of what UW-Oshkosh football is all about and the goals that we're tying to accomplish."
  • University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Titans 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.titans.uwosh.edu [Source type: General]

.But they, assist other players to score goals.^ With the score tied, the Gophers appeared about to win as they lined up for a 28-yard field goal with eight seconds left.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ France were determined to win on home territory, and they did so easily with two headed goals from their future World Player of the Year, Zinedine Zidane.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Italians were dynamic, employing modern tactics that left the Hungarians looking static although they did manage to score two goals.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By getting to the appropiate position, passing it, then they can shoot it in at a perfect point. This is often used when one player is obstructed by too many opposing defenders.

Playing the game

.After spending a few weeks learning these basic skills, get into a game.^ Every week, we put all our resources into trying to win that game.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ At some unknown point someone discovered that inflated pigs’ bladders were very kickable and bounced extremely well and these were incorporated into many games.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At some unknown point, someone discovered that inflated pigs’ bladders were very kickable and bounced extremely well and these were incorporated into many games.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Use a large area of land, set up some goal posts, and get 11 players on each team or 5. 11 is recommended.^ Head set up Davis' TD run with a 48-yard return down to the Southwestern 11.
  • Palomar College FOOTBALL 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: General]

^ However, such was the increasing popularity of the game that, on 26 October 1863, 11 teams got together to form the Football Association and develop a set of uniform rules.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A declaration that it recognizes the authority of the Dispute Resolution Committee set up under these statutes in respect of dispute not within the jurisdiction of the Disciplinary, Appeals and the Players’ Statutes Committees of the Association.
  • Ghana Football Association | STATUTES 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ghanafa.org [Source type: Original source]

Use different colored strips for each team. .Each team also needs one captain, which is normally the most experienced and skilled player, a player of any position can be the captain Each team has a formation, where they should be mostly positioned when playing - they are free to move around, though.^ They have a good player at every position.” .
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein, meanwhile, fields one of its most experienced teams since Loth returned to his alma mater in 2003.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to a revolutionary 14-panel ball configuration, players were able to show their true skills, as the quality and performance characteristics were identical every time they kicked the ball.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When playing the 5-a-side version of the game, all players of one team except the goalkeeper should be in the other players half when a player of their team scores.^ But even as the other team scores, you know this was a close game and you know we can do it.

^ It's the second half and View From The Stands says maybe it's an all new game.

^ The score was 14-0 at the half and it was the Marshall defense that had to play big!

.The ref should kick off by a some kind of a draw, like a coin toss.^ I can't wait for the Serie A kick off on Sunday, August 31 and see all the 20 clubs fighting like gladiators to wi...

.He will then place the ball in the middle and let the team which has kick off get the first move.^ Langley took the first drive on offense and moved the ball into four-down territory.

^ In the end, the only way to resolve the disagreement was for the teams to agree to use the Argentinian ball in the first half and the Uruguayan ball in the second half.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wasn’t until the early Middle Ages, when the first bouncing balls were constructed, that the game became a little more like the football we know today.
  • FIFA.com - Football Facts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC footballs.fifa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The game should go on for 90 minutes.^ View tells me the first few minutes of the game were pretty indicative of how the whole night would go.

When it gets to 45 minutes. .It becomes half time, and the players can rest for 15 minutes which doesn't count onto the game time, for the second half of the game for another 45 minutes.^ It's the second half and View From The Stands says maybe it's an all new game.

^ Georgia Southern rallies from a 22 point half time deficit to beat Furman 44-42 in the 1985 1-AA National championship game with 10 seconds to go on a pass from Tracy Ham to Frankie Johnson.
  • Greatest College Football Finishes 22 September 2009 19:15 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ As the second half opened, you could tell this Game Was ON. The two teams were more than just rested--they were fired up!

.At 90 minutes, which ever teams scored the most goals win.^ They are not only the most improved team in the conference, they are one of the better teams in the conference.” The Berg, winless over the last three seasons, out-scored Baldwin-Wallace, 28-10, over the final 17 minutes of play to win its first OAC game since 2003.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ As the team’s kicker, he booted the game-winning field goal with no time remaining at Ohio Dominican University.
  • University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Titans 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.titans.uwosh.edu [Source type: General]

^ Otterbein did set a school record for most points in a season, 362, surpassing the 1960 team, who scored 352.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

If it's the same number it goes into a draw.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to football article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Football (international).
American football.

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

Noun

Singular
football
Plural
countable and uncountable; plural footballs
football (countable and uncountable; plural footballs)
.
  1. (British, uncountable) A game in which two teams of eleven players each contend to get a round ball into the other team's goal primarily by kicking the ball.^ Northern comes into the game off back-to-back losses to nationally-ranked teams, losing on the road at 8th-ranked North Central, 20-3, Sept.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein and Mount Union, with seven players selected, were the only two teams in the 10-member OAC to have five or more players selected to the academic teams.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ King, who was named defensive player of the week, finished the game with eight tackles, including two for a loss of 11 yards.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    In amateur games it may be a team of five or six, or indeed any number.
    Each team scored three goals when they played football.
    .
  2. (US, uncountable) American football: a game similar to rugby football in which two teams attempt to get an ovoid ball to the end of each other's territory.^ Heidelberg and Otterbein played the first college football game in Germany, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt in 1992.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie in Frankfurt.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    Each team scored two touchdowns when they played football.
    .
  3. (Canadian, uncountable) Canadian football: a game played on a wide field in which two teams attempt to get an ovoid ball to the end of each other's territory.^ Senior wide receiver Dan Gendron caught four balls for 90 yards, including a 21-yard touchdown reception for Otterbein’s first score of the game.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ Otterbein and Heidelberg have been battling for the Rhine River Cup ever since the two teams played the first-ever collegiate football game in Frankfurt, Germany in 1992, which ended in a 7-7 tie.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The two teams have been playing for possession of the cup ever since.
    • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    They played football in the snow.
  4. (Australian, uncountable) Term used to refer to the same game as the British definition (association football).
  5. (Australian, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory, uncountable) Australian rules football.
  6. (Australian, New South Wales, Queensland, uncountable) Rugby League.
  7. (countable) The ball used in any game called "football".
    The player kicked the football.
  8. Practise of these particular games, or techniques used in them.
  9. (metaphorical) An item of discussion, particularly in a back-and-forth manner
    That budget item became a political football.
  10. (Irish) A field game played with similar rules to hurling, but using hands and feet rather than a stick, and a ball, similar to, yet smaller than a soccer ball.
  11. (slang) The nickname of the leather briefcase containing classified nuclear war plans, which is always near the US President.

Synonyms

  • ("football" in Britain):
  • ("football" in the US): (British) American football, (Australian) gridiron, gridiron football
  • ("football" in Canada): (outside Canada) Canadian football
  • ("football" in Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia): footy, Aussie Rules, VFL (outdated), AFL
  • ("football" in New South Wales and Queensland): footy, league
  • (ball):
    • (in all varieties of English and in all games called "football"): ball
    • (Australia: in Aussie rules and rugby): footy, pill
    • (Australia: in football (soccer)): soccerball
    • (in US: American football): pigskin

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also


French

Etymology

From English.

Pronunciation

Noun

football m. (plural footballs)
  1. (Europe) soccer
  2. (Canadian) Canadian football
  3. (less common) American football

Synonyms


Interlingua

Etymology

From English.

Noun

Singular
football
football (uncountable)
  1. football (soccer)

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.Over the last century and a half, the sport of football has grown from a casual and disorganized variant of rugby to the major team sport in the United States and, by some measures, has even overtaken soccer in popularity worldwide.^ Violence in sport and the special case of soccer hooliganism in the United Kingdom.

^ Academic All-District IV team members are selected through voting by CoSIDA, a 2,000-member organization consisting of sports public relations professionals for colleges and universities in the United States and Canada.
  • Otterbein College Football 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

While on its surface it appears to be a violent contest of brute force, beneath is a dazzlingly complex array of rules that give rise to the most comprehensively strategic--and intellectual--athletic contest ever developed. .This book is intended to give the newcomer and casual fan a basic understanding of the most essential elements of the game of football.^ Football and its Fans: Supporters and their relations with the game 1885-1985 .

^ In R. Giulianotti and J. Williams, Football, Identity and Modernity: Fans and Players in the World Game .

^ In R. Giulianotti and J. Williams (eds), Football, Identity and Modernity: Fans and Players in the World Game .

It is not simply a rules digest, but neither is it a thorough treatment of football strategy (coach or more devoted fan seeking that is advised to peruse Wikibooks' upcoming Football Strategy and Planning). Rather, it explains the basic conceptual elements of all three main phases of the game, and tries to provide historical context as well.

Part 1: General Concepts

Part 2: Offense

  1. Players and Positions
    1. The Line
    2. Blocking Ends
    3. Tight and Split Receiving Ends and Wideouts
    4. Quarterbacks
    5. Running Backs
    6. Blocking Backs
  2. Formations
    1. Important Early Formations
      1. Single-Wing Formation
      2. T Formation
    2. Modern Formations
      1. Pro Set
      2. Wishbone
      3. I Formation
      4. Single-Back Formation
      5. Shotgun Formation
      6. Trips Formation
      7. Goal Line Formation
  3. The Running Game
    1. Run Blocking
    2. Tight Ends and the Strong Side
  4. The Passing Game
    1. What is an Eligible Receiver?

Part 3: Defense

Part 4: Special Teams


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

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Football/Table of Contents
Football
Box artwork for Football.
Developer(s) Bally Midway
Publisher(s) Bally Midway
Release date(s)
Genre(s) American football
System(s) Bally Astrocade
Getting Started →
Walkthrough →

Table of Contents

Football/Table of Contents

Simple English

Part of a series of articles on
Sports
Summer Sports
Track and field athletics

Football (soccer)
Basketball
Rugby
Gymnastics
Baseball
American football
Cycling·Auto racing
Cricket·Golf
Field Hockey·Handball
Archery·Shooting
Fencing·Weightlifting
Pentathlon·Triathlon
Horseback riding

Water sports

Swimming· Diving
Water Polo·Sailing
Canoeing·Rowing

Martial arts

Boxing·Wrestling
Karate·Taekwondo

Net sports

Tennis· Volleyball
Table Tennis· Badminton

Winter Sports

Ice Hockey· Skating

Skiing·Curling
Bobsled·Luge
Snowboarding·Biathlon

Football is the name for many sports. The most popular type of football is Association football, which is also named "soccer". Football can also mean American football (gridiron), 蹴鞫(Ancient Chinese football), rugby union, rugby league, Australian Rules Football, Gaelic football or Canadian football.

The name football comes from the two words "foot" and "ball". It is named football because the ball is usually kicked with the foot. Although it is usually kicked using the foot, it is can also be hit using the knee or head.

The game started in Medieval times in the Italian city of Florence.[needs proof] It was played by peasants. Aristocrats, who were richer people, played sport while riding horses.

In football, the ball is almost always shaped like a sphere or an ellipsoide.

Types of football include;


Football is made up of two teams.each team having eleven players and being able to make three substitutions.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Association football, which are similar to those in the above article.








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