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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most countries on the world.

Diplomatic relations between world states and the United States
     The United States      Nations that the United States has relations with      Nations that have no diplomatic relations with the United States      Disputed areas

Contents

Pacific

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1940[1] See Australia – United States relations

While Australia has traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations, it has strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.[citation needed]

 Fiji 1971[2] See Fiji – United States relations

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[3]

 Kiribati 1980[4] See Kiribati – United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps has maintained a program in Kiribati since 1967. Currently there are about 40 Peace Corps volunteers serving in the country.

 Marshall Islands See Marshall Islands – United States relations
 Micronesia 1986[5] See Micronesia – United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement.

 Nauru 1976[6] See Nauru – United States relations
 New Zealand 1942[7] See New Zealand – United States relations
 Palau 1996[8] See Palau – United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of US administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

 Papua New Guinea See Papua New Guinea – United States relations
 Samoa See Samoa – United States relations
 Solomon Islands See Solomon Islands – United States relations
 Tonga See Tonga – United States relations
 Tuvalu See Tuvalu – United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

 Vanuatu 1986-09-30 See United States – Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[9] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in US aid to Vanuatu.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Argentina – United States relations

The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counterterrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 Bolivia See Bolivia – United States relations

Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia have a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

 Brazil See Brazil – United States relations

Brazil-United States relations has a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues[10]. The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[11] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States[12].

 Canada 1927 See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is ten times larger in population, wealth and debt.[13]

 Cuba See Cuba – United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations deteriorated substantially, and have since been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba and has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U.S. corporations to do business with Cuba. U.S. diplomatic representation in Cuba is handled by the United States Interests Section in Havana and a similar Cuban Interests Section remains in Washington, D.C.; both are officially part of the respective embassies of Switzerland. The United States has stated it will continue the embargo so long as the Cuban regime continues to refuse to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights[14], hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe.

 Chile See Chile – United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, The United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 U.S.A/Chile Free Trade Agreement.

 Colombia See Colombia – United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries[citation needed] to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current US policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that US influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[15] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[16]

 Costa Rica See Costa Rica – United States relations
 Dominican Republic See Dominican Republic – United States relations
 Ecuador See Ecuador – United States relations
 El Salvador See El Salvador – United States relations
 Guatemala See Guatemala – United States relations
 Haiti See Haiti – United States relations
 Honduras See Honduras – United States relations
 Mexico See Mexico – United States relations
 Nicaragua See Nicaragua – United States relations
 Panama See Panama – United States relations
 Paraguay See Paraguay – United States relations
 Peru See Peru – United States relations
 Uruguay See United States – Uruguay relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.

 Venezuela See United States – Venezuela relations

After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the US. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new US President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009.

Caribbean

The term "Caribbean" is used loosely to refer to countries in or near the Caribbean sea other than those included under "Latin America".

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda See United States-Antigua and Barbuda relations
 Aruba See Aruba – United States relations
 Bahamas See Bahamas – United States relations
 Barbados See Barbados – United States relations
 Belize See United States-Belize relations
 Bermuda See Bermuda – United States relations
 Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands – United States relations
 Dominica See Dominica – United States relations
 Grenada See Grenada – United States relations
 Guyana See Guyana – United States relations
 Jamaica See Jamaica – United States relations
 Netherlands Antilles See Netherlands Antilles – United States relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis See Saint Kitts and Nevis – United States relations
 Saint Lucia See Saint Lucia – United States relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – United States relations
 Suriname See Suriname – United States relations
 Trinidad and Tobago See Trinidad and Tobago – United States relations

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Hong Kong See Hong Kong – United States relations
 Japan See Japan – United States relations
 Macau See Macau – United States relations
 Mongolia See Mongolia – United States relations
 North Korea See North Korea – United States relations
The United States does not recognize the North Korean government. For decades, the US and North Korea have been locked in a stalemate over nuclear weapons.
 People's Republic of China 01-01-1979 See China - United States relations
The United States recognizes the People's Republic as the only government of China. Relations are tense on a number of issues, including trade deficits, alleged currency imbalances and the Chinese human rights record.
 Republic of China See Republic of China – United States relations
The United States has not formally recognized the Republic of China since 1979, in accordance with the One-China policy. However, unofficial diplomatic offices are maintained between both countries, and relations are cordial.
 South Korea See South Korea – United States relations

South East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brunei See Brunei – United States relations

The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

 Burma See Burma – United States relations

The political relationship between the United States and Burma worsened after the 1988 military coup and violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstrations. Subsequent repression, including the brutal crackdown on peaceful protestors in September 2007, further strained the relationship.

 Cambodia See Cambodia – United States relations
 East Timor See East Timor – United States relations
 Indonesia See Indonesia – United States relations
 Laos See Laos – United States relations
 Malaysia See Malaysia – United States relations
 Philippines 1901 See Philippines – United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have a long standing alliance. The Philippines was also a US colony from 1902-1946. The Philippines is also the oldest and one of the closest US allies in Asia[17].

The US and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as the First World War, World War 2, Korean War, Vietnam War, Insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ US citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 2 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The US is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan Exercises that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The US military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two Major US allies in South East Asia.

 Singapore See Singapore – United States relations
 Thailand See Thailand – United States relations
 Vietnam See United States – Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco.

South and Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh – United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries are based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

 Bhutan

The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 alleged Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

 India See India – United States relations
 Kazakhstan See Kazakhstan – United States relations
 Kyrgyzstan See Kyrgyzstan – United States relations
 Maldives See Maldives – United States relations
 Nepal See Nepal – United States relations
 Pakistan See Pakistan – United States relations
 Sri Lanka See Sri Lanka – United States relations
 Tajikistan See Tajikistan – United States relations
 Turkmenistan See Turkmenistan – United States relations

The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

 Uzbekistan See United States – Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania See Albania – United States relations
 Andorra See United States-Andorra relations
 Armenia 1992 See United States-Armenia relations
 Austria See Austria – United States relations
 Belarus See Belarus – United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and alleged election irregularites.
 Belgium See Belgium – United States relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina – United States relations
 Bulgaria 1903 See Bulgaria – United States relations
 Croatia See United States-Croatia relations
 Cyprus See Cyprus – United States relations
 Czech Republic See Czech Republic – United States relations
 Denmark See Denmark – United States relations
 Estonia 1992 See Estonia – United States relations
 European Union See European Union – United States relations
 Finland See Finland – United States relations
 France 06/02/1778 See France – United States relations
 Germany See Germany – United States relations
 Georgia 1992 See Georgia – United States relations
 Greece See Greece – United States relations
Vatican City Holy See See Holy See – United States relations
 Hungary See Hungary – United States relations
 Iceland See Iceland – United States relations
 Ireland See Ireland – United States relations
 Italy See Italy – United States relations
 Kosovo 2-18-2008 See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo.
 Latvia 1992 See Latvia – United States relations
 Liechtenstein See Liechtenstein – United States relations
 Lithuania 1992 See Lithuania – United States relations
 Luxembourg See Luxembourg – United States relations
 Malta See Malta – United States relations
 Moldova 1992 See Moldova – United States relations
 Monaco See Monaco – United States relations
 Montenegro See Montenegro – United States relations
 Netherlands See Netherlands – United States relations
 Norway See Norway – United States relations
 Poland See Poland–United States relations
 Portugal See Portugal – United States relations
 Republic of Macedonia See Republic of Macedonia – United States relations
 Romania See Romania – United States relations
 Russia 1992 See Russia – United States relations
 San Marino See San Marino – United States relations
 Spain See Spain – United States relations
 Serbia See Serbia – United States relations
 Slovakia See Slovakia – United States relations
 Slovenia See Slovenia – United States relations
 Sweden See Sweden – United States relations
 Switzerland See Switzerland – United States relations
 Turkey See Turkey – United States relations
 Ukraine 1992 See Ukraine – United States relations
 United Kingdom See United Kingdom – United States relations

North Africa and Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria – United States relations

The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance US-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Afghanistan See Afghanistan – United States relations
 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan – United States relations
 Bahrain See Bahrain – United States relations
 Iran See Iran – United States relations
 Iraq See Iraq – United States relations
 Israel See Israel – United States relations
 Jordan See Jordan – United States relations
 Kuwait See Kuwait – United States relations
 Lebanon See Lebanon – United States relations
 Libya See Libya – United States relations
 Morocco See Morocco – United States relations
 Oman See Oman – United States relations
 Qatar See Qatar – United States relations
 Saudi Arabia See Saudi Arabia – United States relations
 Sudan See Sudan – United States relations
 Syria See Syria–United States relations
 Tunisia See Tunisia – United States relations
 United Arab Emirates See United Arab Emirates – United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries has enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and US had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of US-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the US-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the US.

 Yemen See United States – Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the war on terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional US support.[18]

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola See Angola – United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

 Benin See Foreign relations of Benin

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The U.S. Government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with U.S. values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the U.S. effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.[19]

 Botswana See Botswana – United States relations
 Burkina Faso See Burkina Faso – United States relations
 Burundi See Burundi – United States relations
 Cameroon See Cameroon – United States relations
 Cape Verde See Cape Verde – United States relations
 Central African Republic See Central African Republic – United States relations
 Chad See Chad – United States relations
 Comoros See Comoros – United States relations
 Côte d'Ivoire See Côte d'Ivoire – United States relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo See Democratic Republic of the Congo – United States relations
 Djibouti See Djibouti – United States relations
 Equatorial Guinea See Equatorial Guinea – United States relations
 Eritrea See Eritrea – United States relations
 Ethiopia See Ethiopia – United States relations
 Gabon See Gabon – United States relations
 Ghana See Ghana – United States relations
 Guinea See Guinea – United States relations
 Guinea-Bissau See Guinea-Bissau – United States relations
 Kenya See Kenya – United States relations
 Lesotho See Lesotho – United States relations
 Liberia See Liberia – United States relations
 Madagascar See Madagascar – United States relations
 Malawi See Malawi – United States relations
 Mali See Mali – United States relations
 Mauritania See Mauritania – United States relations
 Mauritius See Mauritius – United States relations
 Mozambique See Mozambique – United States relations
 Namibia See Namibia – United States relations
 Niger See Niger – United States relations
 Nigeria See Nigeria – United States relations
 Rwanda See Rwanda – United States relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe See São Tomé and Príncipe – United States relations
 Senegal See Senegal – United States relations
 Seychelles See Seychelles – United States relations
 Sierra Leone See Sierra Leone – United States relations
 Republic of the Congo See Republic of the Congo – United States relations
 Somalia See Somalia – United States relations
 South Africa See South Africa – United States relations
 Swaziland See Swaziland – United States relations
 Tanzania See Tanzania – United States relations
 The Gambia See The Gambia – United States relations
 Togo See Togo – United States relations
 Uganda See Uganda – United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

 Zambia See United States – Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

 Zimbabwe See United States – Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the U.S. would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[20] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that US sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis as yet unresolved.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/australia
  2. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/fiji
  3. ^ "Fiji military stages coup, U.S. suspends aid". Reuters. 2006-12-05. http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2006-12-05T191720Z_01_SP305135_RTRUKOC_0_US-FIJI.xml&WTmodLoc=NewsHome-C1-topNews-6. 
  4. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/kiribati
  5. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/micronesia
  6. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/nauru
  7. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/new-zealand
  8. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/palau
  9. ^ HUFFER, Elise, Grands hommes et petites îles: La politique extérieure de Fidji, de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN 2-7099-1125-6, p.278
  10. ^ Developing a partnership with Brazil - An emerging power Bassoli, Douglas. U.S. Army War College. 2004-04-03.
  11. ^ http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf
  12. ^ US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations
  13. ^ James Tagg reports that Canadian university students have a profound fear that "Canadian culture, and likely Canadian sovereignty, will be overwhelmed." Tagg, "'And, We Burned down the White House, Too': American History, Canadian Undergraduates, and Nationalism," The History Teacher, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2004), pp. 309-334 in JSTOR; J. L. Granatstein. Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism (1997)
  14. ^ "Cuban Democracy Act of 1992". State Department. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/democ_act_1992.html. 
  15. ^ John Barry, From Drug War to Dirty War: Plan Colombia and the U.S. Role in Human Rights Violations in Colombia, 12 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 161, 164 (Spring, 2002).
  16. ^ Marc Grossman. Subsecretario de Estado para Asuntos Políticos. Universidad de Georgetown. Conferencia Uniendo esfuerzos por Colombia. US Embassy of Colombia (September 2, 2002). Available at http://bogota.usembassy.gov/wwwsmg13.shtml. Retrieved on March 27, 2006. (Spanish) (English version available)
  17. ^ http://globalnation.inquirer.net/viewpoints/viewpoints/view/20091008-229048/US-should-do-right-by-its-ally-Philippines
  18. ^ Sharp, Jeremy M. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations (RL34170) (PDF). Congressional Research Service (January 22, 2009). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  20. ^ "Obama congratulates Tsvangirai". NewsToday.co.za. February 13, 2009. http://www.newstoday.co.za/cgi-bin/newstoday/show.pl?1234511214. 
  21. ^ AFP 2009.

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).[1]








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