Foreign relations of Germany: Wikis

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Germany

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The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). Germany is one of the world's leading industrialized countries and biggest market economy in Europe, with "windows to the East and West".

Since reunification in 1990, Germany has further extended its commitments and central position in European and global affairs.

Contents

History since 1945

Since 1951, Germany has been at the heart of European Integration and after German reunification in 1990 further promoted peaceful integration with its neighbors. Strong ties with the United States remain central to German foreign policy.

Within the framework of NATO and an integrated European Defence Force, the Federal Republic has resumed the deployment of military units to mediate in conflict regions worldwide.

Germany is one of the world's strongest supporters for ecological awareness in response to climate change and global warming.

Centerpieces of German foreign policy since 1945

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Franco-German cooperation

Being the historic core of Europe and the "twin engine for European integration", the cooperation with France is one of the most central elements of German foreign policy. The Elysée Treaty from 1963 set the foundation for a collaboration that - next to the European project - also repeatedly called for a "Core Union" with maximum integration 1.

European integration

Flag of Europe.svg

European integration has gone a long way since the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the Elysée Treaty. Peaceful collaborations with its neighbors remain one of Germany's biggest political objectives, and Germany has been on the forefront of most achievements made in European integration:

Most of the social issues facing European countries in general: immigration, aging populations, straining social-welfare and pension systems - are all important in Germany. Germany seeks to maintain peace through the "deepening" of integration among current members of the European Union member states

Germany has been the largest net contributor to EU budgets for decades (in absolute terms - given Germany's comparatively large population - not per capita) and seeks to limit the growth of these net payments in the enlarged union.

Westbindung

"Bindung" is the German word for fixation or bond; "Westbindung" is Germany's implant into Western Europe and the Western World.

In particular during the Cold War - but continuous into the 21st century - (West-) German foreign policy pursues the country's integration into NATO and a strong co-operation and collective security with its Western partners.

As a free democracy and market economy, the world's largest exporting nation and the world's third-richest economy (nominal GDP) (behind the U.S. and Japan), Germany shares the interest and institutions of a free and secure world trade.

Israel and the Near East

Following German history during the Holocaust, one of Postwar Germany's aims were to establish and maintain relations of Wiedergutmachung with the State of Israel. Starting with the Reparations Agreement in 1952, support for the national security of the State of Israel is central to German foreign policy.

Germany has been actively involved in the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in 1979, the Oslo Accords (1993) which led to the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty in 1994 and the continuous Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict which make Germany arguably (next to the United States) Israel's closest ally.

Germany also holds a special relationship with Turkey and is active in maintaining diplomatic relationships with Iran.

Ostpolitik

Under the Hallstein Doctrine, the FRG did not have any diplomatic relations with countries in Eastern Europe until the early 1970s, when Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik led to increased dialogue and treaties like the Treaty of Warsaw, where West Germany accepted the Oder-Neisse line as German-Polish border, and the Basic Treaty, where West and East Germany accepted each other as sovereign entities. Both Germany states were admitted to the United Nations on 18 September 1973.

Development aid

Germany is one of the largest net contributors of the UN and has several development agencies working in Africa and the Middle East.

German reunification

After the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, German reunification took effect on 3 October 1990.

On 14 November 1990, Germany and Poland signed a treaty confirming the Oder-Neisse line. They also concluded a cooperation treaty on 17 June 1991. Germany concluded four treaties with the Soviet Union covering the overall bilateral relationship, economic relations, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the territory of the former GDR, and German support for those troops.

Russia accepted obligations under these treaties as successor to the Soviet Union.

Centerpieces of German Foreign Policy since 1990

Central & Eastern Europe

EU Monetary Union and the single currency euro

The German government was a strong supporter of the enlargement of NATO.

Germany was one of the first nations to recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent nations, rejecting the concept of Yugoslavia as the only legitimate political order of the Balkan (unlike other European powers, who first proposed a pro-Belgrad policy). This is why Serb authorities sometimes referred to "new German imperialism" as one of the main reasons of Yugoslavia's collapse. German troops participate in the multinational efforts to bring peace and stability to the Balkans.

Weimar triangle; Germany continues to be active economically in the states of central and eastern Europe, and to actively support the development of democratic institutions. In the 2000s Germany has been arguably the centerpiece of the European Union (though the importance of France cannot be overlooked in this connection).

(see also Foreign relations of the European Union)

Ecological involvement

see also Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Kyoto protocol

Initiative for a permanent seat in the UNSC

The German Federal Government began an initiative to obtain a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, as part of the Reform of the United Nations. This would require approval of a two-thirds majority of the member states and approval of all five Security Council veto powers.

This aspiration could be successful due to Germany's good relations with the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Germany is a stable and democratic republic and a G7 country which are also favourable attributes. The United Kingdom and France support German ascension to the supreme body. [1] The U.S. is sending mixed signals.

War on terror

Former Chancellor Gerhard Schröder with former U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House in 2001

In 2001, the discovery that the terrorist cell which carried out the attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, was based in Hamburg, sent shock waves through the country.

The government of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder backed the following U.S. military actions, sending Bundeswehr troops to Afghanistan to lead a joint NATO program to provide security in the country after the ousting of the Taliban.

Nearly all of the public was strongly against America's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and any deployment of troops. This position was shared by the SPD/Green government, which led to some friction with the United States.

In August 2006, the German government disclosed a botched plot to bomb two German trains. The attack was to occur in July 2006 and involved a 21-year-old Lebanese man, identified only as Youssef Mohammed E. H. Prosecutors said Youssef and another man left suitcases stuffed with crude propane-gas bombs on the trains.

As of February 2007, Germany had about 3,000 NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan as part of the War on Terrorism, the third largest contingent after the United States (14,000) and the United Kingdom (5,200). [2] German forces are mostly in the more secure north of the country.

However, Germany, along with some other larger European countries (with the exception of the UK and the Netherlands), have been criticised by the British and Canadians for not sharing the burden of the more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan. [3] [4]

Foreign military relations

Under the doctrine introduced by the 2003 Defense Policy Guidelines, Germany continues to give priority to the transatlantic partnership with the United States through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, Germany is giving increasing attention to coordinating its policies with the European Union through the Common European Security and Defence Policy.

Membership in international institutions

Council of Europe, European Union, European Space Agency, G4, G8, IMF, NATO, OECD, OSCE, UNO, World Bank Group, WTO

Bilateral relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria See Austria–Germany relations

Due to German being the common language of the two European countries relations between them are close.

 Azerbaijan
 Belarus 1999
 Belgium See Foreign relations of Belgium
 Bulgaria See Bulgarian-German relations
 Croatia 1992-01-15 See Croatian-German relations
 Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
 Czech Republic See Czech–German relations

Today, both countries share 815 km of common borders. The Czech Republic has an embassy in Berlin, 3 general consulates (in Bonn, Dresden and Munich), and 6 honorary consulates (in Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Nürnberg, Rostock and Stuttgart). Germany has an embassy in Prague.

 Denmark See Danish-German relations

Denmark has an embassy in Berlin and 3 General Consulates in Flensburg, Hamburg and Munich. Both countries closely border each other.

 UK See Anglo-German relations

The two countries fought against each other in World War I and World War II.

 France See France – Germany relations

In recent times, France and Germany are among the most enthusiastic proponents of the further integration of the EU. They are sometimes described as the "twin engine" or "core countries" pushing for moves.

 Georgia See Foreign relations of Georgia
 Greece 1834 (Prussia)
 Hungary 1973-12-21 See Germany-Hungary relations
 Iceland
 Ireland 1922
Irish Ambassador William Warnock with the German Foreign Ministry official Dr. Heß, after signing a trade agreement in 1961
 Italy
 Kosovo See German–Kosovan relations
  • Germany recognized Kosovo on 20 February 2008.[16]
  • Germany has an embassy in Pristina since 27 February 2008.[17]
  • Kosovo will open an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is the second-largest donor to Kosovo behind the US.[18]
 Latvia 1991-08-28
 Malta 1965
 Moldova 1992-04-30 See Germany–Moldova relations
  • The Federal Republic of Germany recognised independence of Moldova on 14 December 1991.
  • Germany opened its embassy in Chisinau on 2 November 1992.
  • Moldova opened its own embassy in Bonn on 28 March 1995.[24]
 Lithuania
 Poland See German–Polish relations

During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union. The Polish-German border is 467 km long.[27]

 Romania 1872
 Russia See Germany–Russia relations

Germany tries to keep Russia engaged with the Western world. The future aim is to promote a stable market-economy liberal democracy in Russia, which is part of the Western world.

 Serbia 1951
 Slovakia 1993
 Sweden
  • Relations have been strong with cultural and economic cooperation.
  • Germany has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Sweden also has 12 honorary consulates in Germany.
 Turkey See German–Turkish relations

Based on good Turkish-German relations from the 19th century onwards, Germany promoted a Turkish immigration to Germany. However, large scale didn't occur until the 20th century. Germany suffered an acute labor shortage after World War II and, in 1961, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories that helped fuel Germany's economic miracle. The German authorities named these people Gastarbeiter (German for guest workers). Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and Eastern Anatolia. Today, Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority.

 Ukraine See Germany–Ukraine relations

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Barbados 1967-03-14 See Barbados–Germany relations
 Canada See Canada–Germany relations

Until 2005 Canada's embassy was in Bonn, but in April 2005 a new embassy opened in Berlin. Canada also operates consulates in Munich, Düsseldorf and Hamburg. The provinces of Ontario and Alberta have representatives in Germany, co-located in the consulates. Quebec runs a stand-alone bureau in Munich, with an “antenne culturelle” office in Berlin. In addition to its embassy in Ottawa, Germany maintains consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Additional diplomats responsible for specialized files are also accredited from Washington.

 Paraguay 1860-08-01
 United States See Germany – United States relations

Since 2006, the current chancellor Angela Merkel has sought warmer relations with the United States and to rebuild political ties on common values and beliefs.

 Uruguay See Germany–Uruguay relations

Germany has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Berlin, a general consulate in Hamburg and 6 honorary consulate (in Bremen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Munich, Potsdam and Stuttgart). Germany is the Uruguay's principal trading partner in the European Union.[34]

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia See Armenia–Germany relations

Armenian-German relations have always been stable and solid, with both countries continuing to work together and advance through the years with in cooperation. Both countries' leaders have discussed bilateral relations and noted that they have considerably improved over the last few years.[35]

 India See Germany–India relations

Germany and India have great military and trade relations with each other. Germany being one of the first countries to agree with the Indo-US Nuclear deal.

 Iraq See Germany–Iraq relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • There are currently some 84,000-150,000 Iraqis living in Germany.
 Israel See Germany–Israel relations

Germany-Israel relations refers to the special relationship between Israel and Germany based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives.[36] Among the most important factors in their relations is Nazi Germany's role in the genocide of European Jews during the Holocaust.[37]

 Japan See Germany–Japan relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have lead to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan[38][39], the promotion of economic exchange activities[40], youth and sports exchanges[41] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[42]

After China, Japan is Germany's principal trading partner in Asia in 2006:[43]

 Malaysia See Germany–Malaysia relations
 Pakistan

Pakistan and Germany enjoy closely cordial relations. Germany has taken extreme measures to aid the South Asian country in its' economic and governmental hardship. Commercial trade between Islamabad and Berlin has also been very essential in recent years seeing as Germany is Pakistan's fourth largest trade partner. Also, Germany is home to 35,081 Pakistani immigrants.

 People's Republic of China See People's Republic of China – Germany relations

Germany has traditionally good relationships with the People's Republic of China, even though Angela Merkel and large parts of Germany's political class have recently criticised the People's Republic for holding back reforms in the field of democracy and human rights as well as for the oppression of Tibet. In recent years trade between both countries has reached high volumes, both in import and exports.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Egypt 1957-12 See Egypt–Germany relations

Egypt has an embassy in Berlin, as well as consulates in Frankfurt and Hamburg. Germany has an embassy in Cairo.

 Libya See Germany–Libya relations

Germany is represented in Libya with an embassy in Tripolis, while Libya has an embassy in Berlin. The relationship between these countries was tense in the late 1980s following a bombing incident, but has improved since with increasingly close co-operation especially on economic matters.[44][45]

 Namibia See Germany–Namibia relations

Peter Katjavivi, a founder of the University of Namibia and longtime South West Africa People's Organization member, has been the Namibian ambassador in Berlin since 2006.[46]

See also

Further reading

External links

References

  1. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Berlin
  2. ^ German embassy in Baku
  3. ^ Belarussian embassy in Berlin(in German and Russian only)
  4. ^ Belarusian Branch office of the embassy in Bonn
  5. ^ embassy in Minsk (in German and Russian only)
  6. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Berlin (in German and Bulgarian only)
  7. ^ Croatian embassy in Berlin (in croat and German only)
  8. ^ German embassy in Zageb (in Croat and German only)
  9. ^ Greek embassy in Berlin (in German)
  10. ^ Hungarian embassy in Berlin (in German and Hungarian only)
  11. ^ Hungarian general consulate in Munich (in German and Hungarian only)
  12. ^ Germany embassy in Reykjavik (in German only)
  13. ^ Iceland embassy in Berlin
  14. ^ German embassy in Dublin
  15. ^ Irish embassy in Berlin
  16. ^ "Germany recognises Kosovo". German Federal Government. 2008-02-20. http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/EN/Artikel/2008/02/2008-02-20-deutschland-erkennt-kosovo-an__en.html. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  17. ^ Deutsche Botschaft Pristina
  18. ^ http://www.bundesregierung.de/nn_6562/Content/EN/Artikel/2008/07/2008-07-11-kosovogeberkonferenz__en.html
  19. ^ German embassy in Riga (in German and Latvian only)
  20. ^ Latvian embassy in Berlin (in German and Latvian only)
  21. ^ Latvian general consulate in Bonn (in German and Latvian only)
  22. ^ German embassy in Valletta (in German only)
  23. ^ Maltese embassy in Berlin
  24. ^ (German) botschaft-moldau.de
  25. ^ German embassy in Vilnius (in German and Lithuanian only)
  26. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Berlin (in German and Lithuanian only)
  27. ^ (Polish) Informacje o Polsce - informacje ogólne. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
  28. ^ Serbian embassy in Berlin (in German and Serbian only)
  29. ^ Serbian general consulates in Germany (in German and Serbian only)
  30. ^ Germany embassy in Bratislava (in German and Slovakian only)
  31. ^ Slovak embassy in Berlin
  32. ^ Germany embassy in Asuncion (in German and Spanish only)
  33. ^ Paraguayan embassy in Berlin (in German and Spanish only)
  34. ^ "Uruguay". German Foreign Office. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Laenderinformationen/01-Laender/Uruguay.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  35. ^ Armenian, German leaders discuss bilateral relations from Mediamax news agency, Yerevan, archived on US Embassy site
  36. ^ Israel's foreign relations. The Israel-German special relationship, Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre (BICOM), 23 November 2005. Accessed 2006-08-18
  37. ^ German Embassy. Background Papers. Germany and Israel
  38. ^ "Japanese–German Cooperation and Coordination in the Assistance for Reconstruction of Iraq". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-11-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/germany/summit0412/fs_iraq.html. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  39. ^ "Japanese–German Cooperation and Coordination in the Assistance for Reconstruction of Afghanistan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-11-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/germany/summit0412/fs_afghanistan.html. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  40. ^ "Japanese–German Economic Exchanges". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-11-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/germany/summit0412/fs_eco_exc.html. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  41. ^ "Japanese German Youth / Sports Exchange". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-11-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/germany/summit0412/fs_sports_exc.html. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  42. ^ "Japanese–German Science, Technology and Academic Cooperation and Exchanges". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-11-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/germany/summit0412/fs_cp_exc.html. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  43. ^ "Economic relations". Federal Foreign Office Germany. April 2008. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/en/Laenderinformationen/01-Laender/Japan.html#t4. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  44. ^ "Libya woos German, European investors". Afrique en Lique. April 27 , 2009. http://www.afriquejet.com/news/africa-news/libya-woos-german,-european-investors-2009042726395.html. Retrieved May 09, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Germany, Libya reach compensation deal over nightclub attack". from FindArticles. August , 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmafp/is_200408/ai_n6852644/. Retrieved May 09, 2009. 
  46. ^ Namibia Institute for Democracy

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