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Pakistan

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Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (after Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan is also an important member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).

Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations. Historically, its foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations with the Republic of India; especially on the core-issue of Kashmir, over which it has fought two wars. However it has had long-standing close relations with its other neighbors Afghanistan, Iran and China, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries.

Wary of Soviet expansion, Pakistan had strong relations with both the United States of America and the People's Republic of China during much of the Cold War. Today, the two countries remain Pakistan's closest allies.

It was a member of the CENTO and SEATO military alliances. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan. In 1964, Pakistan signed the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) Pact with Turkey and Iran, when all three countries were closely allied with the U.S., and as neighbors of the Soviet Union, wary of perceived Soviet expansionism. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. RCD became defunct after the Iranian Revolution, and a Pakistani-Turkish initiative led to the founding of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in 1985. For several years prior to the staged November 2008 Mumbai attacks, Pakistan's relations with India had been gradually improving, which opened up Pakistan's foreign policy to issues beyond security. An increasingly important actor on the world scene, Pakistan formed the "Friend of Pakistan" group which includes important countries such as Australia, Britain, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, the United Nations and European Union.[1]

Contents

Afghanistan

Frontier with Afghanistan before the Durand agreement of 1893.

Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan (also called the Durand Line). The border is poorly marked. The problem is exacerbated by cultural, historical, linguistic, ethnic and political ties crossing close relations between peoples who live on both sides of the border. This is further complicated by the fact that many of the Pashtun tribes on both sides of the border are often married and refuse to recognize it much to the frustration of both the Afghan government and the Pakistani government.

Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the Pakistani Government played a vital role in supporting the Afghan resistance and assisting refugees. Social and health indicators dropped considerably during this period as Polio and Tuberculosis, previously eradicated from the country, were re-introduced and the country became awash with drugs, weapons, prostitution rings and increased incidences of crime and violence. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. In 1999, the United States provided approximately $70 million in humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan and Afghan refugees in Pakistan, mainly through multilateral organizations and NGOs.

Pakistani strategists view Afghanistan in a fraternal matter and visa-versa, despite the support of anti-Pakistani elements in recent history; this has led Pakistani analysts to hope that Afghanistan could provide "strategic depth" in the event of a war with neighboring India. For this reason Pakistan strives to have friendly relations with Afghanistan. Furthermore, many Pakistanis saw in Afghanistan and Afghans a common bond based on religion, history, culture, language and ethnic ties. At various times, Pakistan has backed the mujahideen factions as suited its interests, against its perceived enemies.

In the 1950s, there were suggestions of a possible formation of a confederation between Afghanistan and Pakistan, a move supported by Zahir Shah, the Afghan king along the lines of the original Afghan Empire founded by Ahmed Shah Abdali. Many Afghans and Pakistanis want to see improved relations which they feel are a necessity for both countries to fulfill their destiny, often what one country lacks, the other has an excess of. Scholars point out that it is not an issue of if the two countries unite, but rather of when they unite as both countries have historically always worked together and been a single political entity.

The overthrow of the Taliban Regime in November 2001 has seen strained relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

People's Republic of China

In 1950, Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China or Taiwan and recognize the People's Republic of China. Following the Sino-Indian hostilities of 1962, Pakistan's relations with the PRC became stronger; since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. China has provided economic military and technical assistance to Pakistan.

Favorable relations with China have been a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy. China strongly supported Pakistan's opposition to Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and was perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and the USSR. The PRC and Pakistan also share a close military relation, with China supplying a range of modern armaments to the Pakistani defence forces. Lately, military cooperation has deepened with joint projects producing armaments ranging from fighter jets to guided missile frigates. Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached high economic points with substantial investment from China in Pakistani infrastructural expansion.

Kyrgyzstan

Pakistan extended diplomatic recognition to the Kyrgyz Republic on December 20, 1991. A Protocol for the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan was signed on May 10, 1992. Pakistan's diplomatic resident Mission at Ambassadorial level was established at Bishkek in August 1995.

There have been high level visits from both sides in last ten years. In December 2000, the Chief Executive of Pakistan extended an invitation to Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev to pay a State visit to Pakistan. The invitation was accepted by the President of Kyrgyzstan.

Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan co-operate with each other in various fields for the promotion of trade and economic relations between the two countries. A few Pakistan nationals have established their business concerns in the fields of hoteling, pharmacy and tourism in Kyrgyz Republic.

During the visit of Minister of State for Economic Affairs in December 1991, an export credit of US$ 10 million was offered to Kyrgyzstan for the establishment of pharmaceutical factory at Bishkek. An agreement was signed in May 1993. On the request of Kyrgyzstan, keeping in view of friendly and brotherly relations with Kyrgyzstan, the Government of Pakistan rescheduled the loan repayment and prolonged its payment for the next six years. An agreement on rescheduling was signed accordingly.

One of the achievements in the economic co-operation between the two countries is the opening of the branch of the National Bank of Pakistan at Bishkek. The main aim of the bank is to boost the trade and economic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. The National Bank of Kyrgyzstan took a decision to issue the license for the branch of the National Bank of Pakistan to open the accounts for local individuals from January 1, 2002. Before, the National Bank of Pakistan was authorized to open the accounts for the companies and organizations only. Within one year after the opening, this branch has become the profit-earning unit. After some time, the bank would be able to extend small credit facility to the local population. The National Bank of Pakistan has also offered a regular training programme for the Kyrgyz Bankers.

Pakistan is extending all possible help for Kyrgyz nationals under the Technical Assistance programme in the field of education, diplomacy, banking, English language and postal services, etc.

More than 200 Pakistani students are enrolled at various educational institutions in Kyrgyzstan on self-finance basis. Some of the medical students have already completed their studies and returned to Pakistan.

The leadership of the Kyrgyz Republic has demonstrated keen interest to have more bilateral cultural cooperation and people to people contact by establishing sister city relationship with the cities of Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan. Establishment of sister city relationships between Quetta- Bishkek and Osh-Sialkot are under consideration by the two sides.

Both the countries have expressed their desire to conclude a Cultural Agreement with the aim of developing relations and mutual understanding between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. A draft Cultural Agreement is under consideration.

A draft Agreement between APP and "Kabar" news agency of Kyrgyzstan is also under consideration.

The Government of Pakistan has agreed to present a printing press to be used for production of literawre solely for Islamic purposes to the Muftiat of Kyrgyzstan.

Being the members of OIC and ECO, Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan support each other on various global and regional issues as well as during the elections to the key posts in the international organizations.

Republic of Turkey

In Pakistan, the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Ataturk, is regarded as a hero[citation needed]. Kemal Atatürk's triumph in forging a strong and progressive Turkey was seen by many of the Muslims of the South Asia as an embodiment of their national aspirations and served as an inspiration during their struggle for independence, which culminated in the emergence of Pakistan as an independent nation in 1947. Most conservative Muslims continue to view Atatürk as the destroyer of the Caliphate; this resulted in the Khalifat movement in the South Asia in the 1920s and in the pan-Islamic rhetoric of present-day Sunni jihadi groups.

There is a remarkable coalescence of views between Turkey and Pakistan on major issues of regional and global significance, particularly since both have been allied to the United States. The two countries have always extended full support to each other on several issues. Pakistan fully supports the cause of the Turkish Cypriot people and Turkey has backed the cause of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Their tensions over supporting rival factions during the Afghan civil war were reduced by the US-backed overthrow of the Taliban regime.

The two countries have also cooperated over the issue of Bosnia and Herzegovina and have adopted joint positions on this issue at the international fora. The prime ministers of the two countries took a joint trip to Sarajevo in 1993 to express solidarity with Bosnian Muslims. Both countries also sent peace-keeping forces to Bosnia.

The two countries have worked closely with each other in the context of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) as well. Pakistan actively participated in the second ECO summit in Istanbul in July 1993. Similarly the Turkish delegation to the third ECO summit held in Islamabad in 1995, was led by President Demirel and extended full support to the strengthening of the important regional organization which includes all Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. High level exchange of visits

The frequency of high level visits between Turkey and Pakistan has been one of the key factors in maintaining close ties between the two countries. Prime Minister of Pakistan Mohtrama Benazir Bhutto paid a three-day visit to Turkey in December 1993. President of Pakistan Sardar Farooq Khan Leghari also visited Turkey in September 1994. President of Turkey Suleyman Demirel paid a three-day official visit to Pakistan in 1995 and received a warm and enthusiastic welcome from the people of Pakistan. A number of agreements for increased cooperation between the two countries were signed during these visits. Defence cooperation

The commanders of the Armed Forces of the two countries exchange regular visits. There are regular programs of exchange of officers and training. The two countries have also purchased some defence related equipment from each other.

In the field of economy and trade relations between the two countries have been somewhat limited. However over the last few years, both countries have made conscious and sustained efforts to improve their economic relations. The Turco-Pakistan Joint Economic Commission which meets at the ministerial level to strengthen economic relations, held its 10th session in Ankara in September 1995 and adopted a comprehensive protocol to promote economic and commercial cooperation between the two countries.

Cooperation between the private sectors of the two countries is on the increase. Some major contracts have been awarded to the Turkish companies such as STFA. Other Turkish companies are also planning to enter the large Pakistani market. Cultural and educational cooperation

Cultural relations between Turkey and Pakistan are governed by a Cultural Cooperation Agreement. Specific cultural exchange programs are prepared under the agreement. The last protocol was signed in November 1992, for the years 1993-96. There have been a number of cultural exchange between the two countries which include visits of cultural troupes, participation in photographic, arts & crafts exhibitions and children's festivals. The Embassy of Pakistan in Ankara has also organized a number of cultural activities and Single Country Exhibitions to highlight the similarities and the diversity between the two cultures.

Iran

Historically, Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. Relations between the two countries have existed since ancient times when the Pakistani region was part of the large Persian Empire. Persian is still considered the cultural language of Pakistan and most of Pakistan's national anthem is written in that language. Persian was the lingua franca of India up to 1843 before the British abolished its use in favour of Urdu and English. Relations between Iran and Pakistan peaked in the 60's and 70's under the Shah with considerable joint ventures and assistance provided by Iran to Pakistan. Iran is also a popular tourist spot for Pakistan's Muslims, notably its Shia population which represents about 20% of Pakistan population of 170 million people. Low period have occurred, however, strains in the relationship appeared in the 1980s, when Pakistan and Iran supported opposing factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian support for the sectarian violence which has plagued Pakistan. Furthermore, many Pakistani's were disappointed when much of Iran's nuclear research was stated as having originated from Pakistan, this despite the fact that Iran's nuclear program was started some 20 years before that of Pakistan's. Nevertheless, Pakistan pursues an active diplomatic relationship with Iran, including recent overtures to seek a negotiated settlement between Afghanistan's warring factions. Pakistan also supports Iran's use of Nuclear Technology for peaceful purposes. Both countries are endeavering to improve and strengthen bilateral trade and commerce between them. On January 27, 2006, Pakistan, Iran, and India agreed to start work on IPI gasline which Pakistan needs to shrink the gap of Demand and supply of energy in Pakistan to maintain economic growth. India has consistently stalled the talks asking for more time under the duress of the United States, but Pakistan and Iran have agreed to go ahead with the project even if India doesn't participate thus highlighting the two countries commitment to the project. Relations, however, once again have become strained over the ongoing Afghan conflict. The Afghan Republic has consistently accused Pakistan's intelligence of supporting insurgents and contributing to an unstable Afghanistan. President Ahmadinejad vowed on an official visit to Kabul to stand by its cultural traditional neighbor at "all times, even when facing confusion from neighbors", referring to his support for Afghanistan over Pakistan in the many border skirmishes and diplomatic upheaval. Iran's president has also accused Pakistani agents of masterminding the suicide bombing in south-east of the country targeting a group of the elite Revolutionary Guards force. The attack which has been blamed on the Sunni resistance group, Jundullah claimed forty two lives.[2]

Palestinian Territories

Relations between Pakistanis and Palestinians are considered to be very close and warm as Islamabad advocates for an independent Palestinian state and an end to the on-going Israeli illegal occupation of its territories. As its official stance that it does not consider to recognise the so-called State of Zionist regime, which is advocated for a two state solution as the best solution to the conflict and if it was acceptable to the plan by its own peoples of that country. Pakistan is one of the 100 countries to recognise Palestine as a Nation-state since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence on November 15, 1988.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has helped Pakistan in many fields since Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Since the inception of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia has provided Pakistan with assistance in the form of fuel credit, fuel donation, loans, aid, donations, and gifts. Most famous example of Saudi Arabia's relationship with Pakistan is the Faisal Mosque, the National Mosque of the country in Islamabad, Pakistan. More recently, Saudi Arabia has given Pakistan hundreds of millions of dollars as a donation for the 2005 Earthquake in Pakistan. In fact, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the number one donor, having contributed $600 million.

United States of America

Historically, no ally of the United States has faced as many sanctions from the US as Pakistan.[citation needed] The United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan in 1949; reluctantly, at first. Since the Eisenhower administration, however, Pakistan and the US began developing more cozy relations. The American agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact, CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations. At the time, its relationship with the U.S. was so close and friendly that it was called the United States' "most-allied ally" in Asia.[3] Pakistanis felt betrayed and ill-compensated for the risks incurred in supporting the U.S. - after the U-2 Crisis of 1960, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had threatened the nuclear annihilation of Pakistani cities. The U.S. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. Even though the United States suspended military assistance to both countries involved in the conflict, the suspension of aid affected Pakistan much more severely. Gradually, relations improved and arms sales were renewed in 1975. Then, in April 1979, the United States cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, due to concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program.

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia. In 1981, the United States and Pakistan agreed on a $3.2-billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs. With U.S. assistance - in the largest covert operation in history - Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan, eventually defeating the Soviets, who withdrew in 1988.

Recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan's assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988-93) $4-billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device."

Under intense pressure from U.S., Pakistan moved reluctantly to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. It provided the U.S. a number of military airports and bases, for its attack on Afghanistan. In subsequent military operations, Pakistan has reportedly arrested and killed several hundred Taliban and Al-Qaeda operatives.[4] Since this strategic re-alignment towards U.S. policy, economic and military assistance has been flowing from the U.S. to Pakistan and sanctions have been lifted. In the three years before the attacks of September 11, Pakistan received approximately $9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to $4.2 billion.[5] In June 2004, President Bush designated Pakistan as a major non-NATO ally, making it eligible, among other things, to purchase advanced American military technology. In May, 2006, The Bush administration announced a major sale of missiles to Pakistan, valued at $370 Million USD. [2]

India

Since independence, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. Although many issues divide the two countries, the most sensitive one since independence has been the status of Kashmir.

Roots of Conflict

At the time of independence and the departure of the British from South Asia, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharajah, had a majority Muslim population. At first, the Maharajah hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, but when tribesmen armed by Pakistan with the overt support of regular troops began invading occupied Kashmir, the Hindu Maharajah had no option other than to call upon India to repel the invasion and annexed the territory. Following the invasion, the Maharajah offered his allegiance to India. Pakistani troops still continue to occupy the Northern and Western portion of Kashmir referred to as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (P.O.K.) in India and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. India and Pakistan agreed with UN resolutions which called for a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the future of Kashmir. But Pakistan has refused to remove their troops from Pakistan occupied Kashmir and have thereby frustrated carrying out the plebiscite.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

Full-scale hostilities erupted in September 1965 when Pakistan attacked India forcing India to attack Lahore in retaliation. Hostilities ceased three weeks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries at a time Lahore, one of the most important cities in Pakistan was on the brink of falling to the Indian Army. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Pakistan Air Force carried out bombing raids on different airfields in India. India was thus drawn into the civil war between the East Pakistanis of Bengal and the Pakistanis of the West, and started helping anti-Government rebels to liberate East Pakistan to form Bangladesh. The war ended in a humiliating defeat for Pakistan in which 90,000 Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner by India. Large parts of Pakistani territory were also captured by India. Pakistan President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India in July 1972 for the Shimla Accords. India magnanimously agreed to return the large swathes of Pakistani territory captured by India and repatriate the 90,000 captured Pakistani prisoners of war. They agreed to a "Line of Control" (ceasefire line) in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. In 1974, Pakistan and India agreed to resume postal and telecommunications linkages, and to enact measures to facilitate travel. Trade and diplomatic relations were restored in 1976 after a hiatus of five years.

Nuclear Arm Race

India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers were brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. A formal "no attack" agreement was signed in January 1991. In 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade.

Indo-Pakistani Cold War

Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri separatists from Pakistan occupied Kashmir backed by the Pakistan's ISI perpetrated violence in Indian Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between Pakistan and India, but relations worsened again after terrorist bombings in Bombay, in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock.

Improvement in Relations

In the late 1990s, the Indo-Pakistani relationship veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume an official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place, with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. However Pakistan surreptitiously occupied certain border areas forces in Kashmir. By early summer, serious fighting flared up in the Kargil sector. The fighting lasted about a month till the Pakistani forces were driven out of the areas that had been surreptitiously occupied by them.

Relations between India and Pakistan continued to be strained when Pervez Musharraf came to power on October 12, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. India alleged that Pakistan provided monetary and material support to Kashmiri militants, a charge which Pakistan has always denied even in the face of direct and insurmountable evidence.

War on Terror

In 2001, following the 9/11 attacks, the United States formed an alliance with Pakistan in its War on Terror to use its air bases for operations against Afghanistan and preferring to confer on Pakistan the title of Major Non-Nato Ally. However, as Musharraf would later reveal in his book In the Line of Fire, Pakistan was coerced in joining the coalition against Taliban in Afghanistan. According to Mussarraf, Richard Armitage, then the Deputy Secretary of State, threatened to bomb Pakistan back to stone age if it did not join the war on teror.[6]

Musharraf dropped his insistence that no issues could be discussed until the Kashmir issue was fully solved. Bilateral meetings between the two sides resulted in new people-to-people contacts. Air services and cricket matches were restored. Trains started plying between Sindh and Rajasthan. Bans on Indian movies and TV channels were eased in Pakistan.

Transport links across the Line of Control in Kashmir were reopened. More importantly the intelligence services and armies of the two countries started to cooperate in identifying terrorists who threatened attacks. On June 20, 2004, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. In 2007 the two countries agreed to start flights between their capitals. Legal trade between the countries reached 2 billion dollars. After the Mumbai terror attacks in 2008, the already fragile relations have once again worsened.

Territorial disputes of Pakistan

Relations by country

Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain

Pakistan-Bahrain relations

Islamabad and Manama enjoy close co-operations between the two in many fields of brotherhood. Joint initiatives between Bahraini and Pakistani governments have started to further bilateral trades that reached to $250 million in 2007.

 Iran (See above) See also Iran-Pakistan relations
 Iraq See Iraq-Pakistan relations

Iraq and Pakistan have had close, friendly, and cooperative relations since the latter's independence in 1947. Issues such as Iraqi support for Pakistan in its 1971 war with India (which Iraq also has excellent relations with), and Pakistani support for Iraq against Iran in the Iran-Iraq War have forged relations between the two. Islamabad-Baghdad relations soured during the Gulf War when Pakistan contributed troops for the UN Coalition, seeing it as a betrayal due to Iraq's constant support for Pakistan in their previous wars with India. In 2002, Saddam Hussein visited India and said he gave his unwavering support to India over the Kashmir dispute. In 2003, Pakistan rejected US's request to send troops for the invasion which have helped soothed relations between the two.

 Jordan See Jordan–Pakistan relations

There are very close relations between Jordan and Pakistan. Princess Sarwat wife of Prince Hassan is originally a Pakistani. At the international level Pakistan and Jordan have similar views such as the Israel/Palestine issue.

 Kuwait See Kuwait–Pakistan relations

After the end of the first Gulf War in 1991 Pakistani army engineers were involved in a programme of mine clearance in the country.[7] Kuwait was also the first country to send aid to isolated mountain villages in Kashmir after the quake of 2005,[8] also offering the largest amount of aid in the aftermath of the quake ($100m).[9]

 Lebanon See Lebanese-Pakistani relations

Lebanon and Pakistan have good relations. Pakistan has also been a steadfast supporter of Lebanon particularly when it was invaded by its southern neighbor. Additionally, Pakistan has extended moral, diplomatic and material support to Lebanon and refuses to recognize Israel officially, as a legitimate country in solidarity with the Palestinian, Lebanese and other Middle Eastern countries.

 Oman See Oman–Pakistan relations

The relationship between Muscat and Islamabad is warm, because it is the nearest Arab country to Pakistan and the fact that some 30% of Omani's are of Balochi origin from Pakistan's Balochistan province having settled Oman over a hundred years ago. In 1958 Gwadar was part of Oman but was transferred to Pakistan in that year.

 Palestine See Pakistan-Palestine relations

Pakistan fully supports the proposal of the creation of an independent Palestinian state. Due to Pakistan's pro-Palestinian stance, bilateral relations between Pakistan and Israel have continuously wavered over the last few years. Pakistan has also declined to recognise the state of Israel until the "liberation of Palestine" will take place.[10]

The Palestinian President, Mahmoud Abbas, also paid an official visit to Pakistan in 2005, during his tour of Asia. During his stay in Islamabad, he met Pervez Musharraf who was the President of Pakistan at that time as well as the then-Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and Senate Chairman of Pakistan, Muhammad Mian Soomro. In the meeting, he made political talks with the Pakistani leaders regarding the current situation of the Middle East and the peace process between Palestine and Israel. He also discussed about the developments in the occupied territories and the international efforts exerted so far to attain peace in the region, and to implement related agreements in addition to the support Pakistan provides to Palestine.[11] When leaving Pakistan, Abbas said that he supports the right to self-determination of the Palestinians and the solidarity of the Arab World with the Pakistanis against the Israeli occupation of Palestine, Abbas thanked Musharraf and the people of Pakistan for their continued and devoted support to the Palestinian cause.[12]

Following the 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict, Pakistan's GEO News was one of the only few foreign news channels that provided exclusive coverage of the situation that was prevailing after the war, right from Gaza. The reporting was hosted by the Pakistani journalist, Hamid Mir, in January 2009.

 Saudi Arabia See Pakistan-Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia has also provided extensive religious and educational aid to Pakistan, being a major contributor to the construction of mosques and madrassas (religious schools) across Pakistan, the Faisal Mosque (dedicated to King Faisal of Saudi Arabia) in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. The major Pakistani city of Lyallpur was also renamed Faisalabad in honour of King Faisal in 1977. Saudi Arabia remains a major destination for immigration amongst Pakistanis, the number of whom living in Saudi Arabia stands between 900,000 and 1 million.[13][14] Saudi Arabia was a major supporter of the "Islamisation" programme of the military ruler Gen. Zia-ul-Haq in the 1970s. In 2006, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia was awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan, the highest civilian decoration of Pakistan.[15]

Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum for Pakistan.[16] It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign currency.[17] In recent years, both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to expand bilateral cooperation in trade, education, real estate, tourism, information technology, communications and agriculture.[14][18] Saudi Arabia is aiding the development of trade relations with Pakistan through the Gulf Cooperation Council, with which Pakistan is negotiating a free trade agreement; the volume of trade between Pakistan and GCC member states in 2006 stood at USD 11 billion.[17][18]

 Syria See Pakistan–Syria relations

Both countries were on the silk route through which civilizational exchanges took place for centuries, Islamic missionaries that introduced Islam after 711 AD were from Syria. During the Yom Kippur War of 1973 (usually referred to as the Ramadan war in Pakistan) several Pakistani pilots assisted the Syrian air force.[19] In 2005 Syria and Pakistan agreed on mutual cooperation in the fields of science and technology.[20]

 United Arab Emirates See Pakistan-United Arab Emirates relations

Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to UAE on its achieving independence. Bilateral relations and mutually beneficial cooperation have progressed steadily ever since. These relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971, and have since evolved into wide-ranging co-operation in various fields. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan. UAE has been appreciative of Pakistan's contribution to the evolution of key institutions in the Emirates such as armed forces, police, health and education, and has reciprocated in the same friendly manner to the full satisfaction of Pakistan.

The two countries have common perceptions on all international and regional issues of mutual concern. Frequent exchanges of high level visits and regular bilateral consultations between the two countries are reflective of the fact that Pakistan and UAE have laid strong foundations of mutually beneficial relations, friendship and peaceful cooperation over the years, UAE has emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading partners. A large number of Pakistani expatriates, numbering nearly 400,000 are gainfully employed in UAE. The Pakistani expatriates in UAE have contributed in a significant manner to promotion of bilateral understanding and to the economy of Pakistan through their home remittances.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan (See above) See also Afghanistan-Pakistan relations
 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan-Pakistan relations

Pakistan recognized independence of Azerbaijan 1991 (the second country after Turkey) and the two countries established full diplomatic relations in 1992. Pakistan was one of the first countries to open its Embassy in Baku.

Bangladesh People's Republic of Bangladesh 1976-01-18 See Bangladesh–Pakistan relations

Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh are influenced by the fact that Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan until 1971, when it achieved independence after the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. As part of Shimla Agreement, India sought to make sure that Pakistan would take steps to recognize Bangladesh. Pakistan sought China's help in blocking Bangladesh's entry into United Nations till 1974. Behind the scene India rallied behind Bangladesh to help gain international recognition. By end of March 1973, 98 countries had recognized Bangladesh.[21] Pakistan eventually recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after being pressured from other Muslim nations particularly from the Arab states as Mujib stated he would only go to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognised Bangladesh.[citation needed] Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on January 18, 1976 and relations improved in the following decades.

 Brunei See Brunei–Pakistan relations

Pakistan has a High Commission in Bandar Seri Begawan and Brunei has a High Commission in Islamabad. Pakistanis initially hesitated to recognise the country since its close ties with Malaysia what they considered as part of Malaya.

 Cambodia See Cambodia–Pakistan relations

Pakistan has an embassy in Phnom Penh although Cambodia does not have an embassy in Pakistan.

 People's Republic of China (See above) See also Sino-Pakistan relations
India Republic of India (See above) See also Indo-Pakistani relations
 Japan See Japan–Pakistan relations

Despite having been through various phases and having witnessed some vicissitudes, Japan-Pakistan relations have kept growing to the mutual benefit of the two countries. Until the late 1950s, the relationship was essentially that of two developing countries. Pakistan, being the main source of raw cotton for Japan's textile industry, was one of its major trading partners. Japanese spindles on the other hand helped build Pakistan's textile industry. In the 1960s, Japan, however, re-emerged as a modern industrialized nation and started extending Yen loan assistance to Pakistan. The Japanese assistance was doubled to Pakistan following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Japan, since then, has been Pakistan's major source of economic assistance, a leading trading partner and an important source of foreign investment.

Tokyo and Islamabad have long enjoyed cordial relations throughout chronology. Japan's economic assistance has played a very important role in the development of Pakistan's economic and social infrastructure. The major projects, which have been funded by the Government of Japan, include the Indus Highway Project, a number of power projects in various provinces of Pakistan, Rural Roads Construction Project and the Children Hospital PIMS lslamabad Project. Presently the Kohat Tunnel Project and the Ghazi Brotha Dam Project are being completed with the help of the Japanese assistance.

There has been a regular exchange of high level visits between the two countries. Pakistan and Japan had established formal diplomatic relations on 28 April 1952. The 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, jointly celebrated by the two countries in 2002, was a significant landmark in the history of this friendship.

 Kazakhstan See Kazakhstan-Pakistan relations

Relations between the two countries began when Pakistan recognized Kazakhstan on December 20, 1991. On February 24, 1992, diplomatic and consular relations were established during an official visit by Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev to Pakistan.[22] Kazakhstan is an emerging market for Pakistani goods.[23]

 Kyrgyzstan See Kyrgyzstan-Pakistan relations

Pakistan extended diplomatic recognition to the Kyrgyz Republic on December 20, 1991. A Protocol for the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan was signed on May 10, 1992. Pakistan's diplomatic resident Mission at Ambassadorial level was established at Bishkek in August 1995. There have been high level visits from both sides in last ten years. In December 2000, the Chief Executive of Pakistan extended an invitation to Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev to pay a State visit to Pakistan. The invitation was accepted by the President of Kyrgyzstan.

 Malaysia See Malaysia-Pakistan relations

Pakistan has its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has its High Commission in Islamabad. Pakistan has brotherly relations with Malaysia. Both are members of Organization of Islamic Conference (O.I.C) and Commonwealth of Nations. There is a trade and cultural pact between the two countries, under which the import and export of various goods is done on fairly large scale. The President and the Prime Minister of Pakistan along with other high officials visited Malaysia many times and Malaysian officials also paid a good will visit to Pakistan. Both the countries enjoy close relations and links of mutual friendship and the cooperation has further strengthened.

 Maldives See Maldives–Pakistan relations

The Maldives and Pakistan are culturally very close in sharing a Sunni majority. Islamabad supports the Maldivian position in the territorial dispute over the southern Indian colony of Minicoy Island in the Lakshadweep, whose population is Muslim by faith.

 Nepal See Nepal-Pakistan relations

Despite an extensive 1982 trade agreement, the volume of bilateral trade remains comparatively small at USD 4.8 million.[24] Pakistan's total exports to Nepal are worth USD 1.631 million while Nepal's exports to Pakistan tally USD 3.166 million.[24] Both countries have recently stepped up efforts to promote bilateral trade, especially in textiles, oilseeds, extraction of oil and tourism; Pakistan also offered a USD 5 million line of credit to Nepal.[24][25][26] Nepal and Pakistan are signatories to the South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) and members of the South Asian Economic Union.

 North Korea See North Korea-Pakistan relations

It is still not exactly clear when Pakistan opened diplomatic ties to North Korea. It is said to be somewhere in the 1970s. Recent developments indicate that their relations were kept secretive to avoid suspicion from the west and the risk of economic sanctions. The unification of the Koreas is acceptable to both Pakistanis and Koreans.

 Sri Lanka See Pakistan-Sri Lanka relations

Sri Lanka's ties with Pakistan are warming gradually. Pakistan has been recently supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan armed forces. Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka are generally warm. In the past, Pakistan has been supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan military in the prevailing civil war against the Tamil Tigers. There is a Pakistani embassy located in Sri Lanka and a Sri Lankan embassy situated in Pakistan.

Sri Lanka helped Pakistan war ships and commercial planes (with the knowledge that they were actually carrying soldiers in civilian clothes) to harbour and refuel during the Bangladesh Liberation war, and later the Indo-Pak war of 1971. Recently, the Pakistan government blamed Islamic militants for the attacks on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore on March 3, 2009.[citation needed] The Sri Lanka government replied by calling these attacks as 'cowardly' and said that these acts will not harm its relations with Pakistan. The Pakistani government called this act as an attempt to spoil Pakistan's reputation and friendly relation with Sri Lanka.

 Tajikistan See Pakistan-Tajikistan relations

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, established diplomatic relationship with the Republic of Tajikistan in 1992, but cooperation between these two countries started from 1991. Geographically Tajikistan is the nearest Central Asian State to Pakistan - fourteen kilometeres between two countries. Many Tajiks have immigrated to Pakistan, notably in the city of Ishkoman where they have integrated into the local population.

 Turkmenistan 1992-05-10 See Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations

Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize Turkmenistan as an independent country in December 1991.

Exchange of high-level visits during the last 10 years give credence to the fact that Pakistan and Turkmenistan have laid foundation of mutually beneficial relations, friendship and understanding. The hallmark of the friendship was demonstrated during the official visit of the Chief Executive of Pakistan to Ashgabat in May - 2000, and again during his brief stop-over in November 2000. In the short span of 10 years, there have been six visits of Head of State/Head of Government from Pakistan to Turkmenistan. President of Turkmenistan Saparmurate Niyazov had visited Pakistan thrice in August 1994, March 1995 and March 1997.

The two countries have signed 21 Agreements and Memoranda of understanding in the fields of oil and gas, transport, energy, trade, science and culture. The issuance of commemorative stamps by Pakistan will be an important milestone in the gamut of bilateral relations.

 Uzbekistan See Pakistan–Uzbekistan relations

Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR, the relations between the two countries were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan which both countries border as they supported different factions Afghan factions.[27]

However relations improved after the fall of the Taliban, both countries seeking to improve relations for the sake of trade, Pakistan wishing to gain access to Central Asian markets and landlocked Uzbekistan to access ports on the Indian Ocean. Despite this the two brotherly countries have some culture in common especially because of deep Turkic and Persian influences in the two countries.[27]

 Vietnam 1972-11-08 See Pakistan-Vietnam relations

Pakistan opened its Embassy in Hanoi in 1973. However, due to economic reasons, Pakistan closed the embassy in 1980. Vietnam also opened its embassy in Islamabad in 1978 and had to close it down in 1984 due to its own economic difficulty. Bilateral relations between Vietnam and Pakistan in recent years have considerably improved. Both countries leaders expressed their willingness to strengthen their existing relations, not only in the political sphere but also in other areas such as trade and economics, and exchange more visits from one to another's country, including both high-ranking and working visits. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.

In August 2009, during talks between Pakistani and Vietnamese officials Vice President Karachi Chamber Muhammad Ali said that Pakistan and Vietnam have vast potential to explore trade opportunities and in this regard the governments of both the countries should encourage and provide facilitation to the business community. To further enhance the multifaceted cooperation, such as in the areas of trade and investment, IT and software industry, agriculture, culture and education as well, practical measures are essential from both sides.[28]

North Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria-Pakistan relations

There exists friendly foreign relations between Algeria and Pakistan. Pakistan supported the cause of Algeria's independence from France. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the "Provisional Government of Republic of Algeria" in exile on 19 September 1958 under the Prime Minister ship of Farhat Abbas and had permitted it to open its Mission in Karachi. The Government of Pakistan provided diplomatic passports to the members of the Algerian government in exile for their foreign travel.

 Egypt See Egypt–Pakistan relations

Pakistan and Egypt (Misr), both being Muslim countries, share cordial relations. Both are also members of the OIC (Oraganization of Islamic Conference), as well as "the next eleven" and "D8". After the foundation of Pakistan, it has established diplomatic and trade relations with Egypt. Relations between Pakistan and Egypt were not very cardinal, but when the president of Pakistan, General Muhammad Ayub Khan visited Egypt in 1959, most of the misunderstandings were removed and relations improved. These relations further strengthened with the visit of Jamal Abdul Nassir to Pakistan in 1960. Relations between Egypt and Pakistan were further strengthened because of the latters support in the Arab-Israel war. The proof of this stability in relations is that during the second Islamic Summit Conference in 1974, the President of Egypt Mr. Anwar Sadat recognized and praised the services which Pakistan had rendered to the Arab cause, but relations had strained over the border issues with neighbouring Sudan, which Pakistan favour's and supported.

 Libya See Libya-Pakistan relations

The relations between the two nations have always been deep and abiding, ever since the start. The two countries also share common religious and cultural links, especially the fact that both the countries are Islamic states.

 Morocco See Morocco-Pakistan relations

Pakistan has an embassy in Rabat while Morocco also has its embassy in Islamabad. Both the countries have co-operated significantly since the past and continue to widely expand their relations, in the past Pakistan has said that it does not recognise Western Sahara and that its status is disputed and remains to be decided by UN Resolutions, but at the same time it gave the Moroccan point of view that it is an internal matter.

 Sudan See Pakistan-Sudan relations

Due to both states sharing the same religion, being former British colonies, and refusing to recognize Israel as a legitimate nation, Pakistan and Sudan have shared generally close and warm relations for decades. Both countries are members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Like Minded Group, and the Group of 77; these relations strengthened when Sudan declared its' support for Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani Wars, and also due to the fact that Pakistan stood by the Sudanese people over its integrity and soveriengty, especially on its boundary disputes with both Egypt and Kenya. But because of certain issues however, such as Pakistan's strong relations with the United States, and friendly Sudanese relations with rival countries like the Republic of India, Iran, and Bangladesh, things between the two countries have reached a boiling point. Also, another very important topic which somewhat strains ties between Islamabad and Khartoum is the December 2001 transferral of Al-Jazeera photographer Sami Mohy El Din Muhammed Al Hajj at the hands of the Pakistani government to Guantanamo Bay. Despite this tension, Pakistan and Sudan still engage in collaborative dialogue in improving political stability in the Middle East and the Islamic World; in other words contact between the two nations still remains friendly. Pakistanis supported the Sudanese on the issue of her complete control on the borders of Egypt and Kenya and declared it an integral part of Sudan.

 Tunisia See Pakistan-Tunisia relations

Pakistan supported Tunisia on the issue of its complete control on Bizerte and declared it an integral part of Tunisia. Former Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba had always supported Pakistan's point of view.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Kenya See Kenya-Pakistan relations

Relations between Pakistan and Kenya were first historically established in the 60's, when Pakistan expressed its support for Kenya in getting independence from British rule. Ever since from that time, relations between the two nations have been warm, with both countries having had discussed previously in the Pakistan-Kenya Joint Ministerial Commission session which was hosted in Nairobi in 2004, about boosting bilateral trade and economic relations.[29]

 Mauritius 2006 See Mauritius–Pakistan relations

Pakistan has an embassy at Port Louis and Mauritius has an embassy at Islamabad. The two countries are progressing the finalisation of a Free Trade Agreement.[30][31]

 Niger

Pakistan has an embassy in Niamey,[32] although Niger does not maintain a permanent embassy in Islamabad.[33]

 Nigeria See Nigeria–Pakistan relations

Pakistan has a High Commission in Abuja and Nigeria has an embassy in Islamabad, as well as a Consulate-General in Karachi. The two states have maintained a close relationship, a relationship which is described by the Nigerian Defence Minister as "friendly" and like a "family tie"[34]

 Zimbabwe See Pakistan–Zimbabwe relations

Pakistan is represented in Zimbabwe by embassy in Harare. The Pakistani government has pledged to always "stand by Zimbabwe in its challenging times and continue to render assistance in every way possible in an effort to cement the already cordial relations between the two countries."[35] The friendship between Pakistan and Zimbabwe dates back to the times of the war of liberation of the country, during which Pakistan was known to have provided an immense amount of extended moral and material support to many Zimbabwean freedom fighters, by providing armed machinery and helping rebuild the Gweru airbase which was destroyed during the liberation struggle.[35][36]

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria
 Belgium See Foreign relations of Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Pakistan relations

Both nations share close relations on the grounds of religion and politics. Pakistan was a staunch supporter of Bosnia during the civil war. Pakistan sent in UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars. Pakistan and Bosnia have a free trade agreement.

 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark See Denmark-Pakistan relations

Pakistan has an embassy in Copenhagen.[citation needed] Denmark also has an embassy in Islamabad; it suffered a suicide car bomb attack in June 2008, killing five Pakistanis and one Dane.[37] Roughly 20,000 Pakistanis live and work in Denmark, making them the country's fifth-largest non-Western community. Six Pakistani immigrants/descendants of immigrants have seats on local parliaments and councils, the second-highest number of any immigrant group.[38]

 France See France–Pakistan relations

Pakistan and France have high levels of diplomatic meetings and are in good terms with one another. However, these good relations haven't been around very long. Trade between Pakistan and France is increasing and France has donated large funds to help Pakistan with its economic problems.

 Germany See Germany–Pakistan relations

Germany and Pakistan enjoy closely cordial relations. Germany has taken large measures to aid the South Asian country in its economic and governmental hardship. Commercial trade between Berlin and Islamabad has also been very essential in recent years seeing as Germany is Pakistan's fourth largest trade partner. Also, Germany is home to 35,081 Pakistani immigrants. Overall, the two nations have most always had a friendly bond, notwithstanding the Germany's relationship with Pakistan's historical nemesis, India.

 Greece See Greece–Pakistan relations

In modern times, Pakistan's first embassy in Athens was opened in 1975. Greece established an embassy in Islamabad in 1987. There are around 32,500 Pakistani people living and working in Greece. However Islamabad has stated it will not accept Greek soveriengty over Cyprus and it should withdraw its bulk of armed forces from the southern part of the island to restore the independence of the Cypriots, which it continues to have diplomatic relations with Nicosia.

 Holy See See Foreign relations of the Holy See
 Hungary 1965-11-26 See Hungary-Pakistan relations
 Ireland See Ireland-Pakistan relations

Ireland is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and an honorary consualte in Karachi. Pakistan has an embassy in Dublin. Pakistanis continue to support the idea of unification of Northern Ireland to the rest of Éire which remained part of the United Kingdom after the Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth of Nations.

 Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
 Malta

Malta is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Beijing (China) and an honorary consulate in Karachi. Pakistan is represented in Malta through its embassy in Tripoli (Libya) and an honorary consulate in Marsa. In 2007, in a meeting in Malta between Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri and Foreign Minister of Malta Michael Frendo, the two countries agreed to continue the ongoing cooperation between the two countries in the United Nations and other international forums as well and reviewed bilateral ties with a view to strengthening relations between Pakistan and Malta in all spheres, especially trade and investment.[41] Foreign Minister Kasuri emphasized the need for exchanging trade delegations to exploit true potential for enhancing economic cooperation between the two countries, which are the "gateways" to their respective regions. Dr. Michael Frendo agreed to send an expert delegation to Pakistan to seek opportunities for enhancing bilateral trade relations. Pakistan also sought Malta's support for Pakistan's initiative for equitable market access to the European Union through a Free Trade Agreement or similar mechanism.[42][43] Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In 2002 a Maltese citizen, who was born in Pakistan, was sentenced to seven years in prison in Malta. He was found guilty of kidnapping 11 Pakistani babies that were brought to Malta for adoption.[44]

In 2009 it was reported that a Pakistan-based human trafficking ring has set up a successful business in Malta, where Pakistanis seeking illegal entry into mainland Europe are being furnished with new travel documents and transported on to Italy and Spain. It was reported that sources within the Pakistani Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) said that the illegal migration of Pakistanis to Europe was being carried out through Malta, from where the migrants are being transported by ship to Sicily and onward to countries such as Italy and Spain.[45]

 Romania See Pakistan–Romania relations
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Bucharest and an honorary consulate in Iaşi.[46]
  • Romania has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Lahore.[47]
  • In 2004 President Ion Iliescu met with Pakistani Interior Minister Markhdoom Syed Saleh Faisal Hayat at Cotroceni Palace, and discussed "the good cooperation between the Romanian Ministry of the Interior and the Pakistani Interior Ministry". Several agreements were signed to combate drug trafficking, and illegal immigration. Home Minister Ioan Rus speaking on immigration said that "out of 5,000 Pakistanis that transited Romania in 2002-2003 as few as 30 entered the country illegally."[48]
 Russia 1948-05-01[49] See Pakistan–Russia relations

Relations between these two countries have been strained in the past, because of Pakistan's close ties to America and its support for the Afghan rebels during the invasion by the USSR.

 Serbia See Pakistan–Serbia relations
  • Since July 2001, Pakistan has an embassy in Belgrade.[50]
  • Serbia has now closed its embassy in Pakistan after 2001 due to financial or reciprocal reasons because Pakistan's role in the desire for Sanjak's merger with their brethren of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is now represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Beijing (China).[51]
  • However there is a bone of contention between the two, because of the latter's close relations with, India.[52]
 Turkey See Pakistani–Turkish relations

Pakistani–Turkish relations have been traditionally strong. Both nations maintain extensive cultural, commercial, strategic and military cooperation.[1] Both Turkey and Pakistan are Muslim-majority states and share extensive cultural and geopolitical links. Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharaff had expressed a desire to develop Pakistan on the Turkish model of modernism and secularism.[2][1]

 Ukraine 1992 See Pakistan-Ukraine relations
  • Pakistan recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Kiev.[53]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Islamabad.[54]
  • Ukraine and Pakistan have been cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering, aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and technology.
 United Kingdom See Pakistan-United Kingdom relations

Pakistan has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since independence in 1947. It was not a member of the British Commonwealth from 1972 until 1989, because of the Commonwealth's recognition of Bangladesh. It was readmitted to full membership of the Commonwealth in October 1989. It was suspended with the overthrow of the democratically elected government in 1999. Its full membership has been reinstated with the backing of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for Pakistan's support in the War on Terrorism. Pakistan maintains diplomatic relations with all Commonwealth countries even though it does not have its own High Commission in each capital.

Rest of world

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Argentina–Pakistan relations

A memorandum of Understanding with the National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina and the Pakistan Academy of Sciences was signed. In pursuit of its policy of establishing scientific cooperation with Argentina, the Pakistan has been actively engaged in signing Memorandum of understanding (MoUs) with various organizations.

 Australia See Australia–Pakistan relations

Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited Australia in 2005[55] and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to study in Australia.[56]

 Brazil See Brazil–Pakistan relations

The relation between Brazil and Pakistan is friendly and there is a lot of cooperation between in the two countries in military field. In 2008 Brazil, approved the selling of 100 missiles to Pakistan despite India's pressure to Brazil. Brazil Defense Minister Nelson Jobim called these missiles "very effective ways to monitor" areas flown by war planes, and said the deal with Pakistan was worth €85 million ($167.6 million). He dismissed suggestions that the transaction might be questioned in light of Islamist extremist massacre who perpetrated in Mumbai, India, which some Indian officials suspected was launched from within Pakistan. "Brazil negotiates with Pakistan, not with Pakistani terrorists," Mr Jobim said. "To cancel this deal would be to attribute terrorist activities to the Pakistani Government."

 Canada See Canada–Pakistan relations

Canada and Pakistan are on compatible terms with each other. Canada is represented through its embassy in Islamabad, and Pakistan is represented through its embassy in Ottawa. The North American nation has served as a key player in attempting to curtail Pakistan's recent economic and political imbalances; there are roughly 80,000 Canadians of Pakistani heritage.

 Cuba See Cuba-Pakistan relations

The relations between the two countries strengthened after Cuba provided humanitarian assistance to the victims of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Both the nations continue to strengthen the bilateral relations especially in the fields of higher education, agriculture, industry and science and technology and have also held talks for military cooperation.

 New Zealand See New Zealand–Pakistan relations

Pakistan has a High Commission located in Wellington whilst New Zealand has a Consulate-General in Karachi. New Zealand was party to the Commonwealth Heads of Government decision to readmit Pakistan to the Councils of the Commonwealth after the restoration of civilian rule in May 2008.

US flag 48 stars.svg United States of America 10/20/1947 See Pakistan-United States relations

Relations between Pakistan and the United States have been cooling recently after the visit of Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari to the United States of America.

U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Anne W. Patterson addressed senior bureaucrats at the National Management College and emphasized that the United States will assist Pakistan's new democratic government in the areas of development, stability, and security.[57] The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations World Food Program, in Pakistan, officially announced the signing of an agreement valued at $8.4 million to help ease Pakistan's food crisis.[57] With relations between Pakistan and the United States cooling down, it is expected that Pakistan and the United States could return to being allies again not only in the War on Terror but also in other possible threats to regional and world peace. It is also hoped by the United States that Pakistan under the administration of Asif Ali Zardari would only strengthen relations between Pakistan and the United States.

CIA Chief believes Osama Bin Laden is hiding in Pakistan and is being pursued by US and Pakistani forces.[58]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8313625.stm
  3. ^ Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia
  4. ^ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=40532
  5. ^ "Pakistan's $4.2 Billion 'Blank Check' for U.S. Military Aid, After 9/11, funding to country soars with little oversight" (in English). Center for Public Integrity. March 27, 2007. http://www.publicintegrity.org/icij/default.aspx. 
  6. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article647188.ece
  7. ^ UN Iraq - Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM)
  8. ^ Kuwait sends relief goods for villages
  9. ^ Race to save earthquake survivors - BBC News
  10. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200509/02/eng20050902_206013.html
  11. ^ http://english.bna.bh/?ID=31873
  12. ^ http://dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_11-1-2005_pg7_50
  13. ^ Arab versus Asian migrant workers in the GCC countries
  14. ^ a b Riyadh look to Asian trade
  15. ^ King Abdullah ends Asian tour with state visit to Pakistan
  16. ^ Saudi king holds Pakistan talks
  17. ^ a b India-Pakistan trade with Gulf hits $36 bn
  18. ^ a b Pakistan to welcome greater investment from Saudi Arabia
  19. ^ The saga of an intrepid PAF pilot who humbled the Israelis
  20. ^ Pakistan, Syria to promote cooperation in S&T - Dawn
  21. ^ "Situation in the Indian Subcontinent". www.mofa.go.jp. 1972. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/1972/1972-1-9.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  22. ^ Cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  23. ^ Trade Development Authority of Pakistan
  24. ^ a b c Pakistan and Nepal bilateral trade to be improved
  25. ^ China brings Nepal friendship, not arms
  26. ^ Nepal, Pakistan in economy talks
  27. ^ a b Musharraf signs Uzbek agreements – BBC News
  28. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\08\26\story_26-8-2009_pg5_16
  29. ^ http://pakistantimes.net/2004/07/31/business3.htm
  30. ^ http://www.bilaterals.org/article.php3?id_article=12083
  31. ^ http://www.commerce.gov.pk/read.asp?newsID=183
  32. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan: Embassy of Pakistan to the Republic of Niger.
  33. ^ List from 2009-02-11 version of Office of the President of Niger: Missions Diplomatiques et-ou Représentations Permanentes du Niger par zone géographique.
  34. ^ http://allafrica.com/stories/200802040989.html
  35. ^ a b http://allafrica.com/stories/200807140643.html
  36. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200602/10/eng20060210_241469.html
  37. ^ "Denmark condemns embassy suicide blast", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2008-06-02, http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/06/02/2262909.htm, retrieved 2009-04-17 
  38. ^ Goli, Shahamak; Rezaei (March 2005), Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Denmark, Building Europe with New Citizens? An Inquiry into the Civic Participation of Naturalised Citizens and Foreign Residents in 25 Countries, European Commission, http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/download/Denmark.pdf, retrieved 2008-11-19 
  39. ^ Hungarian embassy in Islamabad
  40. ^ Pakistani embassy in Budapest
  41. ^ "Malta, Pakistan review, strengthen bilateral ties.". Pakistan Press International. June 14, 2007. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-31266549_ITM. Retrieved 2009-06-04. "Malta and Pakistan agreed to continue ongoing cooperation between them in United Nations and other international forums during talks between Foreign Minister Khurshid Kasuri and his visiting Malta counterpart Dr. Michael Frendo. Kasuri and Dr. Frendo reviewed bilateral ties to strengthen relations between two..." 
  42. ^ "Pakistan ties". Associated Press of Pakistan in Daily Malta. http://www.dailymalta.com/wt/2007/06/pakistan-ties.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-04. "Pakistan and Malta Wednesday agreed to continue the ongoing cooperation between the two countries in the United Nations and other international forums as well. This was observed in a meeting of Foreign Minister Khurshid M. Kasuri and Foreign Minister of Malta Dr. Michael Frendo here. The two foreign ministers reviewed bilateral ties with a view to strengthening relations between Pakistan and Malta in all spheres, especially trade and investment." 
  43. ^ "Pakistan, Malta agree to continue ongoing cooperation at international forums". Asia Pulse. June 13, 2007. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-31303152_ITM. Retrieved 2009-06-04. "Pakistan and Malta Wednesday agreed to continue the ongoing cooperation between the two countries in the United Nations and other international forums as well. This was observed in a meeting of Foreign Minister Khurshid M. Kasuri and Foreign Minister of Malta Dr. Michael Frendo here...." 
  44. ^ "Maltese jailed for trafficking Pakistani babies". MaltaMedia Online Network. May 24, 2006. http://www.maltamedia.com/news/2005/ln/article_10103.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-04. "In March 2002, Dennis Charles was arrested with six other people by Palestinian authorities, after a tip-off that they held 11 babies, aged between ten days and two months, to be trafficked illegally to Malta. The babies were found in Gulshan-I-Iqbal in Karachi, and were placed in care." 
  45. ^ "Pakistani human traffickers use Malta as staging post for Europe". The Malta Independent. http://www.independent.com.mt/news.asp?newsitemid=85502. Retrieved 2009-06-04. "A Pakistan-based human trafficking ring has set up a successful business in Malta, where Pakistanis seeking illegal entry into mainland Europe are being furnished with new travel documents and transported on to Italy and Spain, according to a report published in a leading Pakistani daily newspaper on Friday." 
  46. ^ Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Pakistani embassy in Bucharest
  47. ^ Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Romanian embassy in Islamabad
  48. ^ "Pakistan's interior minister received by President Iliescu". Romania. http://www.mae.ro/index.php?unde=doc&id=22798. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  49. ^ Speech of H.E. Mr. Sergey Peskov, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan at the Jubilee Function on the occasion of celebration of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Pakistan - Official Website of the Embassy of the Russian Federation in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  50. ^ Pakistani embassy in Belgrade
  51. ^ Serbian embassy in Beijing (also accredited to Pakistan)
  52. ^ Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Pakistan
  53. ^ Pakistani embassy in Kiev
  54. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Islamabad
  55. ^ Musharraf on key Australia visit - BBC News
  56. ^ Earthquakes in South Asia - Australian Government
  57. ^ a b "The United States Embassy" (in English (U.S.)). http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/. Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  58. ^ CIA chief says bin Laden in Pakistan, The Boston Globe, 2009-06-11

External links








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