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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents Revised

I would like to see this become more of a textbook than it currently is. Of course, this involves an extreme amount of work and I will donate what I can. This is my recommendation for revising the contents to be more specific and in more of an order for easier reading and learning. - Drew 03:55, 2 October 2006 (UTC)

I am going to assume that by looking at the history of this book, I am really the only one even interested in this. Given that, I am going to back up all current data and information and start from scratch. - Drew 04:29, 3 October 2006 (UTC)
  1. Introduction to Meteorology and the Atmosphere
    1. Introduction to the definitions of Meteorology, Climate, and Weather.
    2. Makeup of the Atmosphere
      • Explain what is in the atmosphere and briefly explain the different gases and functions
    3. Ozone
      • Cover ozone, its purpose, and the ozone holes
    4. Layers of the Atmosphere
      1. Troposphere
      2. Mr.B Rocks
      3. Mesosphere
      4. Thermosphere
      5. Ionsphere
      6. Variations
        • Explain how nothing is constant and is always changing pressure and heights
    5. Auroras
      • Explain or simply talk about the Northern and Southern Lights
  2. Heating and Temperature
    1. Seasons
      • Explain the seasons, orientation of the Earth, and other such topics.
    2. Heat and Temperature Defined
      • Explain the difference between heat and temperature. Show their forms of energy and how they interact.
    3. Incoming Solar Energy
      • Explain how the Sun's radiative energy enters the atmosphere and eventually gets to the surface or other destinations.
    4. Heat Transfer
      1. Radiation
      2. Conduction
      3. Convection
        • Explain the differences and give examples.
    5. Heat Balance
      • Explain the heat balance between the equator and poles and how heat is transfered to the poles by currents of wind or ocean.
    6. Earth Radiation
      • Show that the Earth gives off radiation and how this contributes to the greenhouse effect.
    7. Temperature Controls
      1. Oceans and their Currents
      2. Seasons
      3. Altitude (Mountains are colder, why?)
      4. Albedo
      5. Clouds
    8. Scales
      • Darn the Fahrenheit scale and Celsius scale differences. Explain Kelvin too.
    9. Measurement
      • Show different types of thermometers and their history
    10. Agriculture and Architecture
      1. Growing Degree Days
      2. Heating and Cooling Degree Days
  3. Moisture
    1. States of Matter
      • Cover states and the terms used to describe changing states (melting, evaporation, etc.)
    2. Water Vapor and Pressure
    3. Humidity and Dew-Point
      • Make sure to cover how to measure it, got to love wet-bulb thermometers
  4. Atmospheric Stability
    1. Lapse Rates
      • Explain what lapse rates are and how they can change
    2. Vertical Air Movement
      • Explain what causes air to move up or down (hotter or colder)
      1. Convergence and Frontal Wedging
      2. Orographic Lifting and Deserts
      3. Localized Convective Lifting
    3. Stability
      1. Types of Stability
        • Explain the types and give examples. Spend time on explain this because it can be confusing, especially just to read it.
      2. Changes in Weather
        • Explain how simple sifts in stability can cause extreme changes in weather
  5. Clouds and Precipitation
    1. Formation of Clouds
      1. Lifting Condensation Level
      2. Cloud Droplets
    2. Classification
      1. Vertical Development Clouds
      2. Low Level
      3. Middle Level
      4. High Level
      5. Sub-classifications
        • Don't go into much detail, but it helps to know that there are more names for clouds so if someone hears it, they don't get confused.
      6. Fog
        1. Formation of Fog
    3. Dew
    4. Frost
    5. Precipation Formation
      1. The Bergeron Process (Cold Clouds)
      2. The Coalescence Process (Warm Clouds)
    6. Types of Precipitation
      1. Rain
      2. Snow
      3. Rime
      4. Sleet and Glaze
      5. Hail
    7. Measurement
    8. Global Averages and Distributions
  6. Air Pressure
    1. Pressure Measurement
      • Compare different scales (psi, mb, bars, etc.)
    2. Layers of Atmosphere
      • Explain the layers again with pressure changes
    3. Water Vapor and Pressure
    4. Temperature Differences
    5. Wind
      1. Coriolis Force
        • Explain how this makes cyclonic and anti-cyclonic flows around low and high pressure systems
      2. Ground Friction
      3. Pressure-Gradients
    6. Jetstreams
    7. Vertical Air Movement
      • Explain how vertical air movement is formed by pressure gradients
    8. Wind Speed and Measurement
  7. Air Mass
    1. Definition
    2. Classifications
    3. Common Air Masses
      1. Maritime Tropical
      2. Maritime Polar
      3. Continental Polar and Arctic
      4. Continental Tropical
  8. Circulation
    1. Global Air Circulation (3 Cell Model)
    2. Westerlies
      1. Get back into Jet Streams
      2. El Niño and La Niña
  9. Patterns
    1. Fronts
      1. Warm
      2. Cold
      3. Stationary
      4. Occluded
      5. Drylines
    2. Cyclone Formation
    3. Mid-Latitude Cyclones
      • Explain the common occurrence and formation of it
      1. Violent Spring Weather
        • In the U.S. and other parts of the world.
  10. Thunderstorms
    1. Stages of Development
    2. Severe Thunderstorms
    3. Supercells
    4. Lightning and Thunder
      1. What causes lightning?
      2. Thunder?
  11. Tornadoes
    1. Development
      1. Profile
    2. Occurrence
      1. Tornado Alley
    3. Forecasting
      1. The Role of Doppler Radar
    4. Destruction
      1. F-Scale
  12. Hurricanes
    1. Formation and Dissipation
    2. Destruction
      1. Wind
      2. Surges and Waves
      3. Flooding
    3. Tracking
      1. Intensity
        1. Measure
      2. Airplanes
      3. Buoys
      4. Satellites
  13. Pollution
    1. Greenhouse Effect
      • Go more in detail than previously
    2. Trends
      • The normal ups and downs of CO2 versus the gradual rise over the last 50 years.
    3. Sources
    4. Factors Affecting Pollution
      1. Wind
      2. Stability
    5. Acid Precipitation
      1. Not Just Rain
  14. Optics
    1. Physics of Light
      1. Refraction
      2. Reflection
    2. Rainbows
    3. Halos, Solar Pillars, and Sun Dogs
    4. Mirages
    5. Auroras
      • Explain it again briefly, just to link it with this chapter.
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