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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Forehead
Forhead 01 ies.jpg
Latin sinciput
System Unknown, none
Artery supraorbital, supratrochlear
Vein supraorbital, frontal
Nerve trigeminal, facial
MeSH Forehead

In human anatomy, the forehead is the fore part of the head. It is, formally, an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp. The top of the forehead is marked by the hairline, the edge of the area where hair on the scalp grows. The bottom of the forehead is marked by the supraorbital ridge, the bone feature of the skull above the eyes. The two sides of the forehead are marked by the temporal ridge, a bone feature that links the supraorbital ridge to the coronal suture line and beyond.[1][2]

Contents

Anatomy

The forehead comprises, and the musculature and skin of the forehead lies above, the portion of the frontal bone of the skull that is known as the squama frontalis, the plate-like portion of the frontal bone.[3][4]

The sensory nerves of the forehead connect to the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and the cervical plexus, and lie within the subcutaneous fat. The motor nerves of the forehead connect to the facial nerve.[2]

The musculature of the forehead comprises the Occipitofrontalis, Procerus, and Corrugator supercilii muscles, all of which are controlled by the temporal branch of the facial nerve.[2]

Blood supply to the forehead is via the left and right superorbital, supertrochealar, and anterior branches of the temporal artery.[2]

The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, the supraorbital nerve, divides at the orbital rim into two parts in the forehead. One part, the superficial division, runs over the surface of the Occipitofrontalis muscle. This provides sensation for the skin of the forehead, and for the front (anterior) edge of the scalp. The other part, the deep division, runs into the Occipitofrontalis muscle and provides frontoparietal sensation.[1]

Physiognomy

In physiognomy and phrenology, the shape of the forehead was taken to symbolise intellect and intelligence. "Animals, even the most intelligent of them,", wrote Samuel R. Wells in 1942, "can hardly be said to have any forehead at all, and in natural total idiots it is very diminished".[5]

pseudo-Aristotle, in Physiognomica, stated that the forehead is governed by Mars.[6] A low and little forehead denoted magnanimity, boldness, and confidence; a fleshy and wrinkle-free forehead, litigiousness, vanity, deceit, and contentiousness; a sharp forehead, weakness and fickleness; a wrinkled forehead, great spirit and wit yet poor fortune; a round forehead, virtue and good understanding; a full large forehead, boldness, malice, boundary issues, and high spirit; and a long high forehead, honesty, weakness, simplicity, and poor fortune.

Expressions

The muscles of the forehead help to form facial expressions. There are four basic motions, which can occur individually or in combination to form different expressions. The Occipitofrontalis muscles can raise the eyebrows, either together or singly, forming expressions of surprise and quizzicality. The Corrugator supercilii muscles can pull the eyebrows inwards and down, forming a frown. The Procerus muscles can pull down the centre portions of the eyebrows.[7]

Wrinkles

The movements of the muscles in the forehead produce characteristic wrinkles in the skin. The Occipitofrontalis muscles produce the transverse wrinkles across the width of the forehead, and the Corrugator supercilii muscles produce vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows above the nose. The Procerus muscles cause the nose to wrinkle.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b David M. Knize and Mel Drisko (2001). The Forehead and Temporal Fossa: Anatomy and Technique. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 4. ISBN 0781720745. 
  2. ^ a b c d Valencia D. Thomas, Wendy Long Mitchell, Neil A. Swanson, Thomas E. Rohrer, and Ken K. Lee (2007). "Reconstructive surgery of Skin Cancer defects". in Keyvan Nouri. Skin Cancer. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 523. ISBN 0071472568. 
  3. ^ Diane H. Gronefeld (1998). Radiographic anatomy & positioning: an integrated approach. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 321. ISBN 0838582389. 
  4. ^ Elaine Nicpon Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2007). Human anatomy & physiology (7th ed.). Pearson Education. pp. 204. ISBN 0321372948. 
  5. ^ Samuel R. Wells (1998). "The Forehead". New Physiognomy Or Signs of Character as Manifested Through Temperament and External Forms and Especially in the Human Face Divine (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. pp. 260. ISBN 0766103579. 
  6. ^ Aristotle (1828). William Salmon. ed. The Works of Aristotle. New England. pp. 71. 
  7. ^ a b Nigel Palastanga, Derek Field, and Roger Soames (2006). "Head and Brain". Anatomy and human movement (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 645–646. ISBN 0750688149. 

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev 13:16, 17; 14:9; 17:5; 20:4.

The "jewel on thy forehead" mentioned in Ezek 16:12 (R.V., "a ring upon thy nose") was in all probability the "nose-ring" (Isa 3:21).

In Ezek 3:7 the word "impudent" is rightly rendered in the Revised Version "an hard forehead." (See also ver. 8, 9.)

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

File:Indian Woman with
An Indian woman with a bindi dot on her forehead.

The forehead of humans is the flat space of skin above the eyes, between the eyebrows and where your hair starts to grow. It exists to make room for the brain inside the skull.

A doctor or nurse will often touch someone's forehead to check whether or not they have a fever. This is because of the many blood vessels in the head and face.

In ancient Greece individuals with large foreheads were classified as intellectual because of their incredibly large "brain". Nowadays this is not the case.

According to the OED Forehead can be pronounced either 'forhed' or 'forrid'.








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