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Association football is one of the most popular sports in Scotland and is one of the country's national sports. There is a long tradition of "football" games in Orkney, Lewis and southern Scotland, especially the Scottish Borders, although many of these include carrying the ball and passing by hand, and despite bearing the name "football" bear little resemblance to association football.

Scotland has the second oldest national Football Association in the world (behind England's FA), and the trophy for the national cup, the Scottish Cup, is the oldest sporting trophy in the world.

Scottish football club Rangers F.C are the most successful footballing club in the world in terms of competitions won, including a world record 52 League Titles.

Scotland and Scottish football clubs hold many records for football attendances;

  • The highest ever attendance for a UEFA competition match was in the 1969-70 European Cup semi-final at Hampden Park, Scotland's National stadium. A record 136,505 people attended that Cup semi-final played between Celtic and Leeds United
  • The attendance of 149,415 for the Scotland vs. England match of 1937 at Hampden Park is also a European record.
  • The attendance of 146,433 for the 1937 Scottish Cup final between Celtic and Aberdeen at Hampden Park is a European record for a club match.
  • Rangers' record attendance of 118,567 is a British record for a league match.

Contents

Origins

A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football Act 1424 and although the law fell into disuse it was not repealed until 1906. There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in 1633 (some references cite 1636) which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball. The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" (strike it here) and later "repercute pilam" (strike the ball again) in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race. There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" (Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere) suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original 1930 translation "Throw yourself against him" (Age, objice te illi).

It is clear that the game was rough and tackles allowed included the "charging" and pushing/holding of opposing players ("drive that man back" in the original translation, "repelle eum" in original Latin). It has been suggested that this game bears similarities to rugby football. Contrary to media reports in 2006 there is no reference to forward passing, game rules, marking players or team formation. These reports described it as "an amazing new discovery" but has actually been well documented in football history literature since the early twentieth century and available on the internet since at least 2000.[1] English public schools, such as Eton and Harrow, "civilised" the game by drawing up rules that encouraged players to kick the ball and forbid them from carrying it.

Scottish Football Association

The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is the principal organising body for Scottish football. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the World's second oldest national football association.

The SFA is responsible for the operation of the Scotland National Football Team, the annual Scottish Cup and several other duties important to the functioning of the game in Scotland.

League

League football in Scotland is split between the Scottish Premier League and the Scottish Football League. Beneath these leagues is a system of regional semi-professional and amateur leagues most notable the Highland League, East of Scotland League, South of Scotland League and the Junior leagues.

Scottish Premier League

The Scottish Premier League (SPL) is the top league in Scotland, and consists of a single division of 12 teams. It has existed since 1998 (before then the top league was the Premier Division of the Scottish Football League). This league has one of the world's most famous football rivalries; between Celtic and Rangers. Together the two clubs are known as the 'Old Firm' by virtue of the profitability of their rivalry. Both teams have won more awards than other teams such as Real Madrid and A.C. Milan who struggle to keep up with the Old Firm with League Wins (Rangers have 52 league championships and Celtic have 42). Rangers have won more league championships than any other club in the world and are second only to Linfield from Northern Ireland in terms of trophies won.

Scottish Football League

The Scottish Football League resides below the SPL, and consists of three divisions, each containing 10 teams.

Teams are relegated and promoted between the divisions, but relegation from the Third Division does not occur (from the 2005–06 season onwards, dismissal from the Third Division will occur if a club finishes bottom three seasons in a row). In case of dismissal or withdrawal of a team (such as for economic reasons, etc.) a senior non-League level side has to be elected in its place. The top team in the First Division is eligible for promotion to the SPL, but in the past some teams have been unable to do so due to not meeting the stadium requirements. Previously, requirements were that clubs had to have 10,000 seats in their ground, but this was changed to 6,000. Clubs must also have under-soil heating systems to prevent cancellation of matches caused by frozen pitches.

Queen's Park, uniquely, is the only true amateur (players are not paid) member of the League still standing, having been a League member since 1900. In theory the club could qualify for SPL promotion due to its use of Hampden Park, but they have not played in Scotland's top flight since the 1957–58 season.

Senior non-league level

Outwith the SFL are a series of regionalised leagues. This level is referred to as 'non-league' and these three leagues are known as 'senior' non-league.

Clubs at this level automatically enter the Scottish Cup First Round provided they are members of the Scottish Football Association.

Junior football

Out with the three 'senior' leagues in the non-league grade, are the 'junior' leagues. Although called junior, this refers to the level of football played, not the age of the participants. The junior leagues are organised by the Scottish Junior Football Association and are regionalised into three areas, North, East and West. There is a Scottish Junior Cup which all members of the association participate in, having done so since the Nineteenth century.

Junior clubs, unlike those in the senior non-league level, were not in the main eligible to participate in the Scottish Cup until 2007–08. The one previous exception to this rule, Girvan, participated in the Scottish Qualifying Cup (South) by virtue of the fact that they opted to switch from the senior level to the junior level, but still retained their right to attempt to qualify. From the 2007–08 Scottish Cup however, the winners of each of the three regional leagues and the winner of the Junior Cup will enter the first round of the Scottish Cup proper, following a decision by the SFA to allow them entry at their previous Annual General Meeting.

Amateur football

There are a vast number of amateur footballers in Scotland. They play in leagues across the country of varying standard, usually confined to a specific localised geographic area. Many amateur clubs run teams in more than one of the amateur leagues. Some of the teams are well known with a history of success and producing players who go on to a higher level, such as Drumchapel Amateur. The activities of clubs at the amateur level are co-ordinated by the Scottish Amateur Football Association.

Cup competitions

Scottish Cup

The Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national cup but not the oldest competition, first contested in 1873 and only being predated by England's FA Cup. It is a pure knockout tournament with single matches, with replays being held if the first match is a tie. All 12 Scottish Premier League clubs automatically enter the tournament, as do all 30 Scottish Football League clubs. A number of non-league clubs used to participate by virtue of having qualified through one of two regionalised qualifying cups (since 2007/08 they have qualified automatically for the First Round); or since 2007–08 by having won the Scottish Junior Cup or one of the three regionalised Junior leagues. The final is usually played at Hampden Park.

Scottish League Cup

The Scottish League Cup is open to members of the SPL and SFL, and has been contested since the 1946–47 season.

Scottish Challenge Cup

The Scottish Challenge Cup is open to members of the SFL, and has been contested since the 1990–91 season.

Scottish Junior Cup

The Scottish Junior Cup is contested by Scotland's major junior league teams and has been done so since the 1886–87 season. Currently, 163 teams are eligible to take part.

Scottish Irn Bru Schools Cup

The Scottish Irn Bru Schools Cup is contested by Scotland's Schools and has been done since 1999. Currently 190 schools can take part.

European Competitions

UEFA Champions League

The following teams have qualified for elimination rounds in the UEFA Champions League.

  • Celtic (2006–07, 2007–08 - Last 16)
  • Rangers (2005–06 - Last 16)

National team

The Scottish national team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. The team has played international football longer than any other nation in the world along with England,[2] who they played in the world's first international football match at Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Glasgow in 1872.[3] Scotland have qualified for eight World Cups and two European Championships, but have never progressed beyond the first round.

The Scottish team have become famous for their travelling support, known as the Tartan Army, who have won awards from UEFA for their combination of vocal support, friendly nature and charity work.

Clubs

Seasons

The following articles detail the major results and events in each season since 1890, when the Scottish League was formed. Each article provides the final league tables for that season, with the exception of the current one, as well as details on cup results, Scotland national football team results and a summary of any other important events during the season.

1870s 1870–71 1871–72 1872–73 1873–74 1874–75 1875–76 1876–77 1877–78 1878–79 1879–80
1880s 1880–81 1881–82 1882–83 1883–84 1884–85 1885–86 1886–87 1887–88 1888–89 1889–90
1890s 1890–91 1891–92 1892–93 1893–94 1894–95 1895–96 1896–97 1897–98 1898–99 1899–00
1900s 1900–01 1901–02 1902–03 1903–04 1904–05 1905–06 1906–07 1907–08 1908–09 1909–10
1910s 1910–11 1911–12 1912–13 1913–14 1914–15 1915–16 1916–17 1917–18 1918–19 1919–20
1920s 1920–21 1921–22 1922–23 1923–24 1924–25 1925–26 1926–27 1927–28 1928–29 1929–30
1930s 1930–31 1931–32 1932–33 1933–34 1934–35 1935–36 1936–37 1937–38 1938–39 1939–40
1940s 1940–41 1941–42 1942–43 1943–44 1944–45 1945–46 1946–47 1947–48 1948–49 1949–50
1950s 1950–51 1951–52 1952–53 1953–54 1954–55 1955–56 1956–57 1957–58 1958–59 1959–60
1960s 1960–61 1961–62 1962–63 1963–64 1964–65 1965–66 1966–67 1967–68 1968–69 1969–70
1970s 1970–71 1971–72 1972–73 1973–74 1974–75 1975–76 1976–77 1977–78 1978–79 1979–80
1980s 1980–81 1981–82 1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90
1990s 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00
2000s 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

Women's football

Like its English counterpart, Scottish women's football is largely seen as an amateur game, given the emphasis on the male competitions. As in the men's game, the women's league structure consists of a Premier League and a Football League with Divisions One and Two, but the second division is split into North, West, and Central & East regions. In the women's SFL, reserve and youth squads may compete as long as they do not compete in the same division as the titular club. There are also three cup competitions, the Scottish Women's Cup, Scottish Women's Premier League Cup and the Scottish Women's League Cup

See also

References

  1. ^ [Marples, Morris. A History of Football, Secker and Warburg, London 1954]
  2. ^ "The first international football match". BBC Sport. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0012/. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  3. ^ "This day in history". The History Channel. http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_November_30.php. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 

External links


Association football is the national sport in Scotland and highly popular throughout the country. There is a long tradition of "football" games in Orkney, Lewis and southern Scotland, especially the Scottish Borders, although many of these include carrying the ball and passing by hand, and despite bearing the name "football" bear little resemblance to association football.

Scotland has the second oldest national Football Association in the world (behind England's FA), and the trophy for the national cup, the Scottish Cup, is the oldest sporting trophy in the world.

Scottish football club Rangers F.C have won a world record 53 League Titles.

Scotland and Scottish football clubs hold many records for football attendances;

  • The highest ever attendance for a UEFA competition match was in the 1969-70 European Cup semi-final at Hampden Park, Scotland's National stadium. A record 136,505 people attended that Cup semi-final played between Celtic and Leeds United
  • The attendance of 149,415 for the Scotland vs. England match of 1937 at Hampden Park is also a European record.
  • The attendance of 146,433 for the 1937 Scottish Cup final between Celtic and Aberdeen at Hampden Park is a European record for a club match.
  • Rangers' record attendance of 118,567 is a British record for a league match.

Contents

Origins

A game known as "football" was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football Act 1424 and although the law fell into disuse it was not repealed until 1906. There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in 1633 (some references cite 1636) which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball. The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" (strike it here) and later "repercute pilam" (strike the ball again) in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race. There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" (Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere) suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original 1930 translation "Throw yourself against him" (Age, objice te illi).

It is clear that the game was rough and tackles allowed included the "charging" and pushing/holding of opposing players ("drive that man back" in the original translation, "repelle eum" in original Latin). It has been suggested that this game bears similarities to rugby football. Contrary to media reports in 2006 there is no reference to forward passing, game rules, marking players or team formation. These reports described it as "an amazing new discovery" but has actually been well documented in football history literature since the early twentieth century and available on the internet since at least 2000.[1] English public schools, such as Eton and Harrow, "civilised" the game by drawing up rules that encouraged players to kick the ball and forbid them from carrying it.

Scottish Football Association

The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is the principal organising body for Scottish football. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the World's second oldest national football association.

The SFA is responsible for the operation of the Scotland National Football Team, the annual Scottish Cup and several other duties important to the functioning of the game in Scotland.

League

League football in Scotland is split between the Scottish Premier League and the Scottish Football League. Beneath these leagues is a system of regional semi-professional and amateur leagues most notable the Highland League, East of Scotland League, South of Scotland League and the Junior leagues.

Scottish Premier League

The Scottish Premier League (SPL) is the top league in Scotland, and consists of a single division of 12 teams. It has existed since 1998 (before then the top league was the Premier Division of the Scottish Football League). This league has one of the world's most famous football rivalries; between Celtic and Rangers. Together the two clubs are known as the 'Old Firm' by virtue of the profitability of their rivalry. Rangers have won more league championships than any other club in the world (53 titles) and are second only to Linfield from Northern Ireland in terms of trophies won.

Scottish Football League

The Scottish Football League resides below the SPL, and consists of three divisions, each containing 10 teams.

Teams are relegated and promoted between the divisions, but relegation from the Third Division does not occur (from the 2005–06 season onwards, dismissal from the Third Division will occur if a club finishes bottom three seasons in a row). In case of dismissal or withdrawal of a team (such as for economic reasons, etc.) a senior non-League level side has to be elected in its place. The top team in the First Division is eligible for promotion to the SPL, but in the past some teams have been unable to do so due to not meeting the stadium requirements. Previously, requirements were that clubs had to have 10,000 seats in their ground, but this was changed to 6,000. Clubs must also have under-soil heating systems to prevent cancellation of matches caused by frozen pitches.

Queen's Park, uniquely, is the only true amateur (players are not paid) member of the League still standing, having been a League member since 1900. In theory the club could qualify for SPL promotion due to its use of Hampden Park, but they have not played in Scotland's top flight since the 1957–58 season.

Senior non-league level

Outwith the SFL are a series of regionalised leagues. This level is referred to as 'non-league' and these three leagues are known as 'senior' non-league.

Clubs at this level automatically enter the Scottish Cup First Round provided they are members of the Scottish Football Association.

Junior football

Out with the three 'senior' leagues in the non-league grade, are the 'junior' leagues. Although called junior, this refers to the level of football played, not the age of the participants. The junior leagues are organised by the Scottish Junior Football Association and are regionalised into three areas, North, East and West. There is a Scottish Junior Cup which all members of the association participate in, having done so since the Nineteenth century.

Junior clubs, unlike those in the senior non-league level, were not in the main eligible to participate in the Scottish Cup until 2007–08. The one previous exception to this rule, Girvan, participated in the Scottish Qualifying Cup (South) by virtue of the fact that they opted to switch from the senior level to the junior level, but still retained their right to attempt to qualify. From the 2007–08 Scottish Cup however, the winners of each of the three regional leagues and the winner of the Junior Cup will enter the first round of the Scottish Cup proper, following a decision by the SFA to allow them entry at their previous Annual General Meeting.

Amateur football

There are a vast number of amateur footballers in Scotland. They play in leagues across the country of varying standard, usually confined to a specific localised geographic area. Many amateur clubs run teams in more than one of the amateur leagues. Some of the teams are well known with a history of success and producing players who go on to a higher level, such as Drumchapel Amateur. The activities of clubs at the amateur level are co-ordinated by the Scottish Amateur Football Association.

Cup competitions

Scottish Cup

The Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national cup but not the oldest competition, first contested in 1873 and only being predated by England's FA Cup. It is a pure knockout tournament with single matches, with replays being held if the first match is a tie. All 12 Scottish Premier League clubs automatically enter the tournament, as do all 30 Scottish Football League clubs. A number of non-league clubs used to participate by virtue of having qualified through one of two regionalised qualifying cups (since 2007/08 they have qualified automatically for the First Round); or since 2007–08 by having won the Scottish Junior Cup or one of the three regionalised Junior leagues. The final is usually played at Hampden Park.

Scottish League Cup

The Scottish League Cup is open to members of the SPL and SFL, and has been contested since the 1946–47 season.

Scottish Challenge Cup

The Scottish Challenge Cup is open to members of the SFL, and has been contested since the 1990–91 season.

Scottish Junior Cup

The Scottish Junior Cup is contested by Scotland's major junior league teams and has been done so since the 1886–87 season. Currently, 163 teams are eligible to take part.

Scottish Irn Bru Schools Cup

The Scottish Irn Bru Schools Cup is contested by Scotland's Schools and has been done since 1999. Currently 190 schools can take part.

European Competitions

UEFA Champions League

The following teams have qualified for elimination rounds in the UEFA Champions League.

  • Celtic (2006–07, 2007–08 - Last 16)
  • Rangers (2005–06 - Last 16)

National team

The Scottish national team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. The team has played international football longer than any other nation in the world along with England,[2] who they played in the world's first international football match at Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Glasgow in 1872.[3] Scotland have qualified for eight World Cups and two European Championships, but have never progressed beyond the first round.

The Scottish team have become famous for their travelling support, known as the Tartan Army, who have won awards from UEFA for their combination of vocal support, friendly nature and charity work.

Clubs

Seasons

The following articles detail the major results and events in each season since 1890, when the Scottish League was formed. Each article provides the final league tables for that season, with the exception of the current one, as well as details on cup results, Scotland national football team results and a summary of any other important events during the season.

1870s 1870–71 1871–72 1872–73 1873–74 1874–75 1875–76 1876–77 1877–78 1878–79 1879–80
1880s 1880–81 1881–82 1882–83 1883–84 1884–85 1885–86 1886–87 1887–88 1888–89 1889–90
1890s 1890–91 1891–92 1892–93 1893–94 1894–95 1895–96 1896–97 1897–98 1898–99 1899–00
1900s 1900–01 1901–02 1902–03 1903–04 1904–05 1905–06 1906–07 1907–08 1908–09 1909–10
1910s 1910–11 1911–12 1912–13 1913–14 1914–15 1915–16 1916–17 1917–18 1918–19 1919–20
1920s 1920–21 1921–22 1922–23 1923–24 1924–25 1925–26 1926–27 1927–28 1928–29 1929–30
1930s 1930–31 1931–32 1932–33 1933–34 1934–35 1935–36 1936–37 1937–38 1938–39 1939–40
1940s 1940–41 1941–42 1942–43 1943–44 1944–45 1945–46 1946–47 1947–48 1948–49 1949–50
1950s 1950–51 1951–52 1952–53 1953–54 1954–55 1955–56 1956–57 1957–58 1958–59 1959–60
1960s 1960–61 1961–62 1962–63 1963–64 1964–65 1965–66 1966–67 1967–68 1968–69 1969–70
1970s 1970–71 1971–72 1972–73 1973–74 1974–75 1975–76 1976–77 1977–78 1978–79 1979–80
1980s 1980–81 1981–82 1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90
1990s 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00
2000s 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

Women's football

Like its English counterpart, Scottish women's football is largely seen as an amateur game, given the emphasis on the male competitions. As in the men's game, the women's league structure consists of a Premier League and a Football League with Divisions One and Two, but the second division is split into North, West, and Central & East regions. In the women's SFL, reserve and youth squads may compete as long as they do not compete in the same division as the titular club. There are also three cup competitions, the Scottish Women's Cup, Scottish Women's Premier League Cup and the Scottish Women's League Cup

See also

References

  1. ^ [Marples, Morris. A History of Football, Secker and Warburg, London 1954]
  2. ^ "The first international football match". BBC Sport. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0012/. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  3. ^ "This day in history". The History Channel. http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_November_30.php. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 

External links








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