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.A forest (also called a wood, woodland, wold, weald or holt) is an area with a high density of trees.^ Biomass plants called threat to area forests, MA .

There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria.[1] .These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere.^ In spite of splitting headaches he would stagger down to the plant and take up his stand once more, and begin to shovel in the blinding clouds of dust.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not much more than a year since Jurgis had left Packingtown, feeling like one escaped from jail; and it had been from Marija and Elzbieta that he was escaping.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At home, also, there was more good news; so much of it at once that there was quite a celebration in Aniele's hall bedroom.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Although a forest is classified primarily by trees a forest ecosystem is defined intrinsically with additional species such as fungi.[2] A woodland, with more open space between trees, is ecologically distinct from a forest.

Contents

Etymology

.The word "forest" was borrowed by Middle English from Old French and Medieval Latin forestis, literally meaning "outside". Uses of the word "forest" in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic.^ Now they sat round, scarcely breathing, while the old lady, who could read English, ran over it.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To borrow a now worn phrase from American political parlance, "mistakes were made" in the case of Michel de Forest.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term (appearing in Latin texts like the Magna Carta) denoting an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility (see Royal Forest).[3][4] .These hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much, if at all.^ These were all families with which the Woods had been associated in Jamaica.

.However, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word "forest" eventually came to mean wooded land more generally.^ This time, however, he had money in his pocket, and when he came to his senses he could get something to drink, and also a messenger to take word of his plight to "Bush" Harper.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not make so much, however, as he had the previous summer, for the packers took on more hands.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They did it—how often no one could say, but certainly more than half of the time.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] By the start of the fourteenth century the word appeared in English texts, indicating all three senses: the most common one, the legal term and the archaic usage.^ Part One: Three brothers, all sons of Jonas Wood of Jamaica .

^ Of course not all blacks speak Black English or have The Sound, and those that do (which is most) do to varying extents.

^ And yet, for communicating with me, his BSTAM disk was nothing but a worthless piece of plastic, because it snubbed MODEM7-style programs-perhaps the most common among micro users.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
Forest near Rajgir, Bihar, India
.Other terms used to mean "an area with a high density of trees" are wood, woodland, wold, weald and holt.^ It was by no means unusual for two men to own the same mattress in common, one working by day and using it by night, and the other working at night and using it in the daytime.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike forest, these are all derived from Old English and were not borrowed from another language.^ Unlike the place they had left, all this work was done on one floor; and instead of there being one line of carcasses which moved to the workmen, there were fifteen or twenty lines, and the men moved from one to another of these.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these things were printed in many languages, as were also the names of the resorts, which were infinite in their variety and appeal.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is another theory, the Parthenay theory, not tied to the Walloon de Forest family at all.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Distribution

Rainforest in Tasmania's Hellyer Gorge considered by some scientists as deriving from the Gondwanan continent, which formed 570 and 510 million years ago.[citation needed]
.Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high, or where the environment has been altered by human activity.^ There would be computer crime, disk crashes, all the other high-tech woes.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "forelady," he found, had not yet come; all the lines of cars that came from downtown were stalled--there had been an accident in the powerhouse, and no cars had been running since last night.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When they found him the rats had killed him and eaten him nearly all up."
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The latitudes 10° north and south of the Equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest, and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N have boreal forest.^ Lastly, Abb Forest (1977, 5-7) emphasize that Michel went under the name Michel de Forest and that the surname de Forest, as compared to Forest, is widespread mostly in the north of France.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms (conifer, montane, or needleleaf forests), although exceptions exist.^ Clearcut Forest Discord: BLM's conflicting rules for more logging, RG .

^ Those who prefer to, go on with the two-step, but the majority go through an intricate series of motions, resembling more fancy skating than a dance.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2008, employers spent on average 25 percent more per employee than they did in 2001, but wages on average did not increase during those years.

.Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or relatively few species over large areas (e.g., taiga and arid montane coniferous forests).^ As we leave the last outpost of civilization, we travel deep into the mouth of the Irrawaddy river of Asia into a tropical rain forests, where it rains some 365 days a year.
  • Yoda's List of Jungle Cruise Jokes 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Here in the rain forest it sometimes rains 365 days per year...some years it even rains every day.
  • Yoda's List of Jungle Cruise Jokes 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities.^ Biomass plants called threat to area forests, MA .

^ Ecologist, foresters weigh in on biomass plant, Greenfield, Mass .

^ Online communities such as The WELL and Echo had survived partly because of the trust their members had build in parties and at each other's homes.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.
Forests are differentiated from woodlands by the extent of canopy coverage: in a forest, the branches and the foliage of separate trees often meet or interlock, although there can be gaps of varying sizes within an area referred to as forest. A woodland has a more continuously open canopy, with trees spaced further apart, which allows more sunlight to penetrate to the ground between them (also see: savanna).
Among the major forested biomes are:

Classification

Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation.
Even, dense old-growth stand of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) prepared to be regenerated by their saplings in the understory, in the Brussels part of the Sonian Forest.
Trees on a mountain in northern Utah during early autumn.
.Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity.^ Sequoia Forest Keepers, Six Simple Ways to Make a Difference .

.One such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are evergreen or deciduous).^ And they were all filled—so many cattle no one had ever dreamed existed in the world.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They had learned that they would have to pay a rent of nine dollars a month for a flat, and there was no way of doing better, unless the family of twelve was to exist in one or two rooms, as at present.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the madame always gives them dope when they first come, and they learn to like it; or else they take it for headaches and such things, and get the habit that way.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Another distinction is whether the forests composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed.
A number of global forest classification systems have been proposed, but none has gained universal acceptance.[5] UNEP-WCMC's forest category classification system is a simplification of other more complex systems (e.g. UNESCO's forest and woodland 'subformations'). .This system divides the world's forests into 26 major types, which reflect climatic zones as well as the principal types of trees.^ Trees: Out of the Forest and Into the Oven, good article .

^ Trucks, Trains and Trees: Fraudulent Corporate Economic Model Destroying Nature, World's Forests, Soil, Air & Water, Friedman .

^ World Forests Rapidly Disappearing - Biofuels a Major Driver .

.These 26 major types can be reclassified into 6 broader categories: temperate needleleaf; temperate broadleaf and mixed; tropical moist; tropical dry; sparse trees and parkland; and forest plantations.^ Trees: Out of the Forest and Into the Oven, good article .

^ As we leave the last outpost of civilization, we travel deep into the mouth of the Irrawaddy river of Asia into a tropical rain forests, where it rains some 365 days a year.
  • Yoda's List of Jungle Cruise Jokes 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

Each category is described as a separate section below.

Temperate needleleaf

Temperate needleleaf forests mostly occupy the higher latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, as well as high altitude zones and some warm temperate areas, especially on nutrient-poor or otherwise unfavourable soils. These forests are composed entirely, or nearly so, of coniferous species (Coniferophyta). .In the Northern Hemisphere pines Pinus, spruces Picea, larches Larix, silver firs Abies, Douglas firs Pseudotsuga and hemlocks Tsuga, make up the canopy, but other taxa are also important.^ Cut up by the two-thousand-revolutions-a-minute flyers, and mixed with half a ton of other meat, no odor that ever was in a ham could make any difference.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cut up by the two-thousand-revolutions- a-minute flyers, and mixed with half a ton of other meat, no odor that ever was in a ham could make any difference.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

In the Southern Hemisphere most coniferous trees, members of the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae, occur in mixtures with broadleaf species that are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests.

Temperate broadleaf and mixed

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests include a substantial component of trees in the Anthophyta. They are generally characteristic of the warmer temperate latitudes, but extend to cool temperate ones, particularly in the southern hemisphere. They include such forest types as the mixed deciduous forests of the USA and their counterparts in China and Japan, the broadleaf evergreen rain forests of Japan, Chile and Tasmania, the sclerophyllous forests of Australia, Central Chile, the Mediterranean and California, and the southern beech Nothofagus forests of Chile and New Zealand.

Tropical moist

Tropical moist forests include many different forest types. The best known and most extensive are the lowland evergreen broadleaf rainforests include, for example: the seasonally inundated várzea and igapó forests and the terra firma forests of the Amazon Basin; the peat swamp forests and moist dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia; and the high forests of the Congo Basin. .The forests of tropical mountains are also included in this broad category, generally divided into upper and lower montane formations on the basis of their physiognomy, which varies with altitude.^ As we leave the last outpost of civilization, we travel deep into the mouth of the Irrawaddy river of Asia into a tropical rain forests, where it rains some 365 days a year.
  • Yoda's List of Jungle Cruise Jokes 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

The montane forests include cloud forest, those forests at middle to high altitude, which derive a significant part of their water budget from cloud, and support a rich abundance of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes. Mangrove forests also fall within this broad category, as do most of the tropical coniferous forests of Central America.

Tropical dry

Tropical dry forests are characteristic of areas in the tropics affected by seasonal drought. .The seasonality of rainfall is usually reflected in the deciduousness of the forest canopy, with most trees being leafless for several months of the year.^ For several years, there has been a general theory expressed concerning the origins of the Acadian Michel Forest.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clarke's 2001 --the book and movie for which he's most famous--had come out several years before Eric's birth.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

However, under some conditions, e.g. less fertile soils or less predictable drought regimes, the proportion of evergreen species increases and the forests are characterised as "sclerophyllous". Thorn forest, a dense forest of low stature with a high frequency of thorny or spiny species, is found where drought is prolonged, and especially where grazing animals are plentiful. .On very poor soils, and especially where fire is a recurrent phenomenon, woody savannas develop (see 'sparse trees and parkland').^ After firing the gun at the hippo pool ] You might be wondering why I was shooting into the trees, but if you look very carefully, you can see a hippo playing hide-and-seek in trees.
  • Yoda's List of Jungle Cruise Jokes 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.csua.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

Sparse trees and parkland

Taiga forest near Saranpaul in the northeast Ural mountains, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Trees include Picea obovata (dominant on right bank), Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica, and Betula pendula.
Sparse trees and parkland are forests with open canopies of 10-30% crown cover. They occur principally in areas of transition from forested to non-forested landscapes. The two major zones in which these ecosystems occur are in the boreal region and in the seasonally dry tropics. At high latitudes, north of the main zone of boreal forest or taiga, growing conditions are not adequate to maintain a continuous closed forest cover, so tree cover is both sparse and discontinuous. This vegetation is variously called open taiga, open lichen woodland, and forest tundra. It is species-poor, has high bryophyte cover, and is frequently affected by fire.

Forest plantations

Forest plantations, generally intended for the production of timber and pulpwood increase the total area of forest worldwide. .Commonly mono-specific and/or composed of introduced tree species, these ecosystems are not generally important as habitat for native biodiversity.^ It was all highly specialized labor, each man having his task to do; generally this would consist of only two or three specific cuts, and he would pass down the line of fifteen or twenty carcasses, making these cuts upon each.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, they can be managed in ways that enhance their biodiversity protection functions and they are important providers of ecosystem services such as maintaining nutrient capital, protecting watersheds and soil structure as well as storing carbon.^ And the madame always gives them dope when they first come, and they learn to like it; or else they take it for headaches and such things, and get the habit that way.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More important, in many cases, they used the Internet to access information that other individuals had stored in their own desktop computers.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes they can't come home at all--I'm going to try to find them tonight and sleep where they do, it's so late and it's such a long ways home.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.They may also play an important role in alleviating pressure on natural forests for timber and fuelwood production.^ Again, the Forest Family Association could play an important role.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has to be prompt--for these two-o'clock-in-the-morning fights, if they once get out of hand, are like a forest fire, and may mean the whole reserves at the station.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has to be prompt—for these two-o'clock-in-the-morning fights, if they once get out of hand, are like a forest fire, and may mean the whole reserves at the station.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Forest categories

A temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, the Hasenholz, southeast of Kirchheim unter Teck, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Redwoods in old growth forest in Muir Woods National Monument, Marin County, California.
28 forest categories are used to enable the translation of forest types from national and regional classification systems to a harmonised global one:

Temperate and boreal forest types

.
  1. Evergreen needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf and evergreen.
  2. Deciduous needleleaf forests - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf and deciduous.
  3. Mixed broadleaf/needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is composed of a more or less even mixture of needleleaf and broadleaf crowns (between 50:50% and 25:75%).
  4. Broadleaf evergreen forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, the canopy being > 75% evergreen and broadleaf.
  5. Deciduous broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, in which > 75% of the canopy is deciduous and broadleaves predominate (> 75% of canopy cover).
  6. Freshwater swamp forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, composed of trees with any mixture of leaf type and seasonality, but in which the predominant environmental characteristic is a waterlogged soil.
  7. Sclerophyllous dry forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, in which the canopy is mainly composed of sclerophyllous broadleaves and is > 75% evergreen.
  8. Disturbed natural forest - Any forest type above that has in its interior significant areas of disturbance by people, including clearing, felling for wood extraction, anthropogenic fires, road construction, etc.
  9. Sparse trees and parkland - Natural forests in which the tree canopy cover is between 10-30%, such as in the steppe regions of the world.^ Some have mistakenly credited Jess with being a founder of New York (for example, J. W. De Forest 1900), but he never even visited the city.
    • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Trees of any type (e.g., needleleaf, broadleaf, palms).
  10. Exotic species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species not naturally occurring in that country.
  11. Native species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species that occur naturally in that country.
  12. *Unspecified forest plantation - Forest plantations showing extent only with no further information about their type, This data currently only refers to the Ukraine.
  13. *Unclassified forest data - Forest data showing forest extent only with no further information about their type.
Those marked * have been created as a result of data holdings which do not specify the forest type, hence 26 categories are quoted, not 28 shown here.[6]

Tropical forest types

.
The Fatu Hiva rainforest in Polynesia.
  1. Lowland evergreen broadleaf rain forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude that display little or no seasonality, the canopy being >75% evergreen broadleaf.
  2. Lower montane forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, between 1200–1800 m altitude, with any seasonality regime and leaf type mixture.
  3. Upper montane forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, above 1,800 m (5,906 ft) altitude, with any seasonality regime and leaf type mixture.
  4. Freshwater swamp forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude, composed of trees with any mixture of leaf type and seasonality, but in which the predominant environmental characteristic is a waterlogged soil.
  5. Semi-evergreen moist broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude in which between 50-75% of the canopy is evergreen, > 75% are broadleaves, and the trees display seasonality of flowering and fruiting.
  6. Mixed broadleaf/needleleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude, in which the canopy is composed of a more or less even mixture of needleleaf and broadleaf crowns (between 50:50% and 25:75%).
  7. Needleleaf forest - Natural forest with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude, in which the canopy is predominantly (> 75%) needleleaf.
  8. Mangroves - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, composed of species of mangrove tree, generally along coasts in or near brackish or seawater.
  9. Disturbed natural forest - Any forest type above that has in its interior significant areas of disturbance by people, including clearing, felling for wood extraction, anthropogenic fires, road construction, etc.
  10. Deciduous/semi-deciduous broadleaf forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude in which between 50-100% of the canopy is deciduous and broadleaves predominate (> 75% of canopy cover).
  11. Sclerophyllous dry forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude, in which the canopy is mainly composed of sclerophyllous broadleaves and is > 75% evergreen.
  12. Thorn forest - Natural forests with > 30% canopy cover, below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) altitude, in which the canopy is mainly composed of deciduous trees with thorns and succulent phanerophytes with thorns may be frequent.
  13. Sparse trees and parkland - Natural forests in which the tree canopy cover is between 10-30%, such as in the savannah regions of the world.^ In the evenings there was no place for him to go except a barroom; no place where there was light and warmth, where he could hear a little music or sit with a companion and talk.
    • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Marija's disturbances did not mean anything, and while she had known only Lithuanian and Polish, they had done no harm, for people only laughed at her and made her cry.
    • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was wonderful, when one came to think of it, that these men should have taken an interest in the work they did--they had no share in it--they were paid by the hour, and paid no more for being interested.
    • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    Trees of any type (e.g., needleleaf, broadleaf, palms).
  14. Exotic species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species not naturally occurring in that country.
  15. Native species plantation - Intensively managed forests with > 30% canopy cover, which have been planted by people with species that occur naturally in that country.

Forest loss and management

Main articles: Forestry, Logging and Deforestation
Coastal Douglas fir woodland in northwest Oregon.
Redwood tree in northern California redwood forest, where many redwood trees are managed for preservation and longevity, rather than being harvested for wood production.
The scientific study of forest species and their interaction with the environment is referred to as forest ecology, while the management of forests is often referred to as forestry. Forest management has changed considerably over the last few centuries, with rapid changes from the 1980s onwards culminating in a practice now referred to as sustainable forest management. Forest ecologists concentrate on forest patterns and processes, usually with the aim of elucidating cause and effect relationships. .Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders.^ Other than the English friend who saw the list and reported it to the Forest family history authors, no one else has reported seeing the list.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, urban sprawl, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, invasive species, and the slash and burn practices of swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation. .The loss and re-growth of forest leads to a distinction between two broad types of forest, primary or old-growth forest and secondary forest.^ What we have is a secondary document, the Forest family history, referring to a letter, another secondary document, that refers to the list, a possible primary document.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc.^ Certainly, at that time there were many notable models of well documented and cited genealogical works.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a flurry of correspondence between Grald Forest and researchers in France during the 1970's and 1980's.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, however, was really not the advantage it seemed, for the newspaper advertisements were a cause of much loss of precious time and of many weary journeys.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest.^ According to Rev. 'Entremont (Entremont 1991) the origins of only about a hundred male immigrants to Acadia are known for sure based on surviving records.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries - the Boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil.^ But Jurgis knew none of these things—any more than he knew that Scully was but a tool and puppet of the packers.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not an easy thing for Jurgis to take more than two or three drinks.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They will certainly be over two hundred dollars and maybe three hundred; and three hundred dollars is more than the year's income of many a person in this room.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In 2006 this information on intact forests was updated using latest available satellite imagery.
Canada has about 4,020,000 square kilometres (1,550,000 sq mi) of forest land. .More than 90% of forest land is publicly owned and about 50% of the total forest area is allocated for harvesting.^ Of what help was kindness and decency on the part of employers--when they could not keep a job for him, when there were more harvesting machines made than the world was able to buy!
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others, who have been drinking still more, wander about the room, bumping into everything; some are in groups of two or three, singing, each group its own song.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jurgis had, alas, very little time to see his baby; he never felt the chains about him more than just then.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

These allocated areas are managed using the principles of sustainable forest management, which includes extensive consultation with local stakeholders. .About eight percent of Canada’s forest is legally protected from resource development (Global Forest Watch Canada)(Natural Resources Canada).^ It was like coming suddenly upon some wild sight of nature—a mountain forest lashed by a tempest, a ship tossed about upon a stormy sea.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was like coming suddenly upon some wild sight of nature--a mountain forest lashed by a tempest, a ship tossed about upon a stormy sea.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Much more forest land — about 40 percent of the total forest land base — is subject to varying degrees of protection through processes such as integrated land-use planning or defined management areas such as certified forests (Natural Resources Canada).^ And how much more useful computer skills would be.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was like coming suddenly upon some wild sight of nature—a mountain forest lashed by a tempest, a ship tossed about upon a stormy sea.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reportedly, the decisions from such conferences tended to be more radical-involving much more risk or not enough-than those made face-to-face.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Loss of old growth forest in the United States; 1620, 1850, and 1920 maps:
These maps represent only virgin forest lost.
^ Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was stuff such as this that made the "embalmed beef" that had killed several times as many United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards; only the army beef, besides, was not fresh canned, it was old stuff that had been lying for years in the cellars.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Some regrowth has occurred but not to the age, size or extent of 1620 due to population increases and food cultivation. From William B. Greeley's, The Relation of Geography to Timber Supply, Economic Geography, 1925, vol. 1, p. 1-11. Source of "Today" map: compiled by George Draffan from roadless area map in The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the United States, by Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke (Harmony Books, 1992).
By December 2006, over 1,237,000 square kilometers of forest land in Canada (about half the global total) had been certified as being sustainably managed (Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition). Clearcutting, first used in the latter half of the 20th century, is less expensive, but devastating to the environment and companies are required by law to ensure that harvested areas are adequately regenerated. .Most Canadian provinces have regulations limiting the size of clearcuts, although some older clearcuts can range upwards of 110 square kilometres (27,000 acres) in size which were cut over several years.^ Clarke's 2001 --the book and movie for which he's most famous--had come out several years before Eric's birth.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

China instituted a ban on logging, beginning in 1998, due to the destruction caused by clearcutting. Selective cutting avoids the erosion, and flooding, that result from clearcutting.[8]
.In the United States, most forests have historically been affected by humans to some degree, though in recent years improved forestry practices has helped regulate or moderate large scale or severe impacts.^ In two years and a half he had learned to speak English for practical purposes, but these had never included the statement that some one had intimidated and seduced his wife.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was stuff such as this that made the "embalmed beef" that had killed several times as many United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards; only the army beef, besides, was not fresh canned, it was old stuff that had been lying for years in the cellars.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the United States Forest Service estimates a net loss of about 2 million hectares (4,942,000 acres) between 1997 and 2020; this estimate includes conversion of forest land to other uses, including urban and suburban development, as well as afforestation and natural reversion of abandoned crop and pasture land to forest.^ Kaypro had set up the software and offered other consultant-style services; Clarke used his own technician.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, however, rioting broke out in Sri Lanka: fighting between two ethnic groups, the Singhalese and the minority Tamils, who were seeking a separate state.
  • The Arthur C. Clarke Chapter of The Silicon Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.davidrothman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He bought 62 acres of land from Elijah Marvin and other land from Josiah Howell.

.However, in many areas of the United States, the area of forest is stable or increasing, particularly in many northern states.^ He was the founder of an Acadian family that has many descendants now living in the Canada and the United States.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many small donations ($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS. The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The opposite problem from flooding has plagued national forests, with loggers complaining that a lack of thinning and proper forest management has resulted in large forest fires.[9]
Old-growth forest contains mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. The natural formations and processes have not been affected by humans with a frequency or intensity to change the natural structure and components of the habitat. Secondary forest contains significant elements of species which were originally from other regions or habitats.
Smaller areas of woodland in cities may be managed as Urban forestry, sometimes within public parks. .These are often created for human benefits; Attention Restoration Theory argues that spending time in nature reduces stress and improves health, while forest schools and kindergartens help young people to develop social as well as scientific skills in forests.^ Over time people come to accept even vague genealogical theories as truths just because they have been published.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chronology of these events do not fit in well with what we know about Pierre de Forest in Qubec or Michel de Forest the Acadian.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These typically need to be close to where the children live, for practical logistics.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Lund, H. Gyde (coord.) 2006. 'Definitions of Forest, Deforestation, Afforestation, and Reforestation'. Gainesville, VA: Forest Information Services. Available from: ComcastNet-gyde.
  2. ^ Stamets, Paul (2005). Mycelium Running. Ten Speed Press. pp. 35. ISBN ISBN 1580085792. 
  3. ^ a b c "forest, noun". Oxford English Dictionary online edition. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  4. ^ "forest, noun". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3 ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1996. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. 
  5. ^ Jenkins Martin D. , Groombridge Brian, World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Environment Programme, retrieved 20 March 2007 [1].
  6. ^ United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Background to Forest Mapping & Data Harmonisation, retrieved 20 March 2007 [2]
  7. ^ World Resources Institute, 1997. The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge
  8. ^ Ban on Logging Saves Forests
  9. ^ Wildfires Ignite Forest Management Debate

Further reading

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to forest article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.From Middle English, from Old French forest < Late Latin forestem silvam (the outside woods), in reference to the royal forest < Latin foris (outside, out of doors), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰwer- (door, gate), whence also English door.^ The hall was now filled to the doors; and after the meeting it would be too late for him to go home, so he would have to make the best of it outside.
  • Fiction: The Jungle 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC fiction.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

See also foreign.
A forest.

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
forest
Plural
forests
forest (plural forests)
  1. A dense collection of trees covering a relatively large area. Larger than woods.
  2. Any dense collection or amount.
    Forest of criticism.
  3. A defined area of land formerly set aside in England as a royal hunting ground.
  4. (graph theory) a disjoint union of trees

Derived terms

Related terms

See also

Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to forest
Third person singular
forests
Simple past
forested
Past participle
forested
Present participle
foresting
to forest (third-person singular simple present forests, present participle foresting, simple past and past participle forested)
  1. (transitive) To cover an area with trees.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Middle French

Noun

forest f. (plural forestz)
  1. forest
    Mais quand il eut mis fin a ses parolles, & que semblablement les forestz resonnãtes se furent appaisées [] (L’Arcadie-Trad-Massin, published 1544, Paris)
    But when he had finished talking, and the forests felt appeased []

Old French

Noun

forest f. (oblique plural forests, nominative singular forest, nominative plural forests)
  1. forest

Descendants


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Heb. ya'ar, meaning a dense wood, from its luxuriance. Thus all the great primeval forests of Syria (Eccl 2:6; Isa 44:14; Jer 5:6; Mic 5:8). The most extensive was the trans-Jordanic forest of Ephraim (2 Sam 18:6, 8; Josh 17:15, 18), which is probably the same as the wood of Ephratah (Ps 1326), some part of the great forest of Gilead. It was in this forest that Absalom was slain by Joab. David withdrew to the forest of Hareth in the mountains of Judah to avoid the fury of Saul (1Sam 22:5). We read also of the forest of Bethel (2Kg 2:23, 24), and of that which the Israelites passed in their pursuit of the Philistines (1Sam 14:25), and of the forest of the cedars of Lebanon (1 Kg 4:33; 2Kg 19:23; Hos 14:5, 6).
."The house of the forest of Lebanon (1 Kg 7:2; 10:17; 2Chr 9:16) was probably Solomon's armoury, and was so called because the wood of its many pillars came from Lebanon, and they had the appearance of a forest.^ A good many of these came every day to the packing houses—and, of course, if they had chosen, it would have been an easy matter for the packers to keep them till they were fit for food.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair 3 February 2010 18:49 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nathaniel T Wood , 17 May 1826 16 Dec 1846 .

^ The de Forests, because they where French-speaking Protestant Walloons from French Flanders, sought refuge from religious persecution in the Netherlands.
  • Forest Family Origins 22 January 2010 14:12 UTC habitant.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See BAALBEC.)
Heb. horesh, denoting a thicket of trees, underwood, jungle, bushes, or trees entangled, and therefore affording a safe hiding-place. place. This word is rendered "forest" only in 2Chr 27:4. It is also rendered "wood", the "wood" in the "wilderness of Ziph," in which david concealed himself (1Sam 23:15), which lay south-east of Hebron. In Isa 17:19 this word is in Authorized Version rendered incorrectly "bough."
Heb. pardes, meaning an enclosed garden or plantation. Asaph is (Neh 2:8) called the "keeper of the king's forest." The same Hebrew word is used Eccl 2:5, where it is rendered in the plural "orchards" (R.V., "parks"), and Cant. 4: 13, rendered "orchard" (R.V. marg., "a paradise").
"The forest of the vintage" (Zech 11:2, "inaccessible forest," or R.V. "strong forest") is probably a figurative allusion to Jerusalem, or the verse may simply point to the devastation of the region referred to.
The forest is an image of unfruitfulness as contrasted with a cultivated field (Isa 29:17; 32:15; Jer 26:18; Hos 2:12). Isaiah (10:19, 33, 34) likens the Assyrian host under Sennacherib (q.v.) to the trees of some huge forest, to be suddenly cut down by an unseen stroke.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Facts about ForestRDF feed

Simple English

A forest is an area of land with many trees. Many animals need forests to live and survive. Forests are very important and can be found all over the World. Many forests are being cut down for houses to be built because of overpopulation.This cutting down of forests is called deforestation and it is causing damage to the natural habitat of animals. Even roads have been built for the peoples to pass though the forest to reach their destination. People have gotten rid of forest to build towns cities, farms, factories and other things that we will use.

Conditions

Forests usually have an average temperatures of 4 °C to 10 °C and low temperatures of -10 °C to -6 °C but they can also have very high temperatures of 20 °C to 27 °C. Forests are also rich in rain so lots of water related animals live in the pools on the ground in forest. woods in the forest is used for making furnitures,toys,pencils etc. Sometimes we use the forest as a shelter.

Forest biomes

The three major forest biomes are coniferous forests, deciduous forests, and tropical rain forests.

Coniferous forests stretch across Canada, Alaska, Northern Asia, and Northern Europe. They are composed of trees called conifers (because they produce seeds in cones) or evergreens (because they are always green and never ewithout leaves). The weather during the winter is cold, but the snow in coniferous forests melts completely in the spring, turning some parts of the forest into swamps. There are only eight types of trees in the coniferous forests, including balsams, firs, and black spruce. There are not many different types of trees in coniferous forests because of the cold weather, and the poor soil. Fallen branches, needles, and dead animals do not decay as fast as in warmer regions. This is why the soil in coniferous forests is not very fertile. Also, only those trees that have adapted to cold weather and poor soil have been able to survive. These trees have flexible branches that support heavy snowfalls. Less water evaporates from their leaves because of the shape of their needles.[1]

Many coniferous trees shade large parts of the soil below them, which keeps many plants from growing on the forest ground. Some animals that live in the coniferous forests are pine martens, deer, bears, caribou, moose, lynxes, beavers, and birds such as graw owls, crossbill birds, and warbles.

Deciduous forests are found in North America, Europe, and Asia. They have a moderate climate during the spring, summer, fall and winter, with rainfall of at least 500mm a year. Summers are warm and winters are cold, but not as cold as the northern coniferous forests. In the winter snow covers the ground and all the deciduous trees and plants lose their leaves. The decaying leaves help make the soil rich in nutrients. Many insects, spiders, snails, and worms make their homes in this rich soil. Wild flowers and ferns grow almost everywhere in the spring. New leaves capture the energy of the sun and sprout before the tall trees to grow too thick to let the sun reach them. hi During the winter, birds migrate, snakes and frogs hibernate, and raccoons spend the coldest months sleeping in their dens. Raccoons will only come out of their dens when the weather is warm.

Some of the other animals also hibernate or simply slow down their metabolism and eat food they stored during the summer and fall months. The trees in the winter are brave, but with the coming of spring, leaves sprout, birds return, animals are born, and all the forest animals get busy with their lives. Animals that we may see in this biome are bears, white tail deer, raccoons, otters, beavers, fox, frogs, squirrels, snakes, salamanders, eagles, and birds such as woodpeckers, robins, and blue jays.

Tropical Rainforests are found in South America, Central Africa, Southern Asia, Hawaii, and a small part of Australia. Tropical rain forests are aptly named, as it rains here almost everyday. The only season in a tropical rain forest is summer, so plants grow for all 12 months of the year. Trees are tall and thick in the rain forest and they grow so close together that they seem to form a big umbrella of greenery called a canopy. This blocks out most of the sunlight. The air is muggy as it filters through the dense canopy cover of the trees. The light that filters through this tree cover is dim and green. Only along river banks and in places that have been cleared does enough sunlight allow plants to grow on the forest ground.

Millions of species of plants and animals live in the world's tropical forests. Life in the rain forest exists at different levels or layers in the trees. Ech of these layers have a special name, such as emergent, canopy, understory, and forest floor.

References

  1. Blue Planet. McGrawHill. 2010. 

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Forest, which are similar to those in the above article.








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