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Forces are often described as pushes or pulls. They can be due to phenomena such as gravity, magnetism, or anything else that might cause a mass to accelerate.
Classical mechanics
$\mathbf{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}(m \mathbf{v})$
Newton's Second Law
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Fundamental concepts
Space · Time · Mass · Force
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.In physics, the concept of force is used to describe an influence that causes a free body to undergo an acceleration.^ The replication of viruses is completely determinative, but the terms that are often used to describe how viruses are replicated are terms that we associate with "free will" concepts.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ever since the Christians took over in Rome 1,700 years ago they have been using force, both physical and social, to enforce their view on society.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull that can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. An applied force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. .Newton's second law can be formulated to state that an object with a constant mass will accelerate in proportion to the net force acting upon and in inverse proportion to its mass, an approximation which breaks down near the speed of light.^ The attraction of all matter for all other matter is in proportion directly to the mass and inversely to the square of the distance.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Newton's original formulation is exact, and does not break down: this version states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes.[1]
.Related concepts to accelerating forces include thrust - any force which increases the velocity of the object, drag - any force which decreases the velocity of any object, and torque - the tendency of a force to cause changes in rotational speed about an axis.^ The image below attempts to illustrate the concept of "change over time" as it relates to "speciation".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Forces which do not act uniformly on all parts of a body will also cause mechanical stresses,[2] a technical term for influences which cause deformation of matter.^ What about "strange freaks of nature", such as those people who are born with a rare trait that cause them to grow hair all over their head or body?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And since 'nature' means two things, the matter and the form, of which the latter is the end, and since all the rest is for the sake of the end, the form must be the cause in the sense of 'that for the sake of which'.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

While mechanical stress can remain embedded in a solid object, gradually deforming it, mechanical stress in a fluid determines changes in its pressure and volume.[3][4]
.Philosophers in antiquity used the concept of force in the study of stationary and moving objects and simple machines, but thinkers such as Aristotle and Archimedes retained fundamental errors in understanding force, due to an incomplete understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction, and a consequently inadequate view of the nature of natural motion.^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Age of Enlightenment evolutionary concepts were reborn, but they were often reinvented from scratch, based on the same fundamental principles of materialism and observation of the natural world, i.e.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian view of nature has been used to provide support for Christian views on law and morality.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[5] .When the Age of Enlightenment began, Sir Isaac Newton corrected these misunderstandings with mathematical insight that remained unchanged for nearly three hundred years.^ In the face of these three arguments, it is a bit reckless to say the earth has existed, 1,600,000,000 years--nearly 100 times as long as proven possible by mathematical calculation.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham, were in existence many hundred years before Moses, and showed a high state of civilization, which began many hundred years before Abraham.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the most his years numbered thirty-three years, and of these only a little less than three were devoted to public ministry, and these were spent in a conquered province of the Roman Empire.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[4] .By the early 20th century, Einstein developed a theory of relativity that correctly predicted the action of forces on objects with increasing momenta near the speed of light, and also provided insight into the "forces" produced by gravitation and inertia.^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A scientific theory is one that cannot be proven, like Einstein's theory of Relativity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A theory does not develop into a law if sufficient evidence is found.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms.^ Granted, it doesn't take into account physical differences in relay speeds, etc., but the properties it describes are real and can be rigorously investigated.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparisons between social humans and social insects offers more insight into how memes can affect behavior.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The Standard Model predicts that exchange particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. .Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational.^ Furthermore, one of the main points that Darwin made was that individuals are not only in competition with "other species", but they also compete with members of their "own species".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3] .High-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction.^ During the Age of Enlightenment evolutionary concepts were reborn, but they were often reinvented from scratch, based on the same fundamental principles of materialism and observation of the natural world, i.e.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Russell answers: "We must therefore suppose that energy from an unknown source becomes available at exceedingly high temperatures....We can not do more than guess where it is hidden."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[6]

Pre-Newtonian concepts

Aristotle famously described a force as anything which causes an object to undergo "unnatural motion"
Since antiquity, the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines. The mechanical advantage given by a simple machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance. Analysis of the characteristics of forces ultimately culminated in the work of Archimedes who was especially famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids.[5]
.Aristotle provided a philosophical discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of Aristotelian cosmology.^ The god of Plato and Aristotle was a philosophically derived concept though, and not to be worshiped - nor did their god love and care.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Opposition to the ancient Greek concept of evolution was an integral part of the early development of Christianity.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Aristotle's view, the natural world held four elements that existed in "natural states". Aristotle believed that it was the natural state of objects with mass on Earth, such as the elements water and earth, to be motionless on the ground and that they tended towards that state if left alone.^ The longer bones lie buried, the more fluorine they absorb from ground water.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Age of Enlightenment evolutionary concepts were reborn, but they were often reinvented from scratch, based on the same fundamental principles of materialism and observation of the natural world, i.e.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.He distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their "natural place" (e.g., for heavy bodies to fall), which led to "natural motion", and unnatural or forced motion, which required continued application of a force.^ But is it not possible that it may settle at last, so as not to lose its motion and active force (for that we have supposed inherent in it), yet so as to preserve an uniformity of appearance, amidst the continual motion and fluctuation of its parts?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For they, as is well known, affirm that there is nothing else in nature but bodies and empty space, and the accidents of these, by which I believe that they mean motion and striking, and the forms which result from these.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[7] .This theory, based on the everyday experience of how objects move, such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving, had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles, such as the flight of arrows.^ Not only this, I've been saying that on the basis of evolutionary theory you can't even define "behavior" as such, let alone "good" or "bad" behavior.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, the Earth moving around the Sun was a fact which Copernicus predicted based on astronomical theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Outside of time travel or humanity conducting some extremely long-term experiments, how the theory of evolution can be better "proven?"
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

The place where forces were applied to projectiles was only at the start of the flight, and while the projectile sailed through the air, no discernible force acts on it. Aristotle was aware of this problem and proposed that the air displaced through the projectile's path provided the needed force to continue the projectile moving. This explanation demands that air is needed for projectiles and that, for example, in a vacuum, no projectile would move after the initial push. Additional problems with the explanation include the fact that air resists the motion of the projectiles.[8]
.Aristotelian physics began facing criticism in Medieval science, first by John Philoponus in the 6th century and then by Islamic physicists from the 11th century, when Avicenna's The Book of Healing introduced an alternative theory of mayl, where motion is a result of an inclination (mayl) transferred to the projectile by the thrower, projectile motion in a vacuum does not cease,[9] and inclination is a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance.^ Evolutionary theory does not put forward any values, it does not claim that competition is good or bad, it just observes its existence and reports the results of it.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Sound" does not travel at all, what travels are compression waves in a medium, such as air or water.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[9][10] Avicenna also developed the concept of momentum, referring to mayl as being proportional to weight times velocity.[11][12] .His theory of motion was also consistent with the concept of inertia,[13] an idea that was also expressed by Alhazen, who stated that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion.^ Matter can not move, unless moved upon; nor stop of itself, when once in motion.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To work, a theory should be both internally and externally consistent throughout its application.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In The System of Nature Baron d'Holbach proposed the idea that humans have changed over time and vaguely implied the concept of common decent, as stated below: .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Biruni realized that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion,[15] an idea that was further developed in the 12th century by Al-Baghdadi, who wrote a critique of Aristotelian physics entitled Kitab al-Mu'tabar.^ His book Zonomia put forward what was known about disease and germs at the time, as well as ideas about what life really is, how it formed, and how it has developed over time.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Smith's ideas on economics were further extended by others during the 19th and 20th century to develop an even more Darwinian economic model - laissez- faire capitalism, in which the concept of "social good" was abandoned.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It has further been suggested that Darwin was a racist and that Darwinian ideas are responsible for the rise of extreme racism in the 20th century, including the racism of the Nazis.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.He negated Aristotle's idea that a constant force produces uniform motion, as he realized that a force applied continuously produces acceleration, a concept that is fundamental to classical mechanics.^ But is it not possible that it may settle at last, so as not to lose its motion and active force (for that we have supposed inherent in it), yet so as to preserve an uniformity of appearance, amidst the continual motion and fluctuation of its parts?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, Darwinist theory claims that the design in nature is not real but only apparent, a product of blind, mechanical forces.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greek concepts of atoms were relatively crude compared to today, but the fundamental concept of the atom as a particle was the foundation for the materialist understanding of reality.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[16] Like Newton, he described acceleration as the rate of change of velocity.[17] .Avempace developed the concept that there is always a reaction force for every force exerted.^ Every time people attempt to define the boundaries of life or of systems we later learn that the boundaries are not so simple to define and that there are many different ways in which systems can naturally develop.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is always variation however, so every individual's tastes are not completely shaped by natural selection.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Such concepts eventually culminated in the theory of impetus, which reached its most developed form under Jean Buridan in the 14th century.^ In the tropics naturalists observed that many forms of life, such as leaf bugs, had developed complex forms and behaviors that helped them hide from other animals.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not that any of the theories that form the basis for evolution are necessarily without merit, but they remain, for the most part, as unestablished as their religious counterparts.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The shortcomings of Aristotelian physics would not be fully corrected until the seventeenth century work of Galileo Galilei, who was influenced by the late Medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus. Galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion early in the seventeenth century. He showed that the bodies were accelerated by gravity to an extent which was independent of their mass and argued that objects retain their velocity unless acted on by a force, for example friction.[19]

Newtonian mechanics

.Sir Isaac Newton sought to describe the motion of all objects using the concepts of inertia and force, and in doing so, he found that they obey certain conservation laws.^ But now they must join forces against a new adversary who threatens them all and the entire world besides...in the name of God.
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Long standing US policy or not, if they are doing it against US citizens against the constitution I say put them all on trial...
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1687, Newton went on to publish his thesis Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[4][20] .In this work, Newton set out three laws of motion that to this day are the way forces are described in physics.^ I'm having a field day watching the Dems whine their way out of this one on the various news sources!
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our campaign against God and religion must be carried out in a pedagogic way, not by violence or force."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the linked article discusses physical laws when talking about contingency and then throws out the effect of physical laws when discussing complexity.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Newton's first law

.Newton's first law of motion states that objects continue to move in a state of constant velocity unless acted upon by an external net force or resultant force.^ Matter can not move, unless moved upon; nor stop of itself, when once in motion.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But is it not possible that it may settle at last, so as not to lose its motion and active force (for that we have supposed inherent in it), yet so as to preserve an uniformity of appearance, amidst the continual motion and fluctuation of its parts?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second Law says this will not happen in any processes unless external factors enter to make it happen.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[20] .This law is an extension of Galileo's insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force (see a more detailed description of this below).^ If you did, it appears that Ed's description of the understanding of a law is far more on point given your own link.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate inertia that functions as the fundamental equilibrium "natural state" in place of the Aristotelian idea of the "natural state of rest". That is, the first law contradicts the intuitive Aristotelian belief that a net force is required to keep an object moving with constant velocity.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From this has come, in the first place, your idea of preordained necessity, which you call ε μαρμένη, meaning by the term that every event that occurs had its origin in eternal truth and the chain of causation(though what is to be thought of a philosophy that holds the ignorant old crones belief that everything happens by destiny?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And your invocation of "naturalism" conflates methdological naturalism with metaphysical naturalism; science requires the first but not the second.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.By making rest physically indistinguishable from non-zero constant velocity, Newton's first law directly connects inertia with the concept of relative velocities.^ Newton's Laws, despite being explicitly rejected by contemporary physics, are still laws nonetheless.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newtons Laws work for the realm of Newtonian Physics.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Specifically, in systems where objects are moving with different velocities, it is impossible to determine which object is "in motion" and which object is "at rest". In other words, to phrase matters more technically, the laws of physics are the same in every inertial frame of reference, that is, in all frames related by a Galilean transformation.^ You know also the other scripture, that "by the word of the lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth .
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Thus, God could make the law of noncontradiction false; in other words, God could arrange matters so that a proposition and its negation were true at the same time."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All animals therefore, I contend, have a similar cause of their organization, originating from a single living filament, endued indeed with different kinds of irritabilities and sensibilities, or of animal appetencies; which exist in every gland, and in every moving organ of the body, and are as essential to living organization as chemical affinities are to certain combinations of inanimate matter.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, while traveling in a moving vehicle at a constant velocity, the laws of physics do not change from being at rest.^ "Man's physical evolution has virtually ceased, but in so far as any change is being effected, it is largely retrogressive.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton's Laws, despite being explicitly rejected by contemporary physics, are still laws nonetheless.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the science of mathematics and all physical laws must have come into being in an instant of time.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.A person can throw a ball straight up in the air and catch it as it falls down without worrying about applying a force in the direction the vehicle is moving.^ The trunk of the elephant is an elongation of the nose for the purpose of pulling down the branches of trees for his food, and for taking up water without bending his knees.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This is true even though another person who is observing the moving vehicle pass by also observes the ball follow a curving parabolic path in the same direction as the motion of the vehicle.^ But there's another menace looking to push the stakes even higher: Starr Saxon, the mastermind who discovers DD's secret identity!
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

^ The differences were observed to be adaptive, and they followed patterns of adaptive differentiation, though to a lesser degree, found among other species of Anolis lizards in the Caribbean.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if these calculations were true, which they are not, they do nothing at all to address the observed evidence in support of evolution.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It is the inertia of the ball associated with its constant velocity in the direction of the vehicle's motion that ensures the ball continues to move forward even as it is thrown up and falls back down.^ Nevertheless, in spite of all the ups and downs, you start in for another effort: and so through this process, long-continued, you have come to where you are today, and in "looking back" over it all, you can mark some progress, you think, as judged by your feelings--is that your experience?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Leucippus, an associate of Zeno, did not maintain the same opinion, but affirms things to be infinite, and always in motion, and that generation and change exist continuously.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as he himself systematically ruins women and girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood barriers for others, even on a large scale.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.From the perspective of the person in the car, the vehicle and every thing inside of it is at rest: It is the outside world that is moving with a constant speed in the opposite direction.^ Every one of you here this afternoon would say that you believe that God created all things--the world and all there is in it.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are not things that exist in the material world outside of the mind.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since there is no experiment that can distinguish whether it is the vehicle that is at rest or the outside world that is at rest, the two situations are considered to be physically indistinguishable.^ Are there no crackpot ideas in the world?
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Since everything," he says, "is infinite, and nothing can be empty, it follows of necessity that there are innumerable worlds."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation."
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.Inertia therefore applies equally well to constant velocity motion as it does to rest.^ Does this apply to H. G. Wells?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The concept of inertia can be further generalized to explain the tendency of objects to continue in many different forms of constant motion, even those that are not strictly constant velocity.^ In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many different cave organisms have been observed to have semi-formed eyes that serve no purpose for vision in the dark and are often non-functional.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A more accurate image would show many different branches and multiple different forms developing from the same ancestral populations with a less uniform gradation.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The rotational inertia of planet Earth is what fixes the constancy of the length of a day and the length of a year.^ In fact, if you assume that each day of creation can be equated to millions of years, then you have to explain how it is that plants survived for millions of years on earth before the sun existed.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Albert Einstein extended the principle of inertia further when he explained that reference frames subject to constant acceleration, such as those free-falling toward a gravitating object, were physically equivalent to inertial reference frames. .This is why, for example, astronauts experience weightlessness when in free-fall orbit around the Earth, and why Newton's Laws of Motion are more easily discernible in such environments.^ During the creation several different "defective" people were made, (non-sexual, sterile, diseased, and blind) explaining why it is that such afflicted people exist on the earth.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The universe is expanding, galaxies are forming and being destroyed, the earth is orbiting around the sun, which is itself flying through space inside our galaxy, which is itself spinning and changing and flying through space.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Genetic change is what causes biological diversity, but why is it that we see distinct life forms on earth and why are those life forms so well suited to their environment?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

If an astronaut places an object with mass in mid-air next to herself, it will remain stationary with respect to the astronaut due to its inertia. .This is the same thing that would occur if the astronaut and the object were in intergalactic space with no net force of gravity acting on their shared reference frame.^ We see this same thing occurring today.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If we could see these things with our eyes, as we can with our mind, no one, when he gazed upon the earth in its completeness, would doubt as to the divine intelligence.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This principle of equivalence was one of the foundational underpinnings for the development of the general theory of relativity.^ That's a foundational principle of science - theories are NOT provable.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the major reasons that so much attention was paid to extinction in the development of evolutionary theory is that creationists claimed that extinction was contrary to the Bible.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[21]
Though Sir Isaac Newton's most famous equation is $\scriptstyle{\vec{F}=m\vec{a}}$, he actually wrote down a different form for his second law of motion that did not use differential calculus.

Newton's second law

A modern statement of Newton's second law is a vector differential equation:[22]
$\vec{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{p}}{\mathrm{d}t},$
where $\scriptstyle \vec{p}$ is the momentum of the system, and $\scriptstyle \vec{F}$ is the net (vector sum) force. .In equilibrium, there is zero net force by definition, but (balanced) forces may be present nevertheless.^ There is not enough data to prove or disprove, so it may definitely be true, which is why its a theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rael: When one talks about evolution, there may be instances of popular usage differing from the technical definition.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Math_mage wrote: When one talks about evolution, there may be instances of popular usage differing from the technical definition.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast, the second law states an unbalanced force acting on an object will result in the object's momentum changing over time.^ The Second Law of Thermodynamics specifically states: .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to think that the Creative force would allow species to adapt to changes in their environment over time.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Buffon challenged this view by stating that all humans were one "species" which had changed over time to produce the variety of forms that is presently observed.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[20]
By the definition of momentum,
$\vec{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{p}}{\mathrm{d}t} = \frac{\mathrm{d}\left(m\vec{v}\right)}{\mathrm{d}t},$
where m is the mass and $\scriptstyle \vec{v}$ is the velocity.
The product rule shows that
$\vec{F} = m\frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{v}}{\mathrm{d}t} + \vec{v}\frac{\mathrm{d}m}{\mathrm{d}t}$.
For closed systems (systems of constant total mass), the time derivative of mass is zero and the equation becomes
$\vec{F} = m\frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{v}}{\mathrm{d}t}$.
By substituting the definition of acceleration, the algebraic version of this common simplification of Newton's second law is derived:
$\vec{F} =m\vec{a}.$
.It is sometimes called the "second most famous formula in physics".[23] Newton never explicitly stated the formula in the reduced form above.^ Newton's Laws, despite being explicitly rejected by contemporary physics, are still laws nonetheless.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Newton's second law asserts the proportionality of acceleration and mass to force. Accelerations can be defined through kinematic measurements. .However, while kinematics are well-described through reference frame analysis in advanced physics, there are still deep questions that remain as to what is the proper definition of mass.^ No matter what the answer is to the question of abiogenesis, common descent remains true and well supported.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That humans have evolved over time is now beyond question among the scientific community based on the evidence, but there is still much to be learned about the specifics of how humans evolved.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The question is still the same, is there any historical proof that Jesus ever existed?
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.General relativity offers an equivalence between space-time and mass, but lacking a coherent theory of quantum gravity, it is unclear as to how or whether this connection is relevant on microscales.^ How much time are you going to allow between that word of God and your being created new?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Theory of Evolution is a "theory" in exactly the same way the Theory of Relativity or Quantum Theory is a "theory."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.With some justification, Newton's second law can be taken as a quantitative definition of mass by writing the law as an equality; the relative units of force and mass then are fixed.^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is merely the Second Law of Thermodynamics argument warmed over, and is equally fallacious.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The use of Newton's second law as a definition of force has been disparaged in some of the more rigorous textbooks,[3][24] because it is essentially a mathematical truism.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If it's within the current law, and was not used against US citizens I would more than likely support it!!!!!
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The equality between the abstract idea of a "force" and the abstract idea of a "changing momentum vector" ultimately has no observational significance because one cannot be defined without simultaneously defining the other.^ No one can answer, because there is not a trace of proof that they ever existed.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another one of the major observations that contributed to early evolutionary theory was the observation of life forms in the fossil record that bore no resemblance to any living things.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Of no value whatever to any other species, because they can not make or replenish a fire.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.What a "force" or "changing momentum" is must either be referred to an intuitive understanding of our direct perception, or be defined implicitly through a set of self-consistent mathematical formulas.^ Our campaign against God and religion must be carried out in a pedagogic way, not by violence or force."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, our perceptions and our tastes have been shaped through a process of natural selection.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most significant discovery that has impacted for our understanding of evolution is the discovery, in the 1950s, of DNA, the molecule that serves as the instruction set for life.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Notable physicists, philosophers and mathematicians who have sought a more explicit definition of the concept of "force" include Ernst Mach, Clifford Truesdell and Walter Noll.^ I do not include this as an argument against any other Christians who may be reading this blog - it is a silly argument in the first place - but I have noticed more TAG proponents, of late.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He who has seen a savage in his native land will not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Concepts adopted by Christians from Platonic Greek philosophers include: .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.Newton's second law can be used to measure the strength of forces.^ The fox is always a fox, the goose a goose, the tiger a tiger, etc., and the difference can lie at most in the varying measure of force, strength, intelligence, dexterity, endurance, etc., of the individual specimens.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

For instance, knowledge of the masses of planets along with the accelerations of their orbits allows scientists to calculate the gravitational forces on planets.

Newton's third law

.Newton's third law is a result of applying symmetry to situations where forces can be attributed to the presence of different objects.^ Of course different rules apply to different species in different situations.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

For any two objects (call them 1 and 2), Newton's third law states that any force that is applied to object 1 due to the action of object 2 is automatically accompanied by a force applied to object 2 due to the action of object 1[26]
$\vec{F}_{1,2}=-\vec{F}_{2,1}.$
This law implies that forces always occur in action-and-reaction pairs.[20] If object 1 and object 2 are considered to be in the same system, then the net force on the system due to the interactions between objects 1 and 2 is zero since
$\vec{F}_{1,2}+\vec{F}_{\mathrm{2,1}}=0$
$\vec{F}_{net}=0.$
.This means that in a closed system of particles, there are no internal forces that are unbalanced.^ "I mean, DAMN, the evolution toward Fascism is happening and there is no good in it for anyone but the top 1% of the population.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a huge difference, I don't make posts with no meaning but an attack to the right wing do I? The far right wing of which I reference is also not the entire section of the republican party.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, DAMN, the evolution toward Fascism is happening and there is no good in it for anyone but the top 1% of the population.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is, action-and-reaction pairs of forces shared between any two objects in a closed system will not cause the center of mass of the system to accelerate.^ KAMLA KANT PANDEY 98 Interaction Between Inversion Polymorphisms of Two Chromosome Pairs in the Grasshopper, Moraba scurra.

^ MARTEN BOS 768 On Premating Isolation Between Two Closely Related Species of Hawaiian Drosophila.

The constituent objects only accelerate with respect to each other, the system itself remains unaccelerated. .Alternatively, if an external force acts on the system, then the center of mass will experience an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the external force divided by the mass of the system.^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.Combining Newton's second and third laws, it is possible to show that the linear momentum of a system is conserved.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To wit, the second law (the only one ever claimed to pose a problem) states that entropy cannot decrease in an isolated system .
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Using
$\vec{F}_{1,2} = \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{p}_{1,2}}{\mathrm{d}t} = -\vec{F}_{2,1} = -\frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{p}_{2,1}}{\mathrm{d}t}$
and integrating with respect to time, the equation:
$\Delta{\vec{p}_{1,2}} = - \Delta{\vec{p}_{2,1}}$
is obtained. For a system which includes objects 1 and 2,
$\sum{\Delta{\vec{p}}}=\Delta{\vec{p}_{1,2}} + \Delta{\vec{p}_{2,1}} = 0$
which is the conservation of linear momentum.[27] Using the similar arguments, it is possible to generalizing this to a system of an arbitrary number of particles. This shows that exchanging momentum between constituent objects will not affect the net momentum of a system. .In general, as long as all forces are due to the interaction of objects with mass, it is possible to define a system such that net momentum is never lost nor gained.^ In other words, out of a batch of offspring some of them simply never developed teeth at all, loosing teeth in a single generation.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, if spontaneous generation were possible at the beginning of life, it is possible now, and has been possible during all the ages.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Farther he says that at the beginning man was generated from all sorts of animals, since all the rest can quickly get food for themselves, but man alone requires careful feeding for a long time; such a being at the beginning could not have preserved his existence.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Descriptions

Free-body diagrams of an object on a flat surface and an inclined plane. Forces are resolved and added together to determine their magnitudes and the resultant.
Since forces are perceived as pushes or pulls, this can provide an intuitive understanding for describing forces.[4] As with other physical concepts (e.g. temperature), the intuitive understanding of forces is quantified using precise operational definitions that are consistent with direct observations and compared to a standard measurement scale. .Through experimentation, it is determined that laboratory measurements of forces are fully consistent with the conceptual definition of force offered by Newtonian mechanics.^ Mathematical Probability is a branch or division of mathematics by means of which the odds in favor or against the occurrence of any event may be definitely computed, and the measure of the probability or improbability exactly determined.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Forces act in a particular direction and have sizes dependent upon how strong the push or pull is.^ Few persons realize how improbable an event is made which depends upon a number of possibilities or even probabilities, until calculated by the rule of Compound Mathematical Probability.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because of these characteristics, forces are classified as "vector quantities". This means that forces follow a different set of mathematical rules than physical quantities that do not have direction (denoted scalar quantities).^ If you think w/o a warrant on a US citizen does not go against the constitution though you sure get a different meaning out of reading than I do.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Science should follow the evidence wherever it leads, rather than ruling out the possibility of an intelligent designer because of an anti-supernatural bias.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, when determining what happens when two forces act on the same object, it is necessary to know both the magnitude and the direction of both forces to calculate the result.^ Both Darwin and Lincoln were born on the same day, and Lincoln was elected president two years after Darwin published The Origin of Species .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the conditions, as Ed already mentioned, we can observe for example geological formations that occurred in the past and compare them to the same kinds of formations now happening in the present.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

If both of these pieces of information are not known for each force, the situation is ambiguous. .For example, if you know that two people are pulling on the same rope with known magnitudes of force but you do not know which direction either person is pulling, it is impossible to determine what the acceleration of the rope will be.^ You know, where the mongolian empire, doesn't count and some how the british and american empire are the same thing.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All evidence to date suggests quite the contrary, that you are your body, and what your body is made of and what happens to it determines what kind of person you become.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one thing you can say about a Paul presidency is that he wouldn't involve the state with either science or religion, whatever his personal views on those matters.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The two people could be pulling against each other as in tug of war or the two people could be pulling in the same direction.^ "Thus, God could make the law of noncontradiction false; in other words, God could arrange matters so that a proposition and its negation were true at the same time."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There could not be people on the other side of the earth.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people would prefer to think of evolution as a fact, and thats their right as long as they don't insist upon others forming the same postulate as they do.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this simple one-dimensional example, without knowing the direction of the forces it is impossible to decide whether the net force is the result of adding the two force magnitudes or subtracting one from the other.^ That's one simple example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And some objects He formed of one essence, but others He compounded from two, and others from three, and others from four.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For example if different kind of living organism live in a place that is dark, the one which is more adapted to lack of light will survive while the other will disappear.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

Associating forces with vectors avoids such problems.
Historically, forces were first quantitatively investigated in conditions of static equilibrium where several forces canceled each other out. Such experiments demonstrate the crucial properties that forces are additive vector quantities: they have magnitude and direction.[4] .When two forces act on an object, the resulting force, the resultant, can be determined by following the parallelogram rule of vector addition: the addition of two vectors represented by sides of a parallelogram, gives an equivalent resultant vector which is equal in magnitude and direction to the transversal of the parallelogram.^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]. .The magnitude of the resultant varies from the difference of the magnitudes of the two forces to their sum, depending on the angle between their lines of action.^ "The fluctuating variations of Darwinism are quantitative, or plus and minus variations; whereas, the differences between species are qualitative."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, the detection of acidity has to generate two different responses in people depending on the context.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Transitional form" implies that the transitional form is not a "species" in and of itself and that the transitional form is like a short lived bridge between "two different species".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Free-body diagrams can be used as a convenient way to keep track of forces acting on a system.^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Ideally, these diagrams are drawn with the angles and relative magnitudes of the force vectors preserved so that graphical vector addition can be done to determine the resultant.[28]
.As well as being added, forces can also be resolved into independent components at right angles to each other.^ Amendment II A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For if, as they say, everything has had its beginning of itself, and independently of purpose , it would follow that everything had come into mere being, so as to be alike and not distinct."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.A horizontal force pointing northeast can therefore be split into two forces, one pointing north, and one pointing east.^ You can not split a man up into two parts with a personality to each part.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No energy, not even potential energy, can be lost in converting one force into another.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one of these nine great advances was ever made, but it will suffice to examine now, as examples, two alleged great changes, reptiles into mammals, and reptiles into birds.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Summing these component forces using vector addition yields the original force. .Resolving force vectors into components of a set of basis vectors is often a more mathematically clean way to describe forces than using magnitudes and directions.^ Force can no more create itself than matter.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the agile evolutionist may try to escape the death sentence of mathematics and the condemnation of reason, by saying that the brain developed more rapidly than the rest of the body.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clean out your ears, and start listening to more than your Far Right Wing Republican Texas darling.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] This is because, for orthogonal components, the components of the vector sum are uniquely determined by the scalar addition of the components of the individual vectors. .Orthogonal components are independent of each other because forces acting at ninety degrees to each other have no effect on the magnitude or direction of the other.^ This is because the evidence was pointing in the other direction.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cells are not conscious, nor are viruses, so the idea that a cell can be "forced to do something against its will" is a complete fallacy, because cells have no will.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, many deleterious memes or memes that have no effect, can become bundled into meme complexes that contain a few primary memes which are advantageous, and thereby "piggyback" on the propagation of the meme complex.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Choosing a set of orthogonal basis vectors is often done by considering what set of basis vectors will make the mathematics most convenient.^ The truth is often not what you want to hear, but it is nevertheless impossible to change, and it is the only basis for understanding the world and using that understanding to make improvements.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Choosing a basis vector that is in the same direction as one of the forces is desirable, since that force would then have only one non-zero component.^ Socially, natural selection argues that the best and fittest society would be one where its' individuals look out only for themselves and would advance themselves, if possible, at the expense of others.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, increase the probability a quadrillion times (one followed by 15 zeroes) and the probability would still be only one out of one followed by 99 billion, 999 million, 999 thousand, 985 zeroes!"
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not that a non-vetted President-elect would live to see inauguration day, but building a movement of autonomy seems to be the only hope for stalling if not stopping this process.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Orthogonal force vectors can be three-dimensional with the third component being at right-angles to the other two.^ And some objects He formed of one essence, but others He compounded from two, and others from three, and others from four.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Those, on the other hand, which are formed out of two, or three, or four substances, are dissoluble; wherefore also are they named mortal.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Doing this for only five years he was able to almost completely eliminate interbreeding even though the two different types of corn were planted right next to each other.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Equilibria

.Equilibrium occurs when the resultant force acting on a point particle is zero (that is, the vector sum of all forces is zero).^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

When dealing with an extense body, it is also necessary that the net torque in it is 0.
There are two kinds of equilibrium: static equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium.

Static equilibrium

Static equilibrium was understood well before the invention of classical mechanics. Objects which are at rest have zero net force acting on them.[30]
The simplest case of static equilibrium occurs when two forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. For example, an object on a level surface is pulled (attracted) downward toward the center of the Earth by the force of gravity. At the same time, surface forces resist the downward force with equal upward force (called the normal force). .The situation is one of zero net force and no acceleration.^ No energy, not even potential energy, can be lost in converting one force into another.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Pushing against an object on a frictional surface can result in a situation where the object does not move because the applied force is opposed by static friction, generated between the object and the table surface.^ Cells are not conscious, nor are viruses, so the idea that a cell can be "forced to do something against its will" is a complete fallacy, because cells have no will.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the Copernican hypothesis, the true theory of the universe, was opposed and rejected, it does not follow that the evolution of man is true because it is likewise opposed and rejected.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

For a situation with no movement, the static friction force exactly balances the applied force resulting in no acceleration. .The static friction increases or decreases in response to the applied force up to an upper limit determined by the characteristics of the contact between the surface and the object.^ JOHN JAENIKE AND ROBERT K. SELANDER 741 The Primary Characteristics of Tribolium Populations Group Selected for Increased and Decreased Population Size.

[4]
.A static equilibrium between two forces is the most usual way of measuring forces, using simple devices such as weighing scales and spring balances.^ The fox is always a fox, the goose a goose, the tiger a tiger, etc., and the difference can lie at most in the varying measure of force, strength, intelligence, dexterity, endurance, etc., of the individual specimens.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such money should now be used in no other way than the following: Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed one hundred, two hundred, or three hundred florins, as personal circumstances may suggest.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not against the NSA being used in the US if it is under current law, and not used against a citizen of the United States in any way that breaks the constitution...Such as no warrant against a US citizen.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, an object suspended on a vertical spring scale experiences the force of gravity acting on the object balanced by a force applied by the "spring reaction force" which equals object's weight. .Using such tools, some quantitative force laws were discovered: that the force of gravity is proportional to volume for objects of constant density (widely exploited for millennia to define standard weights); Archimedes' principle for buoyancy; Archimedes' analysis of the lever; Boyle's law for gas pressure; and Hooke's law for springs.^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But you can't even define "fallacy" unless you use some absolute standard for morality or logic, and ...
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A scientific law is something that can be proven and is constant, like the law of gravity for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.These were all formulated and experimentally verified before Isaac Newton expounded his three laws of motion.^ Before Christianity these documents were and during the life of Christ they survived, all the way down to our day.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

[3][4]

Dynamical equilibrium

Galileo Galilei was the first to point out the inherent contradictions contained in Aristotle's description of forces.
Dynamical equilibrium was first described by Galileo who noticed that certain assumptions of Aristotelian physics were contradicted by observations and logic. .Galileo realized that simple velocity addition demands that the concept of an "absolute rest frame" did not exist.^ Likewise, the Jews did not have a concept of Satan like that which exists in Christianity.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Adam Smith was not a "capitalist", and the term "capitalism" did not exist during Adam Smith's life, elements of Smith's market concepts clearly foreshadowed Darwinian ideas.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Galileo concluded that motion in a constant velocity was completely equivalent to rest. This was contrary to Aristotle's notion of a "natural state" of rest that objects with mass naturally approached. Simple experiments showed that Galileo's understanding of the equivalence of constant velocity and rest to be correct. For example, if a mariner dropped a cannonball from the crow's nest of a ship moving at a constant velocity, Aristotelian physics would have the cannonball fall straight down while the ship moved beneath it. Thus, in an Aristotelian universe, the falling cannonball would land behind the foot of the mast of a moving ship. .However, when this experiment is actually conducted, the cannonball always falls at the foot of the mast, as if the cannonball knows to travel with the ship despite being separated from it.^ Outside of time travel or humanity conducting some extremely long-term experiments, how the theory of evolution can be better "proven?"
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What these people were not able to do, however, was fully explain how evolution actually took place, because they did not know how reproduction and inheritance actually work.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Actually, however, our desires have evolved over millions of years, being shaped by natural selection.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since there is no forward horizontal force being applied on the cannonball as it falls, the only conclusion left is that the cannonball continues to move with the same velocity as the boat as it falls.^ Only the professionally ignorant would fail to recognize thh pointlessness of saying there's no "absolute" proof of evolution.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same argument may be applied with much force to the races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The great Prof. Virchow says: "There is no evidence at all that these bones were parts of the same creature."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Thus, no force is required to keep the cannonball moving at the constant forward velocity.[19]
Moreover, any object traveling at a constant velocity must be subject to zero net force (resultant force). This is the definition of dynamical equilibrium: when all the forces on an object balance but it still moves at a constant velocity.
A simple case of dynamical equilibrium occurs in constant velocity motion across a surface with kinetic friction. In such a situation, a force is applied in the direction of motion while the kinetic friction force exactly opposes the applied force. This results in a net zero force, but since the object started with a non-zero velocity, it continues to move with a non-zero velocity. Aristotle misinterpreted this motion as being caused by the applied force. .However, when kinetic friction is taken into consideration it is clear that there is no net force causing constant velocity motion.^ No force can be disconnected from its cause.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contrary to the belief that there is such a thing as "fixed" or "distinct" races, Darwin showed that there are no such clear distinctions between people at all: .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, when Epicurus reflected on these things, induced as it were by the injustice of these matters (for thus it appeared to him in his ignorance of the cause and subject), he thought that there was no providence.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Special relativity

.In the special theory of relativity mass and energy are equivalent (as can be seen by calculating the work required to accelerate an object).^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who but an infinite God could have calculated the enormous potential energy of the nebulous gases, required by contraction to cause the prodigious heat of a universe of suns?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not a single new species has arisen in the last 6000 years when the theory requires over 2000.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.When an object's velocity increases so does its energy and hence its mass equivalent (inertia).^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.It thus requires more force to accelerate it the same amount than it did at a lower velocity.^ Cooperation requires taking more factors into consideration than simply your own persona factors.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The amount of heat in the surface of the sun, consisting of more than 2,284,000,000,000 sq.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That argument should be taken no more seriously than when the geocentrists make the same argument about Copernicus.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Newton's second law
$\vec{F} = \mathrm{d}\vec{p}/\mathrm{d}t$
remains valid due to the fact that it is a mathematical definition.[31] But in order to be conserved, relativistic momentum must be redefined as:
$\vec{p} = \frac{m\vec{v}}{\sqrt{1 - v^2/c^2}}$
where
v is the velocity and
c is the speed of light.
The relativistic expression relating force and acceleration for a particle with constant non-zero rest mass $m\,$ moving in the $x\,$ direction is:
$F_x = \gamma^3 m a_x \,$
$F_y = \gamma m a_y \,$
$F_z = \gamma m a_z \,$
where the Lorentz factor
$\gamma = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 - v^2/c^2}}.$[32]
Relativistic force does not produce a constant acceleration, but an ever decreasing acceleration as the object approaches the speed of light. .Note that γ is undefined for an object with a non zero rest mass at the speed of light, and the theory yields no prediction at that speed.^ The TOE will always be a theory, it will never be a law, no matter how many times its predictions are confirmed by the data.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Take an easily observable phenomenon and one that no one objects to and claim it as proof of the whole theory."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Take an easily observable phenomenon and one that no one objects to and claim it as proof of the whole theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

One can however restore the form of
$F^\mu = mA^\mu \,$
for use in relativity through the use of four-vectors. This relation is correct in relativity when Fμ is the four-force, m is the invariant mass, and Aμ is the four-acceleration.[33]

Feynman diagrams

A Feynman diagram for the decay of a neutron into a proton. The W boson is between two vertices indicating a repulsion.
In modern particle physics, forces and the acceleration of particles are explained as the exchange of momentum-carrying gauge bosons. .With the development of quantum field theory and general relativity, it was realized that "force" is a redundant concept arising from conservation of momentum (4-momentum in relativity and momentum of virtual particles in quantum electrodynamics).^ Atomic theory was the essential first step in their development of concepts of biological evolution.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, Darwinist theory claims that the design in nature is not real but only apparent, a product of blind, mechanical forces.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greek concepts of atoms were relatively crude compared to today, but the fundamental concept of the atom as a particle was the foundation for the materialist understanding of reality.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The conservation of momentum, from Noether's theorem, can be directly derived from the symmetry of space and so is usually considered more fundamental than the concept of a force.^ More than 2,200,000,000 times as much heat as the earth receives, goes out into space.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Far more important than being "enslaved" to government (is someone forcing your citizenship, BTW?) is the state of enslavement that American culture is in to dishonesty and bullshit.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So either he considers his personal beliefs more important than the mountains of evidence, or he simply doesn't know about the mountains of evidence.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the currently known fundamental forces are considered more accurately to be "fundamental interactions".[6] When particle A emits (creates) or absorbs (annihilates) particle B, a force accelerates particle A in response to the momentum of particle B, thereby conserving momentum as a whole.^ It is more accurate to say that I am arguing that the existence of a Creator is self-evident.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Force can no more create itself than matter.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This description applies for all forces arising from fundamental interactions. .While sophisticated mathematical descriptions are needed to predict, in full detail, the nature of such interactions, there is a conceptually simple way to describe such interactions through the use of Feynman diagrams.^ It is arguable whether there is such as thing as "artificial selection", but in general the term is used to describe the conscious breeding of plants and animals by humans.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When an organism displays traits that confer survival ability to that organism, such as the long beak of a hummingbird that is used to suck nectar from flowers, those traits are seen as having been selected for through natural selection.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If a question cannot be answered by science then it simply cannot be answered in any objective way, and indeed there are such questions, but these questions are no more capable of being "answered" by religion.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In a Feynman diagram, each matter particle is represented as a straight line (see world line) traveling through time which normally increases up or to the right in the diagram.^ Naturalistic worldviews, however, are fully capable of explaining the strife that we see in the world without resorting to mythology or jumping through philosophical hoops.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If he truly didn't care as you suggest he would have answered the question straight up or said it doesn't matter so he isn't going to answer it.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1770 Baron dHolbach, another French philosopher, published what was perhaps the most radical view of the natural world up to that time, The System of Nature .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Matter and anti-matter particles are identical except for their direction of propagation through the Feynman diagram. .World lines of particles intersect at interaction vertices, and the Feynman diagram represents any force arising from an interaction as occurring at the vertex with an associated instantaneous change in the direction of the particle world lines.^ In all the multiplied chemical changes everywhere in the world, not a single particle, the most worthless, is lost or destroyed.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Gauge bosons are emitted away from the vertex as wavy lines (similar to waves) and, in the case of virtual particle exchange, are absorbed at an adjacent vertex.[34]
.The utility of Feynman diagrams is that other types of physical phenomena that are part of the general picture of fundamental interactions but are conceptually separate from forces can also be described using the same rules.^ The increase in sperm production comes at the expense of brain size, as both use the same types of proteins.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Other skulls and bone parts of prehistoric man have been found, and preserved in museums but the specimens described (the four above mentioned) are sufficient to illustrate the type of evidence they constitute."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Antipodes ("opposing feet") is a term that was used to describe people living on the other side of the earth, whose feet would have to be facing the feet on the opposite side of the earth.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, a Feynman diagram can describe in succinct detail how a neutron decays into an electron, proton, and neutrino, an interaction mediated by the same gauge boson that is responsible for the weak nuclear force.^ If you want a specific example, consider a person with Alzheimer's, and how they quite literally gradually turn into a different person because of the deterioration of their brain.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[34]

Fundamental models

.All the forces in the universe are based on four fundamental forces.^ All force in the universe can be traced to God.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The creationist view was based on the belief that the world and all life has been basically the same since the creation of the universe by God.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He founded a kingdom based, as Napoleon said, not on force but on love, and love is universal.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.The strong and weak forces act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles including nucleons and compound nuclei.^ It is unthinkable that one species and only one reached the measureless distance between the monkey and man.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Blue eyes are slightly less able to deal with the strong sunlight and are only a very minor negative trait.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges and the gravitational force acts between masses. .All other forces are based on the existence of the four fundamental interactions.^ Some viruses are DNA based, while others are RNA based, and there are even more fundamental variations among viruses as well.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From the "lowest order" to the "highest order", life is fundamentally based on killing and consuming other organisms.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli Exclusion Principle,[35] which does not allow atoms to pass through each other.^ If he allows that there was a day or an hour or a minute between the speaking of the word and the existence of the thing itself, that man does not recognize creation.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the creation in the beginning, you said that any man who allows even a minute to pass between the word and the thing is an evolutionist.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the man who allows that any time at all passed between God's speaking and the appearing of the thing, is an evolutionist.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

The forces in springs, modeled by Hooke's law, are also the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return the object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces which arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference.[3]
.The development of fundamental theories for forces proceeded along the lines of unification of disparate ideas.^ And now we have a new amendment to the theory of evolution: We are told that the huge Saurians (reptiles) overworked the development idea, and became too large and cumbersome, and hence are now extinct.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparative anatomy confirms evolutionary theory by showing that indeed organisms have features that do have precedents along phylogenic lines.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, Isaac Newton unified the force responsible for objects falling at the surface of the Earth with the force responsible for the orbits of celestial mechanics in his universal theory of gravitation.^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The universe is expanding, galaxies are forming and being destroyed, the earth is orbiting around the sun, which is itself flying through space inside our galaxy, which is itself spinning and changing and flying through space.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces were unified through one consistent theory of electromagnetism.^ Clark Maxwell, another distinguished physicist, says, "I have examined all [theories of evolution] and have found that every one must have a God to make it work."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the twentieth century, the development of quantum mechanics led to a modern understanding that the first three fundamental forces (all except gravity) are manifestations of matter (fermions) interacting by exchanging virtual particles called gauge bosons.^ The Greek concepts of atoms were relatively crude compared to today, but the fundamental concept of the atom as a particle was the foundation for the materialist understanding of reality.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The first of modern scientific men to adopt the theory that all plants and animals, including man, are developed from certain original simple germs, was Lamarck a French naturalist, in 1809.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence that Darwin had correctly described the fundamental processes by which life has developed challenged all of the fundamental assumptions of 19th century Western Civilization, which had been built on almost 2,000 years of Christian ideology.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[36] .This standard model of particle physics posits a similarity between the forces and led scientists to predict the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces in electroweak theory subsequently confirmed by observation.^ If those predictions are accurate, the theory is confirmed.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The TOE will always be a theory, it will never be a law, no matter how many times its predictions are confirmed by the data.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Theory according to my links states To scientists, a theory is a coherent explanation for a large number of facts and observations about the natural world .
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The complete formulation of the standard model predicts an as yet unobserved Higgs mechanism, but observations such as neutrino oscillations indicate that the standard model is incomplete.^ It predicts observations we haven't made yet.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But again, it's certainly not a refutation of evolution, or evolution's importance, if such a standard has not yet been derived.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.A grand unified theory allowing for the combination of the electroweak interaction with the strong force is held out as a possibility with candidate theories such as supersymmetry proposed to accommodate some of the outstanding unsolved problems in physics.^ Every scientific theory, proposed as possible, is reconcilable with some facts.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone of you that believes in "evolution theory" what means "survive of the fittest" has to accept, that a strong guy comes along and knocks you out.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are incoherent to have moral convictions on the basis of a theory that rules out any possibility for existence of moral absolutes.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Physicists are still attempting to develop self-consistent unification models that would combine all four fundamental interactions into a theory of everything.^ Without taking into consideration all of the physical properties of atoms it is impossible to make a blind calculation about the chance that certain structures would form.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Physicists and cosmologists have used evolutionary models to explain the development of gravitational matter, 3 dimensional space, our universe as a whole, and galaxy systems.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If an MD were truly not to believe in evolution, they would still be prescribing penicillin for all infections.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Einstein tried and failed at this endeavor, but currently the most popular approach to answering this question is string theory.^ This may indeed be true, but we will never know what types of questions we can't answer until we try to answer them, and even then there is always the prospect that we will be able to find answers in the future.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, most religions have historically promoted themselves as complete worldview systems, that answer all questions.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian religion, however, like most other religions, based its authority to answer questions about "the afterlife" on its ability to prove that it was correct about this life.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[6]

Gravity

.
An initially stationary object which is allowed to fall freely under gravity drops a distance which is proportional to the square of the elapsed time.
^ The attraction of all matter for all other matter is in proportion directly to the mass and inversely to the square of the distance.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

An image was taken 20 flashes per second. During the first 1/20th of a second the ball drops one unit of distance (here, a unit is about 12 mm); by 2/20ths it has dropped a total of 4 units; by 3/20ths, 9 units and so on.
.What we now call gravity was not identified as a universal force until the work of Isaac Newton.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Has your acquiring of the power to do the good--the good works which are of God--been through a long process of ups and downs from the time of your first profession of Christianity until now?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They conducted experiments on gravity that would not be duplicated again until the time of Galileo and Newton.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Before Newton, the tendency for objects to fall towards the Earth was not understood to be related to the motions of celestial objects. Galileo was instrumental in describing the characteristics of falling objects by determining that the acceleration of every object in free-fall was constant and independent of the mass of the object. .Today, this acceleration due to gravity towards the surface of the Earth is usually designated as $\vec{g}$ and has a magnitude of about 9.81 meters per second squared (this measurement is taken from sea level and may vary depending on location), and points toward the center of the Earth.^ The temperature increases as we descend into the earth, about one degree for every 50 feet, or 100 degrees per mile.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every square yard of surface of this enormous sphere, has enough heat to push a great liner across the sea--as much power as in many tons of coal.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ RAYMOND P. GURIES AND F. THOMAS LEDIG 387 Notes and Comments Extreme Levels of Genetic Variability in Two Red Sea Cerithium Species (Gastropoda: Cerithidae).

[37] .This observation means that the force of gravity on an object at the Earth's surface is directly proportional to the object's mass.^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The attraction of all matter for all other matter is in proportion directly to the mass and inversely to the square of the distance.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Thus an object that has a mass of m will experience a force:
$\vec{F} = m\vec{g}$
In free-fall, this force is unopposed and therefore the net force on the object is its weight. For objects not in free-fall, the force of gravity is opposed by the reactions of their supports. For example, a person standing on the ground experiences zero net force, since his weight is balanced by a normal force exerted by the ground.[3]
.Newton's contribution to gravitational theory was to unify the motions of heavenly bodies, which Aristotle had assumed were in a natural state of constant motion, with falling motion observed on the Earth.^ An example of the natural occurrence of this same type of speciation by hybridization has been observed among wildflowers that were introduced to the United States from Europe.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Observed progression of fossil "complexity" in the fossil record, like comparative anatomy, was one of the major phenomena that contributed to the development of the evolutionary theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But, moreover, he asserted that there is an eternal motion, by the agency of which it happens that the heavens are generated; but that the earth is poised aloft, upheld by nothing, continuing on account of its equal distance from all (the heavenly bodies); ...
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

He proposed a law of gravity that could account for the celestial motions that had been described earlier using Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion.[38]
.Newton came to realize that the effects of gravity might be observed in different ways at larger distances.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is really using the word species in a completely different way than how it was used by Linnaeus; its actually a complete redefinition of what "a species is".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These experiments have typically not been designed to test if speciation can occur, but rather these have typically been experiments to test different ways that speciation might occur.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In particular, Newton determined that the acceleration of the Moon around the Earth could be ascribed to the same force of gravity if the acceleration due to gravity decreased as an inverse square law.^ "Thus, God could make the law of noncontradiction false; in other words, God could arrange matters so that a proposition and its negation were true at the same time."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Further, Newton realized that the acceleration due to gravity is proportional to the mass of the attracting body.^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[38] Combining these ideas gives a formula that relates the mass ($M_\oplus$) and the radius ($R_\oplus$) of the Earth to the gravitational acceleration:
$\vec{g}=-\frac{GM_\oplus}{{R_\oplus}^2} \hat{r}$
where the vector direction is given by $\hat{r}$, the unit vector directed outward from the center of the Earth.[20]
In this equation, a dimensional constant G is used to describe the relative strength of gravity. .This constant has come to be known as Newton's Universal Gravitation Constant,[39] though its value was unknown in Newton's lifetime.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Not until 1798 was Henry Cavendish able to make the first measurement of G using a torsion balance; this was widely reported in the press as a measurement of the mass of the Earth since knowing the G could allow one to solve for the Earth's mass given the above equation.^ The Theory of Evolution, as first formed by Darwin, and in its magnificent elucidation since then, does not require one to know anything of biogenesis - in essence, it STARTS with reproducing life forms.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we could see these things with our eyes, as we can with our mind, no one, when he gazed upon the earth in its completeness, would doubt as to the divine intelligence.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, no one knows if evolution is in irreconcilable conflict with the Biblical account of Earth's creation.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Newton, however, realized that since all celestial bodies followed the same laws of motion, his law of gravity had to be universal.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The creationist view was based on the belief that the world and all life has been basically the same since the creation of the universe by God.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Succinctly stated, Newton's Law of Gravitation states that the force on a spherical object of mass m1 due to the gravitational pull of mass m2 is
$\vec{F}=-\frac{Gm_{1}m_{2}}{r^2} \hat{r}$
where .r is the distance between the two objects' centers of mass and $\hat{r}$ is the unit vector pointed in the direction away from the center of the first object toward the center of the second object.^ MARK S. HAFNER, J. V. REMSEN, JR., AND SCOTT M. LANYON 1154 Morphological Distance: an Encounter between Two Perspectives in Evolutionary Biology.

[20]
This formula was powerful enough to stand as the basis for all subsequent descriptions of motion within the solar system until the twentieth century. During that time, sophisticated methods of perturbation analysis[40] were invented to calculate the deviations of orbits due to the influence of multiple bodies on a planet, moon, comet, or asteroid. The formalism was exact enough to allow mathematicians to predict the existence of the planet Neptune before it was observed.[41]
.It was only the orbit of the planet Mercury that Newton's Law of Gravitation seemed not to fully explain.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some astrophysicists predicted the existence of another planet (Vulcan) that would explain the discrepancies; however, despite some early indications, no such planet could be found.^ Intelligent Design, however, claims that it is a scientific view, separate from religion; but without religion it offers no way to explain the many negative aspects of life.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the work Lactantius explains that while all of the Greek philosophies contain some elements of truth, none of them can fully explain the nature of existence.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Another one of the major observations that contributed to early evolutionary theory was the observation of life forms in the fossil record that bore no resemblance to any living things.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.When Albert Einstein finally formulated his theory of general relativity (GR) he turned his attention to the problem of Mercury's orbit and found that his theory added a correction which could account for the discrepancy.^ This theory, moreover, is interlocked with Einstein's theory of Relativity, which holds that all energy has mass, and all mass is equivalent to energy.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem for biologists, however, is that the Linnaean classification system was strongly established by the time evolutionary theory became accepted and the Linnaean system of taxonomy is relatively simple to use.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A scientific theory is one that cannot be proven, like Einstein's theory of Relativity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was the first time that Newton's Theory of Gravity had been shown to be less correct than an alternative.^ Newton's law of universal gravitation is a mathematical description of observed behavior, but the law did not replace the theory of gravity.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Truth is the first order of business, and it's more beautiful than libertarianism dysfunctionally marketed, less likely implemented.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[42]
.Since then, and so far, general relativity has been acknowledged as the theory which best explains gravity.^ It is a theory which best explains the data about how life developed on earth.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And he declared that destruction and, far earlier, generation have taken place since an indefinite time, since all things are involved in a cycle.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Darwin himself recognized this fact and used languages as an example for explaining general evolutionary theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In GR, gravitation is not viewed as a force, but rather, objects moving freely in gravitational fields travel under their own inertia in straight lines through curved space-time – defined as the shortest space-time path between two space-time events.^ X and his new team find themselves between a hunk of space junk and a hard-place, as they search the wreckage of Vulcan’s path of destruction for the secret that will help them get to the Shi’Ar throneworld in time.
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

^ While an animal may not make any association between two events at all, a human is more likely to make an association, but the association made by the human will not necessarily be correct.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Only by leaping back through time can Kitty Pryde's future self hope to stop the events that created this dystopian nightmare!
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

.From the perspective of the object, all motion occurs as if there were no gravitation whatsoever.^ There's no disagreement at all.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the issue of why people "have not recognized the universal ethic": First of all, it's because there is no universal ethic.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference is that in a theoretical environment where there is absolutely no selection pressure at all, i.e.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It is only when observing the motion in a global sense that the curvature of space-time can be observed and the force is inferred from the object's curved path.^ He divides not only time, but also space.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are and have been several competing theories of gravitation - curvature of space-time, graviton exchange, etc.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus, the straight line path in space-time is seen as a curved line in space, and it is called the ballistic trajectory of the object. For example, a basketball thrown from the ground moves in a parabola, as it is in a uniform gravitational field. .Its space-time trajectory (when the extra ct dimension is added) is almost a straight line, slightly curved (with the radius of curvature of the order of few light-years).^ Theories get proved quite a few times a year.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are and have been several competing theories of gravitation - curvature of space-time, graviton exchange, etc.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

The time derivative of the changing momentum of the object is what we label as "gravitational force".[3]

Electromagnetic forces

The electrostatic force was first described in 1784 by Coulomb as a force which existed intrinsically between two charges.[43] .The properties of the electrostatic force were that it varied as an inverse square law directed in the radial direction, was both attractive and repulsive (there was intrinsic polarity), was independent of the mass of the charged objects, and followed the law of superposition.^ There appears to be multiple independent origins of viruses, indeed various viruses have probably originated by completely different means.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the wild the populations are much larger and there is much more variability, both genetically and often environmentally as well.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Coulomb's Law unifies all these observations into one succinct statement.^ Strange, if 3,000,000 pennies were tossed into the air, would we expect them all to fall with heads up, save one?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They all harmonize with the Bible statements, but not one of them with the false and baneful theory of evolution.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are all facts, meaning they are observational data .
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]
Subsequent mathematicians and physicists found the construct of the electric field to be useful for determining the electrostatic force on an electric charge at any point in space. The electric field was based on using a hypothetical "test charge" anywhere in space and then using Coulomb's Law to determine the electrostatic force.[45] Thus the electric field anywhere in space is defined as
$\vec{E} = {\vec{F} \over{q}}$
where q is the magnitude of the hypothetical test charge.
.Meanwhile, the Lorentz force of magnetism was discovered to exist between two electric currents.^ The difficultly in drawing relationships between organisms via transitional forms can easily be demonstrated with the use of currently existing animals that we know for a fact are related.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently a diploid hybrid cross between two species of fly was discovered that is believed to have developed within the past 250 years.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It has the same mathematical character as Coulomb's Law with the proviso that like currents attract and unlike currents repel.^ If it's within the current law, and was not used against US citizens I would more than likely support it!!!!!
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similar to the electric field, the magnetic field can be used to determine the magnetic force on an electric current at any point in space.^ The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field was determined to be
$B = {F \over{I \ell}}$
where I is the magnitude of the hypothetical test current and $\ell$ is the length of hypothetical wire through which the test current flows. .The magnetic field exerts a force on all magnets including, for example, those used in compasses.^ For example, it uses the low "uncaught error" rate to postulate that, er, I dunno, some higher power is keeping the DNA of all the cells on the planet in line.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, he (and they) have been more than happy to use gubmint power against those they hate, including gays, immigrants, and women.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In The Nature Cicero summarized the arguments for and against views, including those of Platonic Stoics, that the universe was created by an intelligent force for the use of man, and thus the book serves as a good window into that school of philosophy.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The fact that the Earth's magnetic field is aligned closely with the orientation of the Earth's axis causes compass magnets to become oriented because of the magnetic force pulling on the needle.^ Next quote from you: "Theories that have become facts: Tectonic Plates Earth moving around the Sun.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The earth revolves around the sun = Fact Just because you cant prove it doesn't mean no theories can become fact."
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The earth revolves around the sun = Fact Just because you cant prove it doesn't mean no theories can become fact.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through combining the definition of electric current as the time rate of change of electric charge, a rule of vector multiplication called Lorentz's Law describes the force on a charge moving in an magnetic field.^ Matt Murdock has done battle with Marveldom's most maddening villains - but when he meets the Jester for the very first time, the rules change forever.
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

^ A change of gene frequency in the population is detected when the rate of occurrence of alleles is significantly different from one period of time to the next.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So the law was taken as a great fact, existing in the scheme of things apart from man, and "intued" by him through a special faculty which he called his "conscience."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[45] The connection between electricity and magnetism allows for the description of a unified electromagnetic force that acts on a charge. This force can be written as a sum of the electrostatic force (due to the electric field) and the magnetic force (due to the magnetic field). Fully stated, this is the law:
$\vec{F} = q(\vec{E} + \vec{v} imes \vec{B})$
where $\vec{F}$ is the electromagnetic force, q is the magnitude of the charge of the particle, $\vec{E}$ is the electric field, $\vec{v}$ is the velocity of the particle which is crossed with the magnetic field ($\vec{B}$).
.The origin of electric and magnetic fields would not be fully explained until 1864 when James Clerk Maxwell unified a number of earlier theories into a succinct set of four equations.^ In scientific theory, theories reamin standing until they are DISPROVED. If a theory is disproved, it is thrown out completey or modified to fit into additional data collected during research of the original hypothesis.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please explain how you would go about formulating a supernaturalist scientific theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that currently, there is no fully developed and/or tested theory (that I'm aware of) that explains the origin of life.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

These "Maxwell Equations" fully described the sources of the fields as being stationary and moving charges, and the interactions of the fields themselves. .This led Maxwell to discover that electric and magnetic fields could be "self-generating" through a wave that traveled at a speed which he calculated to be the speed of light.^ In these calculations, we have made greater allowances than any self-respecting evolutionist could ask without blushing.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This insight united the nascent fields of electromagnetic theory with optics and led directly to a complete description of the electromagnetic spectrum.[46]
.However, attempting to reconcile electromagnetic theory with two observations, the photoelectric effect, and the nonexistence of the ultraviolet catastrophe, proved troublesome.^ The writer states that in the past "brave thinkers made observations and did experiments to prove their theories."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be shown in this book, that a large number of facts can not be reconciled with evolution, especially the evolution of man thus proving that it can not be a true theory.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Through the work of leading theoretical physicists, a new theory of electromagnetism was developed using quantum mechanics.^ Physicists and cosmologists have used evolutionary models to explain the development of gravitational matter, 3 dimensional space, our universe as a whole, and galaxy systems.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have a set of facts that leads to a theoretical explanation for those facts, then we use that theory to make deductive predictions about the nature of new evidence.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the terms we currently use to describe life were developed prior to the establishment of evolutionary theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This final modification to electromagnetic theory ultimately led to quantum electrodynamics (or QED), which fully describes all electromagnetic phenomena as being mediated by wave particles known as photons.^ If they are being taught the evolution theory in public school, "I would advise them to look at all the angles before they make their own conclusion," he said.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "If all the facts are in accord with it, and none are found that are incapable of being reconciled with it, a working hypothesis is said to have been advanced to a proven theory."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle extended the teleology of Socrates into a system of natural philosophy that he used to describe all of the phenomena of nature, especially the phenomena of life.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In QED, photons are the fundamental exchange particle which described all interactions relating to electromagnetism including the electromagnetic force.[47]
It is a common misconception to ascribe the stiffness and rigidity of solid matter to the repulsion of like charges under the influence of the electromagnetic force. .However, these characteristics actually result from the Pauli Exclusion Principle.^ What these people were not able to do, however, was fully explain how evolution actually took place, because they did not know how reproduction and inheritance actually work.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since electrons are fermions, they cannot occupy the same quantum mechanical state as other electrons.^ Even if instinct in other animals could be accounted for, evolution can not account for the instinct of the working bees, since they are not descendants of other working bees from which they might inherit habits or instinct.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You also left out solid state electronics, computers and the internet and you certainly cannot credibly argue that progress there did not have a lot of government involvement.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people would prefer to think of evolution as a fact, and thats their right as long as they don't insist upon others forming the same postulate as they do.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the electrons in a material are densely packed together, there are not enough lower energy quantum mechanical states for them all, so some of them must be in higher energy states.^ All should have reached the status of human beings and there should be none of the lower forms of life which are so abundant.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, it uses the low "uncaught error" rate to postulate that, er, I dunno, some higher power is keeping the DNA of all the cells on the planet in line.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be remembered that there is no complete skeleton among all the remains, nor enough parts to make one altogether, nor to make any large part of a skeleton-- not even an entire skull.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This means that it takes energy to pack them together. .While this effect is manifested macroscopically as a structural "force", it is technically only the result of the existence of a finite set of electron states.^ People commonly state that religion deals with questions of morality and meaning, whereas "science" can only answer questions about structures and materials.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In that case "facts" are only valid in an axiomatic framework, i.e., "the set of integers forms a group under multiplication", which is only true given definitions of sets, numbers, and algebraic structures.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Nuclear forces

.There are two "nuclear forces" which today are usually described as interactions that take place in quantum theories of particle physics.^ Today DNA itself is at the center of our understanding of evolution, because DNA is really where evolution "takes place".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Granted, it doesn't take into account physical differences in relay speeds, etc., but the properties it describes are real and can be rigorously investigated.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, there appears to be more than one "speciation event" taking place among this species.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The strong nuclear force[48] is the force responsible for the structural integrity of atomic nuclei while the weak nuclear force[49] is responsible for the decay of certain nucleons into leptons and other types of hadrons.^ Without taking into consideration all of the physical properties of atoms it is impossible to make a blind calculation about the chance that certain structures would form.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
The strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).[50] The strong force is the fundamental force mediated by gluons, acting upon quarks, antiquarks, and the gluons themselves. The strong interaction is the most powerful of the four fundamental forces.
The strong force only acts directly upon elementary particles. .However, a residual of the force is observed between hadrons (the best known example being the force that acts between nucleons in atomic nuclei) as the nuclear force.^ Several species of polyploid insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and birds have been observed, and recently a polyploid species of rat was discovered as well, being the first known example of a polyploid mammal.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Two major examples of observed "speciation in action" in the wild are well known examples of "ring species".
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are 23 reported ring species that are being studied, these two are just the most well known examples.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Here the strong force acts indirectly, transmitted as gluons which form part of the virtual pi and rho mesons which classically transmit the nuclear force (see this topic for more).^ More about this study here: Children Learn by Monkey See, Monkey Do.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The failure of many searches for free quarks has shown that the elementary particles affected are not directly observable. This phenomenon is called colour confinement.
The weak force is due to the exchange of the heavy W and Z bosons. Its most familiar effect is beta decay (of neutrons in atomic nuclei) and the associated radioactivity. .The word "weak" derives from the fact that the field strength is some 1013 times less than that of the strong force.^ I only care about the things he'll do as president, and the fact that he's a man of his word and has stayed committed to smaller government his entire time in Congress.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are not allowed to put a moment of time between speaking of the word and the accomplished fact: "Immediately" the leper was cleansed.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact I argue that many facets of the contemporary world make a more limited government more rather than less desirable.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Still, it is stronger than gravity over short distances. .A consistent electroweak theory has also been developed which shows that electromagnetic forces and the weak force are indistinguishable at a temperatures in excess of approximately 1015 kelvins.^ May we not from these data, judge approximately of the age of the world, and show by this proof also, that the world can not be at all as old as the evolution theory demands?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Such temperatures have been probed in modern particle accelerators and show the conditions of the universe in the early moments of the Big Bang.

Non-fundamental forces

Some forces are consequences of fundamental. In such situations, idealized models can be utilized to gain physical insight.

Normal force

FN represents the normal force exerted on the object.
The normal force is the repulsive force of interaction between atoms at close contact. .When their electron clouds overlap, Pauli repulsion (due to fermionic nature of electrons) follows resulting in the force which acts normal to the surface interface between two objects.^ Random is actually a mathematical concept and true randomness does not occur in reality because in reality the laws of nature dictate behavior such that everything that occurs is determined by some acting force and all things follow the laws of nature.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If then, it is agreed that things are either the result of coincidence or for an end, and these cannot be the result of coincidence or spontaneity, it follows that they must be for an end; and that such things are all due to nature even the champions of the theory which is before us would agree.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For teeth and all other natural things either invariably or normally come about in a given way; but of not one of the results of chance or spontaneity is this true.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[51] .The normal force, for example, is responsible for the structural integrity of tables and floors as well as being the force that responds whenever an external force pushes on a solid object.^ Several species of polyploid insects, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and birds have been observed, and recently a polyploid species of rat was discovered as well, being the first known example of a polyploid mammal.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are 23 reported ring species that are being studied, these two are just the most well known examples.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

An example of the normal force in action is the impact force on an object crashing into an immobile surface.[3]

Friction

Friction is a surface force that opposes relative motion. The frictional force is directly related to the normal force which acts to keep two solid objects separated at the point of contact. There are two broad classifications of frictional forces: static friction and kinetic friction.
The static friction force (Fsf) will exactly oppose forces applied to an object parallel to a surface contact up to the limit specified by the coefficient of static friction (μsf) multiplied by the normal force (FN). In other words the magnitude of the static friction force satisfies the inequality:
$0 \le F_{\mathrm{sf}} \le \mu_{\mathrm{sf}} F_\mathrm{N}$.
The kinetic friction force (Fkf) is independent of both the forces applied and the movement of the object. Thus, the magnitude of the force equals:
Fkf = μkfFN,
where μkf is the coefficient of kinetic friction. For most surface interfaces, the coefficient of kinetic friction is less than the coefficient of static friction.[3]

Tension

Tension forces can be modeled using ideal strings which are massless, frictionless, unbreakable, and unstretchable. They can be combined with ideal pulleys which allow ideal strings to switch physical direction. Ideal strings transmit tension forces instantaneously in action-reaction pairs so that if two objects are connected by an ideal string, any force directed along the string by the first object is accompanied by a force directed along the string in the opposite direction by the second object.[52] .By connecting the same string multiple times to the same object through the use of a set-up that uses movable pulleys, the tension force on a load can be multiplied.^ Has your acquiring of the power to do the good--the good works which are of God--been through a long process of ups and downs from the time of your first profession of Christianity until now?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

For every string that acts on a load, another factor of the tension force in the string acts on the load. .However, even though such machines allow for an increase in force, there is a corresponding increase in the length of string that must be displaced in order to move the load.^ When, however, I consider that they have even dared to defend them, I blush not on their account, but for the race of mankind itself whose ears could tolerate such nonsense."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It must be terrible to be such a slave to the naturalistic fallacy and not even realize it.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In their case, even though the blue eyes are a slight disadvantage, the other factors so far outweigh the blue eye trait that there is no selective pressure on the blue eye trait.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.These tandem effects result ultimately in the conservation of mechanical energy since the work done on the load is the same no matter how complicated the machine.^ The great Prof. Virchow says: "There is no evidence at all that these bones were parts of the same creature."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These people either genuinely have no comprehension of how the world works, or they are being intentionally deceptive and trying to concoct statements that they believe will impress people of lesser education.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet God has computed instantaneously every table of logarithms, and every other mathematical table--no matter how difficult.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[3][53]

Elastic force

Fk is the force that responds to the load on the spring.
An elastic force acts to return a spring to its natural length. An ideal spring is taken to be massless, frictionless, unbreakable, and infinitely stretchable. Such springs exert forces that push when contracted, or pull when extended, in proportion to the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position.[54] This linear relationship was described by Robert Hooke in 1676, for whom Hooke's law is named. If Δx is the displacement, the force exerted by an ideal spring equals:
$\vec{F}=-k \Delta \vec{x}$
where k is the spring constant (or force constant), which is particular to the spring. The minus sign accounts for the tendency of the elastic force to act in opposition to the applied load.[3]

Continuum mechanics

When the drag force (Fd) associated with air resistance becomes equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on a falling object (Fg), the object reaches a state of dynamical equilibrium at terminal velocity.
.Newton's laws and Newtonian mechanics in general were first developed to describe how forces affect idealized point particles rather than three-dimensional objects.^ There can not well be more than 4 generations of languages, and the time since Noah is sufficient for the development of the 1000 languages and dialects.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And since you were using it in the context of making a point about the Constitution, I found it rather absurd that you were using a state law (which has nothing to do with the Constitution) to do so.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is laughable to suggest that Newton's Laws are to be ranked higher than string theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum mechanics, for example.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, in real life, matter has extended structure and forces that act on one part of an object might affect other parts of an object.^ And some objects He formed of one essence, but others He compounded from two, and others from three, and others from four.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Acknowledging the realities of life does not mean that one likes those realities, or that one glorifies those realties; it is simply recognition of reality as it is.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact of the matter is, however, that life is fundamentally based on, not just killing, but theft.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For situations where lattice holding together the atoms in an object is able to flow, contract, expand, or otherwise change shape, the theories of continuum mechanics describe the way forces affect the material.^ "The material cause of all things that exist is the coming together of atoms and void.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A spherical rock is not the product of atoms randomly coming together in a spherical shape.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, Darwinist theory claims that the design in nature is not real but only apparent, a product of blind, mechanical forces.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

For example, in extended fluids, differences in pressure result in forces being directed along the pressure gradients as follows:
$\frac{\vec{F}}{V} = - \vec{ abla} P$
where V is the volume of the object in the fluid and P is the scalar function that describes the pressure at all locations in space. Pressure gradients and differentials result in the buoyant force for fluids suspended in gravitational fields, winds in atmospheric science, and the lift associated with aerodynamics and flight.[3]
A specific instance of such a force that is associated with dynamic pressure is fluid resistance: a body force that resists the motion of an object through a fluid due to viscosity. For so-called "Stokes' drag" the force is approximately proportional to the velocity, but opposite in direction:
$\vec{F}_\mathrm{d} = - b \vec{v} \,$
where:
b is a constant that depends on the properties of the fluid and the dimensions of the object (usually the cross-sectional area), and
$\vec{v}$ is the velocity of the object.[3]
More formally, forces in continuum mechanics are fully described by a stress tensor with terms that are roughly defined as
$\sigma = \frac{F}{A}$
where A is the relevant cross-sectional area for the volume for which the stress-tensor is being calculated. .This formalism includes pressure terms associated with forces that act normal to the cross-sectional area (the matrix diagonals of the tensor) as well as shear terms associated with forces that act parallel to the cross-sectional area (the off-diagonal elements).^ These studies include research to make associations between the morphological changes and genetic changes, as well as speciation studies.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The stress tensor accounts for forces that cause all deformations including also tensile stresses and compressions.

Fictitious forces

.There are forces which are frame dependent, meaning that they appear due to the adoption of non-Newtonian (that is, non-inertial) reference frames.^ There appears to be multiple independent origins of viruses, indeed various viruses have probably originated by completely different means.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For they, as is well known, affirm that there is nothing else in nature but bodies and empty space, and the accidents of these, by which I believe that they mean motion and striking, and the forms which result from these.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Such forces include the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force.[55] .These forces are considered fictitious because they do not exist in frames of reference that are not accelerating.^ No one can answer, because there is not a trace of proof that they ever existed.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "It was fortunate," says Dr. Chapin, "that the most distinctive portions of the human (sic) frame should have been preserved, because from these specimens, we are able to reconstruct (?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Toothless individuals would be selected against in many populations, but in certain situations, like among anteaters or birds, these mutations were selected for because they had an advantage.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
In general relativity, gravity becomes a fictitious force that arises in situations where spacetime deviates from a flat geometry. .As an extension, Kaluza-Klein theory and string theory ascribe electromagnetism and the other fundamental forces respectively to the curvature of differently scaled dimensions, which would ultimately imply that all forces are fictitious.^ A signed statement saying "I believe evolutionary theory is in all respects false, untrue, and unfounded"?
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if it were somehow demonstrated that this could not have happened, it would not change any of the evidence that evolution happened In other words, it is just theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they are being taught the evolution theory in public school, "I would advise them to look at all the angles before they make their own conclusion," he said.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Rotations and torque

Relationship between force (F), torque (τ), and momentum vectors (p and L) in a rotating system.
Forces that cause extended objects to rotate are associated with torques. Mathematically, the torque on a particle is defined as the cross-product:
$\vec{ au} = \vec{r} imes \vec{F}$
where
$\vec{r}$ is the particle's position vector relative to a pivot
$\vec{F}$ is the force acting on the particle.
.Torque is the rotation equivalent of force in the same way that angle is the rotational equivalent for position, angular velocity for velocity, and angular momentum for momentum.^ If we reduce that centralization, the corporados will be forced to buy every State government in ways that actually work for the State to achieve the same effect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

All the formal treatments of Newton's Laws that applied to forces equivalently apply to torques. .Thus, as a consequence of Newton's First Law of Motion, there exists rotational inertia that ensures that all bodies maintain their angular momentum unless acted upon by an unbalanced torque.^ As for the issue of why people "have not recognized the universal ethic": First of all, it's because there is no universal ethic.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Unquestionably there was in the mind of practically all men an imperious sense of moral law.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Matter can not move, unless moved upon; nor stop of itself, when once in motion.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Likewise, Newton's Second Law of Motion can be used to derive an alternative definition of torque:
$\vec{ au} = I\vec{\alpha}$
where
I is the moment of inertia of the particle
$\vec{\alpha}$ is the angular acceleration of the particle.
This provides a definition for the moment of inertia which is the rotational equivalent for mass. In more advanced treatments of mechanics, the moment of inertia acts as a tensor that, when properly analyzed, fully determines the characteristics of rotations including precession and nutation.
Equivalently, the differential form of Newton's Second Law provides an alternative definition of torque:
$\vec{ au} = \frac{\mathrm{d}\vec{L}}{\mathrm{dt}},$[56]
where $\vec{L}$ is the angular momentum of the particle.
.Newton's Third Law of Motion requires that all objects exerting torques themselves experience equal and opposite torques,[57] and therefore also directly implies the conservation of angular momentum for closed systems that experience rotations and revolutions through the action of internal torques.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians have always claimed that the constant and fixed quality of the natural world is evidence of the constant and fixed quality of all of God's systems, including God's laws and moral codes.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most importantly, however, the Secondly Law of Thermodynamics discusses closed systems , and the earth is not a closed system.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Centripetal force

For an object accelerating in circular motion, the unbalanced force acting on the object equals:[58]
$\vec{F} = - \frac{mv^2 \hat{r}}{r}$
where m is the mass of the object, v is the velocity of the object and r is the distance to the center of the circular path and $\hat{r}$ is the unit vector pointing in the radial direction outwards from the center. This means that the unbalanced centripetal force felt by any object is always directed toward the center of the curving path. .Such forces act perpendicular to the velocity vector associated with the motion of an object, and therefore do not change the speed of the object (magnitude of the velocity), but only the direction of the velocity vector.^ Humans, being the only species that can consider such things on a rational level rather than acting out of instinct, can make rational choices about such things.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Leucippus, an associate of Zeno, did not maintain the same opinion, but affirms things to be infinite, and always in motion, and that generation and change exist continuously.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ SEPPO LAKOVAARA, ANSSI SAURA, JUHANI LOKKI AND PEKKA LANKINEN 160 A Note on the Speed of Gene Frequency Changes in Reverse Directions in a Finite Population.

The unbalanced force that accelerates an object can be resolved into a component that is perpendicular to the path, and one that is tangential to the path. This yields both the tangential force which accelerates the object by either slowing it down or speeding it up and the radial (centripetal) force which changes its direction.[3]

Kinematic integrals

.Forces can be used to define a number of physical concepts by integrating with respect to kinematic variables.^ Ever since the Christians took over in Rome 1,700 years ago they have been using force, both physical and social, to enforce their view on society.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

For example, integrating with respect to time gives the definition of impulse[59]
$\vec{I}=\int_{t_1}^{t_2}{\vec{F} \mathrm{d}t}$
which, by .Newton's Second Law, must be equivalent to the change in momentum (yielding the Impulse momentum theorem).^ The Second Law of Thermodynamics is particularly important in this discussion, since it states that there exists a universal principle of change in nature which is downhill, not uphill, as evolution requires.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, building on early momentum, they ratcheted up the danger and drama with a shocking second year, creating a must-read book that can truly be called ""astonishing!""
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

Similarly, integrating with respect to position gives a definition for the work done by a force:[60]
$W=\int_{\vec{x}_1}^{\vec{x}_2}{\vec{F} \cdot{\mathrm{d}\vec{x}}}$
which is equivalent to changes in kinetic energy (yielding the work energy theorem).[60]
Power P is the rate of change dW/dt of the work W, as the trajectory is extended by a position change $ext{d}\vec{x}\,$ in a time interval dt:[61]
$ext{d}W\, =\, \frac{ ext{d}W}{ ext{d}\vec{x}}\, \cdot\, ext{d}\vec{x}\, =\, \vec{F}\, \cdot\, ext{d}\vec{x}, \qquad ext{ so } \quad P\, =\, \frac{ ext{d}W}{ ext{d}\vec{x}}\, \cdot\, \frac{ ext{d}\vec{x}}{ ext{d}t}\, =\, \vec{F}\, \cdot\, \vec{v},$
with $\vec{v} = ext{d}\vec{x}/ ext{d}t$ the velocity.

Potential energy

.Instead of a force, often the mathematically related concept of a potential energy field can be used for convenience.^ The replication of viruses is completely determinative, but the terms that are often used to describe how viruses are replicated are terms that we associate with "free will" concepts.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greeks did not use the term fossil the way that we do today, instead they often talked of petrified bones when discussing larger fossils.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No energy, not even potential energy, can be lost in converting one force into another.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, the gravitational force acting upon an object can be seen as the action of the gravitational field that is present at the object's location.^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Restating mathematically the definition of energy (via the definition of work), a potential scalar field $U(\vec{r})$ is defined as that field whose gradient is equal and opposite to the force produced at every point:
$\vec{F}=-\vec{ abla} U.$
Forces can be classified as conservative or nonconservative. Conservative forces are equivalent to the gradient of a potential while non-conservative forces are not.[3]

Conservative forces

.A conservative force that acts on a closed system has an associated mechanical work that allows energy to convert only between kinetic or potential forms.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The archeopteryx, a bird with a feathered tail, is the only alleged transitional form between the reptiles and the birds.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "sweet tooth" mechanism only worked in a beneficial way in the natural environment because sweet foods in nature are also nutritious foods.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This means that for a closed system, the net mechanical energy is conserved whenever a conservative force acts on the system.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The force, therefore, is related directly to the difference in potential energy between two different locations in space,[62] and can be considered to be an artifact of the potential field in the same way that the direction and amount of a flow of water can be considered to be an artifact of the contour map of the elevation of an area.^ Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, the detection of acidity has to generate two different responses in people depending on the context.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have found it difficult, when looking at any two species, to avoid picturing to myself, forms directly intermediate between them.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
Conservative forces include gravity, the electromagnetic force, and the spring force. .Each of these forces has models which are dependent on a position often given as a radial vector $\vec{r}$ emanating from spherically symmetric potentials.^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[63] Examples of this follow:
For gravity:
$\vec{F} = - \frac{G m_1 m_2 \vec{r}}{r^3}$
where G is the gravitational constant, and mn is the mass of object n.
For electrostatic forces:
$\vec{F} = \frac{q_{1} q_{2} \vec{r}}{4 \pi \epsilon_{0} r^3}$
where ε0 is electric permittivity of free space, and qn is the electric charge of object n.
For spring forces:
$\vec{F} = - k \vec{r}$
where k is the spring constant.[3]

Nonconservative forces

.For certain physical scenarios, it is impossible to model forces as being due to gradient of potentials.^ Without taking into consideration all of the physical properties of atoms it is impossible to make a blind calculation about the chance that certain structures would form.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

This is often due to macrophysical considerations which yield forces as arising from a macroscopic statistical average of microstates. .For example, friction is caused by the gradients of numerous electrostatic potentials between the atoms, but manifests as a force model which is independent of any macroscale position vector.^ The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Nonconservative forces other than friction include other contact forces, tension, compression, and drag. .However, for any sufficiently detailed description, all these forces are the results of conservative ones since each of these macroscopic forces are the net results of the gradients of microscopic potentials.^ These results are found in the boundless universe, and in the microscopic world are found in the world far below the power of the most powerful microscope to detect.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Refutation of All Heresies now provides one of the fullest explanations of the Greek philosophies because it is one of the fullest accounts that remains of these teachings (the originals were destroyed by the Christians).
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We know for a fact that all of these animals are related, and we know the general ancestry of all of these breeds, yet even within this one species, i.e.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]
The connection between macroscopic non-conservative forces and microscopic conservative forces is described by detailed treatment with statistical mechanics. .In macroscopic closed systems, nonconservative forces act to change the internal energies of the system, and are often associated with the transfer of heat.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Conservation of Energy and the inter-convertibility of forces--light, heat, electricity--taking place constantly everywhere, often on a stupendous scale, require bewildering calculations by an ever-present God.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, nonconservative forces necessarily result in energy transformations within closed systems from ordered to more random conditions as entropy increases.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second Law of Thermodynamics specifically states: .
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second Law of Thermodynamics does not say anything about downhill or uphill and it doesn't say anything about information.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Units of measurement

The SI unit of force is the newton (symbol N), which is the force required to accelerate a one kilogram mass at a rate of one meter per second squared, or kg·m·s−2.[64] The corresponding CGS unit is the dyne, the force required to accelerate a one gram mass by one centimeter per second squared, or g·cm·s−2. A newton is thus equal to 100,000 dyne.
The gravitational foot-pound-second English unit of force is the pound-force (lbf), defined as the force exerted by gravity on a pound-mass in the standard gravitational field of 9.80665 m·s−2.[64] The pound-force provides an alternative unit of mass: one slug is the mass that will accelerate by one foot per second squared when acted on by one pound-force.[64]
.An alternative unit of force in a different foot-pound-second system, the absolute fps system, is the poundal, defined as the force required to accelerate a one pound mass at a rate of one foot per second squared.^ What the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially stating is that differences in energy in a closed system tend towards equilibrium.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A change of gene frequency in the population is detected when the rate of occurrence of alleles is significantly different from one period of time to the next.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To wit, the second law (the only one ever claimed to pose a problem) states that entropy cannot decrease in an isolated system .
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] The units of slug and poundal are designed to avoid a constant of proportionality in Newton's second law.
.The pound-force has a metric counterpart, less commonly used than the newton: the kilogram-force (kgf) (sometimes kilopond), is the force exerted by standard gravity on one kilogram of mass.^ This includes well-known theories such as Einstein's Theory of Relativity and Newton's Theory of Gravity, as well as lesser-known ones such as the Debye-Hückel Theory of electrolyte solutions.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Evolutionary theory predicts that if organisms are related then the anatomy of organisms that are closely related will be closer to one another than organisms that are less closely related even if they live in a more similar environment.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ummm, BoMar, no one here is rejecting Paul because of a less than 100% sense of agreement with him.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] The kilogram-force leads to an alternate, but rarely used unit of mass: the metric slug (sometimes mug or hyl) is that mass which accelerates at 1 m·s−2 when subjected to a force of 1 kgf. .The kilogram-force is not a part of the modern SI system, and is generally deprecated; however it still sees use for some purposes as expressing jet thrust, bicycle spoke tension, torque wrench settings and engine output torque.^ "Selection" itself, however, is a loaded word and generally connotes some conscious act, but this is not the case.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The way that we label species today is still not uniform, we use a mix of the Linnaean concept and the modern biological concept.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here we see, from over 2,000 years ago, a common argument that is still used against evolution today.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Other arcane units of force include the sthène which is equivalent to 1000 N and the kip which is equivalent to 1000 lbf.
Units of force
newton
(SI unit)
dyne kilogram-force,
kilopond
pound-force poundal
1 N ≡ 1 kg·m/s² = 105 dyn ≈ 0.10197 kp ≈ 0.22481 lbf ≈ 7.2330 pdl
1 dyn = 10−5 N ≡ 1 g·cm/s² ≈ 1.0197×10−6 kp ≈ 2.2481×10−6 lbf ≈ 7.2330×10−5 pdl
1 kp = 9.80665 N = 980665 dyn gn·(1 kg) ≈ 2.2046 lbf ≈ 70.932 pdl
1 lbf ≈ 4.448222 N ≈ 444822 dyn ≈ 0.45359 kp gn·(1 lb) ≈ 32.174 pdl
1 pdl ≈ 0.138255 N ≈ 13825 dyn ≈ 0.014098 kp ≈ 0.031081 lbf ≡ 1 lb·ft/s²
.The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units.^ All the other minerals likewise were stored in the earth for the use of man alone,-iron, copper, gold, silver, all the valuable minerals--knowing that man would make use of them.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It completely matters who is is talking to here, as that affects how he will use the word (though, in all likelihood, he will use the word the same way in other circumstances, as he is not a specialist).
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

Notes

1. ^ See for example pages 9-1 and 9-2 of Feynman, Leighton and Sands (1963).
2. ^ "glossary". Earth Observatory. NASA. Retrieved 2008-04-09. "Force: Any external agent that causes a change in the motion of a free body, or that causes stress in a fixed body."
3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z e.g. Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., Sands, M. (1963). Lectures on Physics, Vol 1. Addison-Wesley. ; Kleppner, Daniel; Robert Kolenkow (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 133–134. ISBN 0070350485. .
4. ^ a b c d e f g h University Physics, Sears, Young & Zemansky, pp18–38
5. ^ a b Heath,T.L.. "The Works of Archimedes (1897). The unabridged work in PDF form (19 MB)". Archive.org. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
6. ^ a b c Weinberg, S. (1994). Dreams of a Final Theory. Vintage Books USA. ISBN 0-679-74408-8
7. ^ Land, Helen The Order of Nature in Aristotle's Physics: Place and the Elements (1998)
8. ^ Hetherington, Norriss S. (1993). Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. p. 100. ISBN 0815310854.
9. ^ a b Fernando Espinoza (2005). "An analysis of the historical development of ideas about motion and its implications for teaching", Physics Education 40 (2), p. 141.
10. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482:
It was a permanent force whose effect got dissipated only as a result of external agents such as air resistance. He is apparently the first to conceive such a permanent type of impressed virtue for non-natural motion.
11. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482:
Thus he considered impetus as proportional to weight times velocity. In other words, his conception of impetus comes very close to the concept of momentum of Newtonian mechanics.
12. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973-1974.
13. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482
14. ^ Dr. Nader El-Bizri, "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 343-345, Routledge, New York, London.
15. ^  .
16. ^ Shlomo Pines (1970). "Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī , Hibat Allah". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 26–28. ISBN 0684101149.
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003). "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4), p. 521-546 [528].)
17. ^ A. C. Crombie, Augustine to Galileo 2, p. 67.
18. ^ Shlomo Pines (1964), "La dynamique d’Ibn Bajja", in Mélanges Alexandre Koyré, I, 442-468 [462, 468], Paris
(cf. Abel B. Franco (October 2003), "Avempace, Projectile Motion, and Impetus Theory", Journal of the History of Ideas 64 (4): 521-546 [543])
19. ^ a b Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo At Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5
20. ^ a b c d e f g Newton, Isaac (1999). The Principia Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08817-4.  This is a recent translation into English by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, with help from Julia Budenz.
21. ^ DiSalle, Robert (2002-03-30). "Space and Time: Inertial Frames". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
22. ^ Newton's Principia Mathematica actually used a finite difference version of this equation based upon impulse. See Impulse.
23. ^ For example, by Rob Knop PhD in his Galactic Interactions blog on February 26, 2007 at 9:29 a.m. [1]
24. ^ One exception to this rule is: Landau, L. D.; Akhiezer, A. I.; Lifshitz, A. M. (1967). General Physics; mechanics and molecular physics (First English ed.). Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0080033040.  Translated by: J. B. Sykes, A. D. Petford, and C. L. Petford. Library of Congress Catalog Number 67-30260. In section 7, pages 12–14, this book defines force as dp/dt.
25. ^ e.g. W. Noll, “On the Concept of Force”, in part B of Walter Noll's website..
26. ^ Henderson, Tom (1996-2007). "Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion". The Physics Classroom. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
27. ^ Dr. Nikitin (2007). "Dynamics of translational motion". Retrieved 2008-01-04.
28. ^ "Introduction to Free Body Diagrams". Physics Tutorial Menu. University of Guelph. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
29. ^ Henderson, Tom (2004). "The Physics Classroom". The Physics Classroom and Mathsoft Engineering & Education, Inc.. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
30. ^ "Static Equilibrium". Physics Static Equilibrium (forces and torques). University of the Virgin Islands. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
31. ^ Cutnell. Physics, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 855–876. ISBN 047123124X.
32. ^ "Seminar: Visualizing Special Relativity". THE RELATIVISTIC RAYTRACER. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
33. ^ Wilson, John B.. "Four-Vectors (4-Vectors) of Special Relativity: A Study of Elegant Physics". The Science Realm: John's Virtual Sci-Tech Universe. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
34. ^ a b Shifman, Mikhail (1999). ITEP LECTURES ON PARTICLE PHYSICS AND FIELD THEORY. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-2639-X.
35. ^ Nave, R. "Pauli Exclusion Principle". HyperPhysics***** Quantum Physics. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
36. ^ "Fermions & Bosons". The Particle Adventure. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
37. ^ Cook, A. H. (16-160-1965). "A New Absolute Determination of the Acceleration due to Gravity at the National Physical Laboratory". Nature 208: 279. doi:10.1038/208279a0. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
38. ^ a b University Physics, Sears, Young & Zemansky, pp59–82
39. ^ "Sir Isaac Newton: The Universal Law of Gravitation". Astronomy 161 The Solar System. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
40. ^ Watkins, Thayer. "Perturbation Analysis, Regular and Singular". Department of Economics. San José State University.
41. ^ Kollerstrom, Nick (2001). "Neptune's Discovery. The British Case for Co-Prediction.". University College London. Archived from the original on 2005-11-11. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
42. ^ Einstein, Albert (1916). "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" (PDF). Annalen der Physik 49: 769–822. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
43. ^ Cutnell. Physics, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. p. 519. ISBN 047123124X.
44. ^ Coulomb, Charles (1784). "Recherches théoriques et expérimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'élasticité des fils de metal". Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences: 229–269.
45. ^ a b Feynman, Leighton and Sands (2006). The Feynman Lectures on Physics The Definitive Edition Volume II. Pearson Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-8053-9047-2.
46. ^ Duffin, William (1980). Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd Ed.. McGraw-Hill. pp. 364–383. ISBN 0-07-084111-X.
47. ^ For a complete library on quantum mechanics see Quantum_mechanics#References
48. ^ Cutnell. Physics, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. p. 940. ISBN 047123124X.
49. ^ Cutnell. Physics, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. p. 951. ISBN 047123124X.
50. ^ Stevens, Tab (10/07/2003). "Quantum-Chromodynamics: A Definition - Science Articles". Retrieved 2008-01-04.
51. ^ Cutnell. Physics, Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. p. 93. ISBN 047123124X.
52. ^ "Tension Force". Non-Calculus Based Physics I. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
53. ^ Fitzpatrick, Richard (2006-02-02). "Strings, pulleys, and inclines". Retrieved 2008-01-04.
54. ^ "Elasticity, Periodic Motion". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
55. ^ Mallette, Vincent (1982-2008). "Inwit Publishing, Inc. and Inwit, LLC -- Writings, Links and Software Distributions - The Coriolis Force". Publications in Science and Mathematics, Computing and the Humanities. Inwit Publishing, Inc.. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
56. ^ "Newton's Second Law for Rotation". HyperPhysics***** Mechanics ***** Rotation. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
57. ^ Fitzpatrick, Richard (2007-01-07). "Newton's third law of motion". Retrieved 2008-01-04.
58. ^ Nave, R. "Centripetal Force". HyperPhysics***** Mechanics ***** Rotation.
59. ^ Hibbeler, Russell C. (2010), Engineering Mechanics, 12th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 222, ISBN 0-13-607791-9
60. ^ a b Feynman, Leighton & Sands (1963), vol. 1, p. 13-3.
61. ^ Feynman, Leighton & Sands (1963), vol. 1, p. 13-2.
62. ^ Singh, Sunil Kumar (2007-08-25). "Conservative force". Connexions. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
63. ^ Davis, Doug. "Conservation of Energy". General physics. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
64. ^ a b c d e Wandmacher, Cornelius; Johnson, Arnold (1995). Metric Units in Engineering. ASCE Publications. p. 15. ISBN 0784400709.

References

• Corbell, H.C.; Philip Stehle (1994). Classical Mechanics p 28,. New York: Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-68063-0.
• Cutnell, John d.; Johnson, Kenneth W. (2004). Physics, Sixth Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.. ISBN 041-44895-8.
• Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., Sands, M. (1963). Lectures on Physics, Vol 1. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-02116-1.
• Halliday, David; Robert Resnick; Kenneth S. Krane (2001). Physics v. 1. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-32057-9.
• Parker, Sybil (1993). Encyclopedia of Physics, p 443,. Ohio: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-051400-3.
• Sears F., Zemansky M. & Young H. (1982). University Physics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-07199-1.
• Serway, Raymond A. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0-534-40842-7.
• Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4.
• Verma, H.C. (2004). Concepts of Physics Vol 1. (2004 Reprint ed.). Bharti Bhavan. ISBN 81-7709-187-5.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Force is the capacity to do work or cause physical change; energy, strength, or active power to a person, place or thing.^ Some of its devotees, who have slipped into places of power and influence, urge it with a zeal worthy of a better cause.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The power to produce this is in the word of God, and when this is accepted, the creative energy is there producing the thing that is spoken.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Changes caused by many environments must take place in the same environment, contradicting the theory of evolution.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

• Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent.
• Violence is the repartee of the illiterate.
• Punch by Alan Brien
• The wish to hurt, the momentary intoxication with pain, is the loophole through which the pervert climbs into the minds of ordinary men.^ Two bullets tear through my right leg then into the floor, pulling from me horrific screams of pain.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I yell into Jean's mind looking through the Monitor, the metal beast using the objects outside to hit her.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no doubt in my mind that it hurt them to admit it in the article, by how far into the article you get...before they tell you the truth.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.
• The use of force alone is but temporary.^ Using magnetic force I lift him off the ground and bring him a few inches in front of my face.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

.It may subdue for a moment; but it does not remove the necessity of subduing again; and a nation is not governed, which is perpetually to be conquered.^ NOTE: this does not include removing all reference or content of religion from government and all publicly funded entities.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.
• In the Conciliation with America speech given by Edmund Burke
• La raison du plus fort est toujours la meilleure.
• Translation: The reason of the strongest is always the best
• Le loup et l'agneau by Jean de la Fontaine
• Vis consili expers mole ruit sua.
• Translation: Brute force without judgement collapses under its own weight
• Odes by Horace
• A man may build himself a throne of bayonets, but he cannot sit upon it.^ The same argument may be applied with much force to the races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We can not release evolutionists upon the plea that they cannot account for the faculties and spiritual endowments of man.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the reason why any interaction between government and religion should always be looked upon with the greatest of skepticism.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

• A riot is at the bottom the language of the unheard. .
• Let there be no violence in religion.^ These people erroneously claim that there is no conflict between science and religion, or that they both serve completely different purposes for society.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Life is a lot like a minefield and for most of that big old minefield there IS NO MAP. Religion is like footprints through the minefield.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ QUOTE (Corvidae+Nov 29 2007, 08:56 PM) The 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion' is there to prevent a national religion.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.
• There is little to choose morally between beating up a man physically and beating him up meantally.^ If you get to make up your own morals and ethics without principles or reference, you basically get to pick and choose whatever you want whenever you want.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, if we "support" Guiliani we know that there is no reasonable chance of him ever beating a Democrat.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If life was created for the use of man then why were there so many insects that hurt man instead of helped him?
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

• On Moral Courage by Compton MacKenzie, (1962)
• ...who overcomes by force, hath overcome but half his foe. .
• There is a homely old adage which runs, 'Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.'^ John Milton writes his immortal "Paradise Lost," and dies.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The human body can no more be a product of chance or causo-mechanical evolution than a Hoe printing press, or Milton's Paradise Lost.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Let go of all your anger and hatred towards others and there you will find your proof and salvation.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.
• Where force is necessary, one should make use of it boldly, resolutely, and right to the end.^ It makes one wonder why we, as scientists, should respect the work done by social scientists, when they don't respect ours.
• The Social Affairs Unit - Web Review: The Theory of Evolution: Just a Theory? 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.socialaffairsunit.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make your one short consecrated life count for truth and righteousness.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And of course, I should note (not that it should be necessary, but you're making it so) that the question of how morality evolved is independent of which moral standard is correct.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

But it is as well to know the limitations of force; to know where to combine force with manoeuvre, assualt with conciliation.
• Vencer no es convencer. .
• Whenever you employ a force of any sort, to carry a point of real importance, reject all nice calculations of economy.^ "The Man" (read, Saviour) is missing the point that it has to be about ideas, (and not ideals) and which ideas and plans and organizations are most survival-promoting for YOU in this real world.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite all of their attempts to sound scholarly and technical, what all of the people making these calculations prove is how very little they understand science or reality.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't really give a shit whether you would do the same thing, nor do I give a shit whether Ron Paul agrees with me on its importance.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Better to be a thousand per cent over the mark, than the smallest fraction of a unit under it.^ "Let us suppose" that each guess is 95 per cent certain, which is far higher than the average or any.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

• The Room in the Dragon Volant, from the book In a Glass Darkly by Sheridan Le Faun
Look up force in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

English

Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology 1

From Old Norse fors or foss (waterfall)

Proper noun

 Singular Force Plural -
Force
1. (Northern England) Falls. used in place names.

Etymology 2

From force, coined by George Lucas for the film Star Wars.

Proper noun

 Singular the Force Plural -
the Force
1. A mystical power which is the object of the fictional Jedi and Sith religions.
• 1977, George Lucas, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, 20th Century Fox
Obi-Wan Kenobi: Use the Force, Luke.
• 1980, George Lucas, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, 20th Century Fox
Yoda: My ally is the Force, and a powerful ally it is.
• 2005, George Lucas, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, 20th Century Fox
Palpatine: Good. Good. The Force is strong with you. A powerful Sith you will become. .Henceforth, you shall be known as Darth...Vader.^ Henceforth you shall not steal our colleges, seminaries and public schools, and make our children infidels and atheists.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Physics Course/Force article)

Force

.Force is a physic term used to describe a quantity that acts on an object to change object's state .^ The use of terms like "hijack" or "take over the cell's machinery" to describe the replication of viruses are highly misleading and anthropomorphic.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Heart & soul, sure, yeah, I think most reasonable people would understand how the terms would be meaningfully used to describe that.
• Big hole knocked in theory of human evolution - Winds of Change.NET 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The replication of viruses is completely determinative, but the terms that are often used to describe how viruses are replicated are terms that we associate with "free will" concepts.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Example Force used to push or pull a cart or force used to break a stick

Force's Formula

Force to make an object move is calculated by
F = m a
F, Force , Kg m/s = N
m, Mass , Kg
a, Acceleration , m / s
$F = m \frac{dv(t)}{dt}$

Force's Characteristics

Force's Pressure

Force exerts on a cross sectional area of a surface of an object is called Pressure
$P = \frac{F}{A}$
F , Force , measured in N
A , Area , measured in N
P , Pressure , measured in N

Work Done

.The ability of a Force to carry out a task on an object is defined Work done on the object .^ But it will be asked for whose sake so vast a work was carried out.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Our campaign against God and religion must be carried out in a pedagogic way, not by violence or force."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

Work done by a force on an object to move object over a distance s is defined as the product of Force and Distance move
W = F S
F , Force , N
s , Distance , m
W , Work Done , N m = J
$W = F \int v(t) dt$

Energy

.The ability of a Force to carry out a task on an object over time t is defined Energy .^ Eventually, Remy LeBeau realized he was a mutant, possessed of the ability to charge inanimate objects with explosively released biokinetic energy.
• Search: x-men - Westfield Comics 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC westfieldcomics.com [Source type: General]

^ Our campaign against God and religion must be carried out in a pedagogic way, not by violence or force."
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

$E = \frac{W}{t}$
$E = \frac{F}{t} \int v(t) dt$

Types of Force

Gravitational Force

Force of the Earth exerts on an object to pull object toward the Earth. Any object will travels toward the Earth at an acceleration g
$g = G \frac{m}{r^2}$
$F_g = M g = G \frac{m M}{r^2}$

Friction Force

Friction is a surface force that opposes motion. .The frictional force is directly related to the normal force which acts to keep two solid objects separated at the point of contact.^ The increased reproductive isolation between two closely related species when they live in the same geographic region ( sympatry ) as compared with when they live in separate geographic regions.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes in related organisms to the point where they are different enough to be considered separate species.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two broad classifications of frictional forces: static friction and kinetic friction.^ There’s lots of room for variation and overlap in each classification, and we are constantly being forced to create new species for newly discovered lifeforms.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

The static friction force (Fsf) will exactly oppose forces applied to an object parallel to a surface contact up to the limit specified by the coefficient of static friction (μsf) multiplied by the normal force (FN). In other words the magnitude of the static friction force satisfies the inequality:
$0 \le F_{\mathrm{sf}} \le \mu_{\mathrm{sf}} F_\mathrm{N}$.
The kinetic friction force (Fkf) is independent of both the forces applied and the movement of the object. Thus, the magnitude of the force equals:
Fkf = μkfFN,
where μkf is the coefficient of kinetic friction. .For most surface interfaces, the coefficient of kinetic friction is less than the coefficient of static friction.^ Since we find a majority of all animal species less in size than the fly, there has been little growth in most species, and in many, none at all.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the most his years numbered thirty-three years, and of these only a little less than three were devoted to public ministry, and these were spent in a conquered province of the Roman Empire.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

[1]

Elastic Force

Fk is the force that responds to the load on the spring.
An elastic force acts to return a spring to its natural length. An ideal spring is taken to be massless, frictionless, unbreakable, and infinitely stretchable. Such springs exert forces that push when contracted, or pull when extended, in proportion to the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position.[2] This linear relationship was described by Robert Hooke in 1676, for whom Hooke's law is named. If Δx is the displacement, the force exerted by an ideal spring equals:
$\vec{F}=-k \Delta \vec{x}$
where k is the spring constant (or force constant), which is particular to the spring. The minus sign accounts for the tendency of the elastic force to act in opposition to the applied load.[1]

Nucleus Force

The electrostatic force was first described in 1784 by Coulomb as a force which existed intrinsically between two charges.[3] .The properties of the electrostatic force were that it varied as an inverse square law directed in the radial direction, was both attractive and repulsive (there was intrinsic polarity), was independent of the mass of the charged objects, and followed the law of superposition.^ There appears to be multiple independent origins of viruses, indeed various viruses have probably originated by completely different means.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s lots of room for variation and overlap in each classification, and we are constantly being forced to create new species for newly discovered lifeforms.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

.Coulomb's Law unifies all these observations into one succinct statement.^ Strange, if 3,000,000 pennies were tossed into the air, would we expect them all to fall with heads up, save one?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Refutation of All Heresies now provides one of the fullest explanations of the Greek philosophies because it is one of the fullest accounts that remains of these teachings (the originals were destroyed by the Christians).
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Let's not get this all confused into one big ball of emotional energy.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
Subsequent mathematicians and physicists found the construct of the electric field to be useful for determining the electrostatic force on an electric charge at any point in space. .The electric field was based on using a hypothetical "test charge" anywhere in space and then using Coulomb's Law to determine the electrostatic force.^ A scientific law is what we can test and observe to be true, while a theory requires people to fill in the information we cannot observe or test anymore using the facts given.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] Thus the electric field anywhere in space is defined as
$\vec{E} = {\vec{F} \over{q}}$
where q is the magnitude of the hypothetical test charge.
.Meanwhile, the Lorentz force of magnetism was discovered to exist between two electric currents.^ The difficultly in drawing relationships between organisms via transitional forms can easily be demonstrated with the use of currently existing animals that we know for a fact are related.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently a diploid hybrid cross between two species of fly was discovered that is believed to have developed within the past 250 years.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It has the same mathematical character as Coulomb's Law with the proviso that like currents attract and unlike currents repel.^ If it's within the current law, and was not used against US citizens I would more than likely support it!!!!!
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similar to the electric field, the magnetic field can be used to determine the magnetic force on an electric current at any point in space.^ Using magnetic force I lift him off the ground and bring him a few inches in front of my face.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field was determined to be
$B = {F \over{I \ell}}$
where I is the magnitude of the hypothetical test current and $\ell$ is the length of hypothetical wire through which the test current flows. .The magnetic field exerts a force on all magnets including, for example, those used in compasses.^ Using magnetic force I lift him off the ground and bring him a few inches in front of my face.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, it uses the low "uncaught error" rate to postulate that, er, I dunno, some higher power is keeping the DNA of all the cells on the planet in line.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And in the understanding of it, we are allowed, encouraged, in fact, commanded to use all the other tools at our disposal to understand it, the tools of science included.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that the Earth's magnetic field is aligned closely with the orientation of the Earth's axis causes compass magnets to become oriented because of the magnetic force pulling on the needle.^ My wave, traveling along the very magnetic field of the earth has met a disturbance.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The time for homo sapien superior is NOW! I glide over the earth, harnessing the magnetic field to move effortlessly.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Next quote from you: "Theories that have become facts: Tectonic Plates Earth moving around the Sun.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through combining the definition of electric current as the time rate of change of electric charge, a rule of vector multiplication called Lorentz's Law describes the force on a charge moving in an magnetic field.^ The time for homo sapien superior is NOW! I glide over the earth, harnessing the magnetic field to move effortlessly.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lyell's notion of gradual change: Also called uniformitarianism, Lyell's notion was that Earth has been shaped by the same forces and processes that operate today, acting continuously over very long periods of time.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are mollusks with tentacles and move by forcing water through their bodies like a jet.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] The connection between electricity and magnetism allows for the description of a unified electromagnetic force that acts on a charge. This force can be written as a sum of the electrostatic force (due to the electric field) and the magnetic force (due to the magnetic field). Fully stated, this is the law:
$\vec{F} = q(\vec{E} + \vec{v} imes \vec{B})$
where $\vec{F}$ is the electromagnetic force, q is the magnitude of the charge of the particle, $\vec{E}$ is the electric field, $\vec{v}$ is the velocity of the particle which is crossed with the magnetic field ($\vec{B}$).
.The origin of electric and magnetic fields would not be fully explained until 1864 when James Clerk Maxwell unified a number of earlier theories into a succinct set of four equations.^ In scientific theory, theories reamin standing until they are DISPROVED. If a theory is disproved, it is thrown out completey or modified to fit into additional data collected during research of the original hypothesis.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please explain how you would go about formulating a supernaturalist scientific theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many atheists have told me that they would happily look into a theory that was better than the one already put in place.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

These "Maxwell Equations" fully described the sources of the fields as being stationary and moving charges, and the interactions of the fields themselves. .This led Maxwell to discover that electric and magnetic fields could be "self-generating" through a wave that traveled at a speed which he calculated to be the speed of light.^ Same with, the speed of light and sound, and atoms, and magnetic fields, and evolution.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That blue is knocked out of the spectrum as light travels through the atmosphere, or that god painted the sky with water colors, are each theories.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My wave, traveling along the very magnetic field of the earth has met a disturbance.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

This insight united the nascent fields of electromagnetic theory with optics and led directly to a complete description of the electromagnetic spectrum.[6]
.However, attempting to reconcile electromagnetic theory with two observations, the photoelectric effect, and the nonexistence of the ultraviolet catastrophe, proved troublesome.^ The writer states that in the past "brave thinkers made observations and did experiments to prove their theories."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be shown in this book, that a large number of facts can not be reconciled with evolution, especially the evolution of man thus proving that it can not be a true theory.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Through the work of leading theoretical physicists, a new theory of electromagnetism was developed using quantum mechanics.^ Physicists and cosmologists have used evolutionary models to explain the development of gravitational matter, 3 dimensional space, our universe as a whole, and galaxy systems.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have a set of facts that leads to a theoretical explanation for those facts, then we use that theory to make deductive predictions about the nature of new evidence.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the terms we currently use to describe life were developed prior to the establishment of evolutionary theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This final modification to electromagnetic theory ultimately led to quantum electrodynamics (or QED), which fully describes all electromagnetic phenomena as being mediated by wave particles known as photons.^ Only when ALL possibilities are fully explored will the pieces finally fit together.
• The Social Affairs Unit - Web Review: The Theory of Evolution: Just a Theory? 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.socialaffairsunit.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HAHAHA But that is the BASIS of this thread, describing how Evolution is disproving ID, and all of the initial posts were to do with how ID (religious theory) makes religion irrelevant and ridiculous.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they are being taught the evolution theory in public school, "I would advise them to look at all the angles before they make their own conclusion," he said.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In QED, photons are the fundamental exchange particle which described all interactions relating to electromagnetism including the electromagnetic force.^ After all, fundamental particles &c.
• The Social Affairs Unit - Web Review: The Theory of Evolution: Just a Theory? 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.socialaffairsunit.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
It is a common misconception to ascribe the stiffness and rigidity of solid matter to the repulsion of like charges under the influence of the electromagnetic force. .However, these characteristics actually result from the Pauli Exclusion Principle.^ What these people were not able to do, however, was fully explain how evolution actually took place, because they did not know how reproduction and inheritance actually work.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While these mutations can result in some pretty drastic changes, they have never been observed to result in completely new characteristics.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since electrons are fermions, they cannot occupy the same quantum mechanical state as other electrons.^ Even if instinct in other animals could be accounted for, evolution can not account for the instinct of the working bees, since they are not descendants of other working bees from which they might inherit habits or instinct.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You also left out solid state electronics, computers and the internet and you certainly cannot credibly argue that progress there did not have a lot of government involvement.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people would prefer to think of evolution as a fact, and thats their right as long as they don't insist upon others forming the same postulate as they do.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the electrons in a material are densely packed together, there are not enough lower energy quantum mechanical states for them all, so some of them must be in higher energy states.^ A set of species containing an ancestral species together with some, but not all, of its descendants.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory that states that the universe began in a state of compression to infinite density, and that in one instant all matter and energy began expanding and have continued expanding ever since.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All should have reached the status of human beings and there should be none of the lower forms of life which are so abundant.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This means that it takes energy to pack them together. .While this effect is manifested macroscopically as a structural "force", it is technically only the result of the existence of a finite set of electron states.^ Environmental forces such as scarcity of food or extreme temperatures that result in the survival of only certain organisms with characteristics that provide resistance.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that case "facts" are only valid in an axiomatic framework, i.e., "the set of integers forms a group under multiplication", which is only true given definitions of sets, numbers, and algebraic structures.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People commonly state that religion deals with questions of morality and meaning, whereas "science" can only answer questions about structures and materials.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Electromagnetic Force

The electrostatic force was first described in 1784 by Coulomb as a force which existed intrinsically between two charges.[3] .The properties of the electrostatic force were that it varied as an inverse square law directed in the radial direction, was both attractive and repulsive (there was intrinsic polarity), was independent of the mass of the charged objects, and followed the law of superposition.^ There appears to be multiple independent origins of viruses, indeed various viruses have probably originated by completely different means.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Theory of Gravitation is an explanation of the mechanism by which the Law of Gravity works, by which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, modified as more recent observations have shown Newton's formulation of the Law to be incorrect.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s lots of room for variation and overlap in each classification, and we are constantly being forced to create new species for newly discovered lifeforms.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

.Coulomb's Law unifies all these observations into one succinct statement.^ Strange, if 3,000,000 pennies were tossed into the air, would we expect them all to fall with heads up, save one?
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Refutation of All Heresies now provides one of the fullest explanations of the Greek philosophies because it is one of the fullest accounts that remains of these teachings (the originals were destroyed by the Christians).
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Let's not get this all confused into one big ball of emotional energy.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
Subsequent mathematicians and physicists found the construct of the electric field to be useful for determining the electrostatic force on an electric charge at any point in space. .The electric field was based on using a hypothetical "test charge" anywhere in space and then using Coulomb's Law to determine the electrostatic force.^ A scientific law is what we can test and observe to be true, while a theory requires people to fill in the information we cannot observe or test anymore using the facts given.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] Thus the electric field anywhere in space is defined as
$\vec{E} = {\vec{F} \over{q}}$
where q is the magnitude of the hypothetical test charge.
.Meanwhile, the Lorentz force of magnetism was discovered to exist between two electric currents.^ The difficultly in drawing relationships between organisms via transitional forms can easily be demonstrated with the use of currently existing animals that we know for a fact are related.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently a diploid hybrid cross between two species of fly was discovered that is believed to have developed within the past 250 years.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It has the same mathematical character as Coulomb's Law with the proviso that like currents attract and unlike currents repel.^ If it's within the current law, and was not used against US citizens I would more than likely support it!!!!!
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similar to the electric field, the magnetic field can be used to determine the magnetic force on an electric current at any point in space.^ Using magnetic force I lift him off the ground and bring him a few inches in front of my face.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field was determined to be
$B = {F \over{I \ell}}$
where I is the magnitude of the hypothetical test current and $\ell$ is the length of hypothetical wire through which the test current flows. .The magnetic field exerts a force on all magnets including, for example, those used in compasses.^ Using magnetic force I lift him off the ground and bring him a few inches in front of my face.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, it uses the low "uncaught error" rate to postulate that, er, I dunno, some higher power is keeping the DNA of all the cells on the planet in line.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And in the understanding of it, we are allowed, encouraged, in fact, commanded to use all the other tools at our disposal to understand it, the tools of science included.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that the Earth's magnetic field is aligned closely with the orientation of the Earth's axis causes compass magnets to become oriented because of the magnetic force pulling on the needle.^ My wave, traveling along the very magnetic field of the earth has met a disturbance.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The time for homo sapien superior is NOW! I glide over the earth, harnessing the magnetic field to move effortlessly.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Next quote from you: "Theories that have become facts: Tectonic Plates Earth moving around the Sun.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through combining the definition of electric current as the time rate of change of electric charge, a rule of vector multiplication called Lorentz's Law describes the force on a charge moving in an magnetic field.^ The time for homo sapien superior is NOW! I glide over the earth, harnessing the magnetic field to move effortlessly.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lyell's notion of gradual change: Also called uniformitarianism, Lyell's notion was that Earth has been shaped by the same forces and processes that operate today, acting continuously over very long periods of time.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are mollusks with tentacles and move by forcing water through their bodies like a jet.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] The connection between electricity and magnetism allows for the description of a unified electromagnetic force that acts on a charge. This force can be written as a sum of the electrostatic force (due to the electric field) and the magnetic force (due to the magnetic field). Fully stated, this is the law:
$\vec{F} = q(\vec{E} + \vec{v} imes \vec{B})$
where $\vec{F}$ is the electromagnetic force, q is the magnitude of the charge of the particle, $\vec{E}$ is the electric field, $\vec{v}$ is the velocity of the particle which is crossed with the magnetic field ($\vec{B}$).
.The origin of electric and magnetic fields would not be fully explained until 1864 when James Clerk Maxwell unified a number of earlier theories into a succinct set of four equations.^ In scientific theory, theories reamin standing until they are DISPROVED. If a theory is disproved, it is thrown out completey or modified to fit into additional data collected during research of the original hypothesis.
• Anti-War 100,000 - Pro-War 400 - Page 15 12 October 2009 10:52 UTC forums.digitalpoint.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please explain how you would go about formulating a supernaturalist scientific theory.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many atheists have told me that they would happily look into a theory that was better than the one already put in place.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

These "Maxwell Equations" fully described the sources of the fields as being stationary and moving charges, and the interactions of the fields themselves. .This led Maxwell to discover that electric and magnetic fields could be "self-generating" through a wave that traveled at a speed which he calculated to be the speed of light.^ Same with, the speed of light and sound, and atoms, and magnetic fields, and evolution.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That blue is knocked out of the spectrum as light travels through the atmosphere, or that god painted the sky with water colors, are each theories.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My wave, traveling along the very magnetic field of the earth has met a disturbance.
• X-Men: Evolution RPG [Archive] - toonzone forums 20 January 2010 18:40 UTC forums.toonzone.net [Source type: Original source]

This insight united the nascent fields of electromagnetic theory with optics and led directly to a complete description of the electromagnetic spectrum.[8]
.However, attempting to reconcile electromagnetic theory with two observations, the photoelectric effect, and the nonexistence of the ultraviolet catastrophe, proved troublesome.^ The writer states that in the past "brave thinkers made observations and did experiments to prove their theories."
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be shown in this book, that a large number of facts can not be reconciled with evolution, especially the evolution of man thus proving that it can not be a true theory.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Through the work of leading theoretical physicists, a new theory of electromagnetism was developed using quantum mechanics.^ Physicists and cosmologists have used evolutionary models to explain the development of gravitational matter, 3 dimensional space, our universe as a whole, and galaxy systems.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have a set of facts that leads to a theoretical explanation for those facts, then we use that theory to make deductive predictions about the nature of new evidence.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the terms we currently use to describe life were developed prior to the establishment of evolutionary theory.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.This final modification to electromagnetic theory ultimately led to quantum electrodynamics (or QED), which fully describes all electromagnetic phenomena as being mediated by wave particles known as photons.^ Only when ALL possibilities are fully explored will the pieces finally fit together.
• The Social Affairs Unit - Web Review: The Theory of Evolution: Just a Theory? 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.socialaffairsunit.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HAHAHA But that is the BASIS of this thread, describing how Evolution is disproving ID, and all of the initial posts were to do with how ID (religious theory) makes religion irrelevant and ridiculous.
• Re: New evidence for theory of evolution found 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they are being taught the evolution theory in public school, "I would advise them to look at all the angles before they make their own conclusion," he said.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In QED, photons are the fundamental exchange particle which described all interactions relating to electromagnetism including the electromagnetic force.^ After all, fundamental particles &c.
• The Social Affairs Unit - Web Review: The Theory of Evolution: Just a Theory? 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.socialaffairsunit.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
It is a common misconception to ascribe the stiffness and rigidity of solid matter to the repulsion of like charges under the influence of the electromagnetic force. .However, these characteristics actually result from the Pauli Exclusion Principle.^ What these people were not able to do, however, was fully explain how evolution actually took place, because they did not know how reproduction and inheritance actually work.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While these mutations can result in some pretty drastic changes, they have never been observed to result in completely new characteristics.
• Evolution: The Impossible Theory | Scienceray 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since electrons are fermions, they cannot occupy the same quantum mechanical state as other electrons.^ Even if instinct in other animals could be accounted for, evolution can not account for the instinct of the working bees, since they are not descendants of other working bees from which they might inherit habits or instinct.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You also left out solid state electronics, computers and the internet and you certainly cannot credibly argue that progress there did not have a lot of government involvement.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people would prefer to think of evolution as a fact, and thats their right as long as they don't insist upon others forming the same postulate as they do.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the electrons in a material are densely packed together, there are not enough lower energy quantum mechanical states for them all, so some of them must be in higher energy states.^ A set of species containing an ancestral species together with some, but not all, of its descendants.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory that states that the universe began in a state of compression to infinite density, and that in one instant all matter and energy began expanding and have continued expanding ever since.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All should have reached the status of human beings and there should be none of the lower forms of life which are so abundant.
• The Evolution of Man Scientifically Disproved 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC ldolphin.org [Source type: Original source]

This means that it takes energy to pack them together. .While this effect is manifested macroscopically as a structural "force", it is technically only the result of the existence of a finite set of electron states.^ Environmental forces such as scarcity of food or extreme temperatures that result in the survival of only certain organisms with characteristics that provide resistance.
• THEORY OF EVOLUTION 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.churches.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that case "facts" are only valid in an axiomatic framework, i.e., "the set of integers forms a group under multiplication", which is only true given definitions of sets, numbers, and algebraic structures.
• Ron Paul Rejects Evolution : Dispatches from the Culture Wars 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People commonly state that religion deals with questions of morality and meaning, whereas "science" can only answer questions about structures and materials.
• Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implictions 3 February 2010 18:22 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:
For force as it relates to physics, please see Force (physics)

The word force means "to make someone or something do something".

For example, "Soldiers came to the town and forced all the people there to leave."

Scientists also use the word "force". In the science of physics, a force causes objects to change the way they are moving. When equal forces act in opposite directions, they cancel each other out.

Gravity is a force. It makes things move toward each other. On the Earth, we see that it makes things fall toward the ground.

In the Star Wars saga, the Force is a type of energy released by all living things that binds the galaxy together, enables life, and can be controlled by Jedi and Sith knights.

Opposite forces make boats float. Gravity makes the boat's weight pull it down, but water pushes it up. The weight is spread over a large area, so the water has a lot to push on and holds the boat up.[1]

References

1. Morris, Neil; Ting Morris (1998). Jim Miles, Lynne French. ed (in English). Children's First Encyclopedia. Branka Surla, Rosie Alexander. II Bardfield Centre, Great Bardfield, Essex CM7 4SL: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84084-332-2.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Evolution, which are similar to those in the above article.