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Brazil

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The Ministry of External Relations is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as an emerging world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America.

Contents

Foreign policy

Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh receiving state honors during his visit to Brazil in 2006.

Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[2] Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.[3] Brazil engages in multilateral diplomacy through the Organization of American States and the United Nations, and has increased ties with developing countries in Africa and Asia. Brazil is currently commanding a multinational U.N. stabilization force in Haiti, the MINUSTAH. Instead of pursuing unilateral prerogatives, Brazilian foreign policy has tended to emphasize regional integration, first through the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosul) and now the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also committed to cooperation with other Portuguese-speaking nations[4] through joint-collaborations with the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world, in several domains which include military cooperation, financial aid, and cultural exchange. This is done in the framework of CPLP,[5] for instance. Lula da Silva's recent visit to Africa included State visits to three Portuguese-speaking African nations (Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Mozambique).[6] Finally, Brazil is also strongly committed in the development and restoration of peace in East Timor, where it has a very powerful influence.[7][8]

Brazil's political, business, and military ventures are complemented by the country's trade policy. In Brazil, the Ministry of Foreign Relations continues to dominate trade policy, causing the country's commercial interests to be (at times) subsumed by a larger foreign policy goal, namely, enhancing Brazil's influence in Latin America and the world.[9] For example, while concluding meaningful trade agreements with developed countries (such as the United States and the European Union) would probably be beneficial to Brazil's long-term economic self-interest, the Brazilian government has instead prioritized its leadership role within Mercosul and expanded trade ties with countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Lula da Silva administration

The Brazilian foreign policy under the Lula da Silva administration has been focused on the following directives: to contribute toward the search for greater equilibrium and attenuate unilateralism; to strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations in order to increase the country's weight in political and economic negotiations on an international level; to deepen relations so as to benefit from greater economical, financial, technological and cultural interchange; to avoid agreements that could jeopardize development in the long term.[10]

These directives implied precise emphasis on: the search for political coordination with emerging and developing countries, namely India, South Africa, Russia and China; creation of the Union of South American Nations and its derivative bodies, such as the South American Security Council; strengthening of Mercosul; projection at the Doha Round and WTO; maintenance of relations with developed countries, including the United States; undertaking and narrowing of relations with African countries; campaign for the reform of the United Nations Security Council and for a permanent seat for Brazil; and defense of social objectives allowing for a greater equilibrium between the States and populations.[10]

Diplomatic relations

Brazilian diplomatic missions overseas.

Brazil has a large global network of diplomatic missions, and maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state and the Holy See, with the exception of:

Non-UN member states:

United Nations politics

Brazil is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in many of its specialized agencies. It has contributed troops to UN peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola, and more recently East Timor and Haiti. Brazil has been a member of the UN Security Council nine times, most recently 2004-2005.

Brazil is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the G4, an organization of Brazil, Germany, Japan, and India, all nations who are currently seeking permanent representation. According to their plan the UN Security Council would be expanded beyond the current fifteen members to include twenty-five members. This would be the first time that permanent status has been extended to a South American nation and supporters of the G4 plan suggest that this will lead to greater representation of developing nations rather than the current major participants.

International issues

Foreign aid

Brazil provides foreign aid to various countries in Africa and Latin America through the Brazilian Agency of Cooperation (Abbreviation: ABC; Portuguese: Agência Brasileira de Cooperação), in addition to offering scientific, economical, and technical support to programs in various countries.

Participation in international organizations

ACS(Observer)ACTOAfDBBISCAN(Associate)CDBCPLPFAOG4G4 blocG8+5G15G20G20+G24G77IADBIDBIAEAIBRDIBSAICAOICCICRMIDAIFADIFCIFRCSIHOILOIMFIMOInmarsatIntelsatInterpolIOCIOMISOITULAESLAIALatin UnionMercosulMINUSTAHNAM(Observer)NSGOASOEIOPANALOPCWPCARio GroupRio TreatyUNUNASURUNCTADUNESCOUNHCRUNIDOUNITARUNMILUNMISUNMOVICUNOCIUNTAETUNWTOUPUWCOWHOWIPOWMOWTOZPCAS

Bilateral relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola See Angola–Brazil relations

As of November 2007, "trade between the two countries is booming as never before"[18]

 Argentina See Argentina–Brazil relations

After democratization, a strong integration and partnership began between the two countries. In 1985 they signed the basis for the MERCOSUL, a Regional Trade Agreement. In the field of science, the two regional giants had been rivals since the 1950s when both governments launched parallel nuclear and space programs, however, several agreements were signed since then such as the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. National spaces agencies CONAE and the AEB had also began working together since the 1990s.

Also on the military side there has been greater rapprochement. In accordance with the friendship policy, both armies dissolved or moved major units previously located at their common border (e.g. Argentine's 7th Jungle and 3rd Motorized Infantry Brigades). Brazilian soldiers are embedded in the Argentine peacekeeping contingent at UNFICYP in Cyprus and they are working together at MINUSTAH in Haiti and, as another example of collaboration, Argentine Navy aircraft routinely operates from the Brazilian Navy carrier NAe São Paulo.

 Australia See Australia-Brazil relations

Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney. Australia has an embassy in Brasília and Consulates in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

 Canada See Brazil–Canada relations

Brazil-Canada relations have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time. Canada have an Embassy in Brasilia, and Consulates in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. Brazil have an Embassy in Ottawa and Consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.

 Chile See Brazil–Chile relations

Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haiti rebellion, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.

 China See Brazil–People's Republic of China relations
 Cuba

Brazilian-Cuban relations were classified as "excellent" in May 2008 following a meeting of foreign ministers.[19] During a January 2008 state visit to Cuba by Brazilian President Lula da Silva, the Brazilian leader expressed desire for his country to be Cuba's "number one partner".[19]

Bilateral trade increased by 58% between April 2007 and April 2008.[20]

 Czech Republic See Czech Brazilians
 Denmark

Brazil has an embassy in Copenhagen and Denmark has an embassy in Brasília and consulates-general in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Embassy of Denmark, Brazil

 Finland April 8, 1929 Brazil recognised the independence of Finland on December 26, 1919. Brazil has an embassy in Helsinki.[21] Finland has an embassy in Brasília, honorary consulate generals in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and other honorary consulates in Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador and Vitória.[22]
 France See Brazil–France relations

France has recognized Brazil as its special partner in South America and as a global player in international affairs. The two countries are committed to strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the areas for which working groups have been created: nuclear energy, renewable energies, defence technologies, technological innovation, joint cooperation in African countries and space technologies, medicines and the environment.[23]

Recently, France announced its support to the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[23]

 Greece See Greco-Brazilian relations

The countries have enjoyed "Bilateral relations [that] have always been good and are progressing smoothly," according to the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[24]

In addition to its Embassy in Brasília, Greece has two General Consulates in (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) and four Honorary Consulates. Brazil has an embassy in Athens.

 Guyana See Brazil–Guyana relations

Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration.

 Hungary See Brazil–Hungary relations

Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo. Brazil has an embassy in Budapest. The two countries signed the Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement in 1992.

 India See Brazil–India relations

The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as international trade and development, environment, reform of the UN and the UNSC expansion.[25]

 Iraq 1967 See Brazil–Iraq relations

Brazil maintains an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq maintains an embassy in Brasília. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77. Brazil was the first Latin American country to reopen its embassy in Iraq since the 1991 Gulf War.[26]

 Israel

Brazil hosts a very large Lebanese and Jewish community. Israel has an Embassy in Brasília, and Brazil has an Embassy in Tel Aviv. Brazil has recognized Israel since its founding in 1948, but the first Israeli embassy was opened in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro, then capital of Brazil, with David Shaltiel the first ambassador.

 Jamaica 1962-10-14 See Jamaica–Brazil relations

Both countries are full members of the Group of 15.

 Japan See Japanese Brazilians, Dekasegui
 Malaysia

Malaysia has an embassy in Brasília while Brazil has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77.

 Mexico

Brasília and Mexico City enjoy friendly relations. In 1914, Brazil and other ABC countries met in Niagara Falls, Canada to prevent a war between Mexico and the United States. The meeting was successful. However, when Brazil entered World War I, Mexico remained neutral.

 Nigeria See Brazil–Nigeria relations

Bilateral relations between Nigeria and Brazil focus primarily upon trade and culture. The largest country in Latin America by size, and the largest country in Africa by population are remotely bordered across from one another by the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil and Nigeria for centuries, have enjoyed a warmly, friendly, and strong relationship on the bases of culture (many Afro-Brazilians trace their ancestry to Nigeria) and commercial trade.

 Pakistan See Brazil–Pakistan relations

Brazil-Pakistan relations are characterized as friendly and cooperative. Brazil maintains an embassy in Islamabad and Pakistan maintains an embassy in Brasília. In 2008, Brazil approved the sale of 100 MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure on Brazil to avoid just that.[27]

 Paraguay See Paraguay–Brazil relations

Paraguay–Brazil relations have improved greatly after Brazilian President Lula's decision in 2009 to triple its payments to Paraguay for energy from a massive hydro-electric dam on their border, ending a long-running dispute. Under the accord, Brazil will pay Paraguay $360m a year for energy from the jointly-operated Itaipu plant. Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva called it a "historic agreement" and the deal slated as a political victory for Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo.[28]

 Philippines

On June 2009, Brazil and the Philippines made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture.[29] The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation.[30] The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation.[31] It intends to “facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel,”[32]

 Portugal See Portugal–Brazil relations

Portugal and Brazil have countless bilateral agreements in areas such as culture, language, R&D, immigration, defence, tourism, economy, environment, among others.[33][34] Portugal and Brazil hold regular Summits to discuss bilateral and multilateral agreements and current topics (last one in Bahia in 2008, before that one in Porto in 2005).[35] One rather controversial topic was the spelling reform that aims at homogenising spelling in lusophone countries. Both countries share a common heritage and are committed in its preservation, be it through bilateral agreements or involving other nations, such as in the framework of CPLP.[36] Both countries lobby within the UN to upgrade Portuguese to a working language in that Organisation.[37] Portugal has also lobbied for Brazil to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.[38] Finally, Portugal hosted the 1st EU-Brazil summit, in 2007.

 Russia See Brazil–Russia relations

Brazil–Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation, with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies, and telecommunications.

 South Africa See Brazil – South Africa relations

Brazil-South Africa relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to South Africa in the form of warfare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen integration between the major powers of the developing world. South Africa is part of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, alongside Brazil and India.

 Spain

Despite cultural similarities between the two countries, diplomatic foreign relations between Brasília and Madrid have not always been excellent. The main reason for this being Brazil's maligning of the Spanish government's little effort to respond to the visa crises involving political refugees from Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

 Turkey

Brazil has an embassy in Ankara and Turkey has an embassy in Brasília.

 United States See Brazil – United States relations

Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[39] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[40] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[40]

 Uruguay See Brazil–Uruguay relations

Brazil and Uruguay are neighboring countries that share close historical, cultural and geographical ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from the strong historical connection - marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colônia do Sacramento in 1680, the annexation by Brazil and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina in 1815, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828.[41]

 Vietnam 1989-05-08

Vietnam established a Consulate General in São Paulo in 1998, and upgraded it to Embassy status in 2000. The Brazilian Embassy in Hanoi was opened in 1994, being the first Latin American country to open an Embassy in Hanoi. Vietnamese Presidents Le Duc Anh and Tran Duc Luong have visited Brazil, in October, 1995 and November, 2004 respectively.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Country Profile: Brazil UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
  2. ^ U.S. Congressional Report on Brazil United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  3. ^ Georges D. Landau, "The Decision-making Process in Foreign Policy: The Case of Brazil," Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington DC: March 2003
  4. ^ http://www.brasilemb.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=144&Itemid=133
  5. ^ http://www.cplp.org/Default.aspx
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3234519.stm
  7. ^ http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/brill/luso/2006/00000013/00000002/art00002
  8. ^ http://www.brazil.org.uk/press/pressreleases_files/20070622.html
  9. ^ CRS Report RL33258, Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States, by J.F. Hornbeck
  10. ^ a b Lula da Silva’s Foreign Policy: The Autonomy through Diversification Strategy Vigevani, Tullo; Cepaluni, Gabriel. Retrieved on 2009-07-11.
  11. ^ Visa Table Brazilian Federal Police. Retrieved on 2009-11-29. (Portuguese)
  12. ^ Brasil suspende retorno de embaixador a Honduras BBC. Retrieved on 2009-07-06. (Portuguese)
  13. ^ Brasil não reconhece Kosovo sem acordo com Sérvia Clic RBS. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. (Portuguese)
  14. ^ Brazilian Trade Office in Taipei
  15. ^ Borders and Limits of Brazil: Ilha Brasileira Wilson R.M. Krukoski, LNCC. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (Portuguese)
  16. ^ .Brazilian Antarctica World Statemen.org. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  17. ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission United Nations. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  18. ^ ANGOLA-BRAZIL: Portuguese - the Common Language of Trade Mario de Queiroz, Ipsnews.net. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  19. ^ a b Cuba-Brazil Relations Get New Impulse Juventuderebelde.co.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  20. ^ Brazil Wants to Be Cuba's Number-One Trade Partner CubaNews.cu. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  21. ^ Bilateral relations Embassy of Brazil in Helsinki. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  22. ^ Brazilian-Finnish relations Embassy of Finland in Brasília. Retrieved on 2009-06-23
  23. ^ a b "France and Brazil - Political relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files_156/brazil_444/france-and-brazil_2515/political-relations_2631.html. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  24. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Brazil. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. Accessed on 2009-05-04.
  25. ^ Indian Embassy in Brazil: Bilateral Relations Embassy of India in Brasília. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.
  26. ^ "Brazil to Resume Relations with Iraq". voanews.com. http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2001-08/a-2001-08-25-7-Brazil.cfm. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  27. ^ Brazil to Sell MAR-1 SEAD Missiles to Pakistan Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
  28. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8169084.stm
  29. ^ "Philippines, Brazil unite on energy, agriculture"
  30. ^ "PGMA, Brazilian President Lula agree to further strengthen RP-Brazil relations"
  31. ^ "Bioenergy deals top 6 RP, Brazil agreements"
  32. ^ "RP, Brazil ink 5 accords "
  33. ^ http://www.embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com/
  34. ^ http://www2.mre.gov.br/dai/biport.htm
  35. ^ http://embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com/2008/10/cimeira-luso-brasileira-de-salvador-vai.html
  36. ^ Ministério das relações exteriores - CPLP http://www.mre.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1185
  37. ^ http://tsf.sapo.pt/PaginaInicial/Internacional/Interior.aspx?content_id=1017603
  38. ^ http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/portuguese/detail/151085.html
  39. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
  40. ^ a b US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-06-23
  41. ^ Embaixada do Brasil em Montevideo: Relações Bilaterais Embaixada do Brasil em Montevideo. Retrieved on 2009-06-23. (Portuguese)
  42. ^ Vietnam-Brazil Relations Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-06-23.

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