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Mongolia

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Politics and government of
Mongolia



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In the wake of the former Soviet Union's economic collapse, Mongolia began to pursue an independent and nonaligned foreign policy. The Prime Minister called for coexistence with all nations, and Mongolia follows a general policy of expanding relations with as many countries as possible.

Due to Mongolia's landlocked position between the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union and People's Republic of China, it was essential to continue and improve relations with these countries. At the same time, Mongolia is reaching out to advance its regional and global relations such as Western Europe, Japan and the United States with its "third neighbour" policy.[1]

As part of its aim to establish a more balanced nonaligned foreign policy, Mongolia is seeking active supporters and friends beyond its neighbours and looking to take a more active role in the United Nations and other international organisations. It has begun a drive for international recognition of a one state Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. While it is downgrading relations with most of its former east European allies, it is pursuing a more active role in Asian and northeast Asian affairs. Mongolia is seeking to join APEC and became a full participant in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 1998. Mongolia became a full member of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council in April 2000.

Contents

East Asia

Mongolian relations with the PRC began to improve in the mid-1980s when consular agreements were reached and crossborder trade contacts expanded. In 1989, the People's Republic of China and Mongolia exchanged visits of foreign ministers. In May 1990, a Mongolian head of state visited China for the first time in 28 years. The cornerstone of the Mongolian-Chinese relationship is a 1994 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which codifies mutual respect for the independence and territorial integrity of both sides. The two foreign ministers exchanged visits in 1997, as did the leaders of the two countries' parliaments. President Jiang Zemin visited Mongolia in July 1999.

Mongolia is expanding relations with the nearby rich nations of Japan and South Korea. Its Prime Minister visited Japan in March 1990 and Prime Minister Obuchi reciprocated with a visit to Mongolia in July 1999. Japan has provided more than $100 million in grants and loans since 1991 and coordinated international assistance to Mongolia. Japan is Mongolia's largest bilateral aid donor. Diplomatic relations were established with South Korea in 1991, and during the Mongolian President's visit, seven agreements and treaties were signed, providing the legal basis for further expanding bilateral relations.[citation needed] However, the increasing closeness with South Korea caused problems in North Korea-Mongolia relations, culminating in 1999 when North Korea closed their embassy in Ulan Bator, allegedly in response to the state visit by then South Korean president Kim Dae-jung.[2] In 2001 President Bagabandi made state visits to India and Nepal.

Japan

North Korea

Relations date back to 1948, when Mongolia recognised Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. North Korean refugees are a delicate issue between the two governments. In 2005, South Korean charity groups received from the Mongolian government an allocation of 1.3 square kilometres of land at an unspecified location 40 kilometres outside of Ulan Bator to establish a refugee camp.[3] However, as of November 2006, Miyeegombiin Enkhbold, Mongolia's prime minister, officially denied the existence of such camps. One scholar estimated that 500 North Korean refugees enter Mongolia each month, along with some legal migrant labourers who come under an inter-governmental agreement to work in light industry and infrastructure projects.[4]

People's Republic of China

In the Post-Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment as well as the destination for 48% of Mongolian [5] Bilateral trade reached USD 1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006.[6] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade with the Asia Pacific region.[5] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, seeking to exploit the country's natural resources.[5][6] Mongolia and China have stepped up cooperation on fighting terrorism and bolstering regional security. China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[5]

Republic of China

As the Republic of China did not recognize Mongolia until 1945, both countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China in 1949, there have never been formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China. Until the 1990s, the Republic of China still considered Mongolia part of its territory.

Citizens of the Republic of China may travel to Mongolia using Republic of China passports (as is the case for most countries except the PRC), but Mongolian visas are stapled into (and not applied directly) onto the passport and Mongolian immigration authorities stamp the stapled visa instead of the passport. This is also the case for Hong Kong visas and entry/exit stamps.

South Korea

Russia

Relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when Soviet Russia was the closest ally of the Mongolian People's Republic. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, Mongolia developed relations with the new independent states. Links with Russia and other republics were essential to contribute to stabilisation of the Mongolian economy. The primary difficulties in developing fruitful coordination occurred because the NIS were experiencing the same political and economic restructuring as Mongolia. Despite these difficulties, Mongolia and Russia successfully negotiated both a 1991 Joint Declaration of Cooperation and a bilateral trade agreement. This was followed by a 1993 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation establishing a new basis of equality in the relationship. Mongolian President Bagabandi visited Moscow in 1999, and Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Mongolia in 2000 in order to sign the 25-point Ulaanbaatar Declaration, reaffirming Mongol-Russian friendship and cooperation on numerous economic and political issues.

Europe

Mongolia seeks closer relations with countries in Europe and hopes to receive most-favoured-nation status from the European Union (EU). During 1991, Mongolia signed investment promotion and protection agreements with Germany and France and an economic cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. Germany continued former East German cooperative programs and also provided loans and aid. The Prime Minister has travelled to Germany, France, Belgium, and EU headquarters in Brussels seeking economic cooperation. President Bagabandi visited several European capitals in 1999-2000.[citation needed] In 2004 he became the first Mongolian President to pay a state visit to Canada, some 30 years after the two countries established formal diplomatic relations.[8]

Mongolia has a modest number of missions abroad.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria has an embassy in Ulan Bator. Mongolia has an embassy in Sofia. Diplomatic relations between the two counties were first initiated on 22 April 1950. Due to the similar ideological situation in both countries, their relations witnessed a steady development up until the 1990s. Bilateral relations somewhat deteriorated for the next ten years. From 2001, though, they get back to a more positive track with the current Bulgarian president Georgi Parvanov making an official visit to Ulan Bator in the summer of 2007. Until the beginning of the 1990s Bulgaria was Mongolia's 3rd biggest trading partner. Agricultural products and light inddustry goods were the main exports. Due to the subsequent economical and political changes in both countries the volume of trade shrank considerably. The volume of trade between Bulgaria and Mongolia totaled $2 million for 2008, with the main exporter being Bulgaria.[9]

Croatia

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993.[10] Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.

Czech Republic

Diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Czechoslovakia, which were established on 25 April 1950. In the 1980s, Czechoslovakia was Mongolia's second-largest trading partner, behind Russia. After the 1992 dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Mongolia reaffirmed its relations with the newly formed Czech Republic in 1993.[11] However, in the 1990s, trade volumes declined sharply, though the Czech Republic still accounts for about 1% of Mongolia's imports. The Embassy of the Czech Republic in Ulaanbaatar was formally reopened in 1999.[12] As of 2005, annual bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at US$5 million.[13] The Czech government has also been involved in various water supply development programs in Mongolia.

Greece

Hungary

Turkey

Rest of World

Argentina

Formal relations started on 1971-09-07. Argentina is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China). Mongolia does not have any representation in Argentina.

Canada

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 30, 1973. Canada is represented in Mongolia through it embassy in Beijing (China) and an honorary consulate in Ulan Bator. Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa, and in 2002 opened an Honorary Consulate in Toronto. Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[16]

Egypt

Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Mongolia were established in 1964.[17] Cairo currently hosts Mongolia's only embassy on the African continent.[18][19] In 2001, Mongolia sent policemen to Egypt to attend trainings sessions on anti-terrorism and the prevention of drug trafficking.[20] Mongolian President Natsagiin Bagabandi and his wife A. Oyunbileg paid an official visit to Egypt in April 2004, during which he invited Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to pay him a return visit in Mongolia.[21] Almost exactly one year later, Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit visited Mongolia, during which he began the planning of mutual visits of the ministers of finance of the two countries.[22]

India

India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. India was the first country outside the Soviet block to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. Since then, there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973, 1994, 2001 and 2004.

United States

The U.S. Government recognized Mongolia in January 1987 and established its first embassy in Ulaanbaatar in June 1988. It formally opened in September 1988. The first U.S. ambassador to Mongolia, Richard L. Williams, was not a resident there. Joseph E. Lake, the first resident ambassador, arrived in July 1990. Secretary of State James A. Baker, III visited Mongolia in August 1990, and again in July 1991. Mongolia accredited its first ambassador to the United States in March 1989. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Mongolia in May 1998, and Prime Minister Enkhbayar visited Washington in November 2001. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage visited Mongolia in January 2004, and President Bagabandi came to Washington for a meeting with President George W. Bush in July 2004. President Bush, Mrs. Bush, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Mongolia in November 2005.[23] Defense Secretary Rumsfeld visited in October 2005 and Speaker of the House of Representatives Dennis Hastert visited Mongolia in August 2005. Agriculture Secretary Johanns led a presidential delegation in July 2006 in conjunction with Mongolia's celebration of its 800th anniversary. President Enkhbayar visited the White House in October 2007 and the two Presidents signed the Millennium Challenge Compact for Mongolia (see below).

Vietnam

The two countries established diplomatic ties in 1954.[24] The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[24] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[25]

International organisation participation

AsDB, ASEAN (observer), ASEM, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, SCO (observer)

Mongolia did not join the UN until 1961 because repeated threats to veto by the Republic of China, who considered Mongolia to be part of its territory (see China and the United Nations). The Republic of China (currently on Taiwan) has not renounced claim to Mongolia as one of its provinces, primarily out of concern that such a move would be viewed as a precursor to renouncing sovereignty over all of Mainland China and Taiwan independence. In 2002 several ROC officials and government agencies passed laws and made strong statements recognising Mongolia’s sovereignty over the area (unofficially). Outer Mongolia was removed from the ROC's official maps and a representative office was established in Ulan Bator.

Mongolia has threatened to sever ties with Malaysia if the controversial trial of its murdered citizen Altantuya is not conducted in a fair and responsible manner.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fogarty, Philippa. "Why Mongolia wants more neighbours". London: BBC World News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7860539.stm. Retrieved September 10, 2008. 
  2. ^ Ch., Sumiyabazar (20 July 2007). "North Korean Kim visits Mongolia". The UB Post. http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/content/view/446/37/. Retrieved 2007-08-22. 
  3. ^ Lee, Wonhee (6 September 2005). "Center Offers Haven For North Korean Defectors in Mongolia". Radio Free Asia. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/politics/2005/09/06/nkorea_mongolia/. 
  4. ^ "Mongolia not planning camps for North Korea". Gulf Times, Qatar. 24 November 2006. http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=119099&version=1&template_id=45&parent_id=25. Retrieved 2007-08-22. 
  5. ^ a b c d ""Pan-Mongolism" and U.S.-China-Mongolia relations". Jamestown Foundation. 2005-06-29. http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=408&issue_id=3322&article_id=2369707. Retrieved 2008-06-15. 
  6. ^ a b "China breathes new life into Mongolia". Asia Times. 2007-09-12. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/II01Cb02.html. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  7. ^ South Korean embassy in Ulan Bator
  8. ^ "President of Mongolia to visit Canada". Government of Canada Privy Council Office. 19 October 2004. http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/default.asp?Language=E&Page=archivemartin&Sub=newscommuniques&Doc=news_release_20041019_289_e.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-22. 
  9. ^ "Bulgarian MFA - Economic relations with Mongolia". www.mfa.bg. http://www.mfa.bg/bg/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=15549&Itemid=393. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  10. ^ "Mongolia-Croatia". Embassy of Mongolia in Wien. http://www.embassymon.at/index.php?mod=hab_suu&event=n. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  11. ^ "Mongolian - Czech friendship grows with EU". The Mongol Messenger. 2005-04-17. http://www.mongolmessenger.mn/issue/050417.php. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  12. ^ (PDF) Report on the Foreign Policy of the Czech Republic, 1998-1999. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic. 1999. pp. 187–188. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00002565/01/Report_on_the_Foreign_Policy_of_the_Czech_Republic_1998.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  13. ^ "Bilateral trade turnover to be increased". Montsame. 2005-11-10. http://www.mongolembassy.com/newEmbassy/uzuuleh.asp?tb=eng_news&torol=&num=1793&page=51&colname=&text=. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  14. ^ Embassy of Mongolia in Ankara
  15. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Ulan Bator
  16. ^ Nelles, Wayne (December 2000). "Mongolian-Canadian Education, Training and Research Cooperation: A Brief History, 1973-2000". Canadian and International Education 29 (2): 91. http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/en/cie/2902/2902091.htm. 
  17. ^ "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart in Cairo". The Ulaanbaatar Post. 2004-05-03. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=1025DDF543B4119D&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  18. ^ "Missions Abroad". Embassy of Mongolia, Washington D.C.. http://www.mongolianembassy.us/eng_embassy_info/missions_abroad.php. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  19. ^ "Mongolian president discusses cooperation with Egyptian counterpart". BBC. 2004-05-03. http://docs.newsbank.com/g/GooglePM/BBAB/lib00589,1025DDF543B4119D.html. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  20. ^ "Mongolia: Policemen to be trained in Egypt". Daily News, Ulaanbaatar. 2001-09-03. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0F97A45F54F92422&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  21. ^ "President in Egypt". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2004-04-27. 
  22. ^ "President meets with Egyptian MFA". The Presidential Office of Mongolia. 2005-04-24. http://gate1.pmis.gov.mn/president/News-2005/2005-04-24e.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  23. ^ http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/11/20051121-1.html
  24. ^ a b Vietnamese agency reviews Mongolia ties before president's visit. Hanoi: Vietnam News Agency. 2000-04-11. http://news.google.com/archivesearch?q=%22Vietnamese+agency+reviews+Mongolia+ties+before+president%27s+visit%22. 
  25. ^ "Mongolia, Vietnam sign new cooperation document.". Financial Times. 2003-01-14. 
  26. ^ "Altantuya's father storms out of press conference". MalaysiaKini. 24 April 2008. http://www.malaysiakini.com/news/81895. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 

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