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Translations of

cattāri ariyasaccāni

English: Four Noble Truths
Pali: cattāri ariyasaccāni
Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि (catvāri āryasatyāni)
Burmese: သစ္စာလေးပါး
(thisa lei ba)
Chinese: 四圣諦(T) / 四圣谛(S)
(pinyinsìshèngdì)
Japanese: 四諦
(rōmaji: shitai)
Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི
Thai: อริยสัจสี่
(ariyasaj sii)
Vietnamese: Tứ Diệu Đế
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The Four Noble Truths (or The Four Ennobling Truths,The Four Truths of the Noble Ones[1]) (Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि (catvāri āryasatyāni); Wylie: 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi; Pali: cattāri ariyasaccāni) is one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. In broad terms, these truths relate to suffering (or dukkha), its nature, its origin, its cessation and the path leading to its cessation. They are among the truths Siddhartha Gautama is said to have realized during his experience of enlightenment.[2]

The Four Noble Truths appear many times, throughout the most ancient Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon. The early teaching and the traditional understanding in Theravada is that the Four Noble Truths are an advanced teaching for those who are ready for them.

  1. There is suffering (dukkha).
  2. There is a cause of suffering (craving).
  3. There is the cessation of suffering.
  4. There is the eightfold path leading to the cessation of suffering.

The Sanskrit and Pali words satya and sacca, respectively, mean both "truth" and "real" or "actual thing." With that in mind, one scholar argues that it is important to recognize that the four noble truths are not asserted as propositional truths or creeds, but as "true things" or "realities" that the Buddha experienced.[3] The original Tibetan Lotsawas (Sanskrit: locchāwa; Tibetan: lo ts'a ba), who studied Sanskrit grammar thoroughly, used the Tibetan term bden pa, reflects this understanding.

Contents

Background

Why the Buddha is said to have taught in this way is illuminated by the social context of the time in which he lived. The Buddha was a Śramaṇa – a wandering ascetic whose "aim was to discover the truth and attain happiness."[4] He is said to have achieved this aim while under a bodhi tree near the River Neranjana; the Four Noble Truths are a formulation of his understanding of the nature of "suffering",[5] the fundamental cause of all suffering, the escape from suffering, and what effort a person can go to so that they themselves can "attain happiness."[4]

These truths are not expressed as a hypothesis or tentative idea; rather, the Buddha says:

These Four Noble Truths, monks, are actual, unerring, not otherwise. Therefore, they are called noble truths.[6]

The Buddha says that he taught them...

...because it is beneficial, it belongs to the fundamentals of the holy life, it leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation of suffering, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nirvana. That is why I have declared it.[7]

This teaching was the basis of the Buddha's first discourse after his enlightenment.[8] In early Buddhism this is the most advanced teaching in the Buddha's Gradual Training.

Pali and Chinese canon text

  1. The Nature of Suffering (Dukkha):
    "This is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering."[8][9]
  2. Suffering's Origin (Dukkha Samudaya):
    "This is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to renewed existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there, that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination."[8][9]
  3. Suffering's Cessation (Dukkha Nirodha):
    "This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it."[8][9]
  4. The Path (Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Magga) Leading to the Cessation of Suffering:
    "This is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration."[10][11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Duff (2008), p. 17
  2. ^ Nanamoli (1995), p. 106
  3. ^ Gethin (1998), p. 60.
  4. ^ a b Warder (1970), p. 34.
  5. ^ The term used by the Buddha is dukkha. While suffering – i.e., being in a state of physical or mental pain – is one aspect of dukkha, it is believed by many that suffering is too narrow a translation and that it is best to leave dukkha untranslated.
  6. ^ Nanamoli (1995), p. 1856.
  7. ^ Nanamoli (1995), pp. 533-36.
  8. ^ a b c d Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11), trans. Bodhi (2000), pp. 1843-47.
  9. ^ a b c "轉法輪經". Cbeta. http://w3.cbeta.org/result/normal/T02/0109_001.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  10. ^ SN 56.11, trans. Bodhi (2000), p. 1844. In this translation, Bodhi elides the six middle factors of the Noble Eightfold Path (between right view and right concentration). Thus Bodhi's translation for the six middle factors was taken from his translation of SN 45.1 (Bodhi, 2000, p. 1523-24). See also Feer (1976), p. 421f.
  11. ^ In AN 3.61, the Buddha provides an alternate elaboration on the second and third noble truths identifying the arising and cessation of suffering in accordance with Dependent Origination's Twelve Causes, from ignorance to old age and death (Thanissaro, 1997).

References

  • Duff, Tony (2008). Contemplation by way of the Twelve Interdependent Arisings. Kathmandu, Nepal: Padma Karpo Translation Committee. Retrieved on 2008-8-19 from http://www.tibet.dk/pktc/gelugpa.htm
  • Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. 
  • Gethin, Rupert (1988). Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press.
  • Harvey, Peter (1990). Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge University Press.
  • Nanamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) (1995, ed. Bhikkhu Bodhi). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X. 
  • Yamamoto, Kosho (1999-2000, ed. & rev. by Dr. Tony Page). The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra in 12 Volumes. Nirvana Publications.

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The Four Noble Truths are a Buddhist teaching.

Truths

  • The First Noble Truth: Dukkha
Life is full of suffering. Dukkha usually is translated as suffering. In life, we have illness, poverty, disease, old age and death. We can not keep what we like and can not avoid what we do not like. If this is all we know we suffer.
  • The Second Noble Truth: Samudaya
There is a cause for suffering. The cause of suffering is desire & illusions that are the based on ignorance. Because of ignorance wanting something leads clumsy actions, which in turn lead to suffering. Wanting life, wanting death, wanting things, wanting pleasure - all lead to suffering.
  • The Third Noble Truth: Nirodha
There is a state of mind free from suffering. By stopping the cravings, the suffering is stopped.
  • The Fourth Noble Truth: Magga
There is a way to end suffering. To end suffering we must end our cravings. The way to ending cravings is the Eightfold Path

The Eightfold Path

Truth is found through the Middle Way by way of the Noble Eightfold Path.

  1. Right Viewpoint - Realizing the Four Noble Truths (samyag-dṛṣṭi, sammā-diṭṭhi)
  2. Right Values - Commitment to mental and ethical growth in moderation (samyak-saṃkalpa, sammā-saṅkappa)
  3. Right Speech - One speaks in a non hurtful, not exaggerated, truthful way (samyag-vāc, sammā-vācā)
  4. Right Actions - Wholesome action, avoiding action that would do harm (samyak-karmānta, sammā-kammanta)
  5. Right Livelihood - One's job does not harm in any way oneself or others; directly or indirectly (weapon maker, drug dealer, butcher, etc.) (samyag-ājīva, sammā-ājīva}
  6. Right Effort - One makes an effort to improve (samyag-vyāyāma, sammā-vāyāma)
  7. Right Mindfulness - Mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness (samyak-smṛti, sammā-sati)
  8. Right Meditation - State where one reaches enlightenment and the ego has disappeared (samyak-samādhi, sammā-samādhi)

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