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The symbols of the Four Evangelists surround Christ in Majesty on a Romanesque tympanum in Arles
The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells. The four are, clockwise from top left, Matthew, Mark, John, and Luke.
Four evangelists and prophets surround Christ. By Haregarius of Tours, c. 850.

In Christian tradition the Four Evangelists refers to the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles:

Authorship of the three synoptic Gospels is now often held to date from c. 70 AD and later. Others widely consider Luke-Acts to have been written before the events in 70 AD, and the other synoptic Gospels to have been written even earlier. Convention has traditionally held the authors to have been two of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, John and Matthew, and two "apostolic men," Mark and Luke:

  • Matthew – a former tax man who was called by Jesus to be one of the Twelve Apostles,
  • Mark – a follower of Peter and so an "apostolic man",
  • Luke – a doctor who wrote what is now the book of Luke to a friend Theophilus. Also believed to have written the book of Acts (or Acts of the Apostles) and a close friend of Paul of Tarsus,
  • John – a disciple of Jesus and possibly the youngest of his Twelve Apostles.

They are called evangelists, a word meaning people who proclaim good news, because their books aim to tell the good news of Jesus.[1]

Contents

Evangelists' symbols

In iconography the evangelists often appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, and are also frequently represented by the following symbols, which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel (Chapter 1) reflected in the Book of Revelation (4.6-9ff), though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, and were fully expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, and thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation:[2]

  • Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account is symbolized by an angel. Matthew's gospel starts with Jesus' genealogy from Abraham; it represents Jesus' Incarnation, and so Christ's human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation.
  • Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account is symbolized by a lion - a figure of courage and monarchy. Mark has John the Baptist preaching "like a lion roaring" at the beginning of his Gospel. It also represents Jesus' Resurrection (because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, a comparison with Christ in the tomb), and Christ as king. This signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.
  • Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account (and presumably the Acts of the Apostles) is symbolized by an ox bull or calf - a figure of sacrifice, service and strength. Luke's account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple; it represents Jesus' sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, as well as Christ being High priest (this also represents Mary's obedience). The ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ.
  • John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account is symbolized by an eagle[3] - a figure of the sky, and believed to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" level of theology than the other three "terrestrial" Synoptic Gospels; it represents Jesus' Ascension, and Christ's divine nature. This represents that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.

Each of the symbols is depicted with wings following the biblical sources (they each have six in Revelation), but Matthew is a human not an angel, and Mark is a lion not a Griffin.

The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, and are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelations. They were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man is usually at top left - above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle. This both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts (man, lion, ox, eagle) and the text of Ezekiel 1.10. From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, began to be used.[4] Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist.

The attribution of the four animals to individual evangelists has sometimes been disputed, although it has been mostly regarded as settled for many centuries.

Naming

Whilst Matthew is often cited as the "first Gospel account" – not only owing to its place in the canon but also in view of the patristic witness to this effect – most scholars of Scripture see the Gospel account of Mark as having been written first (arguing for a date around the year A.D. 65, and for Matthew around A.D. 80), also see Gospel. John's Gospel account was written around A.D. 90.

It has become customary to speak of "the Gospel of Matthew" ... "the Gospel of John", not least because it is shorter and rolls much more smoothly off the tongue; but it is worth noting that the ancient titles do not use the genitive of possession, but the preposition "according to", signifying that each evangelist sets forth the one "Gospel of God" according to his own capacity, but not in the sense of creating his own story.

Depictions

See also

References

  1. ^ "The good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God." Mark 1:1
  2. ^ Emile Male, The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteen Century, p 35-7, English trans. of 3rd edn, 1913, Collins, London (and many other editions)
  3. ^ replacing the scorpion of earlier Tetramorphs
  4. ^ Male, op. cit.

External links

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