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Ford Mustang
1968FordMustang.jpg
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Production 1964 – present
Assembly United States
Class Pony car
Muscle Car
Body style(s) 2-door 2+2 seat coupé
2-door hatchback
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
2010 model Ford Mustang badge

The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car.[1] Introduced 17 April 1964,[2] the Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A.[3]

The Mustang created the "pony car" class of American automobile — sports car-like coupes with long hoods and short rear decks[4] — and gave rise to competitors such as GM's Chevrolet Camaro,[5] AMC's Javelin,[6] and Chrysler's revamped Plymouth Barracuda.[7] It also inspired coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to America.

Contents

Background

Production of the Mustang began in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9, 1964 and the car was introduced to the public on April 17, 1964 at the New York World's Fair. It is Ford's third oldest nameplate currently in production next to the F-Series pickup truck line (which has undergone major nameplate changes over the years) and the Falcon which is still in production in Australia.

Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is believed by many to have suggested the name.[8][9] An alternative view was that the Mustang name was first suggested by Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the “Mustang” name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar or Torino (and an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II.[10] As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added “Mustang” to the list to be tested by focus groups; “Mustang,” by a wide margin, ” came out on top under the heading: “Suitability as Name for the Special Car.”[11][12][13] (The name cannot be used in Germany, however, since it belongs to a lawnmower manufacturer; there, Mustangs are called T-5s.)[14]

Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971-1973 models, fans of the original 1964 design wrote to Ford urging a return to its size and concept. It has since seen several platform generations and designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original pony car to remain in uninterrupted production over four decades of development and revision.[15]

First generation (1964 1/2–1973)

1964 1/2 Mustang

As Lee Iacocca's assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey was the head engineer for the Mustang project — supervising the overall development of the Mustang in a record 18 months[16][17] — while Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager. The Mustang prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster. This vehicle employed a Taunus (Ford Germany) V4 engine and was very similar in appearance to the much later Pontiac Fiero. It was claimed that the decision to abandon the 2 seat design was in part due to the low sales experienced with the 2 seat 1955 T-Bird. To broaden market appeal it was later remodeled as a four-seat car styled under the direction of Project Design Chief Joe Oros and his team of L. David Ash, Gale Halderman, and John Foster[18][19] — in Ford's LincolnMercury Division design studios, which produced the winning design in an intramural design contest instigated by Iacocca.

Having set the design standards for the Mustang[20], Oros said:

I told the team that I wanted the car to appeal to women, but I wanted men to desire it, too. I wanted a Ferrari-like front end, the motif centered on the front – something heavy-looking like a Maserati, but, please, not a trident – and I wanted air intakes on the side to cool the rear brakes. I said it should be as sporty as possible and look like it was related to European design.[20]

Oros added:

I then called a meeting with all the Ford studio designers. We talked about the sporty car for most of that afternoon, setting parameters for what it should look like -- and what it should not look like -- by making lists on a large pad, a technique I adapted from the management seminar. We taped the lists up all around the studio to keep ourselves on track. We also had photographs of all the previous sporty cars that had been done in the Corporate Advanced studio as a guide to themes or ideas that were tired or not acceptable to management.

Within a week we had hammered out a new design. We cut templates and fitted them to the clay model that had been started. We cut right into it, adding or deleting clay to accommodate our new theme, so it wasn't like starting all over. But we knew Lincoln-Mercury would have two models. And Advanced would have five, some they had previously shown and modified, plus a couple extras. But we would only have one model because Ford studio had a production schedule for a good many facelifts and other projects. We couldn't afford the manpower, but we made up for lost time by working around the clock so our model would be ready for the management review.[18]

To cut down the development cost and achieve a suggested retail price of US$2,368, the Mustang was based heavily on familiar yet simple components. Much of the chassis, suspension, and drivetrain components were derived from the Ford Falcon and Ford Fairlane (North American). Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the car was "officially" revealed.[21][22] A Mustang also appeared in the James Bond film Goldfinger in September 1964, the first time the car was used in a movie.[23]

Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the first year.[24] This mark was surpassed in three months from rollout.[25] Another 318,000 would be sold during the model year (a record),[26] and in its first eighteen months, more than one million Mustangs were built.[27] All of these were VIN-identified as 1965 models, but several changes were made at the traditional opening of the new model year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some models, the introduction of alternators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu in (4.3 l) to 289 cu in (4.7 l) displacement. In the case of at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp (75 kW) 170 cu in (2.8 l) Falcon engine, the rush into production included some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the 'Ford Falcon' logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with 'Ford Mustang.' These characteristics made enough difference to warrant designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as "1964½" model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has endured with purists.[28]

Second generation (1974–1978)

1974-1978 Mustang II.

The 1970s brought about more stringent pollution laws and the 1973 OPEC oil embargo. As a result, large, fuel-inefficient cars fell into disfavor, and the Pony Cars were no exception. Lee Iacocca, who became president of the Ford Motor Company in 1964 and was the driving force behind the original Mustang, ordered a smaller, more fuel-efficient Mustang for 1974. Initially it was to be based on the Ford Maverick, but ultimately was based on the Ford Pinto subcompact.

The new model was introduced two months before the first "Energy Crisis" in October 1973, and its reduced size allowed it to compete more effectively against smaller imported sports coupés such as the Japanese Toyota Celica and the European Ford Capri (then Ford-built in Germany and Britain, sold in U.S. by Mercury as a captive import car). First-year sales were 385,993 cars, compared with the original Mustang's twelve-month sales record of 418,812.[29]

Lee Iacocca wanted the new car, which returned the Mustang to more than a semblance of its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and overall styling,[30] to be finished to a high standard, saying it should be "a little jewel."[31] However not only was it smaller than the original car, but it was also heavier, owing to the addition of equipment needed to meet new U.S. emission and safety regulations. Performance was reduced, and despite the car's new handling and engineering features the galloping mustang emblem "became a less muscular steed that seemed to be cantering."[32]

The car was available in coupé and hatchback versions. Changes introduced in 1975 included reinstatement of the 302 CID V8 option (called the "5.0 L" although its capacity was 4.94 L) and availability of an economy option called the "MPG Stallion". Other changes in appearance and performance came with a "Cobra II" version in 1976 and a "King Cobra" in 1978.

Third generation (1979–1993)

1985-1986 Ford Mustang GT

The 1979 Mustang was based on the larger Fox platform (initially developed for the 1978 Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr). The interior was restyled to accommodate four people in comfort despite a smaller rear seat. The trunk was larger, as was the engine bay, for easier service access.

Body styles included a coupé, (notchback), and hatchback; a convertible was offered in 1983. Available trim levels included L, GL, GLX, LX, GT, Turbo GT, SVO (1984-86), Cobra, and Cobra R (1993).

In response to slumping sales and escalating fuel prices during the early 1980s, a new Mustang was in development. It was to be a variant of the Mazda MX-6 assembled at AutoAlliance International in Flat Rock, Michigan. Enthusiasts wrote to Ford objecting to the proposed change to a front-wheel drive, Japanese-designed Mustang without a V8 option. The result was a major facelift of the existing Mustang in 1987, while the MX-6 variant became the 1989 Ford Probe.

  • 1979 served as an Indianapolis 500 pace car and Ford built 10,478 commemorative replicas.[33]
  • 1982 models had the option of a true 5.0 liter 302 cubic inch V8 engine instead of the 4.2 liter V8. 1983 was the first year for a 5-speed transmission.
  • 1985 model year received a new roller cam block, roller cam, and roller lifters.
  • 1986 was the first year of fuel injection.
  • 1988 V8 model was equipped with mass air in California cars only, then in 1989 all cars were equipped.
  • 1993 year had hypereutectic instead of forged pistons and was also rated at 205 hp instead of the previous years 225 hp.[34]

Fourth generation (1994–2004)

2002 Ford Mustang GT coupe

In 1994 the Mustang underwent its first major redesign in fifteen years. Code named "SN-95" by Ford, it was based on an updated version of the rear-wheel drive Fox platform called "Fox-4." The new styling by Patrick Schiavone incorporated several styling cues from earlier Mustangs.[35] For the first time since 1973, a hatchback coupe model was unavailable.

The base model came with a 3.8 OHV V6 (232 cid) engine rated at 145 bhp (108 kW) in 1994 and 1995, or 150 bhp (110 kW) (1996-1998), and was mated to a standard 5-speed manual transmission or optional 4-speed automatic. Though initially used in the 1994 and 1995 Mustang GT, Ford retired the 302 cid pushrod small-block V8 after nearly 40 years of use, replacing it with the newer Modular 4.6 L (281 cid) SOHC V8 in the 1996 Mustang GT. The 4.6 L V8 was initially rated at 215 bhp (160 kW), 1996-1997, but was later increased to 225 bhp (168 kW) in 1998.[36]

For 1999, the Mustang received Ford's New Edge styling theme with sharper contours, larger wheel arches, and creases in its bodywork, but its basic proportions, interior design, and chassis remained the same as the previous model. The Mustang's powertrains were carried over for 1999, but benefitted from new improvements. The standard 3.8 L V6 had a new split-port induction system, and was rated at 192 bhp (143 kW) 1999-2004,[37] while the Mustang GT's 4.6 L V8 saw an increase in output to 260 bhp (190 kW) (1999-2004), due to a new head design and other enhancements. There were also three alternate models offered in this generation: the 2001 Bullitt, the 2003 and 2004 Mach 1, as well as the 305 bhp (227 kW) (1999) 320 bhp (240 kW) (2001-2002),[38][39] and 390 bhp (290 kW) 2003-2004[40] Cobra.

Fifth generation (2005–present)

2007-2009 Ford Mustang GT/CS convertible

At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, Ford introduced a completely redesigned Mustang, codenamed "S-197," that was based on an all-new D2C platform for the 2005 model year. Developed under the direction of Chief Engineer Hau Thai-Tang and exterior styling designer Sid Ramnarace,[41] the fifth-generation Mustang's styling echoes the fastback Mustangs of the late 1960s. Ford's senior vice president of design, J Mays, called it "retro-futurism."

The fifth-generation Mustang is manufactured at the AutoAlliance International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan. The base model is powered by a 210 hp (157 kW) cast-iron block 4.0 L SOHC V6, which replaces the 3.8 L pushrod V6 used previously. The Mustang GT features an aluminum block 4.6 L SOHC 3-valve Modular V8 with variable camshaft timing (VCT) that produces 300 hp (224 kW). The 2005 Mustang GT has an approximate weight to power ratio of 11.5 lb (5.2 kg)/bhp. The base Mustang comes with a standard Tremec T-5 5-speed manual transmission while Ford's own 5R55S 5-speed automatic, a Mustang first, is optional. Though the Mustang GT features the same automatic transmission as the V6 model, the Tremec T-5 manual is substituted with the heavier duty Tremec TR-3650 5-speed manual transmission to better handle the GT's extra power.[42]

Ford announced in July 2007 that all 2008 Mustangs would have seats containing material derived from soy beans,[43] harking back to some of Henry Ford's ideals.

A new option for the 2009 Mustang was the glass roof. This $1,995 option is in effect a full roof sunroof that splits the difference in price and purpose of the coupe and convertible models. [44]

For 2010, Ford unveiled a redesigned Mustang prior to the Los Angeles International Auto Show. The 2010 Mustang remains on the D2C platform and mostly retains the previous-year's drivetrain options. The Mustang received a thoroughly revised exterior, with only the roof panel being retained, that is sculpted for a leaner, more muscular appearance and better aerodynamic performance (coefficient of drag has been reduced by 4% on V6 models and 7% on GT models [45]).

The V6 for base Mustangs remains unchanged, while the Mustang GT's 4.6 L V8 has been revised to specifications similar to that of the 2008-2009 Mustang Bullitt's 4.6 L V8, resulting in 315 hp (235 kW) at 6000 rpm and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm.[46] Other mechanical features for the 2010 Mustang include new spring rates and dampers to improve ride quality and control, standard traction control system and stability control system on all models, and new wheel sizes. For the Mustang GT, two performance packages were made available. Other new features and options for the 2010 Mustang include Ford SYNC, dual-zone automatic climate control, an updated navigation system with Sirius Travel Link, a capless fuel filler, and a reverse camera system to aid in backing up. Note that SYNC, navigation, and the reverse camera are not available on the basic V6 coupe

There are currently 10 models available for the 2010 Mustang:

  • V6 Coupe (MSRP: $21,395)
  • V6 Premium (MSRP: $24,395)
  • V6 Convertible (MSRP: $26,395)
  • GT: (MSRP: $28,395)
  • V6 Premium Convertible (MSRP: $29,395)
  • GT Premium (MSRP: $31,395)
  • GT Convertible (MSRP: $33,395)
  • GT Premium Convertible (MSRP: $36,395)
  • GT500 (MSRP: $46,725)
  • GT500 Convertible (MSRP: $51,725)

The 2010 model year Mustang was released in the spring of 2009.

For 2011, Ford is revising all the current model Mustang's engines. The new V6 will be a smaller 3.7 L aluminum block engine weighing 40 lb (18 kg) lighter than the outgoing version, and produces a much more powerful 305 hp (227 kW) and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) of torque. [47] Addtionally for 2011 the Mustang will be revising the V8 powertrain. The current 4.6L 24V V8 will be replaced by a new 5.0L 32V V8. This new engine will have 412 hp (307 kW) and 390 lb-ft of torque.. The engine will feature advance technologies such as TI-VCT; however direct injection will not be part of the package. The GT500 will be upgraded to a aluminum block 5.4L engine, with 550 hp (410 kW) and 510 lb-ft of torque.

Concept cars, special editions and modified Mustangs

Racing

The Mustang made its first public appearance on a racetrack little more than a month after its April 17 introduction, as pace car for the 1964 Indianapolis 500.[9]

The same year, Mustangs achieved the first of many notable competition successes, winning first and second in class in the Tour de France international rally. The car’s American competition debut, also in 1964, was in drag racing, where private individuals and dealer-sponsored teams campaigned Mustangs powered by 427 cu. in. V8s.

In late 1964, Ford contracted Holman & Moody to prepare ten 427-powered Mustangs to contest the National Hot Rod Association's (NHRA) A/Factory Experimental class in the 1965 drag racing season. Five of these special Mustangs made their competition debut at the 1965 NHRA Winternationals, where they qualified in the Factory Stock Eliminator class. The car driven by Bill Lawton won the class.[48]

A decade later Bob Glidden won the Mustang’s first NHRA Pro Stock title.

Early Mustangs also proved successful in road racing. The GT 350 R, the race version of the Shelby GT 350, won five of the Sports Car Club of America's (SCCA) six divisions in 1965. Drivers were Jerry Titus, Bob Johnson and Mark Donohue, and Titus won the (SCCA) B-Production national championship. GT 350s won the B-Production title again in 1966 and 1967. They also won the 1966 manufacturers’ championship in the inaugural SCCA Trans-Am series, and repeated the win the following year.[9]

In 1969, modified versions of the 428 Mach 1, Boss 429 and Boss 302 took 295 United States Auto Club-certified records at Bonneville Salt Flats. The outing included a 24-hour run on a 10-mile (16 km) course at an average speed of 157 miles per hour (253 km/h). Drivers were Mickey Thompson, Danny Ongais, Ray Brock and Bob Ottum.[9]

Boss 429 engines powered Ford Torinos in 1969 and 1970 NASCAR racing.

In 1970 the Mustang won the manufacturers’ championship in the Trans-Am series once again, with Parnelli Jones and George Follmer driving. Jones won the drivers’ title. Two years later Dick Trickle won 67 short-track feature races, a national record for wins in a single season.

In 1975 Ron Smaldone's Mustang became the first-ever American car to win the Showroom Stock national championship in SCCA road racing.

Mustangs also competed in the IMSA GTO class, with wins in 1984 and 1985. In 1985 John Jones also won the 1985 GTO drivers’ championship; Wally Dallenbach Jr., John Jones and Doc Bundy won the GTO class at the Daytona 24 Hours; and Ford won its first manufacturers’ championship in road racing since 1970. Three class wins went to Lynn St. James, the first woman to win in the series.

1986 brought eight more GTO wins and another manufacturers’ title. Scott Pruett won the drivers’ championship. The GT Endurance Championship also went to Ford.

In drag racing Rickie Smith’s Motorcraft Mustang won the International Hot Rod Association Pro Stock world championship.

In 1987 Saleen Autosport Mustangs driven by Steve Saleen and Rick Titus won the SCCA Escort Endurance SSGT championship, and in International Motor Sports Association (IMSA) racing a Mustang again won the GTO class in the Daytona 24 hours. In 1989, its silver anniversary year, the Mustang won Ford its first Trans-Am manufacturers’ title since 1970, with Lynn St. James winning the drivers’ championship. In 1997, Tommy Kendall’s Roush-prepared Mustang won a record 11 consecutive races in Trans-Am to secure his third straight driver’s championship.

In 2002 John Force broke his own NHRA drag racing record by winning his 12th national championship in his Ford Mustang Funny Car, Force beat that record again in 2006, becoming the first ever 14-time champion, again, driving a Mustang.[9]

Currently Mustangs compete in several racing series, including the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup and the KONI Challenge, where it won the manufacturer's title in 2005 & 2008, and theCanada Drift, Formula Drift and D1 Grand Prix series. They are highly competitive in the SCCA Speed World Challenge GT Series.

As reported by Jayski.com, the Ford Mustang will be Ford's Car of Tomorrow for the NASCAR Nationwide Series in 2010, opening a new chapter in both Mustang's history and Ford's history.

Awards

2005 Canadian Car of the Year

The 1965 Mustang won the Tiffany Gold Medal for excellence in American design, the first automobile ever to do so.

The Mustang was on the Car and Driver Ten Best list in 1983, 1987, 1988, 2005, and 2006. It won the Motor Trend Car of the Year award in 1974 and 1994.

In 2005 it was runner-up to the Chrysler 300 for the North American Car of the Year award and was named Canadian Car of the Year.[49]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Iacocca: An Autobiography, by Lee Iacocca, Chapter VI
  2. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960-1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.367.
  3. ^ Hinckley, Jim; Robinson, Jon G. (2005). The Big Book of Car Culture. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 175. ISBN 9780760319659. http://books.google.com/books?id=NorSiqCb9mMC&pg=PA175&dq=%22most+successful+introduction%22+automobile&lr=&ei=5kGmSKmLCJjgiQGCqqH6BA&sig=ACfU3U1BMvIzvInczLVKp9fAChwP0wkw3w. 
  4. ^ Mueller, Mike (1997). Ford Mustang. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 21. ISBN 9780879389901. 
  5. ^ Young, Anthony (2004). Camaro. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 8. ISBN 9780760319321. 
  6. ^ "Dick Teague". Automobile Quarterly, Volume 30 (2): 15. 1992. 
  7. ^ Zazarine, Paul (2002). Barracuda and Challenger. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 29. ISBN 9780879385385. 
  8. ^ "Ford Mustang Prototype Failed to Appeal to the Crowds", All Ford Mustang News website, May 03 2008. Retrieved on August 25 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e “Mustang Racing History”, Ford Corporate Media website. Retrieved on August 25 2008.
  10. ^ Witzenburg, Gary. "The Name Game", Motor Trend, 4/84, p.86.
  11. ^ Walter T. Murphy, "Toot Toot: The Life of a PR Man," (Birmingham, Michigan, Walmur Publishing 1984), page 125.
  12. ^ James Eggert, "Meadowlark Economics: Collected Essays," (Berkeley, California, North Atlantic Books, 2009), page 65-66.
  13. ^ Kate Pierce, "Name That Car," (Automotive, May 26, 1994), page C.
  14. ^ Witzenburg, p.86.
  15. ^ Mustang Ready For the Pony Car War "Mustang is the only one of the original pony cars from the 1960s to live on into the 21st century with no interruption in production."
  16. ^ "Donald N. Frey, lauteate 1990" National Medal of Technology, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
  17. ^ "The Thinker (Detroit Style)" Time magazine, April 21, 1967, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
  18. ^ a b "1962 Mustang Designed by David Ash". Midcomustang.com. http://www.midcomustang.com/daveash.shtml. 
  19. ^ Rohrlich, Marianne. "Belatedly, Stardom Finds a 20th-Century Master" The New York Times May 11, 2006, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
  20. ^ a b "Fans celebrate Mustang's 40th". Dallas Morning News. http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/autos/topstories2/041604ccAutosMustangparty.12fe23361.html. 
  21. ^ "1965 1966 Ford Mustang," by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, February 4, 2007, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
  22. ^ Innovative Marketing and PR Helped Build the Mustang Legend by Ford Motor Company Media, undated, retrieved on August 16, 2008.
  23. ^ "Carrera Goldfinger Racing Set Review" MI6, August 26, 2005, retrieved on August 8, 2008.
  24. ^ Mueller, Mike (2000). Mustang 1964-1/2-1973. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 30. ISBN 9780760307342. http://books.google.com/books?id=12Unsmyljk4C&pg=PA30&dq=Mustang+sales+first+year&lr=&ei=n0amSP7XFpD0jgHx87D7BA&sig=ACfU3U1s9XLMW2tPSCsGGnYWetWWmFNYfg#PPA30,M1. 
  25. ^ Flory, pp.367-8.
  26. ^ Flory, p.368.
  27. ^ Mueller, Mike (2000). Mustang 1964-1/2-1973. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 30. ISBN 9780760307342. http://books.google.com/books?id=12Unsmyljk4C&pg=PA30&dq=Mustang+sales+first+year&lr=&ei=n0amSP7XFpD0jgHx87D7BA&sig=ACfU3U1s9XLMW2tPSCsGGnYWetWWmFNYfg#PPA30,M1. 
  28. ^ "The Great Mustang Debate: 1964 or 1965". Theautochannel.com. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/04/16/457244.html. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  29. ^ "1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978 Ford Mustang Overview" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, undated, retrieved on March 28, 2008.
  30. ^ Witzenburg, Gary L. (1979). Mustang!: The Complete History of America's Pioneer Ponycar. Automobile Quarterly Publications. p. 146. ISBN 9780915038251. 
  31. ^ "The 1974 Ford Mustang: The Winning Design" 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 Ford Mustang by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, February 15, 2007, retrieved on August 17, 2008.
  32. ^ "1974 Ford Mustang Engines and Options" 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 Ford Mustang by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, February 15, 2007, retrieved on August 17, 2008.
  33. ^ Sessler, Peter C.; Sessler, Nilda (2006). Ford Mustang Buyer's And Restoration Guide. Sams Technical Publishing. p. 126. ISBN 9780790613260. http://books.google.com/books?id=l_1ngoGACCUC&pg=PA126&dq=1979+Mustang+Indianapolis+500+Pace+Car&ei=HAidS6G9Io3mygTt7ZW5Cg&cd=3#v=onepage&q=1979%20Mustang%20Indianapolis%20500%20Pace%20Car&f=false. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  34. ^ http://www.mustanggt.org/93gt.htm
  35. ^ "1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 Ford Mustang Overview" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, 2007-02-23, retrieved on 2010-01-01.
  36. ^ "The 1996 Ford Mustang" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, 2007-02-23, retrieved on 2010-01-01.
  37. ^ "The 1999 Ford Mustang Chassis and Engines" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, 2007-02-27, retrieved on 2010-01-01.
  38. ^ http://www.insideline.com/ford/mustang/2001/first-drive-2001-ford-svt-mustang-cobra.html
  39. ^ http://www.mustangevolution.com/2002-mustang-cobra/
  40. ^ http://www.motortrend.com/roadtests/coupes/112_0306_2003_ford_mustang_svt_cobra/index.html
  41. ^ "2010 Ford Mustang GT: Embracing the spirit of change". The L.A. Times, Dan Neil, January 23, 2009. http://www.latimes.com/classified/automotive/highway1/la-fi-neil23-2009jan23,0,2175456.story. 
  42. ^ Ford Motor Company. Ford Media. 2005 Mustang. 2005. http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=1052&press_section_id=398&make_id=92
  43. ^ "New Twist on Green: 2008 Ford Mustang Seats Will Be Soy-Based Foam". Edmunds inside line. July 12, 2007. http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=121682. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  44. ^ Winding Road » Archive » Ford Shows 2009 Glass Roof Mustang
  45. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2010 Mustang Steering and Suspension." Ford Media. 2008. http://media.ford.com/press_kits_detail.cfm?presskit_id=1982&item_id=5604&press_section_id=2859
  46. ^ Ford Motor Company. "2010 Mustang Technical Specifications." Ford Media. 2008. http://media.ford.com/press_kits_detail.cfm?presskit_id=1982&item_id=5605&press_section_id=2878
  47. ^ "2011 Ford Mustang Gets Upgraded V6 Engine". Automoblog.net. http://www.automoblog.net/2009/11/30/the-2011-ford-mustang-finally-gets-some-balls/. 
  48. ^ Morris, Charlie. "Ford's 1965 Factory Experimental Mustangs", Car Tech Inc. website, undated article. Retrieved on August 26 2008.
  49. ^ Ford Motor Company - Featured Story - Ford Mustang is Named 2005 Canadian Car of the Year

References

External links


Simple English


The Ford Mustang is a very popular American sports car built by by the Ford Motor Company beginning in 1964. The first cars were built in Ford's Dearborn, Michigan factory on March 9 of that year and the car was first shown to the public on April 17 at the New York World's Fair. It did not cost a lot of money, but it was still very fancy and looked like a much more expensive car. People could order their Mustang with many options and body styles, such as a convertible, 2+2 (fastback), or coupe. Many different engines were available, from the 170 CID six-cylinder to some of Ford's biggest and most powerful V-8 engines in later years. This meant car buyers could have a Mustang that saved gas or a more powerful and fast car. More than one million Mustangs were sold in only two years. The Mustang is still being sold today and is still very popular. It was so popular and so different when it was introduced that the Mustang and other cars from other makers which looked like the Mustang were given the name "ponycar."

The so-called "1964 1/2" Mustang was designed by Joe Oros and Dave Ash of Ford's Mercury division, was based on another Ford car, the Falcon and was proposed by Ford's president, Lee Iacocca. The Falcon was not expensive to build and that helped Iacocca get the Mustang the approval it needed to be built. The people who ran the Ford company did not want to take a chance on a car like that because they lost a lot of money on another car, the Edsel, just a few years back. It set sales records and became one of the best selling cars of all time. It would remain mostly the same until 1966. So popular was the Mustang that three Ford assembly plants worked to build it. Not only was the Mustang built in Dearborn, but in Metuchen, New Jersey and San Jose, California as well.

The very first Mustang built to be sold to the public was a white convertible with a black interior and a V-8 engine. It was purchased by a pilot from Newfoundland. Ford offered the one millionth Mustang to the owner in exchange for the first one. That first Mustang, serial number 5F08F100001, is still on display at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn.

Its second body style came out in 1967, its third in 1969 and its fourth in 1971. Bigger, more powerful engines were offered starting in 1967, making some Mustangs into musclecars. Some of those special Mustangs had special names such as Mustang GT, Mach 1, Boss 302, Boss 351, Boss 429 and 429 SCJ, or "Super Cobra Jet." By 1971, the Mustang had become a much larger car. The car grew in size so that Ford could put its biggest engines in it, but insurance comapnies were charging very high prices to insure powerful cars and sales began to drop. Many people missed the original, smaller Mustang.

A new Mustang came out in 1974 called Mustang II and was based on the Ford Pinto, although far less than the original car had been based on the Falcon. This new car was almost the same size as the original car, but emissions controls and the Arab oil embargo meant that the Mustang II was not a very powerful car. 1974 was not only the first time Ford had built a car which looked like an older model, it was also the first American car to be built on the metric system. The short, low hood meant that neither the inline six-cylinder engine nor V-8 would fit, so engine choices were changed to a 2.3 liter four-cylinder engine built by Ford in Brazil and a more expensive V-6 engine built by Ford in Germany. A 5.0 liter V-8 engine was offered in 1975 which meant that Ford engineers had to redesign much of the car to make it fit. No matter which engine was used, the Mustang II was a heavier car than the 1964-66 model.

The Mustang II helped keep the ponycar alive between 1974 and 1978. General Motors almost stopped building their popular Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird; Chrysler Corporation stopped building the Dodge Challenger and Plymouth Barracuda during that time. General Motors stopped building the Camaro in 2002, but they brought back a new version in 2009. Chrysler brought back a new Challenger in 2008 as well; they, like today's Mustang, are made to look like older models.

The new Mustang that came out in 1979 may have been the most important Mustang ever. One reason was the return of a powerful V-8 in 1982 which was developed in later years into an even more powerful engine. The basic design carried all the way through the 2004 model year, but with hundreds of thousands of improvements over the years. Very few parts except for some minor chassis parts stayed unchanged.

The 2005 model was the first all-new Mustang since 1979. Because the original Mustang was and is one of the most popular cars ever, Ford made the new Mustang to look very much like the first Mustangs, especially the 1967 and 1968 models. The 2010 Mustang in turn looks much like the 2005-09 model, but all the body parts except for the roof are different. The rear turn signals of the 2005-2010 cars blink in a one-two-three sequence like the 1967-68 Mercury Cougar and 1964-66 Ford Thunderbird.

Both Ford and Carroll Shelby recently brought back the a new version of the very fast Shelby GT-500 Mustang. Mr. Shelby helped create the special Shelby GT-350 and GT-500 versions of the Mustang beginning in 1965.

Starting in 2011, the Mustang GT will get a new 5.0-liter engine which will take the place of the 4.6-liter engine. This new engine will put out 412 horsepower (307kw), making it among the most powerful Mustangs ever.

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