The Full Wiki

Forensic science: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Forensic science

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system.^ "Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology to the legal process.
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Forensic science is the application of science to the law.
  • Forensic Science | The University of North Dakota 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.und.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action. .Besides its relevance to a legal system, more generally forensics encompasses the accepted scholarly or scientific methodology and norms under which the facts regarding an event, or an artifact, or some other physical item (such as a corpse) are ascertained as being the case.^ AM UTC AFTER DARK is an open discussion regarding such topics as strange news, holistic medicine, current events, and all things mysterious.
  • forensic science talk radio podcast 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.blogtalkradio.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 15 forensic cases presented for your investigation, biographies of people who were instrumental in developing processes such as fingerprint identification and toxicology, and other technologies of forensic medicine.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, any findings must be conveyed to the other parts of the criminal justice system, such as officers and attorneys.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In that regard the concept is related to the notion of authentication, where by an interest outside of a legal form exists in determining whether an object is what it purports to be, or is alleged as being.^ Compare objects such as tools with impression marks to determine whether a specific object is responsible for a specific mark.
  • 19-4092.00 - Forensic Science Technicians 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum.^ The word forensic comes from the Latin word forensis : public; to the forum or public discussion; argumentative, rhetorical, belonging to debate or discussion.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is necessary to gain practical experience in forensic anthropology before court systems will accept an individual as an expert witness in the field.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weekly seminars include ACGME-recommended and other pertinent forensic psychiatry topics, case presentations, and landmark case review.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story.^ Both the accuser and the accused would give their side of the story.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One combination that would probably get you a job in a crime lab would be a major that contained sufficient background to do both forensic archeology and DNA on the samples recovered.
  • Advice about a Career in Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.criminology.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only would police and prosecutors make the streets safer for law abiding citizens, the chance of an innocent person being convicted of a crime would be significantly reduced.

The individual with the best argument and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. .This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.^ From there it is a small step to the modern definition of forensic as belonging to, used in or suitable to courts of judicature, or to public discussion or debate.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goals and objectives of the Fellowship Program in Forensic Psychiatry are to prepare the fully trained psychiatrist to present psychiatric science to the legal system.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The forensic scientist, on the other hand, can testify not only on the basis of personal knowledge, but also in the form of opinion based on his informed evaluation of the evidence presented and scientific tests performed and interpreted within the bounds of his skills, experience, and ability.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In modern use, the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" can be considered incorrect as the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts". However, the term is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science".

Contents

History

Antiquity and the Middle Ages

.The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment.^ Understand the legal standards and concepts in civil and criminal forensic evaluations.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At each site, fellows conduct inpatient criminal forensic evaluations such as competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility, aid in sentencing, and need for treatment of inmates.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The rotation will stress the development of practical criminal forensic psychiatry skills, focusing on forensic interviewing, report writing, legal consultation and testimony.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

.Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony.^ Testimony of the witness in other court proceedings may also be addressed if it may be used to undermine the reliability or validity of the witness' opinion in the case at hand.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E-mail tracing, password recovery, online investigations, and expert witness testimony.
  • Computer Forensic Specialists 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ccmostwanted.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Our team members have a strong history of providing invaluable findings and testimony in civil and criminal courts as Expert Witnesses.
  • Computer Forensic Specialists 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ccmostwanted.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, ancient sources contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow the concepts of forensic science developed centuries later, such as the "Eureka" legend told of Archimedes (287–212 BC).^ Forensic science developed from societal concerns.
  • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The forensic science CSI conclusion must be that the pictures of Jesus are contained in the coating.
  • Forensic Science CSI Quest Pictures of Jesus Shroud of Turin - 2005 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.historicaljesusquest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our program was developed with the assistance of crime lab directors in several states to serve the best interests of our students and to help meet the needs of the forensics community.
  • Forensic Sciences Graduate Certificate Program : Department of Chemistry 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.chem.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve (separate) criminal cases is attributed to the book of Hsi Duan Yu(translated as "[Washing Away of Wrongs]"[2][3]), written in Song Dynasty China by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186–1249) in 1248. In one of the accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by a death investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location.^ Sometimes, like in the book Death on the Nile, she proves how the one person who could not have committed the crime actually did it.

^ Known colloquially as The Lyon Sisters, their case resulted in one of the largest police investigations in the Washington, D.C., metro area’s history.

^ Glossary of Terms of the Death Investigation {http://www.vifsm.org/assets/glossary.html} A single page glossary of forensics terms maintained by the Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine.
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

(He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on an animal carcass and comparing the wound) .Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle.^ Flies are attracked to the smell of blood and eventually the flies gathered on the one sickle and the murdered confessed.

^ Flies gathered on the sickle with the blood, and ultimately the killer confessed and was brought to justice.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flies, attracted by the tiny fragments of blood, bone, and hair still on the murder weapon, congregated on the murderer’s sickle.
  • Forensic Science | Salient 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.salient.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In light of this, the murderer confessed. .The book also offered advice on how to distinguish between a drowning (water in the lungs) and strangulation (broken neck cartilage), along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide, or an accident.^ Sometimes, like in the book Death on the Nile, she proves how the one person who could not have committed the crime actually did it.

^ Soils can provide intelligence, in assisting the determination of the provenance of samples from artifacts, victims or suspects, enabling their linkage to locations or other evidence.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Visit morgues, examine scenes of crimes, or contact other sources to obtain evidence or information to be used in investigations.
  • 19-4092.00 - Forensic Science Technicians 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Modern history

.In sixteenth century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on cause and manner of death.^ This can lead to the interpretation of a cause and manner of death.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skeletal remains are x-rayed and studied to provide additional information as to who the Person was and possibly the cause of death.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forensic pathologists and/ or their investigators gather information concerning what happened at the time of death, what the person was doing at the time, and the medical history of the person.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. .Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes which occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease.^ Pathology is a medical specialty the study of disease.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examination of the deceased may reveal whether the person received injuries, also called trauma, both prior to (antemortem), and after (postmortem) death, as well as which changes to the body occurred as a result of decomposition after death.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

In the late 1700s, writings on these topics began to appear. .These included: A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Fodéré, and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Franck.^ The members come from the police force, medical examiners and coroners' laboratories, horseracing and sports doping laboratories, hospitals, departments of legal medicine, pharmacology, pharmacy and toxicology.
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Offers specific categories of research including agriculture and food, biology and nature, Earth and ocean sciences, health and medicine, and more.

^ Our staff have certifications which include Certified Computer Forensic Examiner, Certified Fraud Examiner, Network Administrator, Certified Information Systems Auditor, Certified Public Accountant, Network+, and several Novell certifications.
  • Computer Forensic Specialists 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ccmostwanted.com [Source type: Reference]

In 1776, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele devised a way of detecting arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses, although only in large quantities. .This investigation was expanded, in 1806, by German chemist Valentin Ross, who learned to detect the poison in the walls of a victim's stomach, and by English chemist James Marsh, who used chemical processes to confirm arsenic as the cause of death in an 1836 murder trial.^ Skeletal remains are x-rayed and studied to provide additional information as to who the Person was and possibly the cause of death.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The course is open to undergraduates, graduate students and others who may be interested in learning the role of insects in crime scene investigations.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Next, the criminalist sorts, compares, and identifies the evidence, using chemicals and instruments, developing useful information for an investigation or trial.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two early examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate the increasing use of logic and procedure in criminal investigations.^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Last checked 08/05/09) Case Histories of the Use of Insects in Investigations http://www.forensicentomologist.org/case_studies.html Within the United States and around the world, insect scientists (entomologists) are being called upon with increasing frequency to apply their knowledge and expertise to criminal and civil proceedings and to become recognized members of forensic laboratories and medical/legal investigation teams.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It offers excellent information through literature citations with information and definitions of the subdisciplines within the field, clearly explains botanical uses within forensics and provides case examples illustrating the described procedures and botanical evidence used.
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1784, in Lancaster, England, John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol. .When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms' pocket.^ A good paper on how to compile static binaries (using a stubs.o file) can be found at: .
  • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A physical match of the paper from a robbery note that was left at the scene to a piece of paper found in the suspect's car.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His current responsibilities include examining, analyzing, and securing electronic evidence with regards to investigations of criminal activity where a computer or other means of electronic data manipulation were used.
  • Digital Forensics Certificate Program 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC infosec.edcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Warwick, England, in 1816, a farm labourer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. .The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool.^ But when they found a jacket near a pool of blood, they knew what theyd seen wasnt a joy ride; it was an abduction.
  • http://www.forensicfiles.com/episodes.php 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.forensicfiles.com [Source type: General]

There were also scattered grains of wheat and chaff. The breeches of a farm labourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to the impression in the earth near the pool.[5] .Later in the 20th century, several British pathologists, Bernard Spilsbury, Francis Camps, Sydney Smith and Keith Simpson would pioneer new forensic science methods in Britain.^ The award had not been reported in the press but a case in the news this week spotlights the importance of the work done by the Forensic Sciences Divison.
  • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

^ Brookville, NY 11548-1300 www.liu.edu/cwpost (516) 299-3071 Professor Francis T. Harten Director, Forensic Sciences francis.harten@liu.edu .
  • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proper use of the forensic scientific method would not allow any such concept to be introduced into the analysis.
  • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1909 Rodolphe Archibald Reiss founded the first school of forensic science in the world: the "Institut de police scientifique" in the University of Lausanne (UNIL).^ Search 200+ schools for forensic science .

^ Universite de Lausanne Ecole de Sciences Criminelles Institut de Police Scientifique (Criminalistics Institute) Institut de Criminoloie et de Droit Penal (Institute of Criminology and Criminal Law) UNIL-BCH Lausanne 1015 Switzerland www.unil.ch/esc +41 21 692 1111 Fax: +41 21 692 2615 Pierre Margot pierre.margot@unil.ch .
  • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Offering: Master of Science in Forensic Science - specialty Forensic Identification Master of Science in Forensic Science - specialty Chemical Criminalistics Master of Law in Criminology Master of Law in Criminal Justice Master of Law in Criminality, Security and New Technologies Universite de Lausanne Ecole de Sciences Criminelles Institut de Police Scientifique (Criminalistics Institute) Institut de Criminoloie et de Droit Penal (Institute of Criminology and Criminal Law) UNIL-BCH Lausanne 1015 Switzerland www.unil.ch/esc +41 21 692 4600 Fax: +41 21 692 4605 Pierre Margot Pierre.margot@unil.ch .
  • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

Subdivisions

.
Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene.
  • Computational forensics concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination.
  • Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics, firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations.^ Glossary of forensic science terms related to a death investigation.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This is the application of computer image analysis in forensic science.
    • Forensic Science CSI Quest Pictures of Jesus Shroud of Turin - 2005 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.historicaljesusquest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The crime scene is the computer and the network (and other network devices) to which it is connected.
    • Basic Steps in Forensic Analysis of Unix Systems 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC staff.washington.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .Typically, evidence is processed in a crime lab.
  • Digital forensics is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover data from electronic / digital media.^ Table 3: Forensic scientific method .
    • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In May, 2005, the Association of Directors of Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships approved general guidelines regarding the forensic psychiatry fellowship application process.
    • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Our program was developed with the assistance of crime lab directors in several states to serve the best interests of our students and to help meet the needs of the forensics community.
    • Forensic Sciences Graduate Certificate Program : Department of Chemistry 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.chem.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Digital Forensic specialists work in the field as well as in the lab.
  • Forensic anthropology is the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains.
  • Forensic archaeology is the application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement.
  • Forensic DNA analysis takes advantage of the uniqueness of an individual's DNA to answer forensic questions such as paternity/maternity testing or placing a suspect at a crime scene, e.g.^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is the application of computer image analysis in forensic science.
    • Forensic Science CSI Quest Pictures of Jesus Shroud of Turin - 2005 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.historicaljesusquest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    in a .rape investigation.
  • Forensic entomology deals with the examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death.^ Other forensic anthropologists have developed skills in the determination of time elapsed since death by examining insect remains (entomology) and states of body decompositions.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Last checked 08/05/09) Forensic Entomology Page, International http://www.forensicentomology.com/ This site was created in order to assist in the education of crime scene technicians, homicide investigators, coroners, medical examiners, and others involved in the death investigation process.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Computer Forensic Examinations, offsite/onsite acquisitions, secure lab locations, expert witness support.
    • Computer Forensic Specialists 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ccmostwanted.com [Source type: Reference]

    .It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death.
  • Forensic geology deals with trace evidence in the form of soils, minerals and petroleums.
  • Forensic meteorology is a site specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss.
  • Forensic odontology is the study of the uniqueness of dentition better known as the study of teeth.
  • Forensic pathology is a field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
  • Forensic psychology is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods.^ "Odontology is the study of teeth.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Forensic pathologists perform autopsies to determine what caused a person's death.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
  • Forensic seismology is the study of techniques to distinguish the seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions from those generated by earthquakes.
  • Forensic toxicology is the study of the effect of drugs and poisons on/in the human body.
  • Forensic document examination or questioned document examination answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods.^ Toxicology is the study of harmful effects of chemicals or drugs on living systems.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Using lsof , we can determine what processes are bound to those ports.
    • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards.^ "The application of allied sciences and analytical techniques to questions concerning documents is termed forensic document examination.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The purposes of the Society and of its members are to foster education, sponsor scientific research, establish standards, exchange experience, provide instruction in the field of questioned document examination, and to promote justice in matters that involve questions about documents."
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ American Society of Questioned Document Examiners http://www.asqde.org/ "The ASQDE was formally established on September 2, 1942.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
  • Forensic video analysis is the scientific examination, comparison, and evaluation of video in legal matters.
  • Forensic engineering is the scientific examination and analysis of structures and products relating to their failure or cause of damage.
  • Forensic limnology is the analysis of evidence collected from crime scenes in or around fresh water sources.^ Collect evidence from crime scenes, storing it in conditions that preserve its integrity.
    • 19-4092.00 - Forensic Science Technicians 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Forensic scientist microscopically examining evidence.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The program was most definitely helpful, as a matter of fact the Forensics Certificate played a crucial role in landing me the job.
    • Forensic Sciences Graduate Certificate Program : Department of Chemistry 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.chem.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Examination of biological organisms, particularly diatoms, can be useful in connecting suspects with victims.
  • Forensic Accounting is the study and interpretation of accounting evidence
  • Forensic Botany is the study of plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes
  • Forensic Dactyloscopyis the study of fingerprints(patent and latent fingerprints)
  • Trace Evidence Analysis is the analysis and comparison of trace evidence including(glass, paint, fibers, hair, etc.
  • Forensic Chemistry is the study of detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in arson cases, explosive and gunshot residues
  • Forensic Optometry is the study of glasses and other eye wear relating to crime scenes and criminal investigations
  • Forensic Serology is the study of blood groups and blood for identification purposes following a crime,the study of how blood splaters, and the analysis of blood stains
  • Forensic Linguistics deals with anything in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise

Notable Forensic Scientists

Questionable techniques

.Some forensic techniques, believed to be scientifically sound at the time they were used, have turned out later to have much less scientific merit, or none.^ Decades later, the comic strip, Dick Tracy also featured the detective using a considerable number of forensic methods although sometimes the methods were more fanciful.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For a better understanding of how these tools are used, check out Know Your Enemy: Forensics .
  • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may seem almost sacrilegious to suggest that forensic scientists cannot use the scientific method.
  • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] Some such techniques include:
.
  • Comparative bullet-lead analysis was used by the FBI for over four decades, starting with the John F. Kennedy assassination in 1963. The theory was that each batch of ammunition possessed a chemical makeup so distinct that a bullet could be traced back to a particular batch, or even a specific box.^ This is done by using chemical and/or physical analysis.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In organizing the components of a forensic psychiatry assessment, a four-step series of questions is often used: What is the specific psychiatric-legal issue?
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even finding the fingerprints or the DNA of a particular man or woman on the firearm provides no proof that he or she fired a bullet from the gun that formed the contact gunshot wound.
    • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, internal studies and an outside study by the National Academy of Sciences found that the technique was unreliable, and the FBI abandoned the test in 2005.[7]
  • Forensic dentistry has come under fire; in at least two cases, bite mark evidence has been used to convict people of murder who were later freed by DNA evidence.^ Forensic dentistry (odontology) is a vital branch of forensic science that involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks, using both physical and biological dental evidence.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are 15 forensic cases presented for your investigation, biographies of people who were instrumental in developing processes such as fingerprint identification and toxicology, and other technologies of forensic medicine.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Under Dean's leadership the Crime Lab has been recognized as one of the top forensic science facilities in the country.
    • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

    .A 1999 study by a member of the American Board of Forensic Odontology found a 63 percent rate of false identifications and is commonly referenced within online news stories and conspiracy websites.^ American Board of Forensic Entomology 2003 ).
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) The Forensic Sciences Foundation PO Box 669 Colorado Springs, CO 80901-0669 www.abfo.org (719) 636-1100 Kimberly Wrasse, Registrar kwrasse@aafs.org .
    • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The American Society of Forensic Odontology ( www.asfo.org ) meets annually at the AAFS Annual Meeting.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [8][9] However, the study was based on an informal workshop during an ABFO meeting which many members did not consider a valid scientific setting. [10]

Litigation science

.Litigation science describes analysis or data developed or produced expressly for use in a trial, versus those produced in the course of independent research.^ Those involved in crime scene analysis and the death investigation process are encouraged to use this site as a reference resource to enhance their investigation efforts.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The booklet explains what DNA analysis can and cannot do, describes the sources of DNA that forensic scientists might use, and explains the differences between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. April 2005.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Next, the criminalist sorts, compares, and identifies the evidence, using chemicals and instruments, developing useful information for an investigation or trial.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This distinction was made by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals when evaluating the admissibility of experts.[11]
.This uses demonstrative evidence, which is evidence created in preparation of trial by attorneys or paralegals.^ Next, the criminalist sorts, compares, and identifies the evidence, using chemicals and instruments, developing useful information for an investigation or trial.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples in popular culture

.Sherlock Holmes, the fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in works produced from 1887 to 1915, used forensic science as one of his investigating methods.^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sherlock Holmes, the fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was, in fact, the inspiration for forensic science.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Decades later, the comic strip, Dick Tracy also featured the detective using a considerable number of forensic methods although sometimes the methods were more fanciful.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Conan Doyle credited the inspiration for Holmes on his teacher at the medical school of the University of Edinburgh, the gifted surgeon and forensic detective Joseph Bell.^ Since the initial concept of using soil in forensic investigations was mooted by Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes stories prior to real-world applications, this branch of forensic science has become increasingly sophisticated and broad.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology, so an additional one or two-year fellowship specifically in forensic pathology must then be completed after college, medical school, internship, and pathology residency.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University of Texas Southwestern Medical School 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard Dallas, TX 75390-9070 .
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

.Decades later, the comic strip Dick Tracy also featured a detective using a considerable number of forensic methods, although sometimes the methods were more fanciful than actually possible.^ Decades later, the comic strip, Dick Tracy also featured the detective using a considerable number of forensic methods although sometimes the methods were more fanciful.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are placing more than one partition on the tape, make sure you use the non-rewind device for writing each partition, then use mt rewind (or just unload the tape, which will rewind it).
  • Basic Steps in Forensic Analysis of Unix Systems 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC staff.washington.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This site is maintained by Alan Barbour, a forensic toxicology consultant with more than twenty-five years' experience in forensic toxicology and clinical laboratory science.
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

.Defense attorney Perry Mason occasionally used forensic techniques, both in the novels and television series.^ Other forensic toxicologists work with law enforcement agencies in the investigation of crimes in which an individual's drug or alcohol use is an element of the crime or may be a defense.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The popular television series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation depicts a glamorized version of the activities of forensic scientists.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In organizing the components of a forensic psychiatry assessment, a four-step series of questions is often used: What is the specific psychiatric-legal issue?
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Popular television series focusing on crime detection, including The Mentalist, CSI, Cold Case, Bones, Law & Order, NCIS, Criminal Minds, Silent Witness, Dexter, and Waking the Dead, depict glamorized versions of the activities of 21st century forensic scientists.^ The popular television series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation depicts a glamorized version of the activities of forensic scientists.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is misleading because forensic scientists are involved in all aspects of criminal cases, and the results of their work may serve either the defense or the prosecution.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Expert Witness/Legal Seminar focuses on forensic report-writing and testifying skills and includes a series of lectures administered by practicing attorneys.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

Some claim these TV shows have changed individuals' expectations of forensic science, an influence termed the "CSI effect".[citation needed]
.Non-fiction TV shows such as Forensic Files, The New Detectives, American Justice, and Dayle Hinman's Body of Evidence have also popularized the area of forensic science.^ The American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) is the forum for forensic dental lectures, demonstrations, and practical courses that are valuable educational experiences.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Bibliography section is a keyword searchable index to articles in the Journal of the Forensic Science Society and Science & Justice .
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the well-established disciplines in the forensic sciences were nurtured in and emerged from the General Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Controversies

.Questions about forensic science, fingerprint evidence and the assumption behind these disciplines have been brought to light in some publications,[12] [13] [14] the latest being an article in the New York Post.^ The Sheriff Department’s Forensic Science Services Division is Orange County’s only accredited, full service law enforcement crime lab that provides crime scene investigation and laboratory examinations on evidence in all forensic disciplines, including fingerprints, DNA, toxicology and firearms to name a few.
  • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

^ Our parent organization, the IAI, provides certification programs in various forensic disciplines such as crime scene investigation, fingerprint identification, etc.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pace University Department of Chemistry and Physical Sciences 1 Pace Plaza New York, NY 10038 www.pace.edu/forensic (212) 346-1531 Susan Ford sford@pace.edu .
  • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] The article stated that "No one has proved even the basic assumption: That everyone's fingerprint is unique."[15] .The article also stated that "Now such assumptions are being questioned -- and with it may come a radical change in how forensic science is used by police departments and prosecutors."^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a better understanding of how these tools are used, check out Know Your Enemy: Forensics .
  • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The members come from the police force, medical examiners and coroners' laboratories, horseracing and sports doping laboratories, hospitals, departments of legal medicine, pharmacology, pharmacy and toxicology.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

[15]
On June 25, 2009 the Supreme Court issued a 5-to-4 decision in Melendez-Diaz v. .Massachusetts stating that crime laboratory reports may not be used against criminal defendants at trial unless the analysts responsible for creating them give testimony and subject themselves to cross-examination.^ These bloodstain patterns can yield valuable information concerning the events which lead to their creation when examined by a qualified analyst.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other forensic toxicologists work with law enforcement agencies in the investigation of crimes in which an individual's drug or alcohol use is an element of the crime or may be a defense.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since multiple compromised systems are used, it is extremely difficult to defend against and identify the source of the attack.
  • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Supreme Court cited the National Academies report Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States [16] in their decision.^ (Last checked 08/05/09) Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf National Academies of Science, March 2009.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Michigan State University has the nations oldest and largest forensic science program, and it is one of only two universities in the United States to offer an online course.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The award had not been reported in the press but a case in the news this week spotlights the importance of the work done by the Forensic Sciences Divison.
  • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

Writing for the majority, Justice Antonin Scalia referenced the National Research Council report in his assertion that “Forensic evidence is not uniquely immune from the risk of manipulation.”

See also

References

  1. ^ Schafer, Elizabeth D. (2008). "Ancient science and forensics". in Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. pp. 40. ISBN 978-1587654237. 
  2. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/forensics/timeline.html Forensics Timeline
  3. ^ http://vizproto.prism.asu.edu/classes/sp05/todd_c/forensic_site/intro.html A Brief Background of Forensic Science
  4. ^ Template:Cite book Police started using fingerprints for evidence when Juan Vucetich solved a murder case in Argentina by cutting a piece of door off with a bloody fingerprint on it.
  5. ^ Kind S, Overman M (1972). Science Against Crime. New York: Doubleday. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-385-09249-0. 
  6. ^ Saks, Michael J.; Faigman, David L. (2008). "Failed forensics: how forensic science lost its way and how it might yet find it". Annual Review of Law and Social Science 4: 149–171. doi:10.1146/annurev.lawsocsci.4.110707.172303. 
  7. ^ Solomon, John (2007-11-18). "FBI's Forensic Test Full of Holes". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/17/AR2007111701681.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  8. ^ Santos, Fernanda (2007-01-28). "Evidence From Bite Marks, It Turns Out, Is Not So Elementary". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/weekinreview/28santos.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  9. ^ McRoberts, Flynn (2004-11-29). "Bite-mark verdict faces new scrutiny". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-0411290148nov29,1,2796064.story. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  10. ^ McRoberts, Flynn (2004-10-19). "From the start, a faulty science". Chicago Tribune. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/specials/chi-041019forensics,0,4915311.story?page=6. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
  11. ^ Raloff, Janet (2008-01-19). "Judging Science". Science News: pp. 42 (Vol. 173, No. 3). http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20080119/bob10.asp. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  12. ^ "'Badly Fragmented' Forensic Science System Needs Overhaul". The National Academies. February 18, 2009. http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=12589. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  13. ^ YiZhen Huang and YangJing Long (2008). "Demosaicking recognition with applications in digital photo authentication based on a quadratic pixel correlation model". Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 1–8. http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~huangyz/cvpr08_Huang.pdf. 
  14. ^ "National Academy of Sciences Finds 'Serious Deficiencies' in Nation's Crime Labs". National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. February 18, 2009. http://www.nacdl.org/public.nsf/newsreleases/2009mn06?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  15. ^ a b c Katherine Ramsland (Sunday, March 6, 2009). "CSI: Without a clue; A new report forces Police and Judges to rethink forensic science". The New York Post, PostScript. http://www.nypost.com/seven/03072009/postopinion/opedcolumnists/csi__without_a_clue_158464.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  16. ^ http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589

Further reading

.
  • Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.
  • Crime Science: Methods of Forensic Detection by Joe Nickell and John F. Fischer.^ Indexes all forensic Science journals, and selected forensic papers, world-wide (Yearly, 1972-1985).
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is strongly recommended that one consult indices to forensic science journals .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Decades later, the comic strip, Dick Tracy also featured the detective using a considerable number of forensic methods although sometimes the methods were more fanciful.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .University Press of Kentucky, 1999. ISBN 0-8131-2091-8.
  • Dead Reckoning: The New Science of Catching Killers by Michael Baden, M.D, former New York City Medical Examiner, and Marion Roach.^ Eyewitness Identification Cutler & Penrod, Mistaken Identification: The Eyewitness, Psychology and the Law , ( Cambridge University Press , New York: 1995) .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gregory, Oxford Companion to the Mind, ( Oxford University Press , New York: 1987) .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Moore, Law & Psychiatry, ( Cambridge University Press , New York: 1984) .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-86758-3.
  • Forensic Magazine - Forensicmag.com.
  • Forensic Materials Engineering: Case Studies by Peter Rhys Lewis, Colin Gagg, Ken Reynolds.^ (Last checked 08/05/09) The Emerging Role of the Forensic Engineer http://www.boyell.com/emerging-role.pdf PDF plug in required.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The ABFE site provides a short but informative overview of the science and history of forensic entomology, as well as case studies in forensic entomology.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The article includes a discoverable material checklist and a forensic case issue checklist to guide litigators preparing for trial.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .CRC Press, 2004.
  • Forensic Science Communications, an open access journal of the FBI.
  • Forensic sciences international - An international journal dedicated to the applications of medicine and science in the administration of justice - ISSN: 0379-0738 - Elsevier
  • Forensic Sculpting, by Seth Wolfson.^ (Last checked 08/05/09) Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners http://www.afte.org/ AFTE" is an international organization dedicated to the advancement of one of the finest disciplines of Forensic Science......Firearm & Toolmark Identification.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Programs offered include History, International Relations, Political Science, Education, IT, Public Administration, Criminal Justice and many more.

    ^ Indexes all forensic Science journals, and selected forensic papers, world-wide (Yearly, 1972-1985).
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Realsculpt Press, 2005.
  • Guide to Information Sources in the Forensic Sciences by Cynthia Holt.^ EVIDENCE BASED ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES see also, American Board of Criminalistics Study Guides for bibliographic information .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The information serves students preparing for a career in forensic science, educational institutions as they develop and revamp curriculums, and forensic scientists as they advance their knowledge, skills, and abilities.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The goal of Forensic Science Review is to fill this void and provide a base for authors to extrapolate state-of-the-art information and to synthesize and translate it into readable review articles."
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Libraries Unlimited, 2006. ISBN 1-59158-221-0.
  • International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics (IJDCF)
  • Owen, D. (2000) Hidden Evidence; The Story of Forensic Science and how it Helped to Solve 40 of the World's Toughest Crimes Quintet Publishing, London.^ Under Dean's leadership the Crime Lab has been recognized as one of the top forensic science facilities in the country.
    • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The IOFOS publishes the Journal of Forensic Odontostomatology .
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Our program was developed with the assistance of crime lab directors in several states to serve the best interests of our students and to help meet the needs of the forensics community.
    • Forensic Sciences Graduate Certificate Program : Department of Chemistry 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.chem.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 1-86155-278-5.
  • Quinche, Nicolas, Crime, Science et Identité. Anthologie des textes fondateurs de la criminalistique européenne (1860-1930). Genève: Slatkine, 2006, 368p.
  • Quinche, Nicolas, « Les victimes, les mobiles et le modus operandi du criminaliste suisse R.-A. Reiss. Enquête sur les stratégies discursives d’un expert du crime (1906-1922)" in Revue Suisse d’Histoire, 58, no 4, décembre 2008, pp. 426-444.
  • Quinche, Nicolas, « L’ascension du criminaliste Rodolphe Archibald Reiss », in Le théâtre du crime : Rodolphe A. Reiss (1875-1929). Lausanne : Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2009, pp. 231-250.
  • Quinche, Nicolas, « Sur les traces du crime : la naissance de la police scientifique et technique en Europe », in Revue internationale de criminologie et de police technique et scientifique, vol. LXII, no 2, juin 2009, pp. .8-10.
  • Quinche, Nicolas, and Margot, Pierre, « Coulier, Paul-Jean (1824-1890) : A precursor in the history of fingermark detection and their potential use for identifying their source (1863) », in Journal of forensic identification (Californie), 60 (2), March-April 2010, pp.^ Emerging Forensic Identification Technologies: Heat Shock for Cold Cases NCJ 220984, April 2007, by Marian Daggett HTML .
    • Publications 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC nij.ncjrs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Journal of Forensic Identification { http://www.theiai.org/publications/jfi.html } "A scientific journal that provides over 115 pages of articles related to forensics.
    • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Since multiple compromised systems are used, it is extremely difficult to defend against and identify the source of the attack.
    • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    129-134.
  • Science Against Crime by Stuart Kind and Michael Overman. Doubleday, 1972. ISBN 0-385-09249-0.
  • Stanton G (2003). ."Underwater Crime Scene Investigations (UCSI), a New Paradigm".^ Crime Investigation: Physical Evidence and the Police Laboratory Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY 1953 Chapter 1, page 4.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our parent organization, the IAI, provides certification programs in various forensic disciplines such as crime scene investigation, fingerprint identification, etc.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Last checked 08/05/09) Crime Scene Investigation http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/ By Steven Staggs, Police Department, University of California.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    In: SF Norton (ed). Diving for Science... .2003. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (22nd annual Scientific Diving Symposium).^ Copyright 1996-2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • AAFS: Resources 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) is the forum for forensic dental lectures, demonstrations, and practical courses that are valuable educational experiences.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many of the well-established disciplines in the forensic sciences were nurtured in and emerged from the General Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4762
    . Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  • Structure Magazine no. .40, "RepliSet: High Resolution Impressions of the Teeth of Human Ancestors" by Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Assistant Professor of Biological Anthropology, The Ohio State University and John C. Mitchell, Assistant Professor of Biomaterials and Biomechanics School of Dentistry, Oregon Health and Science University.
  • The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology.
  • Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science by Allan Jamieson and Andres Moenssens (eds).^ PERIODIC UPDATES ABOUT THE FORENSIC SCIENCES Scientific Sleuthing Review, (Forensic Science in Criminal Law), (George Washington University National Law Center) .
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Indexes all forensic Science journals, and selected forensic papers, world-wide (Yearly, 1972-1985).
    • Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.tncrimlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Michigan State University has the nations oldest and largest forensic science program, and it is one of only two universities in the United States to offer an online course.
    • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009. ISBN 978-0-470-01826-2.
  • Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science The online version of the Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science by Allan Jamieson and Andre Moenssens (eds)

External links


Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action. The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, meaning "of or before the forum." In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. The individual with the best argument and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.

In modern use, the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" can be considered incorrect as the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts". However, the term is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science".

Contents

History

Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow the concepts of forensic science developed centuries later, such as the "Eureka" legend told of Archimedes (287–212 BC).[1] The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve (separate) criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu (translated as "Washing Away of Wrongs"[2][3]), written in Song Dynasty China by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186–1249) in 1248. In one of the accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by a death investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. (He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on an animal carcass and comparing the wound) Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. The book also offered advice on how to distinguish between a drowning (water in the lungs) and strangulation (broken neck cartilage), along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide, or an accident. Police started using fingerprints for evidence when Juan Vucetich solved a murder case in Argentina by cutting off a piece of door with a bloody fingerprint on it.[4]

Modern history

In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear. These included: A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Fodéré, and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Franck.

In 1776, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele devised a way of detecting arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses, although only in large quantities. This investigation was expanded, in 1806, by German chemist Valentin Ross, who learned to detect the poison in the walls of a victim's stomach, and by English chemist James Marsh, who used chemical processes to confirm arsenic as the cause of death in an 1836 murder trial.

Two early examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate the increasing use of logic and procedure in criminal investigations. In 1784, in Lancaster, John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol. When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms' pocket. In Warwick in 1816, a farm labourer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool. There were also scattered grains of wheat and chaff. The breeches of a farm labourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to the impression in the earth near the pool.[5] Later in the 20th century, several British pathologists, Bernard Spilsbury, Francis Camps, Sydney Smith and Keith Simpson pioneered new forensic science methods in Britain. In 1909, Rodolphe Archibald Reiss founded the first school of forensic science in the world: the "Institut de police scientifique" in the University of Lausanne (UNIL).

Subdivisions

investigate a crime scene.]]
  • Forensic accounting is the study and interpretation of accounting evidence.
  • Forensic anthropology is the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains.
  • Forensic archaeology is the application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement.
  • Forensic astronomy uses methods from astronomy to determine past celestial constellations for forensic purposes.
  • Forensic botany is the study of plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes.
  • Forensic chemistry is the study of detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in arson cases, explosive and gunshot residue.
  • Computational forensics concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination.
  • Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics, firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations. In typical circumstances, evidence is processed in a crime lab.
  • Forensic dactyloscopy is the study of fingerprints.
  • Digital forensics is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover data from electronic / digital media. Digital Forensic specialists work in the field as well as in the lab.
  • Forensic document examination or questioned document examination answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
  • Forensic DNA analysis takes advantage of the uniqueness of an individual's DNA to answer forensic questions such as paternity/maternity testing or placing a suspect at a crime scene, e.g., in a rape investigation.
  • Forensic engineering is the scientific examination and analysis of structures and products relating to their failure or cause of damage.
  • Forensic entomology deals with the examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death. It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death.
  • Forensic geology deals with trace evidence in the form of soils, minerals and petroleum.
  • Forensic limnology is the analysis of evidence collected from crime scenes in or around fresh water sources. Examination of biological organisms, in particular, diatoms, can be useful in connecting suspects with victims.
  • Forensic linguistics deals with issues in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise.
  • Forensic meteorology is a site specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss.
  • Forensic odontology is the study of the uniqueness of dentition better known as the study of teeth.
  • Forensic optometry is the study of glasses and other eye wear relating to crime scenes and criminal investigations
  • Forensic pathology is a field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
  • Forensic psychology is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods. Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
  • Forensic seismology is the study of techniques to distinguish the seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions from those generated by earthquakes.
  • Forensic serology is the study of the body fluids.[6]
  • Forensic toxicology is the study of the effect of drugs and poisons on/in the human body.
  • Forensic video analysis is the scientific examination, comparison, and evaluation of video in legal matters.
  • Mobile device forensics is the scientific examination, and evaluation of evidences found in Mobile Phone, e.g. Call History, Deleted SMS etc., also include SIM Card Forensics
  • Trace evidence analysis is the analysis and comparison of trace evidence including glass, paint, fibers, hair, etc.
  • Forensic podiatry is an application of the study of foot, footprint or footwear and their traces to analyze scene of crime and to establish personal identity in forensic examinations.

Notable forensic scientists

Questionable techniques

Some forensic techniques, believed to be scientifically sound at the time they were used, have turned out later to have much less scientific merit, or none.[7] Some such techniques include:

  • Comparative bullet-lead analysis was used by the FBI for over four decades, starting with the John F. Kennedy assassination in 1963. The theory was that each batch of ammunition possessed a chemical makeup so distinct that a bullet could be traced back to a particular batch, or even a specific box. Internal studies and an outside study by the National Academy of Sciences found that the technique was unreliable, and the FBI abandoned the test in 2005.[8]
  • Forensic dentistry has come under fire; in at least two cases, bite mark evidence has been used to convict people of murder who were later freed by DNA evidence. A 1999 study by a member of the American Board of Forensic Odontology found a 63 percent rate of false identifications and is commonly referenced within online news stories and conspiracy websites.[9][10] The study was based on an informal workshop during an ABFO meeting, which many members did not consider a valid scientific setting.[11]

Litigation science

Litigation science describes analysis or data developed or produced expressly for use in a trial, versus those produced in the course of independent research. This distinction was made by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals when evaluating the admissibility of experts.[12]

This uses demonstrative evidence, which is evidence created in preparation of trial by attorneys or paralegals.

Examples in popular culture

Sherlock Holmes, the fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in works produced from 1887 to 1915, used forensic science as one of his investigating methods. Conan Doyle credited the inspiration for Holmes on his teacher at the medical school of the University of Edinburgh, the gifted surgeon and forensic detective Joseph Bell. Agatha Christie's, Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple Book and television series were also a big hit worldwide.

Decades later, the comic strip Dick Tracy also featured a detective using a considerable number of forensic methods, although sometimes the methods were more fanciful than actually possible.

Defense attorney Perry Mason occasionally used forensic techniques, both in the novels and television series.

Popular television series focusing on crime detection, including The Mentalist, CSI, Cold Case, Bones, Law & Order, NCIS, Criminal Minds, Silent Witness, Dexter,Cased Closed and Waking the Dead, depict glamorized versions of the activities of 21st- century forensic scientists. Some claim these TV shows have changed individuals' expectations of forensic science, an influence termed the "CSI effect".[citation needed]

Non-fiction TV shows such as Forensic Files, The New Detectives, American Justice, and Dayle Hinman's Body of Evidence have also popularized the area of forensic science.

The Ace Attorney series features forensic science, mainly in Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney and the DS-only game in Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney.

Controversies

Questions about forensic science, fingerprint evidence and the assumption behind these disciplines have been brought to light in some publications,[13][14][15] the latest being an article in the New York Post.[16] The article stated that "No one has proved even the basic assumption: That everyone's fingerprint is unique."[16] The article also stated that "Now such assumptions are being questioned -- and with it may come a radical change in how forensic science is used by police departments and prosecutors."[16]

On June 25, 2009, the Supreme Court issued a 5-to-4 decision in Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts stating that crime laboratory reports may not be used against criminal defendants at trial unless the analysts responsible for creating them give testimony and subject themselves to cross-examination. The Supreme Court cited the National Academies report Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States[17] in their decision. Writing for the majority, Justice Antonin Scalia referenced the National Research Council report in his assertion that "Forensic evidence is not uniquely immune from the risk of manipulation."

See also

References

  1. ^ Schafer, Elizabeth D. (2008). "Ancient science and forensics". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-1587654237. 
  2. ^ Forensics Timeline
  3. ^ A Brief Background of Forensic Science
  4. ^ "Juan Vucetich". Easybuenosairescity.com. 1925-01-25. http://www.easybuenosairescity.com/biografias/vucetich1.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  5. ^ Kind S, Overman M (1972). Science Against Crime. New York: Doubleday. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-385-09249-0. 
  6. ^ "Forensic serology". Forensic-medecine.info. http://www.forensic-medecine.info/forensic-serology.html. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  7. ^ Saks, Michael J.; Faigman, David L. (2008). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Failed forensics: how forensic science lost its way and how it might yet find it"]. Annual Review of Law and Social Science 4: 149–171. doi:10.1146/annurev.lawsocsci.4.110707.172303. 
  8. ^ Solomon, John (2007-11-18). "FBI's Forensic Test Full of Holes". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/17/AR2007111701681.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  9. ^ Santos, Fernanda (2007-01-28). "Evidence From Bite Marks, It Turns Out, Is Not So Elementary". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/weekinreview/28santos.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  10. ^ McRoberts, Flynn (2004-11-29). "Bite-mark verdict faces new scrutiny". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-0411290148nov29,1,2796064.story. Retrieved 2008-03-05. [dead link]
  11. ^ McRoberts, Flynn (2004-10-19). "From the start, a faulty science". Chicago Tribune. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/specials/chi-041019forensics,0,4915311.story?page=6. Retrieved 2008-07-13. [dead link]
  12. ^ Raloff, Janet (2008-01-19). "Judging Science". Science News: pp. 42 (Vol. 173, No. 3). Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20080228014925/http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20080119/bob10.asp. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  13. ^ "'Badly Fragmented' Forensic Science System Needs Overhaul". The National Academies. February 18, 2009. http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=12589. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  14. ^ YiZhen Huang Agatha Christie's, Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple series are a big hit in books and in television and YangJing Long (2008). "Demosaicking recognition with applications in digital photo authentication based on a quadratic pixel correlation model". Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 1–8. http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~huangyz/cvpr08_Huang.pdf. 
  15. ^ "National Academy of Sciences Finds 'Serious Deficiencies' in Nation's Crime Labs". National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. February 18, 2009. http://www.nacdl.org/public.nsf/newsreleases/2009mn06?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  16. ^ a b c Katherine Ramsland (Sunday, March 6, 2009). "CSI: Without a clue; A new report forces Police and Judges to rethink forensic science". The New York Post, PostScript. http://www.nypost.com/seven/03072009/postopinion/opedcolumnists/csi__without_a_clue_158464.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  17. ^ "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward". Nap.edu. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 

Further reading

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Forensic science
Physiological sciences
Forensic pathology · Forensic dentistry
Forensic anthropology · Forensic entomology
Social sciences
Forensic psychology · Forensic psychiatry
Other specializations
Fingerprint analysis · Forensic Accounting
Ballistics  · Bloodstain pattern analysis
DNA analysis · Forensic toxicology
Forensic footwear evidence
Questioned document examination
Explosion analysis
Cybertechnology in forensics
Information forensics · Computer forensics
Related disciplines
Forensic engineering
Fire investigation
Vehicular accident reconstruction
People in Forensics
Edmond Locard
Bill Bass
Related articles
Crime scene · CSI Effect
Trace evidence
Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene
.Forensic science (often shortened to forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.^ Forensic science is the application of science to the law.
  • Forensic Science | The University of North Dakota 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.und.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Upper Iowa University - Forensic Science Major - Fayette Campus 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.uiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Forensic science is the application of the scientific method to help the judicial system.
  • All about Forensic science and forensic Medicine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic-medecine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you answer these science questions?
  • WikiAnswers - How are fingerprints used in forensic science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action.^ This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action.
  • Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.baisd.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A criminalist may or may not be board certified by the ABC. They may also be trained in crime reconstruction related to their areas of specialized knowledge, though this is not always the case.
  • Forensic Science; � 2008 Forensic Solutions LLC 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic-science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be used to help solve crimes, it can also be used in civil action.

.The use of the term "forensics" in place of "forensic science" could be considered incorrect; the term "forensic" is effectively a synonym for "legal" or "related to courts" (from Latin, it means "before the forum").^ I am interested in doing forensic science for the courts, working in a lab etc.
  • Forensic Science - Science Forums 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC hypography.com [Source type: General]
  • Forensic Science - Science Forums 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal Issues Discuss all issues related to the legal aspects of computer forensics .

^ The use of forensic science in criminal trials is critically important.
  • Forensic science is badly in need of reform. Here are some suggestions. - By Radley Balko and Roger Koppl - Slate Magazine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: News]

However, it is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word "forensics" with "forensic science".
“Forensic” comes from the .Latin word “forensis” meaning forum.^ From the Latin 'Forensis', meaning forum, specifically the Imperial Court of Rome.
  • What is Forensic Science? 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word forensics is derived from the Latin term "forensic," which means "of the forum."
  • Forensic Psychology | Learn About Careers and Training in Forensic Psychology, from All Psychology Schools 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.allpsychologyschools.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The word forensic originates from the Latin forensis , which means "of a forum."
  • Forensic Medical 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.forensicmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals.^ During the Roman Empire, a criminal charged had to plead their case before a group of their public peers.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "The momentum is growing, spurred in part by the public's education from the Simpson trial, for DNA testing in criminal cases.

^ There are opportunities for evaluations of civil and criminal cases, inpatient evaluations, research, and educational presentations in the community.
  • Forensic Psychiatry Fellowships 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.aapl.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story.^ Both the accuser and the accused would give their side of the story.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One combination that would probably get you a job in a crime lab would be a major that contained sufficient background to do both forensic archeology and DNA on the samples recovered.
  • Advice about a Career in Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.criminology.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only would police and prosecutors make the streets safer for law abiding citizens, the chance of an innocent person being convicted of a crime would be significantly reduced.

.The individual with the best argumentation and delivery would determine the outcome of the case.^ The individual with the best debate (argumentation and delivery) skills would determine the case's outcome.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A Minister is explicitly prohibited from interfering with the day-to-day operation in an agency or the outcome in individual cases.
  • Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC qu71.msl-fn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Cold Case Investigators typically use DNA collected at the crime scene to determine if it matches any individuals in the state or national database.
  • The OC Sheriff - DNA - Forensic Sciences 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC blog.ocsd.org [Source type: General]

.In other words, the person with the best forensic skills would win.^ Of course a forensics laboratory would be best.
  • How to Become a Forensic Science Technician | eHow.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: News]

^ In other words, the forensic engineer's work is subject to the scrutiny of other highly qualified professionals.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It tells us nothing, however, about what arrangements best ensure that forensic scientists are alert, skilled, unbiased, and conscientious.
  • What is Forensic Science Administration? :: Fairleigh Dickinson University 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC view.fdu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Contents

History of forensic science

.The "Eureka" legend of Archimedes (287-212 BC) can be considered an early account of the use of forensic science.^ Any science, used for the purposes of the law, is a forensic science.” .
  • FAQ Forensic Science - Eastern Kentucky University 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensicscience.eku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is considered a pioneer in the use of forensic science.
  • Forensic Science « CSI and Forensic Blog | The National Museum of Crime and Punishment 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.crimemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any science, used for the purposes of the law, is a forensic science.
  • What is Forensic Science? 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case, he determined that a crown was not completely made of gold (as it was fraudulently claimed) by testing its density and buoyancy, as he was not allowed to damage the crown.^ In this case, by examining the principles of water displacement, Archimedes was able to prove that a crown was not made of gold (as it was fraudulently claimed) by its density and buoyancy.
  • All about Forensic science and forensic Medicine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic-medecine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used by Archimedes when he determined a crown was not completely made up of gold .

^ He had exulted when he had found out that a crown was not made of gold, (as it was falsely claimed) by its density and buoyancy.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

.The earliest account of fingerprint use to establish identity was during the 7th century.^ Forensic science dates as far back as 212 BC, and the earliest account of using fingerprints for the purpose of establishing identity, as far back as the 7th century.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is thought that fingerprints may have been first used around the 7th century to authenticate important documents such as IOU notes and the like.
  • Forensic science - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discuss how mistaken identity based on very similar fingerprints may change how fingerprint analysis is conducted when using computerized comparisons .

.According to Soleiman, an Arabic merchant, a debtor's fingerprints were affixed to a bill, which would then be given to the lender.^ According to Soleiman - an Arabic merchant, a debtor's fingerprints were affixed to a bill, which would then be given to the lender.
  • All about Forensic science and forensic Medicine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic-medecine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soleiman, a debtor, his fingerprints were affixed to a bill, according to an Arabic merchant.

^ After Archimedes we come to know of another early forensic science application by Soleiman, an Arabic merchant of the 7th century.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

.This bill was legally recognized as proof of the validity of the debt.^ This bill was legally recognized as proof of the validity of the debt.
  • All about Forensic science and forensic Medicine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic-medecine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bill was then recognized as proof of the validity of the debt.

.The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve (separate) criminal cases is attributed to the book Xi Yuan Ji Lu (洗冤集錄, translated as "Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified"), written in Song Dynasty China by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186-1249) in 1247. In one of the accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by a death investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location.^ With the invention of photography he was the first to use it in criminal investigation.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Collects and preserves criminal evidence used to solve cases.
  • Criminalists (Forensic Science Technicians) 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.calmis.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An investigator instructed everyone in the town to bring their sickle to town.

.Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle.^ Flies are attracked to the smell of blood and eventually the flies gathered on the one sickle and the murdered confessed.

^ Flies gathered on the sickle with the blood, and ultimately the killer confessed and was brought to justice.
  • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flies, attracted by the tiny fragments of blood, bone, and hair still on the murder weapon, congregated on the murderer’s sickle.
  • Forensic Science | Salient 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.salient.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In light of this, the murderer confessed. .The book also offered advice on how to distinguish between a drowning (water in the lungs) and strangulation (broken neck cartilage),[1] along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide, or an accident.^ Distinguish how forensic entomologists determine the time of death.

^ Examine cause, mechanism, and manner of death.

^ Medical Examiners/Forensic Pathologists perform autopsies; determine the mode and time of death.
  • Alma College: Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.alma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.In sixteenth century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on cause and manner of death.^ What is the CAUSE and MANNER of death on the death certificate?
  • Forensic Pathology Information 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.forensiconline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medics began to use their knowledge to investigate the cause of death.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Examine cause, mechanism, and manner of death.

.Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs.^ Ambrose Par, a French army surgeon, two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia were some of the pioneers in this field.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

.Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes which occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease.^ Ambrose Par, a French army surgeon, two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia were some of the pioneers in this field.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pathology is a medical specialty the study of disease.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discover changes that occur to the body after death.

In the late 1700s, writings on these topics began to appear. .These included: "A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health" by the French physician Fodéré, and "The Complete System of Police Medicine" by the German medical expert Johann Peter Franck.^ There are wide-ranging career opportunities, including the health service, the forensic science or police scientific support laboratories, the Health and Safety Executive, and the public analysts’ laboratories, as well as opportunities in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food, drink and electronics industries.
  • Chemical and Forensic Science, Undergraduate Prospectus - University of Bradford 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.brad.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The members come from the police force, medical examiners and coroners' laboratories, horseracing and sports doping laboratories, hospitals, departments of legal medicine, pharmacology, pharmacy and toxicology.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Forensic Science Resources on the Internet 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.istl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Master of Arts in Forensic Psychology The rapidly growing field of Forensic Psychology focuses on the application of psychology and mental health knowledge to the law and our legal system.
  • Forensic Science and Criminology -- Online Degrees (CSI) 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1775, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele devised a way of detecting arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses, although only in large quantities.^ Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele and German chemist Valentin Ross led the way.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

.This investigation was expanded, in 1806, by German chemist Valentin Ross, who learned to detect the poison in the walls of a victim's stomach, and by English chemist James Marsh, who used chemical processes to confirm arsenic as the cause of death in an 1836 murder trial.^ A chemical used to detect blood 17.
  • Forensic Science « CSI and Forensic Blog | The National Museum of Crime and Punishment 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.crimemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medics began to use their knowledge to investigate the cause of death.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Consider what options a deceased person's survivors might have had prior to the ability to accurately detect and identify poisons in a body if they suspected the victim was poisoned.

.Two early examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate the increasing use of logic and procedure in criminal investigations.^ The use of forensic science in criminal trials is critically important.
  • Forensic science is badly in need of reform. Here are some suggestions. - By Radley Balko and Roger Koppl - Slate Magazine 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: News]

^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excellent source for how forensic science is actually used in legal proceedings.
  • Marshall University Libraries - Forensic Science Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.marshall.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1784, in Lancaster, John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol.^ For instance, in the year 1784 in Lancaster, John Toms was convicted of murder, when a torn bit of a newspaper in a gun was found matching a leftover paper in his pocket.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE THROUGH AGES / HISTORY : www.santoshraut.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.forensic.santoshraut.com [Source type: Reference]

.When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms' pocket.^ A good paper on how to compile static binaries (using a stubs.o file) can be found at: .
  • http://www.ufsdump.org/labs/unix-forensics.html 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.ufsdump.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A physical match of the paper from a robbery note that was left at the scene to a piece of paper found in the suspect's car.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His current responsibilities include examining, analyzing, and securing electronic evidence with regards to investigations of criminal activity where a computer or other means of electronic data manipulation were used.
  • Digital Forensics Certificate Program 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC infosec.edcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Warwick, in 1816, a farm labourer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant.^ In 2004, Cameron Todd Willingham was convicted of murder and executed for the deaths of his three young children by arson at the family home in Texas.
  • Forensic Science Forum - In association with Forensic Science Policy & Management 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC myblogs.informa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. .The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool.^ But when they found a jacket near a pool of blood, they knew what theyd seen wasnt a joy ride; it was an abduction.
  • http://www.forensicfiles.com/episodes.php 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.forensicfiles.com [Source type: General]

There were also scattered grains of wheat and chaff. The breeches of a farm labourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to the impression in the earth near the pool. (Kind and Overman, pp. 12-13)

Subdivisions of forensic science

.
  • Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics (firearm examination), and other evidence in criminal investigations.^ Methods of retrieving fingerprints and other trace evidence from tapes.
    • University of Windsor - Forensic Science Conference - Conference Home Page 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.uwindsor.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It can also be items such as footwear impressions, fingerprints, tire tracks, and blood spatter.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.mfrc.ameslab.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What can impression evidence tell an investigator?

    .Typically, evidence is processed in a crime lab.
  • Forensic entomology deals with the examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death.^ This is of particular value to law enforcement and government computer forensic labs.
    • AccessData Forensic Toolkit 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.accessdata.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Criminalistics is the application of combination of impression evidence (i.e.
    • Forensic Science - Top Bits 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.topbits.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
    • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death.
  • Forensic geology deals with trace evidence in the form of soils, minerals and petroleums.
  • Forensic odontology is the study of the uniqueness of dentition better known as the study of teeth.
  • Forensic psychology is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods.^ Forensic science uses scientific methods and principles to resolve legal issues.
    • Forensic Science Degrees | Forensic Science Courses | Forensic Science Degree - CriminalJusticeU.com 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.criminaljusticeu.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Encyclopedia of forensic and legal medicine .

    ^ Forensic pathology: principles and practice.
    • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.

Forensic science in fiction

.Sherlock Holmes, the fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in works produced from 1887 to 1915, used forensic science as one of his investigating methods.^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One, the emphasis in forensic science is first on the science and then on the forensics.
  • Advice about a Career in Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.criminology.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Murderous methods : using forensic science to solve lethal crimes .

.Conan Doyle credited the inspiration for Holmes on his teacher at the medical school of the University of Edinburgh, the gifted surgeon and forensic detective Joseph Bell.^ Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology, so an additional one or two-year fellowship specifically in forensic pathology must then be completed after college, medical school, internship, and pathology residency.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conan-Doyle met Dr. Bell in 1877 at the University’s medical school, where he observed Bell’s keen attention to detail.

^ This center was named for Dr. Bell (1837-1911), who inspired Arthur Conan-Doyle’s Sherlock Homes.

.Decades later, the comic strip Dick Tracy also featured a detective using a considerable number of forensic methods, although sometimes the methods were more fanciful than actually possible.^ Decades later, the comic strip, Dick Tracy also featured the detective using a considerable number of forensic methods although sometimes the methods were more fanciful.
  • Michigan State University Libraries - Criminal Justice Resources - Forensic Science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Demand for experts in Forensic Science is increasing, with more and more jobs opening up at a faster rate than many other careers.
  • Forensic Schools in Florida: Which Florida Schools Offer Degrees in Forensic Science? 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC degreedirectory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Forensic science involves using scientific methods to help find solutions to questions arising from different aspects of the criminal justice system.

.Defense attorney Perry Mason occasionally used forensic techniques, both in the novels and television series.^ Computer forensics (or forensic computing) is the use of specialized techniques for recovery, authentication, and analysis of electronic data with a view to presenting evidence in a court of law.
  • Computer Forensics - Digital Forensics, Computer Forensic Training, eDiscovery 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www.forensicfocus.com [Source type: General]

^ ExpertWitness.com matches highly credentialed Forensics expert witnesses, forensics analysts, forensics litigation support consultants/experts with attorneys, lawyers, law firms, legal, Forensics professionals for both plaintiff and defense.

^ Other forensic toxicologists work with law enforcement agencies in the investigation of crimes in which an individual's drug or alcohol use is an element of the crime or may be a defense.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Popular television series focusing on crime detection, including Law & Order, In the video games Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney and Condemned, forensic science is used in various cases.^ Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science.
  • AAFS: Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.aafs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forensic science is the application of science to the law.
  • Forensic Science | The University of North Dakota 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.und.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is considered a pioneer in the use of forensic science.
  • Forensic Science « CSI and Forensic Blog | The National Museum of Crime and Punishment 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.crimemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Gernet, 170.
  • Kind, Stuart and Overman, Michael. "Science Against Crime". Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1972. ISBN 0-385-09249-0.

References

  • Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. .Stanford: Stanford University Press.^ HighWire Press A Stanford University site with the world's largest archive of free full-text science.

    ISBN 0-8047-0720-0

Further reading

.
  • Baden, Michael, M.D, former New York City Medical Examiner, and Roach, Marion.^ Fierro, former Chief Medical Examiner for the Commonwealth of Virginia and Professor Emerita, oversees all violent, suspicious and unnatural deaths throughout the State of Virginia.

    ^ Reddy Chamakura is a forensic scientist with the Police Laboratory, New York City Police Department.
    • Marshall University Libraries - Forensic Science Resources 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.marshall.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The author, a former New York City prosecutor, argues that his cousin's indictment was triggered by an inflamed media, and that an innocent man is now in prison.
    • Forensic Psychology can prove guilt or innocence. 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC surftofind.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Dead Reckoning: The New Science of Catching Killers". Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-86758-3.
  • Holt, Cynthia.^ HV8073 .H32 2005 Criminal Investigation : an Analytical Perspective HV8073 .B673 2004 Criminal Investigation : the Art and the Science HV8073 .L94 2005 Criminal Investigation : a Method for Reconstructing the Past HV8073 .O88 2004 Criminal Investigation for the Professional Investigator HV8073 .S626 2006 Dead Reckoning: The New Science of Catching Killers.

    ^ Baden wrote Unnatural Death, Confessions of a Medical Examiner and Dead Reckoning, the New Science of Catching Killers .

    ^ Crime and Science; The New Frontier in Criminology by Jurgen Thorwald Hardcover, 494 pages Published by Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1966 ISBN: 015623050X .
    • Forensic Science Intro. Shelf - Forensic Science Bookstore / © 1997 - 2003 Knowledge Solutions LLC 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.corpus-delicti.com [Source type: Academic]

    "Guide to Information Sources in the Forensic Sciences". Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 2006. ISBN 1-59158-221-0. http://lu.com/showbook.cfm?isbn=9781591582212
  • Nickell, Joe and Fischer, John F. "Crime Science: Methods of Forensic Detection". University Press of Kentucky, 1999. ISBN 0-8131-2091-8.
  • Wolfson, Seth, forensic sculptor and make-up FX artist, "Forensic Sculpting: Step--Step in Photos." Realsculpt Press, 2005. http://www.forensicsculpting.com/
  • Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij/indexpapers.html
  • Forensic Science Communications, FBI, Open Access Journal, http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/current/index.htm
  • Forensic Materials Engineering: Case Studies by Peter Rhys Lewis, Colin Gagg, Ken Reynolds, CRC Press (2004)
  • Forensic Magazine - Forensicmag.com
  • The internet Journal of Biological Anthropology-The free online journal "http://www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijba/current.xml"

External links


.This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.^ This page uses content from the English-language version of Wikipedia .
  • Forensic psychology - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • 19-4092.00 - Forensic Science Technicians 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
  • 19-4092.00 - Forensic Science Technicians 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC online.onetcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original content was at Forensic science.^ Content Questions What is forensic science?
  • Intel Education: Designing Effective Projects: Forensics 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC www97.intel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criminal investigation and forensic science Criminal investigation and forensic science Skip to: Content Skip to: Section Navigation Skip to: Site Navigation Skip to: Search .
  • ACRL | Criminal investigation and forensic science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.ala.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The CSFS site includes a history of forensic science in Canada and links to the contents of CSFS’s Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal.
  • ACRL | Criminal investigation and forensic science 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC www.ala.org [Source type: Academic]

.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.^ The list of authors can be seen in the page history .
  • Forensic psychology - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 7:54 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • Grits for Breakfast: Forensic Science Commission grudgingly releases complaint info on crime labs 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC gritsforbreakfast.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Content is available under a Creative Commons License .
  • Forensic science - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 31 January 2010 12:47 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • The 3 Things You Must Do Or Know Before Becoming A Crime Scene Investigator 9 October 2009 5:48 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Facts about Forensic scienceRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Forensic science" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

investigate a crime scene]]

Forensic science (or forensics) is when different fields of science work together. This is usually done to answer the questions a lawyer would ask. Most often, forensics is about proving that someone was present at a place where a crime was committed. Specialists take samples which are later analyzed in a laboratory. Most forensic tests can take from 1 hour to one year, and investigators need to double (and triple) check the answer, so they know that the answer is the right answer. If a forensics team made a mistake, there would be heck to pay.

Samples commonly taken include fingerprints. People also look for other things that could be used, for example a few hairs (or pieces of skin). Samples like hair or skin can be use for DNA testing, which allows to tell the gender of the person the hair is from, amongst others.

When someone is accused of committing the crime, these pieces of evidence can then be matched up. Then, if they are correct, the person is charged.

Subdivisions

  • Forensic accounting is the study and interpretation of accounting evidence
  • Forensic anthropology is the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains.
  • Forensic archaeology is the application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement.
  • Computational forensics concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination.
  • Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics, firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations. In typical circumstances evidence is processed in a crime lab.
  • Forensic dactyloscopy is the study of fingerprints.
  • Digital forensics is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover data from electronic / digital media. Digital Forensic specialists work in the field as well as in the lab.
  • Forensic document examination or questioned document examination answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, with a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting, whereby the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
  • Forensic DNA analysis takes advantage of the uniqueness of an individual's DNA to answer forensic questions such as paternity/maternity testing and placing a suspect at a crime scene, e.g. in a rape investigation.
  • Forensic engineering is the scientific examination and analysis of structures and products relating to their failure or cause of damage.
  • Forensic linguistics deals with issues in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise.
  • Forensic pathology is a field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
  • Forensic psychology is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods. Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
  • Forensic toxicology is the study of the effect of drugs and poisons on/in the human body.
  • Forensic Podiatry is an application of the study of feet footprint or footwear and their traces to analyze scene of crime and to establish personal identity in forensic examinations.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Forensic science, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message