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Turkey

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Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish government's policies in its external relations with the international community. Historically, based on the Western-inspired reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, such policies have placed heavy emphasis on Turkey's relationship with the Western world, especially in relation to the United States, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union. The post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Turkey seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus, as well as its historical goal of E.U. membership.

Countries in which Turkey maintains its own embassy

Contents

Europe

European Union

The Turkish application to join the European Economic Community (now the European Union) as an associate member in 1959 soon resulted in associate membership in 1963, with full membership being acknowledged as the final goal. However, problems in foreign policy such as the Cyprus conflict and the internal political turbulence from the 1970s until the early 1980s forced Turkey to delay applying for full membership of the European Community until 1987. The application was rejected, although the E.C. did say that Turkish membership could occur at some point in the future.

An EU-Turkey Customs Union came into effect on January 1, 1996, allowing goods to travel between Turkey and the E.U. member states without customs restrictions, although it crucially stopped short of lifting restrictions in areas such as agriculture.

The European Union confirmed Turkey's status as candidate for membership at the European Council's Helsinki Summit in 1999. The accession talks did not follow immediately, however, as the E.U. said Turkey had to make significant reforms, particularly in the field of human rights, before the talks could begin. Turkey's current administration has identified EU membership as its top priority, and has taken many - and sometimes controversial - reform packages through the Parliament aimed at gradually harmonizing Turkey with E.U. standards. Since October 2005, Turkey has formally started accession negotiations with the E.U. and these will be based on the acquis communautaire.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria See Austrian–Turkish relations

From the middle ages until the twentieth century today's Austria and Turkey were the core regions within much larger empires. Austria was the seat of the House of Habsburg and Turkey was ruled by the House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman Dynasty). The Habsburg and Ottoman states were both large multi-ethnic conglomerations sustained by conquest. These rival empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans.

 Belarus 1992-05-25 See Belarusian–Turkish relations
 Belgium See Belgian–Turkish relations
 Denmark See Danish–Turkish relations
 Finland 1920-05-20 See Finnish–Turkish relations
 France See French–Turkish relations

Turkey has an embassy in Paris and consulates general in Lyon, Marseille and Strasbourg. France has an embassy in Ankara.

 Germany See German–Turkish relations

Based on good Turkish-German relations from the 19th century onwards, Germany promoted a Turkish immigration to Germany. However, large scale didn't occur until the 20th century. Germany suffered an acute labor shortage after World War II and, in 1961, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) officially invited Turkish workers to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories that helped fuel Germany's economic miracle. The German authorities named these people Gastarbeiter (German for guest workers). Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and Eastern Anatolia. Today, Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority.

 Holy See 1868 See Holy See – Turkey relations
 Hungary See Hungarian–Turkish relations
 Ireland See Ireland – Turkey relations
 Italy 1856 See Italian–Turkish relations
 Malta See Maltese–Turkish relations
 Poland See Polish–Turkish relations
 Portugal See Portuguese–Turkish relations

Turkey's 161 years of political relations with Portugal date back to the Ottoman period when Viscount de Seixal was appointed as an envoy to Istanbul. Diplomatic relations ceased during World War I and were re-established in the Republican period in 1926. A resident embassy was established in 1957. Portugal has an embassy in Ankara.[16] Turkey has an embassy in Lisbon. Both countries are full members of NATO.

 Spain See Spanish–Turkish relations

Spain has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Madrid.[17]

 Sweden See Swedish–Turkish relations
 United Kingdom See Turkey – United Kingdom relations

Both countries currently maintain relations via the British Embassy in Ankara[23] and the Turkish Embassy in London.[24]

Turkey and the United Kingdom maintain strong bilateral relations.[25] The President of Turkey Cevdet Sunay paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1967.[26] The President of Turkey Kenan Evren paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1988.[26] HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Turkey in October 1971, and in May 2008.[27] Britain and Turkey are both members of the G20, and Britain supports the accession of Turkey to the European Union.

Cyprus

The Republic of Cyprus was established by the 1959-60 Agreements between Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom as a partnership state between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. In 1963 violence erupted on the island following attempts to amend constitutional safeguards for Turkish Cypriots, leading to a separation of the two communities. A UN Peace-keeping Force (UNFICYP) was dispatched to the island in March 1964.

On 15 July 1974, the military Junta then ruling Greece staged a coup d'état in Cyprus which was aimed at materializing Enosis-Union with Greece- through an armed takeover of the island. This led to Turkey’s military intervention under the Treaty of Guarantee.

Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf Denktas and Greek Cypriot leader Glafcos Clerides reached an agreement in Vienna on 2 August 1975 for the "exchange of populations" under the auspices of the United Nations and this agreement was implemented by the mediation of the UN peace-keeping force. The two sides reached the first high level agreement following a meeting between Denktas and Makarios on 12 February 1977. This four article agreement envisaged the establishment of a bicommunal federal republic on the island.

However, in the north of the island Turkish Cypriots established on 15 November 1983 the defacto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey. Turkey refers to the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the "Greek Cypriot Administration" and its presidents as "Greek Cypriot leaders."[28]

A comprehensive peace plan negotiated with the full support of the international community was submitted to simultaneous but separate referenda in the North and South of Cyprus on 24 April 2004. While the Turkish Cypriots voted in favor of the Annan Plan by casting 67% of their votes, the Greek Cypriots rejected the solution with a ‘No’ vote of 76%. Republic of Cyprus represented by Greek Cypriots acceded to the EU on May 1, 2004. This in turn has led to tension with Turkey's own EU membership aspirations, with the Republic of Cyprus blocking eight chapters due to Turkey's refusal to open its ports to Greek Cypriot shipping.[29] Turkey's position is that its ports will only be opened when the EU upholds its promise to end the economic isolation of the Turkish Cypriots.

The conflict has had wider ramifications in the EU-NATO relationship, with Turkey - a NATO member - blocking Cyprus from participating in EU-NATO meetings, and reducing the scope of talks only those to operations on which the EU and NATO are acting together.[30]

Turkey announced its support for the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus. The plan was accepted by the Turkish Cypriots (but not by 2/3, although a simple majority was needed), but overwhelmingly (3/4) rejected by the Greek Cypriots. Turkey continues to recognize the TRNC at the expense of the Cypriot government in the south, and thus far, the Turkish Embassy in (north) Nicosia is the only official diplomatic mission in the TRNC. The issue of recognition became a thorn in Turkey's candidacy for European Union membership, particularly after the internationally-recognized south was admitted to the Union in 2004.

Acting in conformity with its statement during the EU's Brussels summit of 17 December 2004, Turkey signed the additional protocol to the Ankara Agreement on 29 July 2005, before commencing accession talks with the EU. The protocol, which extends the 1963 Ankara Agreement to all members of the European Union (including Cyprus), was signed by exchange of letter between Turkey, the EU term presidency and the EU Commission. Simultaneously, Turkey issued a statement to the effect that the signature, adoption and implementation of the protocol would not in any way constitute recognition of the government of the Republic of Cyprus (which Turkey calls the Greek Cypriot Administration.)[31 ]

In its 2007 annual handbook, the Turkish government states that "as a result of the policies pursued by the EU member, GCA [Cyprus], Turkish EU relations which would otherwise progress along their natural course suffer a number of problems"[31 ]

Greece

Aegean disputes constitute one of the main reasons for the fluctuating course of Turkish-Greek relations. There is a series of interconnected problems between Turkey and Greece, all emanating from the Aegean Sea. The length of territorial waters, demarcation of the continental shelf, determination of maritime search and rescue zones, air space disputes, militarization of the Eastern Aegean Islands in breach of international agreements, the status of certain Aegean islets which, Turkey claims, were not ceded to Greece by international agreements and the absence of an agreement defining maritime borders with Greece in the Aegean are the major disputes between the two countries. These disputes remain unresolved mainly because of a lack of common understanding between the two sides regarding the "existence" and "methods of solution" of the problems. Rejecting the existence of other disputes, Greece notes that the only dispute in the Aegean is the continental shelf issue and claims that it can only be resolved by jurisprudence.

Turkey's stated view is that the Aegean Sea is a common sea and that no sovereignty rights should be claimed over the open seas and international airspaces in the Aegean Sea. However, the Greek insistence of viewing the whole of the Aegean as a Greek Sea and its incessant disregard of Turkish rights and interests complicate the solution of these disputes.

Since August 1999, Turkey and Greece have conducted a series of "Confidence Building Measures" to improve relations concerning these matters.

Balkans

Turkey has close historical, cultural, economic and political ties with the Balkan states, which are important for Turkey as they are the country's gateway to continental Europe. Turkey attaches importance to the creation of an atmosphere of mutual understanding and peaceful co-habitation through closer ties with the Balkan countries, which would lead to the preservation of peace and stability in the region. Turkey has participated in NATO operations and peacekeeping missions, contributing to the KFOR and the United Nations police mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), as well as the EU-led police mission “Proxima” in Macedonia. Turkey is also contributing to the EUFOR-ALTHEA. For the reconstruction efforts Turkey is part of launching the Southeastern European Cooperation Process (SEECP), and the Multinational Peace Force Southeast Europe (MPFSEE)/Southeastern Europe Brigade (SEEBRIG). Turkey also plays a role in regional economic initiatives as well as the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe initiated by the EU and the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI).

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania See Albanian–Turkish relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a general consulate in Istanbul.[32]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tirana.[33]
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs describes relations between Turkey and Albania as "excellent".[34]
 Bosnia See Bosnia Herzegovina–Turkish relations

Between relation Bosnians and Turkey, start in 1990s formally.

 Bulgaria See Bulgarian–Turkish relations
 Greece See Greco-Turkish relations, Aegean dispute

Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. The tensions came to the brink of war on a number of occasions, most recently in 1996, when Greek and Turkish warships faced each other close to the disputed Imia-Kardak rocks. Only U.S. and NATO intervention subsided the conflict. In February 1999, relations between Greek officials and Abdullah Öcalan (holding a Greek Cypriot passport) and the role of the Greek Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, where Öcalan was captured by agents of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT) caused crisis in relations between the two countries for a period of time; but relations have since improved, particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999. However, the Imia/Kardak issue sprang up again on a smaller scale in 2004.

 Kosovo See Kosovan–Turkish relations

On 17 February 2008, Turkey became one of the first countries to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Kosovo. Turkey turned its coordination office in Pristina into an embassy after a cabinet decision to open a mission in Kosovo. The decision comes in accordance with the reciprocity principle common in diplomatic relations, when Kosovo announced that it was planning to open one of its first foreign missions in Ankara.[37] The population of Kosovars living in Turkey is said to be much more than those living in Kosovo.[38] Kosovo is the home country of Mehmet Akif Ersoy, writer of the Turkish National Anthem, and many others. There are 20,000 Turks living in Kosovo.[39] Also Turkish is one of the official regional languages of Kosovo.

 Macedonia See Macedonian–Turkish relations

Due to historical and cultural mutualities and human bonds, Macedonia and Turkey have very close and friendly relations. Macedonia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate–general in Istanbul, while Turkey has an embassy in Skopje and a consulate-general in Bitola.

 Moldova See Moldovan–Turkish relations
 Romania See Romanian–Turkish relations
 Serbia See Serbian–Turkish relations

Turkish Defense Minister Vecdi Gönül and Serbian Defense Minister Dragan Šutanovac met in Ankara on 12 May 2009 to sign a defence cooperation agreement. Gönül stated that, “Although we do not have a common border, we see Serbia as a neighbour,” and, “Turkey desires to maintain and improve its relations with Serbia the most, among all the other Balkan states.” Šutanovac confirmed that, “There are a lot of things to do in this field,”[42] and, “We are thinking of taking some initiatives in the defense industry together, like co-production in Turkey or Serbia.”[43]

Russia

Vladamir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Silvio Berlusconi in November 2005

Following immediately after the fragmentation of the U.S.S.R., relations between the two nations dramatically and strongly improved; although disagreements regarding the border dispute over the Caucasus and support of each other's lifelong historical adversaries both linger. Russia is somewhat skeptical of Turkey's admission in to the European Union and has recognized the Armenian Genocide which has the potential of damaging its relations with Turkey, but both countries are key strategic partners in the Transcaucasian region.

Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan flew to Sochi, Russia, for a 16 May 2009 “working visit” with Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin at which he stated, “Turkey and Russia have responsibilities in the region. We have to take steps for the peace and well being of the region. This includes the Nagorno-Karabakh problem, the Middle East dispute, the Cyprus problem.” Putin responded that, “Russia and Turkey seek for such problems to be resolved and will facilitate this in every way,” but, “As for difficult problems from the past – and the Karabakh problem is among such issues – a compromise should be found by the participants in the conflict. Other states which help reach a compromise in this aspect can play a role of mediators and guarantors to implement the signed agreements.” Whilst on the subject of energy security Erdoğan stated that, “The agreement on gas supplies through the so-called Western route signed in 1986 is expiring in 2012. We have agreed today to immediately start work to prolong this agreement.”[44][45] Putin made a reciprocal visit to Turkey in June.[46]

Ukraine

Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical, geographic, and cultural contact. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine.[47] Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa.[48] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.[49] Turkey is a full member of NATO and Ukraine is a candidate. Also both countries are BLACKSEAFOR and BSEC members.

United States

Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference which was held December 4–6, 1943

Friendship between Turkey and the United States dates to the late 19th century, when Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire, and was officially sealed by a treaty in 1830. The close relationship between the modern Republic of Turkey and the United States began with the Second Cairo Conference in December 4–6, 1943, and the agreement of July 12, 1947 which implemented the Truman Doctrine. As part of the cooperative effort to further improve Turkish economic and military self-reliance, the United States has loaned and granted Turkey more than $12.5 billion in economic aid and more than $14 billion in military assistance.

Turkey participated with the United States during the Korean War of the early 1950s, providing active military support to the U.S. forces. During the Gulf War of 1990, the Turkish Armed Forces contributed to the coalition forces, and Turkey supported the initiatives of the U.S. in the region. Turkey has hosted the Incirlik Air Base, a major operations base of the United States Air Force, since 1954. Following its membership in 1952, Turkey became the bulwark of NATO's southeastern flank, directly bordering Warsaw Pact countries and risking nuclear war on its soil during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

In the post Cold War environment, though still committed to its close relations with Washington, Turkey became a more independent actor. Although Turkey supported the United States in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan, there was strong domestic opposition to the Iraq War. A government motion to allow U.S. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority. This led to a cooling in relations between the U.S. and Turkey and fears of a permanent rift due to the situation in Iraq.[50] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people lost their lives, against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations, including the U.S. and the EU).[51][52] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U.S. to clamp down on insurgent training camps in northern Iraq, without much success.[53] On October 17, 2007, the Turkish Parliament voted in favour of allowing the Turkish Armed Forces to take military action against the PKK rebels based in northern Iraq.[54] In response, U.S. President George W. Bush stated that he did not believe it's in Turkey's interests to send troops into Iraq.[55]

The U.S. and Turkey have had a Joint Economic Commission and a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement for several years. In 2002, the two countries indicated their joint intent to upgrade bilateral economic relations by launching an Economic Partnership Commission. In 2005, Turkish exports to the U.S. totaled $4.9 billion, and U.S. exports to Turkey totaled $5.3 billion.

South Caucasus

The former Soviet republics in the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) are important for Turkey politically, economically, socially and culturally. The government develops policies in this region taking into account its strategic importance, due to its energy resources and pipeline corridors, and collaborates with its South Caucus neighbours in the BSEC, the OSCE and the Council of Europe.

Armenia

See Armenian–Turkish relations

Armenia-Turkey relations have long been strained by a number of historical-political issues including Turkish denial of the Armenian Genocide, recriminations over the terrorist actions of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) in the 1970s and 80s, and potential border disputes between the two states, and there are currently no formal diplomatic relations between the two modern states.

Turkey recognised the state of Armenia soon after its 1991 independence, but failed to establish formal diplomatic relations. Issues came to a head in 1993 when Turkey sided with it’s Turkic ally Azerbaijan over the Nagarno-Karabakh War by closing its borders with Armenia and were exacerbated by subsequent pipeline and infrastructure projects that bypassed Armenia, and Armenia’s controversial decision to re-commission the dangerously outdated Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant just 16 km from Turkey’s border.

In the wake of the 2007 assassination of Armenian intellectual Hrant Dink by a Turkish nationalist, and the ensuing scandal in which his killer was pictured while holding up a Turkish flag, flanked by smiling government employees,[56] tens of thousands of Turkish citizens marched throughout the country in protest. The subsequent diplomatic thaw saw Turkish President Abdullah Gül become the first ever Turkish leader to visit Armenia[57] and the announcement of a provisional roadmap for normalising diplomatic ties.[58] It was announced that Turkey and Armenia agreed to establish diplomatic relations on October 10, 2009. [1]

Azerbaijan

See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations

Azerbaijan-Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as "one nation with two states" due to a common culture and history, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani.

Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea.

All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the normalisation of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

Georgia

See Georgian–Turkish relations

Turkey has a close partnership relations with Georgia. Turkish citizens can use the Batumi Airport in Georgia, which is run by Turkey's Tepe-Akfen-Vie consortium (TAV), without a visa or passport. Turkey views the Abkhazian and South Ossetian conflicts as a potential danger to peace and stability in the entire region. The resolution of these problems is essential for the preservation of peace and stability in the area. Turkey has shown a readiness to be a negotiator for the Abkhazian conflict.

Middle East and North Africa

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk created a radical shift in Turkish domestic and foreign policy by instituting a strong tradition of secular democracy, which had its roots in the West. Atatürk was an admirer of Enlightenment in many ways and made numerous reforms to modernize Turkey, based on the principles of positivist and rationalist Enlightenment, which he believed would foster educational and scientific progress. In this period, Turkey shifted increasingly towards the West, while culturally and ideologically distancing itself from the conservative mindset, practices and traditions of the Middle East, which were regarded by the Turkish revolutionaries as the source of the backwardness that had caused the Ottoman Empire to collapse.

In The New Turkey (Granta Books, 2005) BBC correspondent Chris Morris claims that “Turkey’s secular democracy, its application for EU membership and its close relationship with the United States have long been regarded in Tehran, Baghdad and Damascus with intense suspicion. Islamists look at the secular state which buried the caliphate and think ‘betrayal’; and Arab nationalists still haven’t forgotten that Turks are their former colonial rulers.” “But there’s been a thaw, especially since the AKP came to power,” and “the new Turkish model – trying to mix greater democracy and Islam together – is now the subject of curiosity and not a little envy.”[59]

Algeria

See Algeria–Turkey relations

Algeria has an embassy in Ankara, and a general consulate in Istanbul.[60] Turkey has an embassy in Algiers.[61]

Bahrain

See Foreign relations of Bahrain

Egypt

Egypt and Turkey are bound by strong religious and historical ties. For five centuries, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire, with the seat of the Caliphate in Istanbul and the seat of culture in Cairo. Turkey established diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1925 at the level of Charge d’ Affaires and upgraded its mission in Cairo to Ambassadorial level in 1948. Both countries have embassies and consulate generals in each other's capitals. Both countries have signed a free trade agreement in December 2005. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean. A natural gas deal between Egypt and Turkey—the largest joint Egyptian-Turkish project to date, estimated to cost $4 billion—is being implemented. In April 16 of 2008, Egypt and Turkey signed a memorandum of understanding to improve and further military relations and cooperation between the two countries. Turkey and Egypt are among the leading countries of both the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and are often said to be key in middle-east peace.

Iran

Turkish-Iranian relations have essentially been peaceful since 1923. There are an estimated 12 to 21 million Turkic speakers in Iran (the Iranian Azeris and Turkmens) who mostly live in the northern regions of the country. However, a period of coldness in bilateral relations existed following the 1979 Iranian Revolution due to the conflicting ideologies of secular Turkey and theocratic Iran.[53] Ankara has long suspected Iran's support for Islamist organizations and militant groups in Turkey.[62] Nevertheless, the economic and political relations between the two countries have significantly improved in the recent years. Today, Iran and Turkey cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorism and drug trafficking, and promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia. Both countries have strongly advocated Iraqi territorial integrity since the beginning of the 2003 Iraqi invasion.[63] Iran and Turkey also have very close economic relations. Both countries are part of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and both were once members of the CENTO alliance. Turkey receives a significant number of Iranian tourists every year,[64][65] while Iran is a major natural gas supplier of Turkey. Turkish construction companies have undertaken important projects in Iran, such as the new Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran.[66]

Iraq

Facing strong domestic opposition in Turkey, a government motion to allow U.S. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's border failed to reach the necessary majority in 2003. A primary concern for Turkey was an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people lost their lives, against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations, including the U.S. and the EU).[51]

The United States' reluctance to threaten the relative stability of northern Iraq by launching operations against the PKK led the Turkish Parliament to authorise a cross border military operation in 2007.[54] On February 22, 2008, the Turkish Armed Forces launched a ground operation in northern Iraq against the PKK rebels in a move described as the first significant Turkish ground offensive into Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003.[67] The ground offensive was preceded by air strikes of the Turkish Air Force against the PKK camps in northern Iraq, which began on December 16, 2007.[68] Turkey's armed forces stepped up their offensive against Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq on February 27, 2008 amid rising diplomatic tensions between Baghdad and Ankara.[69] The Turkish military pulled out of northern Iraq on February 29, 2008.[70] Turkish troops fired artillery shells into northern Iraq on March 5, 2008.[71]

Israel and Palestinian territories

Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel, on March 28, 1949; before Israel was admitted to the United Nations on May 11, 1949. Israel is considered by many as Turkey's closest ally in the world, after the United States.[72] The founders of the State of Israel and prominent Israeli politicians such as David Ben-Gurion, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi and Moshe Shertok had all studied in the leading Turkish schools of Istanbul in their youth, namely Galatasaray Lisesi and Istanbul University.

The history of the Jewish-Turkish relations dates back to the medieval Khazar Empire. The nobility class of the Khazar Turks converted to Judaism at some point between the last decades of the 8th and the early decades of the 9th centuries AD.[73] Later, in the 14th-16th centuries, the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II invited the Sephardic Jews fleeing the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions to settle in the Ottoman Empire. The later record of warm relations dates to the 19th century, when the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, himself of Jewish origin, supported the Ottoman Empire in numerous disputes, particularly in the Berlin Congress of 1878. During the 1930s and 1940s, the Republic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi-perpetrated Holocaust.[74] A Turkish diplomat, Selahattin Ulkumen, is honoured as one of the Righteous Among The Nations for his work in rescuing Jews from Nazi officials on the island of Rhodes, by issuing them Turkish visas and later arranging for their transport to Turkish territory. Another diplomat, Necdet Kent, also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities, for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel.

Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. Military, strategic, and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded very high priority by the governments of both countries, which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East.[75][76][77] In the book Israel's Secret Wars, Benny Morris provides an account of how Mossad operatives based in Turkey infiltrated into Iraq and orchestrated a number of Iraqi Kurdish uprisings to weaken the Iraqi government. It has been reported that the Israeli Mossad played a major role in the capture of the PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan in 1999.[78] The Israeli and Turkish navies have conducted joint exercises. Turkey also provides its large air space (something Israel lacks) to the jets of the Israeli Air Force for training purposes, particularly the area around the Konya Air Base in central Anatolia. There is a plan to build a massive pipeline from Turkey to supply water, electricity, gas and oil to Israel.[79] In 2000, Israel and Turkey signed a Free Trade Agreement.[80]

In the beginning of 2006, the Israeli Foreign Ministry characterized its relations with Turkey as "perfect". However, in February 2006, a visit paid by Khaled Meshal, leader of the newly elected Hamas, changed this status. Israeli diplomats went so far as to compare this visit to a possible official visit of Abdullah Öcalan (the imprisoned PKK leader) to Israel, but Turkish authorities immediately denounced this comparison as "irresponsible and erroneous". After Khaled Meshal paid an official visit to Russia, Turkish-Israeli relations entered a "cooling down" process. Some have suggested that this was only a public relations stunt to show the Islamic world that Turkey was on their side because Turkey had been silent in major issues important to Arabs and the Islamic community such as the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the Lebanon crisis.[81]

New flag of Gaza created Turkey on behalf of the people in Gaza

New tensions arose in Turkish-Israeli relations during the Israel's attack on Gaza in 2008-2009. Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan became among the most outspoke critics of Israel's conduct in the war, referring to its military operations as a "crime against humanity".[82] Although at political and military levels the two nations enjoy a close relationship, mass opinion in Turkey is generally sympathetic towards the Palestinians. Relations suffered a further blow when during the World Economic Forum in Davos at 29 January 2009, Prime Minister Erdogan walked out of the forum in protest, frustrated that he had not been given enough time to reply to Israeli President Shimon Peres. Erdogan harshly criticsed the President, stating Israel knew "very well how to kill".[83][84][85]

Kuwait

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Turkey describes the current relations at "outstanding levels".[86] Bilateral trade between the two countries is around 275 Million dollars. The two countries have recently signed fifteen agreements for cooperation in tourism, health, environment, economy, commercial exchange and oil.[87]

Lebanon

Turkish-Lebanese relations

Although matters between Ankara and Beirut have never been tense; relations between Turkey and Lebanon have mostly been coldly dormant owing to the former's quietness towards the Second Infitada because of its' closeness to Israel. However relations between the two countries have the hope of thickening because of Recep Tayyip Erdogan's actions during the Offensive in Gaza.

Libya

See Libyan–Turkish relations

Libya has an embassy in Ankara, and a general consulate in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Tripoli and a general consulate in Benghazi.

Morocco

Morocco has an embassy in Ankara.[88] Turkey has an embassy in Rabat.[89]

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate–general in Istanbul.[90] Turkey has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate–general in Jeddah.[91][92]

Sudan

Sudan has an embassy in Ankara.[93] Turkey has an embassy in Khartoum.[94] Although on opposing sides of the Middle East Peace Process spectrum, Turkey and Sudan have in recent years joined forces to end the ongoing conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Both countries have made repeated plea talks during the offensive in Gaza during the beginning of 2009 to Palestinian officials to be of both economic and political aid to the turmoilic state.

Syria

Syrian–Turkish relations have long been strained even though Turkey shares its longest common border with Syria and various other geographic, cultural, and historical links tie the two neighbouring states together. This friction has been due to disputes including the self annexation of the Hatay Province to Turkey in 1939, water disputes resulting from the Southeastern Anatolia Project, and Syria’s support for the outlawed Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). Relations have improved greatly since October 1998, when PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan was expelled by Syrian authorities, with recent trade agreements and joint military maneuvers.

The Turkish-Syrian relationship becomes now very strong and intimate as Turkey and Syria have cancelled entry visas and signed joint declaration of strategic council (October 2009)

Tunisia

See Tunisian–Turkish relations

Tunisia has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[95] Turkey has an embassy in Tunis.[96]

Central Asia

Turkey has strong cultural and linguistic ties with the predominantly Turkic nations of Central Asia. Economic and political relations are developing rapidly, and are likely to grow even more quickly with Turkey's recent elimination of visa requirements for citizens of the Central Asian Turkic republics. The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) has formed an alliance of trade between Turkey and the Central Asian states. Turkey is even working on developing solid relations with the other nations of the region, namely Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan–Turkey relations have always been warm due to strong ethnic and historical links between the two modern states. Afghanistan was the second country to recognize the Republic of Turkey, after the Soviet Union, establishing diplomatic contacts whilst the Turkish War of Independence was still being waged. Turkey has participated in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since its inception in 2001 and is responsible for maintaining security around Kabul, providing training for the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police and has undertaken a number of reconstruction projects in the fields of education, health and agriculture in the province of Vardak. Afghan President Hamid Karzai visited Ankara on April 4, 2002 and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan made a reciprocal visit to Kabul a short time later.

Kazakhstan

Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December 1991, on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March 1992. These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs.[97] Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Almaty and a branch office in Astana.

Kyrgyzstan

Turkish President Abdullah Gül made a 26-28 June official visit to Bishkek where he met with Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiev and Prime Minister Igor Chudinov to discuss bilateral relations, with Gül stating, “We have determined that we have a joint will with regard to our bilateral relations and multilateral relations. We share the conviction that we attach great importance to the stability of Afghanistan in particular and that we should provide all sorts of assistance regarding this issue.”[98][99] Gül subsequently announced, in a speech at the International Atatürk-Alatoo University (IAAU), that, “Kyrgyzstan is our ancestral homeland. We have felt at home in our ancestral homeland while we have been in Kyrgyzstan,” and added, in a speech to the Jogorku Kenesh, that, “You are being represented in Europe through us, and were being represented in the Commonwealth of Independent States through you. I believe that this is important.”[100] He also laid the foundation stone for the new Turkish Embassy in Bishkek.

Turkey is one of Kyrgyzstan's major trade partners. It is estimated that some 30% of all imported goods sold at Bishkek's Dordoy Bazaar come from Turkey.[101] It is estimated that some 400-500 Kyrgyzstan traders engage in "shuttle trade", regularly traveling to Turkey to purchase goods for sale in their (or others') shops in Kyrgzstan's markets. With their knowledge of Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages, and many Istanbul merchant's familiarity with Russian, many Kyrgyzstan traders sometimes manage to do their purchasing in Turkey without having to learn the Turkish language.[101]

There is academic exchange between the two countries as well. Turkey provides support for a number of universities in Kyrgyzstan, while many scholars from Kyrgyzstan are attracted to the opportunities to teach in Turkey.[101] Also, Kyrgyz Republic is in Turkic Council.

Tajikistan

Turkey recognized the independence of Tajikistan on 16 December 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992. The Turkish Embassy in Dushanbe was opened in 4 August 1992 and the Tajik Embassy in Ankara was opened in 16 October 1995.

Turkey’s relations with Tajikistan are considered within the framework of relations with other Central Asian republics but developed more slowly due to Tajikistan’s internal war between 1992 and 1997. During this period the Turkish embassy in Dushanbe was the only diplomatic mission which remained open and the visit of Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel was the only high level visit to Tajikistan.

Americas

Argentina

Barbados

Turkey has a non-resident ambassador in Caracas, Venezuela. The Barbadian Government does not have foreign accreditation for Turkey. Barbados and Turkey formally established joint diplomatic relations on 20 September 1972.[104]

Barbadian and Turkish economic trade are not very significant, however as of April 2009 both countries have discussed the desire for expanding a bilateral framework for possible cooperation in tourism.[105][106] The diplomatic representative of Turkey, Nihat Akyol and his Barbadian counterpart the Minister of Foreign Affairs revealed that they could "provide support to each other" and that they should not view each other as "competitors".[105][107]

Brazil

Brazil has an embassy in Ankara.[108] Turkey has an embassy in Brasília. Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO).[109]

Canada

Canada has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Ottawa.

Chile

Chile was the first country in Latin America which recognized Turkey with the Friendship Treaty, on January 30, 1926.[110] In Santiago, there can be found the Turkish Republic Square, Atatürk College[111][112] and Atatürk monument.[113] The Turkish embassy in Chile is the first embassy of Turkey opened in Latin America. In addition Turkey includes a Chile Square in Ankara inaugurated on September 18, 1970 that contains the Bernardo O'Higgins Monument.[113][114] The Pablo Neruda square in Turkey was inaugurated in 2007.[113]

See also Turks in Chile

Mexico

Mexico has an embassy in Ankara.[115] Turkey has an embassy in Mexico City.[116] Both countries are full members of the OECD.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bangladesh

Relations have been excellent since Turkey recognised Bangladesh soon after independence. The trade volume between the two countries have grown as did Bangladeshi exports and has been in Bangladesh's favour throughout their economic relationship. Bangladesh was one of the only six countries to support the Turkish invasion of Cyprus during a UN vote on the matter. On the issue of Cyprus, Bangladesh at multilateral organisations such as the UN, use this as an opportunity to defend the rights of the Turkish minority. They also supported the creation of the Developing 8 Countries with six other nations with large Muslim populations.

 China See Chinese–Turkish relations

Turkey recognized the PRC on 5 August 1971. Turkey pursues One-China policy and recognizes the PRC as the sole legal representative of China. The PRC has an embassy in Ankara, and a consulate–general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Beijing and 2 consulates–general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.

 India See Indian–Turkish relations

Despite its close supportive bond with its geopolitical rival, Pakistan, Turkey's relations with India have always been generally friendly and stable, though at certain times cold. The two nations have been in contact with each other since the early times of the Ottoman Empire; Turkey and India work closely with each other to fight cultural terrorism in the Middle East, Central, and South Asia. India was also one of many countries to recognize the newly-independent Turkey and send political aid to combat the subsequent poverty and benefit the war effort.

 Indonesia See Indonesian–Turkish relations

Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara.[117] Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta.[118] This relationship began in the 16th century when the Muslim sultan of Java requested help from the Ottoman Turkish Caliph to resist the Portuguese colonization attempts in the region, which was replied with a large contingent of ships and soldiers whose efforts to help their Muslim brothers mark to this day the close relationship between Indonesia and Turkey.

 Japan 1924 See Japanese–Turkish relations
 Malaysia 1964 See Malaysian–Turkish relations
 Mongolia See Mongolian–Turkish relations
 Pakistan See Pakistani–Turkish relations

Pakistan and Turkey are close allies and support each other on a number of issues including the Kashmir dispute and Cyprus, as well as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Pakistan, in turn, is one of the only countries in the world which fully and consistently supports Turkish positions on many issues, such as Cyprus and Armenia. Both are members of the ECO, and citizen's attitudes towards one another are warm. Despite Pakistan's close ties to Greece, and Turkey's ties to India, both countries regard each other's relations as more important and close to those with Greece and India.

 Vietnam See Turkish–Vietnamese relations

Africa

There has been a revival in Turkey’s relation with Africa after 1998. Initially this revival came as a passive attempt, but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. The recent Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey’s keen interest in developing relations with Africa, and should be seen as a turning point.[2]

Ethiopia

Ethiopia has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Addis Ababa since 1925. Turkey was the sixth country to open an embassy in Ethiopia. Today the relations between the two countries are described as excellent, both politically and economically.[125] In December 2008, Turkey sent a trade delegation to Ethiopia, which met with the Prime Minister, the Minister of Trade and Industry Girma Biru, and the President of the Oromia Region Abadula Gemeda, as well as visited Turkish-owned textiles factories in Ethiopia.[126] A senior official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who attended the discussion, expressed the hope that Turkey could share its experience and provide assistance to ongoing efforts to rehabilitate and extend its railway system.[127]

Kenya

Turkey has an embassy in Nairobi but Kenya has no embassies in Turkey.[128]

Nigeria

Nigeria has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Abuja.[129]

South Africa

Pacific

Australia

See Australian–Turkish relations

Memorial of ANZAC Cove; commemorating the loss of thousands of Turkish and Anzac soldiers in Gallipoli

Diplomatic relations between the two countries established in 1967. Australia has an embassy in Ankara since 1968, a consulate-general in Istanbul and a consulate in Çanakkale. Turkey has an embassy in Canberra since 1967 and two consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.

The first encounter of Turkey and Australia was on the battlefields of Çanakkale, the scene of a fierce but, at the same time, gentlemanly war. This has created a bond of mutual respect, admiration and friendship.

New Zealand

Governor-General of New Zealand Sir Anand Satyanand visited Turkey for the annual commemoration of Anzac Day on April 25, 2009 stating that his country was “Turkey’s traditional ally,” and the Gallipoli battles commemorated, “are the first example of friendship created on the battlefield. This understanding owes its existence mostly to the peace building words of Atatürk.” He also wished Turkey luck with it’s EU accession bid and waited on the successful outcome for prospective trade opportunities.[131]

International organizations

Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945),[132] the OECD (1961),[133] the OIC (1969),[134] the OSCE (1973),[135] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005, having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey is also an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992 and signed the E.U. Customs Union agreement in 1995.

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor, controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A NATO headquarters is located in İzmir, and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.

Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Israel, and many other countries. In 1992, Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation.

References

  1. ^ Embassy of Belgium in Turkey
  2. ^ Diplomatic missions of Belgium in Turkey
  3. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Brussels
  4. ^ Consulate–General of Turkey in Antwerp
  5. ^ Diplomatic missions of Turkey in Belgium
  6. ^ Danish embassy in Ankara
  7. ^ Turkish embassy in Copenhagen
  8. ^ Embassy of Finland in Ankara
  9. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Helsinki (in Turkish and Finnish)
  10. ^ Hungarian embassy in Ankara
  11. ^ Turkish embassy in Budapest
  12. ^ Embassy of Ireland in Turkey
  13. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Ireland
  14. ^ Turkish embassy in Rome
  15. ^ Polish embassy in Ankara
  16. ^ Portuguese embassy in Ankara
  17. ^ Turkish embassy in Madrid
  18. ^ "Turkey Has Friends in EU, Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt". Turkish Weekly. 21 April 2009. http://www.turkishweekly.net/news/73474/turkey-has-friends-in-eu-swedish-prime-minister-fredrik-reinfeldt.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22.  
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  32. ^ Albanian embassies in Turkey
  33. ^ Turkish embassy in Albania
  34. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Albania
  35. ^ Bulgarian embassies in Turkey
  36. ^ Turkish embassy in Sofia
  37. ^ Turkey to open embassy in Kosovo
  38. ^ A baby brother to Turkey, Kosovo born in Europe
  39. ^ Kosovo in figures 2005
  40. ^ Moldovan embassy in Ankara
  41. ^ Romanian embassies in Turkey
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  43. ^ "Serbian defense minister: War with Kosovo not possible". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-14.  
  44. ^ "Erdoğan to visit Russia next month, report says". Today’s Zaman. 2009-04-25.  
  45. ^ "Erdoğan seeks Russian backing in Karabakh peace effort". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-16.  
  46. ^ "Putin to visit Turkey next month". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-20.  
  47. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ukraine
  48. ^ Turkish embassy in Kiev
  49. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Ankara
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  52. ^ "PKK 'behind' Turkey resort bomb". BBC. 2005-07-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4690181.stm. Retrieved 2006-12-17.  
  53. ^ a b Singh, K. Gajendra (2004-08-03). "Turkey and Iran coming closer". South Asia Analysis Group. http://www.saag.org/papers11/paper1077.html. Retrieved 2006-12-17.  
  54. ^ a b BBC: Turkish MPs back attacks in Iraq
  55. ^ CNN: Turkey approves Iraq incursion
  56. ^ "Samast'a jandarma karakolunda kahraman muamelesi/Katili bir alnından öpmedikleri kalmış". Radikal. 2 February 2007. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=211902. Retrieved 2007-02-10.   (Turkish)
  57. ^ "Gul in landmark visit to Armenia". BBC News. 2008-09-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7602066.stm. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  
  58. ^ Paul Richter (2009-04-03). "Turkey, Armenia are likely to ease conflict". L.A. Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-turkey-armenia4-2009apr04,0,3309217.story. Retrieved 2009-04-03.  
  59. ^ Morris, Chris (2005). "Chapter 9: Crossroads". The New Turkey. Granta Books. pp. 203–227. ISBN 1-86207-865-3.  
  60. ^ Algerian embassies in Europe including Ankara
  61. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Algeria
  62. ^ "Radical Islamic political groups in Turkey". MERIA. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1997/issue4/jv1n4a2.html.  
  63. ^ Erdogan: Iran, Turkey against disintegration of Iraq - Irna
  64. ^ Turkish Daily News: "Turkey, Iran ready to bolster tourism"
  65. ^ Travel Daily News: "Turkey and Iran sign MoU to extend tourism cooperation"
  66. ^ Turkish Weekly: "Tehran Prioritizes TAV for Imam Khomeini Airport Bid"
  67. ^ Turkey launches major Iraq incursion
  68. ^ Flight Global: Turkish air force in major attack on Kurdish camps
  69. ^ Turkey sends more troops into Iraq
  70. ^ Iraq incursion finished, Turkey says
  71. ^ Turkish troops shell northern Iraq
  72. ^ Bali Aykan, Mahmut. “The Palestinian Question in Turkish Foreign Policy from the 1950s to the 1990s”, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 25, No.: 1, February 1993 and also, http://www.smi.uib.no/pao/hawas.html
  73. ^ E.g., Brook; Dunlop; Golden, Khazar Studies; passim, and Christian 282-300.
  74. ^ David Ben-Gurion
  75. ^ BBC News | Middle East | Analysis: Middle East's 'phantom alliance'
  76. ^ http://ankara.mfa.gov.il/mfm/web/main/document.asp?subjectid=18367&missionid=65&languageid=0&statusi
  77. ^ http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/New_World_Order/PowerBloc_TurkeyIsrael
  78. ^ The Ostrovsky Files: Capture of Kurdish Rebel Leader Ocalan Recalls Mossad Collaboration With Both Turkey, Kurds
  79. ^ ^Konuralp Pamukçu, "Water trade between Israel and Turkey: A start in the Middle East?" Middle East Policy, 10(4) Winter 2003 and http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1145961328841&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull.
  80. ^ http://www.dtm.gov.tr/ab/ingilizce/sta/israil/israel.htm
  81. ^ and for some historical records see, Mahmut Bali Aykan, “The Palestinian Question in Turkish Foreign Policy from the 1950s to the 1990s”, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 25, No.: 1, February 1993
  82. ^ Turkish PM Erdogan slams Israel Hurriyet News
  83. ^ Turkish PM storms out of Davos' Gaza session, slams moderator Hurriyet Daily News
  84. ^ Stormy debate in Davos over Gaza Al Jazeera English (THURSDAY, JANUARY 29, 2009)
  85. ^ Erdogan Clashes With Peres, Storms Out of Davos Panel (Update1) Bloomberg
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  88. ^ Moroccan embassy in Turkey
  89. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Morocco
  90. ^ Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Ankara
  91. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Riyadh
  92. ^ Consulate–General of Turkey in Jeddah
  93. ^ Embassy of Sudan in Turkey
  94. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Sudan
  95. ^ Tunisian embassies in Turkey
  96. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Tunisia
  97. ^ Yermukanov, Marat (2006-12-07). "Kazakhstan and Turkey spearhead the integration of Turkic nations". Eurasian Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) 3 (226). http://www.jamestown.org/edm/article.php?article_id=2371713. Retrieved 2008-10-10.  
  98. ^ "Gül to visit Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan next week". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-22.  
  99. ^ "Gül, Bakiyez vow efforts for Afghanistan’s stability". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-28.  
  100. ^ "Ankara, Bishkek team players, Gül tells Kyrgyz deputies". Today’s Zaman. 2009-05-29.  
  101. ^ a b c TURKEY’S CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC PRESENCE GROWS IN KYRGYZSTAN. "Publication: Eurasia Daily Monitor". Volume 4, Issue 145. July 26, 2007. By: Erica Marat]
  102. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Turkey
  103. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Argentina
  104. ^ "List of Countries that Barbados has Established Relations". Government of Barbados. http://www.foreign.gov.bb/UserFiles/File/Lithuania.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  
  105. ^ a b "Barbados, Turkey discuss links". Nation News Company. http://www.nationnews.com/news/politics/turkey-and-tourism-copy-for-web. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  
  106. ^ "Barbados, Turkey to cooperate on tourism". Hürriyet. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/english/domestic/11409329.asp?scr=1. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  
  107. ^ "Barbados and Turkey may cooperate on tourism". Caribbean Net News Newspaper. http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/news-15528--26-26--.html. Retrieved 2009-04-08.  
  108. ^ Embassy of Brazil in Ankara
  109. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Brazil.
  110. ^ (Spanish) http://www.chileturquia.com/description.aspx?id=16
  111. ^ Basyn - Yayýn ve Enformasyon Genel Müdürlüðü
  112. ^ (Spanish)http://www.loprado.cl/index.php?id=10&tx_ttnews%5Bpointer%5D=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=9&cHash=2fdbb1fae2
  113. ^ a b c (Spanish) Asuntos Culturales
  114. ^ Basyn - Yayýn ve Enformasyon Genel Müdürlüðü
  115. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Turkey
  116. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Mexico
  117. ^ Embassy of Indonesia in Turkey
  118. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Indonesia
  119. ^ Japanese embassy in Ankara
  120. ^ Turkish embassy in Tokyo
  121. ^ Embassy of Mongolia in Ankara
  122. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Ulan Bator
  123. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Vietnam
  124. ^ Vietnamese embassy in Ankara
  125. ^ Ethiopian Ambassador to Turkey: Ethiopia does not need political reform, Walta Information Center
  126. ^ "A Week in the Horn: 12/12/2008" . Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  127. ^ "Meles foresees growing Ethio-Turkey cooperation", Ethiopian News Agency 9 January 2009 (accessed 28 May 2009)
  128. ^ Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Kenya
  129. ^ Turkish embassy in Abuja
  130. ^ South African embassy in Ankara
  131. ^ "Turkey, New Zealand acknowledge solid basis of relations". Today's Zaman. 2009-04-28.  
  132. ^ http://www.un.org/Overview/growth.htm
  133. ^ Organisation for European Economic Co-operation
  134. ^ http://www.oic-oci.org/english/main/member-States.htm
  135. ^ OSCE: About - Participating States

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

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