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.In mathematics, the Fourier transform (often abbreviated FT) is an operation that transforms one complex-valued function of a real variable into another.^ Once again, the Fourier transform is simply a mathematical process that can be used to transform a set of complex values in one domain into a set of complex values in a different domain.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a Fourier series is a real valued function, not a complex valued function, so, we're not done.
  • Berkeley Science Books - Good Vibrations - Fourier Analysis and the Laplace Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.berkeleyscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The FFT algorithm is an algorithm that transforms a series of complex values in one domain into a series of complex values in another domain.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In such applications as signal processing, the domain of the original function is typically time and is accordingly called the time domain.^ The convolution theorem sais that, convolving two functions in the time domain corresponds to multiplying their spectra in the fourier domain, and vica versa.

^ At the high end, this consists of an extremely high-speed, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter that acquires the input signal in the time domain.
  • PS3 fab-to-lab, Part 2: Generating and analyzing signals 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ For now, just note that the original function f(x) is given by a sum of the transformed function F(u) times different cosine components.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That of the new function is frequency, and so the Fourier transform is often called the frequency domain representation of the original function.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the Fourier Transform becomes a frequency domain representation of the function.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Likewise, the inverse Fourier transform of a unit delta function at the origin in the frequency domain is a constant (d.c.
  • Chapter 12: Properties of The Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC research.opt.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It describes which frequencies are present in the original function.^ For forward transforms where the zero frequency is centered, the x and y coordinates for the origin are set to the most negative frequencies present, in units of the output pixel spacing.
  • Priism Help: 2D Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC msg.ucsf.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For forward transforms where the zero frequency is centered, the coordinates for the for the origin are set to the most negative frequencies present, in units of the output pixel spacing.
  • Priism Help: 3D Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.msg.ucsf.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Here a sine function with a higher frequency is used to generate the image, so the two dots are further away from the origin to represent the higher frequency.

This is analogous to describing a chord of music in terms of the notes being played. .In effect, the Fourier transform decomposes a function into oscillatory functions.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The N 1 -point fast Fourier transform block at 120 in FIG. 1 is one of the two main functional blocks of the invention.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The effect of multiplying a stream of results coming from the N 1 -point fast Fourier transform by Eq.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The term Fourier transform refers both to the frequency domain representation of a function, and to the process or formula that "transforms" one function into the other.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The transformation from the time domain to the frequency domain is reversible.
  • Data Acquisition Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dataq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, the Fourier Transform becomes a frequency domain representation of the function.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Fourier transform and its generalizations are the subject of Fourier analysis.^ Other prior art computer systems have employed analysis techniques for computing the Fourier transform.

^ If a 512-point Fourier transform is performed, the 256 points generated by the transform fit nicely on a screen 1024 pixels wide.
  • Data Acquisition Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dataq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of these transforms will be discussed individually in the following paragraphs to fill in missing background and to provide a yardstick for comparison among the various Fourier analysis software packages on the market.
  • Data Acquisition Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dataq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this specific case, both the time and frequency domains are unbounded linear continua.^ The transformation from the time domain to the frequency domain is reversible.
  • Data Acquisition Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dataq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convert the time domain data to the frequency domain.
  • PS3 fab-to-lab, Part 2: Generating and analyzing signals 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ Conversely, the time resolution in the FT, and the frequency resolution in the time domain are zero, since we have no information about them.
  • THE WAVELET TUTORIAL PART II by ROBI POLIKAR 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC engineering.rowan.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to define the Fourier transform of a function of several variables, which is important for instance in the physical study of wave motion and optics.^ The Fourier transform of a signal is defined by .

^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also possible to generalize the Fourier transform on discrete structures such as finite groups, efficient computation of which through a fast Fourier transform is essential for high-speed computing.^ The fast Fourier transforms are based on the discrete Fourier transforms of Eq.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Exercise 2.15 Compute the Fourier transform of .

^ FFT ( fast Fourier transform ) 1.
  • Pro Audio Reference F 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

Fourier transforms
Continuous Fourier transform
Fourier series
Discrete Fourier transform
Discrete-time Fourier transform
Related transforms

Contents

Definition

.There are several common conventions for defining the Fourier transform of an integrable function ƒ : RC (Kaiser 1994).^ The Fourier transform of a signal , , is defined as .
  • Fourier Transform (FT) and Inverse 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dsprelated.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This article will use the definition:
\hat{f}(\xi) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x)\ e^{- 2\pi i x \xi}\,dx,   for every real number ξ.
.When the independent variable x represents time (with SI unit of seconds), the transform variable ξ  represents frequency (in hertz).^ Representing time and frequency .
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For forward transforms where the zero frequency is centered, the coordinates for the for the origin are set to the most negative frequencies present, in units of the output pixel spacing.
  • Priism Help: 3D Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.msg.ucsf.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This is why Fourier transform is not suitable if the signal has time varying frequency , i.e., the signal is non-stationary.
  • THE WAVELET TUTORIAL PART II by ROBI POLIKAR 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC engineering.rowan.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Under suitable conditions, ƒ can be reconstructed from \hat f by the inverse transform:
f(x) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \hat{f}(\xi)\ e^{2 \pi i x \xi}\,d\xi,   for every real number x.
.For other common conventions and notations, including using the angular frequency ω instead of the frequency ξ, see Other conventions and Other notations below.^ Conversely, if can be reconstructed from its samples , it must be true that is bandlimited to , since a sampled signal only supports frequencies up to (see § D.4 below).

^ We also see why pitch shifting using this procedure automatically includes anti-aliasing: we simply do not compute bins that are above our Nyquist frequency by stopping at fftFrameSize2.
  • Pitch Shifting Using The Fourier Transform : The DSP Dimension 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dspdimension.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For audio use the most common electronic filter is a bandpass filter , characterized by three parameters: center frequency , amplitude (or magnitude), and bandwidth .
  • Pro Audio Reference F 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Fourier transform on Euclidean space is treated separately, in which the variable x often represents position and ξ momentum.^ Before beginning with the Fourier Transform on images, which is the 2D version of the FT, we'll start with the easier 1D FT, which is often used for audio and electromagnetical signals.

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far we have only represented 'components' that define the sine waves of an image (its "Fourier Transform") using a 'Magnitude' and a 'Phase' form.
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Introduction

.The motivation for the Fourier transform comes from the study of Fourier series.^ This basic ``architecture'' extends to all linear orthogonal transforms, including wavelets, Fourier transforms , Fourier series , the discrete-time Fourier transform ( DTFT ), and certain short-time Fourier transforms ( STFT ).
  • The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dsprelated.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For us, the Convolution Theorem will come in handy when we experiment with the Fourier Transformations of signals and images.

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the study of Fourier series, complicated periodic functions are written as the sum of simple waves mathematically represented by sines and cosines.^ Of course the Cosine series of with period is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sine series and cosine series .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier series Application of the Fourier theorem to a periodic function, resulting in sine and cosine terms which are harmonics of the periodic frequency.
  • Pro Audio Reference F 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.Due to the properties of sine and cosine it is possible to recover the amount of each wave in the sum by an integral.^ If φ is set to zero, then we have a sine wave and if φ is set to π/2, then we have a cosine wave.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So it is just a combination of a cosine wave for the real component and a sine wave for the imaginary component, which is equivalent to a complex exponential, where e=2.71828 is the basis of the natural logarithm.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I know beyond a shadow of a doubt from my > education that any periodic function with a fundamental frequency f can > be approximated to whatever desired accuracy by the sum of sine and > cosine waves of frequencies Nf (N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
  • A simple-to-use sound file writer - comp.lang.python | Google Gruppi 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC groups.google.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A simple-to-use sound file writer - comp.lang.python | Google Gruppi 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC groups.google.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A simple-to-use sound file writer - comp.lang.python | Google Gruppi 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC groups.google.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A simple-to-use sound file writer - comp.lang.python | Google Gruppi 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC groups.google.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases it is desirable to use Euler's formula, which states that e2πiθ = cos 2πθ + i sin 2πθ, to write Fourier series in terms of the basic waves e2πiθ.^ Exercises in Fourier series using SAGE .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These formulas give that the Fourier series of is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, the Fourier series .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has the advantage of simplifying many of the formulas involved and providing a formulation for Fourier series that more closely resembles the definition followed in this article.^ These formulas give that the Fourier series of is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One last definition: the symbol is used above instead of because of the fact that was pointed out above: the Fourier series may not converge to at every point (recall Dirichlet's Theorem 8 ).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly speaking, the more (everywhere) differentiable the function is, the faster the Fourier series converges and, therefore, the better the partial sums of the Fourier series will approximate .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This passage from sines and cosines to complex exponentials makes it necessary for the Fourier coefficients to be complex valued.^ (The values of the // complex samples actually describe a cosine // curve and a sine curve.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier sine and cosine transforms.

^ Cycle 4 repeats the basic operations described in cycle 3 except that function generator generates the appropriate sine value instead of the cosine value.

.The usual interpretation of this complex number is that it gives you both the amplitude (or size) of the wave present in the function and the phase (or the initial angle) of the wave.^ In fact by dividing size of the image by the frequency (distance of the dots from the center), will give you the wavelength (distance between peaks) of the wave.
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus only N real numbers are required to store the half-complex sequence, and the transform of a real sequence can be stored in the same size array as the original data.
  • GNU Scientific Library -- Reference Manual - Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC linux.math.tifr.res.in [Source type: Academic]

^ This says that the 1D Discrete Fourier Transform is a 1D array of N values, G(n), each of which is composed of an addition (superposition) of N complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the 1D image intensity values, g(x).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This passage also introduces the need for negative "frequencies". If θ were measured in seconds then the waves e2πiθ and e−2πiθ would both complete one cycle per second, but they represent different frequencies in the Fourier transform.^ It identifies or distinguishes the different frequency sinusoids and their respective amplitudes [Brigham, E. Oren, The Fast Fourier Transform and Its Applications , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1988.
  • Pro Audio Reference F 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After the data has been converted to groups of three X terms and one Y term (p = log 2 N/4), the folding process is completed and cycle 9 begins.

^ Now let's look at a signal which is the sum of two sine functions: the second sine function has the double frequency of the first, so the curve has the shape sin(x)+sin(2*x): Since there are now two sines with two different frequencies, we can expect two peaks on the positive side of the spectrum (and two more on the negative side since it's the mirrored version): If the two sines both have a different phase (i.e.

.Hence, frequency no longer measures the number of cycles per unit time, but is closely related.^ The reciprocal of the sampling interval (1/ T ) is the sampling frequency denoted f s , which is measured in samples per unit of time.
  • Nyquist–Shannon Sampling Theorem 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then the sufficient condition for exact reconstructability from samples at a uniform sampling rate (in samples per unit time) .
  • Nyquist–Shannon Sampling Theorem 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "If the essential frequency range is limited to B cycles per second, 2 B was given by Nyquist as the maximum number of code elements per second that could be unambiguously resolved, assuming the peak interference is less half a quantum step.
  • Nyquist–Shannon Sampling Theorem 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.We may use Fourier series to motivate the Fourier transform as follows.^ Exercises in Fourier series using SAGE .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This basic ``architecture'' extends to all linear orthogonal transforms, including wavelets, Fourier transforms , Fourier series , the discrete-time Fourier transform ( DTFT ), and certain short-time Fourier transforms ( STFT ).
  • The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.dsprelated.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Before beginning with the Fourier Transform on images, which is the 2D version of the FT, we'll start with the easier 1D FT, which is often used for audio and electromagnetical signals.

Suppose that ƒ is a function which is zero outside of some interval [−L/2, L/2]. Then for any T ≥ L we may expand ƒ in a Fourier series on the interval [−T/2,T/2], where the "amount" (denoted by cn) of the wave e2πinx/T in the Fourier series of ƒ is given by
\hat{f}(n/T)=c_n=\int_{-T/2}^{T/2} e^{-2\pi i nx/T}f(x)\,dx
and ƒ should be given by the formula
f(x)=\frac{1}{T}\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty \hat{f}(n/T) e^{2\pi i nx/T}.
If we let ξn = n/T, and we let Δξ = (n + 1)/T − n/T = 1/T, then this last sum becomes the Riemann sum
f(x)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty \hat{f}(\xi_n) e^{2\pi i x\xi_n}\Delta\xi.
.By letting T → ∞ this Riemann sum converges to the integral for the inverse Fourier transform given in the Definition section.^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let denote the inverse discrete Fourier transform of .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ II. PROPERTIES OF THE CTFT 1/ Properties — symmetry We start with the definition of the Fourier transform of a real time function x(t) and expand both terms in the integrand in terms of odd and even components.
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

Under suitable conditions this argument may be made precise (Stein & Shakarchi 2003). .Hence, as in the case of Fourier series, the Fourier transform can be thought of as a function that measures how much of each individual frequency is present in our function, and we can recombine these waves by using an integral (or "continuous sum") to reproduce the original function.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, the Fourier transform of an input series is the sum of the transforms of the individual samples.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, we can approximate the continuous Fourier Transform using a discrete representation of the transform.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The following images provide a visual illustration of how the Fourier transform measures whether a frequency is present in a particular function.^ In particular, it follows that the Fourier transform defines a linear mapping .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transform images .
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The function depicted f(t)=\cos(6\pi t)e^{-\pi t^2} oscillates at 3 hertz (if t measures seconds) and tends quickly to 0. This function was specially chosen to have a real Fourier transform which can easily be plotted.^ Upon completion of cycle 9 for the highest harmonic, the entire Fourier transform, both real and imaginary, are stored in sections A3 and B3 of memory 29.

^ If there are poles on the jω axis, so that the Laplace transform does not include the jω axis, the Fourier transform can still be defined with the use of singularity functions.
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

The first image contains its graph. In order to calculate \hat{f}(3) we must integrate e−2πi(3t)ƒ(t). .The second image shows the plot of the real and imaginary parts of this function.^ The cosine and sine curves that represent the real and imaginary parts of the transform each have four complete periods between zero and an output index equal to the sampling frequency.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example here I used a HDRI version of IM to also perform a 'round trip' FFT of an image, but this time generating Real/Imaginary images.
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the Fourier transform is a linear transform, you can transform the real and imaginary parts of the input separately and add the two resulting transforms.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The real part of the integrand is almost always positive, this is because when ƒ(t) is negative, then the real part of e−2πi(3t) is negative as well.^ For real signals (with no imaginary part), like audio signals are, the negative side of the spectrum is always a mirrored version of the positive side.

^ Again we use hdri-enabled Q16 ImageMagick compilation as both the real and imaginary components contain positive and negative values.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has two components, the cosine, which is the real part and the sine, which is the imaginary part (because it is multiplied by i, the symbol for square root of -1).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because they oscillate at the same rate, when ƒ(t) is positive, so is the real part of e−2πi(3t).^ They are also long jsr's because they aren't likely to be in the same bank as the calling program.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They aren't actually loaded off disk because they are part of the microkernel code.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For real signals (with no imaginary part), like audio signals are, the negative side of the spectrum is always a mirrored version of the positive side.

.The result is that when you integrate the real part of the integrand you get a relatively large number (in this case 0.5).^ Worst case, the number can be doubled resulting in a shift of the decimal point one place in a binary representation.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is what would be produced by adding the real parts of the transforms of the pulses in Figure 1 and Figure 2, and then normalizing the result.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus the division of the complex picture by the complex filter becomes again just another complex number with a real part and an imaginary part as follows.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, when you try to measure a frequency that is not present, as in the case when we look at \hat{f}(5), the integrand oscillates enough so that the integral is very small.^ The good thing about filtering in the frequency domain is that to produce a large amount of (blurring) filtering, you only need a small filter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The continuous frequency of the wave sampling at 110 allows the capacitor, and hence energy, required to store the waveform sample to be very small.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case you can see that the general difference is very small, of about 0.22% .
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The general situation may be a bit more complicated than this, but this in spirit is how the Fourier transform measures how much of an individual frequency is present in a function ƒ(t).^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the Fourier Transform becomes a frequency domain representation of the function.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

Properties of the Fourier transform

An integrable function is a function ƒ on the real line that is Lebesgue-measurable and satisfies
\int_{-\infty}^\infty |f(x)| \, dx < \infty.

Basic properties

.Given integrable functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) denote their Fourier transforms by \hat{f}(\xi), \hat{g}(\xi), and \hat{h}(\xi) respectively.^ FIG. 1 shows an N-point fast Fourier transform broken down into lower level N 1 -point and N 2 -point fast Fourier transforms at 120 and 150, respectively.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For now, just note that the original function f(x) is given by a sum of the transformed function F(u) times different cosine components.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Fourier transform has the following basic properties (Pinsky 2002).^ Remember the scale property of the Fourier Transform?

^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Linearity
For any complex numbers a and b, if h(x) = (x) + bg(x), then  \hat{h}(\xi)=a\cdot \hat{f}(\xi) + b\cdot\hat{g}(\xi).
Translation
For any real number x0, if h(x) = ƒ(x − x0), then  \hat{h}(\xi)= e^{-2\pi i x_0\xi }\hat{f}(\xi).
Modulation
For any real number ξ0, if h(x) = e2πixξ0ƒ(x), then  \hat{h}(\xi) = \hat{f}(\xi-\xi_{0}).
Scaling
For a non-zero real number a, if h(x) = ƒ(ax), then  \hat{h}(\xi)=\frac{1}{|a|}\hat{f}\left(\frac{\xi}{a}\right).     The case a = −1 leads to the time-reversal property, which states: if h(x) = ƒ(−x), then  \hat{h}(\xi)=\hat{f}(-\xi).
Conjugation
If h(x)=\overline{f(x)}, then  \hat{h}(\xi) = \overline{\hat{f}(-\xi)}.
In particular, if ƒ is real, then one has the reality condition\hat{f}(-\xi)=\overline{\hat{f}(\xi)}.
Convolution
If h(x)=\left(f*g\right)(x), then   \hat{h}(\xi)=\hat{f}(\xi)\cdot \hat{g}(\xi).

Uniform continuity and the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma

The sinc function, the Fourier transform of the rectangular function, is bounded and continuous, but not Lebesgue integrable.
.The Fourier transform of integrable functions have additional properties that do not always hold.^ Remember the scale property of the Fourier Transform?

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
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^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Fourier transforms of integrable functions ƒ are uniformly continuous and \|\hat{f}\|_{\infty}\leq \|f\|_1 (Katznelson 1976).^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This modulated comb does have a continuous-time Fourier transform (not within the strict definition that requires square integrable functions, but in the generalization that allows Schwartz distributions , in the case of the original signal being square integrable).
  • Nyquist–Shannon Sampling Theorem 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Fourier transform of integrable functions also satisfy the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma which states that (Stein & Weiss 1971)
\hat{f}(\xi)	o 0	ext{ as }|\xi|	o \infty.\,
.The Fourier transform \hat f of an integrable function ƒ is bounded and continuous, but need not be integrable – for example, the Fourier transform of the rectangular function, which is a step function (and hence integrable) is the sinc function, which is not Lebesgue integrable, though it does have an improper integral: one has an analog to the alternating harmonic series, which is a convergent sum but not absolutely convergent.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The absolute value of the sinc function is what corresponds to the magnitude of the transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the Fourier transform of an input series is the sum of the transforms of the individual samples.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not possible in general to write the inverse transform as a Lebesgue integral. However, when both ƒ and \hat f are integrable, the following inverse equality holds true for almost every x:
f(x) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \hat f(\xi) e^{2 i \pi x \xi} \, d\xi.
.Almost everywhere, ƒ is equal to the continuous function given by the right-hand side.^ Following the data from the left- to the right-hand side of the page shows the sequencing of data in time.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The phrase ``diagram commutes'' is a fancy way to say that, for each (picking an element in the copy of in the upper left hand corner), the element (mapping from the upper left corner along the top arrow and down the right arrow ) is equal to the element (mapping down the left arrow and along the bottom arrow), as functions on .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a function is not band limited but the right-hand side of the above ``reconstruction formula'' is used anyway, the error creates an effect called ``aliasing.''
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If ƒ is given as continuous function on the line, then equality holds for every x.
.A consequence of the preceding result is that the Fourier transform is injective on L1(R).^ The asynchronous protocol will forward the fast Fourier transform results with a handshaking protocol under control of an asynchronous finite state machine.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The effect of multiplying a stream of results coming from the N 1 -point fast Fourier transform by Eq.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The consequence of this is that after applying the Inverse Fourier Transform, such an image will need to be cropped back to its original dimensions.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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The Plancherel theorem and Parseval's theorem

.Let f(x) and g(x) be integrable, and let \hat{f}(\xi) and \hat{g}(\xi) be their Fourier transforms.^ Now, lets simply try a Fourier Transform round trip on the Lena image.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, we can break the fast Fourier transform computation up using this polyphase notation into interdependent equivalent classes of calculations by letting X m s (m 2 )=X(m 2 N 1 +m 1 ) and x n s (n 1 )=x(n 1 N 2 +n 2 ).
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fourier Transforms and the (I)DCT --------------------------------- Let's begin with the definition you'll see in any document on JPEGS (hear that?
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If f(x) and g(x) are also square-integrable, then we have Parseval's theorem (Rudin 1987, p. 187):
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) \overline{g(x)} \, dx = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \hat{f}(\xi) \overline{\hat{g}(\xi)} \, d\xi,
where the bar denotes complex conjugation.
The Plancherel theorem, which is equivalent to Parseval's theorem, states (Rudin 1987, p. 186):
\int_{-\infty}^\infty \left| f(x) \right|^2\, dx = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \left| \hat{f}(\xi) \right|^2\, d\xi.
.The Plancherel theorem makes it possible to define the Fourier transform for functions in L2(R), as described in Generalizations below.^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ For us, the Convolution Theorem will come in handy when we experiment with the Fourier Transformations of signals and images.

^ The convolution theorem sais that, convolving two functions in the time domain corresponds to multiplying their spectra in the fourier domain, and vica versa.

.The Plancherel theorem has the interpretation in the sciences that the Fourier transform preserves the energy of the original quantity.^ Hence by inverse Fourier transform (Plancherel’s theorem) the elements of are given by .
  • MTO 15.1: Amiot, Discrete Fourier Transform and Bach's Good Temperament 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mto.societymusictheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For us, the Convolution Theorem will come in handy when we experiment with the Fourier Transformations of signals and images.

^ The consequence of this is that after applying the Inverse Fourier Transform, such an image will need to be cropped back to its original dimensions.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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It should be noted that depending on the author either of these theorems might be referred to as the Plancherel theorem or as Parseval's theorem.
See Pontryagin duality for a general formulation of this concept in the context of locally compact abelian groups.

Poisson summation formula

.The Poisson summation formula provides a link between the study of Fourier transforms and Fourier Series.^ Poisson summation formula .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These formulas give that the Fourier series of is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is another object of the invention to provide a fast Fourier transform architecture that is free of global memory.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Given an integrable function ƒ we can consider the periodization of ƒ given by:
\bar f(x)=\sum_{k\in\mathbb{Z}} f(x+k),
where the summation is taken over the set of all integers k. .The Poisson summation formula relates the Fourier series of \bar f to the Fourier transform of ƒ.^ Poisson summation formula .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These formulas give that the Fourier series of is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The post World War II era has also seen the tools of Fourier transform of time series stimulate new research in the fields of economics.

Specifically it states that the Fourier series of \bar f is given by:
\bar f(x) \sim \sum_{k\in\mathbb{Z}} \hat{f}(k)e^{2\pi i k x}.

Convolution theorem

.The Fourier transform translates between convolution and multiplication of functions.^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For us, the Convolution Theorem will come in handy when we experiment with the Fourier Transformations of signals and images.

.If ƒ(x) and g(x) are integrable functions with Fourier transforms \hat{f}(\xi) and \hat{g}(\xi) respectively, then the Fourier transform of the convolution is given by the product of the Fourier transforms \hat{f}(\xi) and \hat{g}(\xi) (under other conventions for the definition of the Fourier transform a constant factor may appear).^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This means that if:
h(x) = (f*g)(x) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty f(y)g(x - y)\,dy,
where ∗ denotes the convolution operation, then:
\hat{h}(\xi) = \hat{f}(\xi)\cdot \hat{g}(\xi).
.In linear time invariant (LTI) system theory, it is common to interpret g(x) as the impulse response of an LTI system with input ƒ(x) and output h(x), since substituting the unit impulse for ƒ(x) yields h(x) = g(x).^ Overall power dissipation of a single node is minimized when the rise and fall time of the inputs are minimized if the loads are constant, since the energy dissipation attributed to charging a load capacitor is independent of time.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, state 2 at 609 transitions to state 3 at 606 when ACK is input and at the same time REQ and AKM is output.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ FIG. 6 illustrates the feature of asynchronous methodology that the states are responsive to inputs rather than an arbitrary clocked timing.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

In this case,  \hat{g}(\xi)  represents the frequency response of the system.
.Conversely, if ƒ(x) can be decomposed as the product of two square integrable functions p(x) and q(x), then the Fourier transform of ƒ(x) is given by the convolution of the respective Fourier transforms \hat{p}(\xi) and \hat{q}(\xi).^ Two-dimensional Fourier transforms .
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The N 1 -point fast Fourier transform block at 120 in FIG. 1 is one of the two main functional blocks of the invention.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Cross-correlation theorem

In an analogous manner, it can be shown that if h(x) is the cross-correlation of ƒ(x) and g(x):
h(x)=(f\star g)(x) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \overline{f(y)}\,g(x+y)\,dy
then the Fourier transform of h(x) is:
\hat{h}(\xi) = \overline{\hat{f}(\xi)}\,\hat{g}(\xi).
As a special case, the autocorrelation of function ƒ(x) is:
h(x)=(f\star f)(x)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty f(y)f(x+y)\,dy
for which
\hat{h}(\xi) = \overline{\hat{f}(\xi)}\,\hat{f}(\xi) = |\hat{f}(\xi)|^2.

Eigenfunctions

One important choice of an orthonormal basis for L2(R) is given by the Hermite functions
{\psi}_n(x) = \frac{2^{1/4}}{\sqrt{n!}} \, e^{-\pi x^2}H_n(2x\sqrt{\pi}),
where Hn(x) are the "probabilist's" Hermite polynomials, defined by Hn(x) = (−1)nexp(x2/2) Dn exp(−x2/2). Under this convention for the Fourier transform, we have that
 \hat\psi_n(\xi) = (-i)^n {\psi}_n(\xi) .
.In other words, the Hermite functions form a complete orthonormal system of eigenfunctions for the Fourier transform on L2(R) (Pinsky 2002).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other prior art computer systems have employed analysis techniques for computing the Fourier transform.

^ The matrix receives a nine-bit input word in binary form representative of the angle for which the trigonometric function is sought.

However, this choice of eigenfunctions is not unique. .There are only four different eigenvalues of the Fourier transform (±1 and ±i) and any linear combination of eigenfunctions with the same eigenvalue gives another eigenfunction.^ We know that the Fourier transform is a linear transform.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fourier transform is a linear transform.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall that for the Fourier transform on the number was an eigenvalue.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence of this, it is possible to decompose L2(R) as a direct sum of four spaces H0, H1, H2, and H3 where the Fourier transform acts on Hk simply by multiplication by ik.^ No multiplications are needed at this 4-point fast Fourier transform level, and the data storage and sharing is minimal.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Simultaneous addition, multiplication and memory accessing are performed by the computer thereby reducing the time normally required to compute a Fourier transform.

.This approach to define the Fourier transform is due to N. Wiener (Duoandikoetxea 2001).^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The choice of Hermite functions is convenient because they are exponentially localized in both frequency and time domains, and thus give rise to the fractional Fourier transform used in time-frequency analysis[citation needed].^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We do not transform the filter image as it is already the equivalent filter for use in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fourier transform is most commonly associated with its use in transforming time-domain data into frequency-domain data.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fourier transform on Euclidean space

.The Fourier transform can be in any arbitrary number of dimensions n.^ As the Fourier Transform is composed of complex numbers, the result of the transform cannot be visualized directly.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The consequence of this is that after applying the Inverse Fourier Transform, such an image will need to be cropped back to its original dimensions.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer II As demonstrated in the previous section, the number of multiplication and accumulation operations required to obtain the Fourier transform can be reduced by folding the input signal.

As with the one-dimensional case there are many conventions, for an integrable function ƒ(x) this article takes the definition:
\hat{f}(\xi) = \mathcal{F}(f)(\xi) = \int_{\R^n} f(x) e^{-2\pi i x\cdot\xi} \, dx
where .x and ξ are n-dimensional vectors, and x·ξ is the dot product of the vectors.^ The ``almost orthogonality of the rows of '' discussed above implies that this last vector of dot products is , where by in the subscript of we mean the representative of the residue class of in the interval .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here when we say two real vectors are orthogonal of course we mean that they are non-zero vectors and that their dot product is 0.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The dot product is sometimes written as \left\langle x,\xi \right\rangle.
.All of the basic properties listed above hold for the n-dimensional Fourier transform, as do Plancherel's and Parseval's theorem.^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
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^ Two-dimensional Fourier transforms .
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the function is integrable, the Fourier transform is still uniformly continuous and the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma holds.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, for completeness, note that there is a difference between a discrete Fourier transform and a continuous Fourier transform, namely that one gives the transform in terms of discrete frequencies (w, 2w, 3w, etc.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Stein & Weiss 1971)

Uncertainty principle

.Generally speaking, the more concentrated f(x) is, the more spread out its Fourier transform \hat{f}(\xi)  must be.^ Smaller objects have more spread-out transforms; Larger objects have more compressed transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be useful to recall that the Fourier Transform is in general a tool for checking the periodicities of a given phenomenon.
  • MTO 15.1: Amiot, Discrete Fourier Transform and Bach's Good Temperament 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mto.societymusictheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, the scaling property of the Fourier transform may be seen as saying: if we "squeeze" a function in x, its Fourier transform "stretches out" in ξ.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The N 1 -point fast Fourier transform block at 120 in FIG. 1 is one of the two main functional blocks of the invention.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By scaling the magnitude and applying a log transform of its intensity values usually will be needed to bring out any visual detail.
  • Fourier Transforms -- IM v6 Examples 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.imagemagick.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is not possible to arbitrarily concentrate both a function and its Fourier transform.^ Upon completion of cycle 9 for the highest harmonic, the entire Fourier transform, both real and imaginary, are stored in sections A3 and B3 of memory 29.

^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

.The trade-off between the compaction of a function and its Fourier transform can be formalized in the form of an Uncertainty Principle, and is formalized by viewing a function and its Fourier transform as conjugate variables with respect to the symplectic form on the time–frequency domain: from the point of view of the linear canonical transformation, the Fourier transform is rotation by 90° in the time–frequency domain, and preserves the symplectic form.^ If the waveform is not periodic, then the Fourier transform will be a continuous function of frequency.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ N 1 -point fast Fourier transform output.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Fourier transform is a linear transform.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Suppose ƒ(x) is an integrable and square-integrable function.^ It can be shown that (extends to a well-defined operator which) sends any square-integrable function to another square-integrable function.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Without loss of generality, assume that ƒ(x) is normalized:
\int_{-\infty}^\infty |f(x)|^2 \,dx=1.
It follows from the Plancherel theorem that \hat{f}(\xi)  is also normalized.
The spread around x = 0 may be measured by the dispersion about zero (Pinsky 2002) defined by
D_0(f)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty x^2|f(x)|^2\,dx.
In probability terms, this is the second moment of |f(x)|^2\,\! about zero.
The Uncertainty principle states that, if ƒ(x) is absolutely continuous and the functions x·ƒ(x) and ƒ′(x) are square integrable, then
D_0(f)D_0(\hat{f}) \geq \frac{1}{16\pi^2}    (Pinsky 2002).
The equality is attained only in the case f(x)=C_1 \, e^{{- \pi x^2}/{\sigma^2}}    (hence   \quad \hat{f}(\xi)= \sigma C_1 \, e^{-\pi\sigma^2\xi^2}  )  where σ > 0 is arbitrary and C1 is such that ƒ is L2–normalized (Pinsky 2002). .In other words, where ƒ is a (normalized) Gaussian function, centered at zero.^ In other words, the original function f(x) has been _transformed_ into a new function F(u).
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if is given as a sum of these sine functions, or if we can somehow express as a sum of sine functions, then we can solve Schrödinger's equation.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if is given as a sum of these sine functions, or if we can somehow express as a sum of sine functions, then we can solve the heat equation.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In fact, this inequality implies that:
\left(\int_{-\infty}^\infty (x-x_0)^2|f(x)|^2\,dx\right)\left(\int_{-\infty}^\infty(\xi-\xi_0)^2|\hat{f}(\xi)|^2\,d\xi\right)\geq \frac{1}{16\pi^2}
for any x_0, \, \xi_0  in R  (Stein & Shakarchi 2003).
.In quantum mechanics, the momentum and position wave functions are Fourier transform pairs, to within a factor of Planck's constant.^ Here u is the intensity of the wave as a function of its position x.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also did a lot of work with Fourier transforms involving the space domain and the wave-number domain.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With this constant properly taken into account, the inequality above becomes the statement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (Stein & Shakarchi 2003).^ In principle, this step can be incorporated into the de-quantization step, since dequantization is also just multiplying by constants.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spherical harmonics

Let the set of homogeneous harmonic polynomials of degree k on Rn be denoted by Ak. The set Ak consists of the solid spherical harmonics of degree k. The solid spherical harmonics play a similar role in higher dimensions to the Hermite polynomials in dimension one. Specifically, if f(x) = eπ|x|2P(x) for some P(x) in Ak, then \hat{f}(\xi)=i^{-k}f(\xi). Let the set Hk be the closure in L2(Rn) of linear combinations of functions of the form f(|x|)P(x) where P(x) is in Ak. .The space L2(Rn) is then a direct sum of the spaces Hk and the Fourier transform maps each space Hk to itself and is possible to characterize the action of the Fourier transform on each space Hk (Stein & Weiss 1971).^ As usual, the term ``operator'' is reserved for a linear transformation from a vector space to itself.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, it follows that the Fourier transform defines a linear mapping .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also did a lot of work with Fourier transforms involving the space domain and the wave-number domain.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Let ƒ(x) = ƒ0(|x|)P(x) (with P(x) in Ak), then \hat{f}(\xi)=F_0(|\xi|)P(\xi) where
F_0(r)=2\pi i^{-k}r^{-(n+2k-2)/2}\int_0^\infty f_0(s)J_{(n+2k-2)/2}(2\pi rs)s^{(n+2k)/2}\,ds.
.Here J(n + 2k − 2)/2 denotes the Bessel function of the first kind with order (n + 2k − 2)/2. When k = 0 this gives a useful formula for the Fourier transform of a radial function (Grafakos 2004).^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The transform of a two-dimensional function f(x,y) is done by first taking the transform in one direction (e.g.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Restriction problems

.In higher dimensions it becomes interesting to study restriction problems for the Fourier transform.^ The consequence of this is that after applying the Inverse Fourier Transform, such an image will need to be cropped back to its original dimensions.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some time the Fourier transform has been used for the analysis of sound and vibrations problems.

.The Fourier transform of an integrable function is continuous and the restriction of this function to any set is defined.^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But for a square-integrable function the Fourier transform could be a general class of square integrable functions.^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large scale general purpose digital computers have been employed for computing the Fourier transform.

.As such, the restriction of the Fourier transform of an L2(Rn) function cannot be defined on sets of measure 0. It is still an active area of study to understand restriction problems in Lp for 1 < p < 2. Surprisingly, it is possible in some cases to define the restriction of a Fourier transform to a set S, provided S has non-zero curvature.^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

The case when S is the unit sphere in Rn is of particular interest. .In this case the Tomas-Stein restriction theorem states that the restriction of the Fourier transform to the unit sphere in Rn is a bounded operator on Lp provided 1 ≤ p ≤ (2n + 2) / (n + 3).^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer II As demonstrated in the previous section, the number of multiplication and accumulation operations required to obtain the Fourier transform can be reduced by folding the input signal.

.One notable difference between the Fourier transform in 1 dimension versus higher dimensions concerns the partial sum operator.^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Example 42   As an example, here are the plots of some partial sums of the Fourier series, and filtered partial sums of the Fourier series.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consider an increasing collection of measurable sets ER indexed by R ∈ (0,∞): such as balls of radius R centered at the origin, or cubes of side 2R.^ The center most dots, one on either side of the center of the image will be separated from the origin by a distance equal to the amount of motion blur (or the distance between them will be twice the amount of motion blur).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The applet also provides a check box that allows the user to cause the origin (the empty circle at index value zero) to either be centered or placed at the left end.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For a given integrable function ƒ, consider the function ƒR defined by:
f_R(x) = \int_{E_R}\hat{f}(\xi) e^{2\pi ix\cdot\xi}\, d\xi, \quad x \in \mathbb{R}^n.
Suppose in addition that ƒ is in Lp(Rn). .For n = 1 and 1 < p < ∞, if one takes ER = (−R, R), then ƒR converges to ƒ in Lp as R tends to infinity, by the boundedness of the Hilbert transform.^ The transform of a two-dimensional function f(x,y) is done by first taking the transform in one direction (e.g.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Naively one may hope the same holds true for n > 1. In the case that ER is taken to be a cube with side length R, then convergence still holds.^ However, in principal, it could be padded out with black pixels on all sides to any size desired and one would get the same result, only slower.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another natural candidate is the Euclidean ball ER = {ξ : |ξ| < R}. .In order for this partial sum operator to converge, it is necessary that the multiplier for the unit ball be bounded in Lp(Rn).^ Roughly speaking, the more (everywhere) differentiable the function is, the faster the Fourier series converges and, therefore, the better the partial sums of the Fourier series will approximate .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These partial sums , as , converge to their limit about as fast as those in the previous example.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For n ≥ 2 it is a celebrated theorem of Charles Fefferman that the multiplier for the unit ball is never bounded unless p = 2 (Duoandikoetxea 2001). .In fact, when p ≠ 2, this shows that not only may ƒR fail to converge to ƒ in Lp, but for some functions ƒ ∈ Lp(Rn), ƒR is not even an element of Lp.^ One last definition: the symbol is used above instead of because of the fact that was pointed out above: the Fourier series may not converge to at every point (recall Dirichlet's Theorem 8 ).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, notice that the cosine series approximation is an even function but is not (it's only defined from ).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the Taylor series (when it converges) always converges to the function , but the Fourier series may not (see Dirichlet's theorem below for a more precise description of what happens).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Generalizations

Fourier transform on other function spaces

.It is possible to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to other spaces of functions.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other prior art computer systems have employed analysis techniques for computing the Fourier transform.

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since compactly supported smooth functions are integrable and dense in L2(R), the Plancherel theorem allows us to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to general functions in L2(R) by continuity arguments.^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Further  \mathcal{F}: L2(R) → L2(R) is a unitary operator (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. 2.3). .Many of the properties remain the same for the Fourier transform.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hausdorff–Young inequality can be used to extend the definition of the Fourier transform to include functions in Lp(R) for 1 ≤ p ≤ 2. Unfortunately, further extensions become more technical.^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One last definition: the symbol is used above instead of because of the fact that was pointed out above: the Fourier series may not converge to at every point (recall Dirichlet's Theorem 8 ).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourier transform of functions in Lp for the range 2 < p < ∞ requires the study of distributions (Katznelson 1976).^ NOTE that this process requires the use of the real and imaginary components of the Fourier Transform therefore must be done with ImageMagick compiled with HDRI enabled.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Included within means 24 is a function generator which provides digital signals for sine and cosine values utilized in the computation of the Fourier transform.

.In fact, it can be shown that there are functions in Lp with p>2 so that the Fourier transform is not defined as a function (Stein & Weiss 1971).^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fourier–Stieltjes transform

The Fourier transform of a finite Borel measure μ on Rn is given by (Pinsky 2002):
\hat\mu(\xi)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \mathrm{e}^{-2\pi i x \cdot \xi}\,d\mu.
.This transform continues to enjoy many of the properties of the Fourier transform of integrable functions.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs because the Fourier Transform of a circle, as we saw earlier, is a jinc function, which has decreasing oscillations as it progresses outward from the center.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One notable difference is that the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma fails for measures (Katznelson 1976). .In the case that  = ƒ(xdx, then the formula above reduces to the usual definition for the Fourier transform of ƒ.^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

.In the case that μ is the probability distribution associated to a random variable X, the Fourier-Stieltjes transform is closely related to the characteristic function, but the typical conventions in probability theory take eix·ξ instead of e−2πix·ξ (Pinsky 2002).^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The disclosed computer permits simplification of prior Fourier transform methods by a construction of computational means which takes advantage of inherent time and frequency symmetry of sinusoidal functions.

.In the case when the distribution has a probability density function this definition reduces to the Fourier transform applied to the probability density function, again with a different choice of constants.^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourier transform may be used to give a characterization of continuous measures.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE that this process requires the use of the real and imaginary components of the Fourier Transform therefore must be done with ImageMagick compiled with HDRI enabled.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where the transform of a signal is not stored but rather used immediately for additional computations as in the case of the Auto Spectral algorithms, simultaneous performance of Fourier transform on both channels A and B is utilized.

.Bochner's theorem characterizes which functions may arise as the Fourier–Stieltjes transform of a measure (Katznelson 1976).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This theorem says that the Fourier series coefficient of the perioic function is .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Furthermore, the Dirac delta function is not a function but it is a finite Borel measure. .Its Fourier transform is a constant function (whose specific value depends upon the form of the Fourier transform used).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tempered distributions

.The Fourier transform maps the space of Schwartz functions to itself, and gives a homeomorphism of the space to itself (Stein & Weiss 1971).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ It is expressed mathematically as follows: and the inverse as: where g(t) is a time varying function, or input signal, to the computer and G(jw) is the Fourier transform (a frequency domain representation of g(t)).

.Because of this it is possible to define the Fourier transform of tempered distributions.^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include all the integrable functions mentioned above and have the added advantage that the Fourier transform of any tempered distribution is again a tempered distribution.^ I mention all of this simply to illustrate the general nature of the Fourier transform.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following two facts provide some motivation for the definition of the Fourier transform of a distribution.^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This motivates the following definition.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First let ƒ and g be integrable functions, and let \hat{f} and \hat{g} be their Fourier transforms respectively.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process for obtaining the Fourier transform by the invented Computer I can be divided into nine cycles: Cycle 1--input data cycle; Cycle 2--first fold; Cycle 3--computation of transform coefficients utilizing odd cosine functions; Cycle 4 --computation of transform coefficients utilizing odd sine functions; Cycle 5--second fold; Cycle 6--computation of transform coefficients utilizing even cosine functions in the series f 0, f 4, f 8, f 12 .

^ The transform of a two-dimensional function f(x,y) is done by first taking the transform in one direction (e.g.
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Then the Fourier transform obeys the following multiplication formula (Stein & Weiss 1971),
\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\hat{f}(x)g(x)\,dx=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x)\hat{g}(x)\,dx.
Secondly, every integrable function ƒ defines a distribution Tƒ by the relation
T_f(\varphi)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x)\varphi(x)\,dx   for all Schwartz functions φ.
In fact, given a distribution T, we define the Fourier transform by the relation
\hat{T}(\varphi)=T(\hat{\varphi})   for all Schwartz functions φ.
It follows that
\hat{T}_f=T_{\hat{f}}.\
.Distributions can be differentiated and the above mentioned compatibility of the Fourier transform with differentiation and convolution remains true for tempered distributions.^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Locally compact abelian groups

.The Fourier transform may be generalized to any locally compact abelian group.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
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^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
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A locally compact abelian group is an abelian group which is at the same time a locally compact Hausdorff topological space so that the group operations are continuous. If G is a locally compact abelian group, it has a translation invariant measure μ, called Haar measure. For a locally compact abelian group G it is possible to place a topology on the set of characters \hat G so that \hat G is also a locally compact abelian group. For a function ƒ in L1(G) it is possible to define the Fourier transform by (Katznelson 1976):
\hat{f}(\xi)=\int_G \xi(x)f(x)\,d\mu\qquad	ext{for any }\xi\in\hat G.

Locally compact Hausdorff space

.The Fourier transform may be generalized to any locally compact Hausdorff space, which recovers the topology but loses the group structure.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
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.Given a locally compact Hausdorff topological space X, the space A=C0(X) of continuous complex-valued functions on X which vanish at infinity is in a natural way a commutative C*-algebra, via pointwise addition, multiplication, complex conjugation, and with norm as the uniform norm.^ In addition, very // few of the values in the complex series // have a value of zero.
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This says that the 1D Discrete Fourier Transform is a 1D array of N values, G(n), each of which is composed of an addition (superposition) of N complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the 1D image intensity values, g(x).
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^ This says that each of the N image values at g(x) are just an addition (superposition) of all N possible frequencies (or harmonics), given by f=n/N, of complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the G(n) values.
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.Conversely, the characters of this algebra A, denoted ΦA, are naturally a topological space, and can be identified with evaluation at a point of x, and one has an isometric isomorphism C_0(X) 	o C_0(\Phi_A).^ For example, one of the things that we did was to compute two-dimensional Fourier transforms on diagrams representing weighted points in two-dimensional space.
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src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/2/9/2/86917481993589887.png" /> .In the case where X=R is the real line, this is exactly the Fourier transform.^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the computer illustrated is capable of computing the Fourier transform for two input signals simultaneously, it does not have the storage capacity for storing the real and imaginary components for both transforms.

^ Upon completion of cycle 9 for the highest harmonic, the entire Fourier transform, both real and imaginary, are stored in sections A3 and B3 of memory 29.

Non-abelian groups

.The Fourier transform can also be defined for functions on a non-abelian group, provided that the group is compact.^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

.Unlike the Fourier transform on an abelian group, which is scalar-valued, the Fourier transform on a non-abelian group is operator-valued (Hewitt & Ross 1971, Chapter 8).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
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^ If you modify the value of a sample in F(k), the values in f(x) are automatically modified to show the inverse Fourier transform of F(k).
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^ Figure 9 Case A. Transform of a real sample with two non-zero values.
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.The Fourier transform on compact groups is a major tool in representation theory (Knapp 2001) and non-commutative harmonic analysis.^ Upon completion of cycle 9 for the highest harmonic, the entire Fourier transform, both real and imaginary, are stored in sections A3 and B3 of memory 29.

^ Cheers & hth., - Alf PS: To extend the above to a non-symmetric waveform, just first decompose that waveform into sine waves (Fourier transform), then add up the square wave representations of each sine wave.
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^ Cycle 4 During cycle 4, the coefficients of the Fourier transform are computed for those coefficients utilizing odd sine harmonics in their computation.

Let G be a compact Hausdorff topological group. Let Σ denote the collection of all isomorphism classes of finite-dimensional irreducible unitary representations, along with a definite choice of representation U(σ) on the Hilbert space Hσ of finite dimension dσ for each σ ∈ Σ. If μ is a finite Borel measure on G, then the Fourier–Stieltjes transform of μ is the operator on Hσ defined by
\langle \hat{\mu}\xi,\eta\rangle_{H_\sigma} = \int_G \langle \overline{U}^{(\sigma)}_g\xi,\eta\rangle\,d\mu(g)
where \scriptstyle{\overline{U}^{(\sigma)}} is the complex-conjugate representation of U(σ) acting on Hσ. As in the abelian case, if μ is absolutely continuous with respect to the left-invariant probability measure λ on G, then it is represented as
dμ = fdλ
for some ƒ ∈ L1(λ). .In this case, one identifies the Fourier transform of ƒ with the Fourier–Stieltjes transform of μ.^ In this case, we define the Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The mapping \mu\mapsto\hat{\mu} defines an isomorphism between the Banach space M(G) of finite Borel measures (see rca space) and a closed subspace of the Banach space C(Σ) consisting of all sequences E = (Eσ) indexed by Σ of (bounded) linear operators Eσ : Hσ → Hσ for which the norm
\|E\| = \sup_{\sigma\in\Sigma}\|E_\sigma\|
is finite. .The "convolution theorem" asserts that, furthermore, this isomorphism of Banach spaces is in fact an isomorphism of C* algebras into a subspace of C(Σ), in which M(G) is equipped with the product given by convolution of measures and C(Σ) the product given by multiplication of operators in each index σ.^ Using the above lemmas, we see the connection between maps given by circulant matrices and convolution operators.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We shall define all these terms (convolution operator, etc) give some examples, and prove this theorem.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A basic and very useful fact about the Fourier transform is that the Fourier transform of a convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Peter-Weyl theorem holds, and a version of the Fourier inversion formula (Plancherel's theorem) follows: if ƒ ∈ L2(G), then
f(g) = \sum_{\sigma\in\Sigma} d_\sigma \operatorname{tr}(\hat{f}(\sigma)U^{(\sigma)}_g)
where the summation is understood as convergent in the L2 sense.
.The generalization of the Fourier transform to the noncommutative situation has also in part contributed to the development of noncommutative geometry.^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
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^ Included within means 24 is a function generator which provides digital signals for sine and cosine values utilized in the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ That is the FFT image generated is actually three separate Fast Fourier transforms, one for each of the three red, green and blue image channels.
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.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In this context, a categorical generalization of the Fourier transform to noncommutative groups is Tannaka-Krein duality, which replaces the group of characters with the category of representations.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
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^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, this loses the connection with harmonic functions.

Alternatives

.In signal processing terms, a function (of time) is a representation of a signal with perfect time resolution, but no frequency information, while the Fourier transform has perfect frequency resolution, but no time information: the magnitude of the Fourier transform at a point is how much frequency content there is, but location is only given by phase (argument of the Fourier transform at a point), and standing waves are not localized in time – a sine wave continues out to infinity, without decaying.^ A plot of the signal will be a sinusoidal function -- this is a graph of how the signal varies with time.
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^ With sine wave frequency f this corresponds to n*f > sample rate for digital representation.
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^ With > > sine wave frequency f this corresponds to n*f sample rate for digital > > representation.
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.This limits the usefulness of the Fourier transform for analyzing signals that are localized in time, notably transients, or any signal of finite extent.^ Thus, by utilizing cycles 1 through 9, the coefficients of a Fourier transform for an input signal may be determined utilizing Computer II. As has been previously noted, considerable savings in processing time is achieved by utilizing the above-described folding techniques in the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ These inputs are the signals for which the computer obtains the Fourier transform.

^ It is implicit in the use of the limited time function (-T/ 2 to +T/ 2) that the time function is periodic and hence the transform output is defined only for discrete values of frequency.

.As alternatives to the Fourier transform, in time-frequency analysis, one uses time-frequency transforms to represent signals in a form that has some time information and some frequency information – by the uncertainty principle, there is a trade-off between these.^ These inputs are the signals for which the computer obtains the Fourier transform.

^ For some time the Fourier transform has been used for the analysis of sound and vibrations problems.

^ A linear transformation of the form , for some , is called a Fourier multiplier operator .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These can be generalizations of the Fourier transform, such as the short-time Fourier transform or fractional Fourier transform, or can use different functions to represent signals, as in wavelet transforms and chirplet transforms, with the wavelet analog of the (continuous) Fourier transform being the continuous wavelet transform.^ These inputs are the signals for which the computer obtains the Fourier transform.

^ The function generator provides sine and cosine functions for the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Applications

Analysis of differential equations

.Fourier transforms and the closely related Laplace transforms are widely used in solving differential equations.^ This creates a frequency symmetry that, through the use of "toggling," allows a further reduction in the number of computations required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Analysis of echoes from subterranean structures, such as are produced in the seismic technology, has in recent years, been furthered through the use of Fourier transforms on such data.

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourier transform is compatible with differentiation in the following sense: if f(x) is a differentiable function with Fourier transform \hat{f}(\xi), then the Fourier transform of its derivative is given by 2\pi i\xi\hat{f}(\xi).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall that, given a differentiable, real-valued, periodic function of period , there are with and with such that has (real) Fourier series .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you've ever seen an equalizer display on a stereo, you've seen a Fourier transform -- the lights measure how much of the audio signal there is in a given frequency range.
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.This can be used to transform differential equations into algebraic equations.^ To blur the image, we then use the modified multiplication equation (17) above between the jinc filter and the Fourier Transform of the image.
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^ To blur the image, we then use the modified multiplication equation (17) above between that sinc filter and the Fourier Transform of the image.
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.Note that this technique only applies to problems whose domain is the whole set of real numbers.^ (Note |F| 2 is just a real number.
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.By extending the Fourier transform to functions of several variables partial differential equations with domain Rn can also be translated into algebraic equations.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
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^ The process for obtaining the Fourier transform by the invented Computer I can be divided into nine cycles: Cycle 1--input data cycle; Cycle 2--first fold; Cycle 3--computation of transform coefficients utilizing odd cosine functions; Cycle 4 --computation of transform coefficients utilizing odd sine functions; Cycle 5--second fold; Cycle 6--computation of transform coefficients utilizing even cosine functions in the series f 0, f 4, f 8, f 12 .

^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

NMR, FT-IR and MRI

.The Fourier transform is also used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and in other kinds of spectroscopy, e.g.^ Other prior art computer systems have employed analysis techniques for computing the Fourier transform.

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This creates a frequency symmetry that, through the use of "toggling," allows a further reduction in the number of computations required to obtain the Fourier transform.

infrared (FT-IR). .In NMR an exponentially-shaped free induction decay (FID) signal is acquired in the time domain and Fourier-transformed to a Lorentzian line-shape in the frequency domain.^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
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^ Simultaneous addition, multiplication and memory accessing are performed by the computer thereby reducing the time normally required to compute a Fourier transform.

^ The lecture notes from Vanderbilt University School Of Engineering are also very informative for the more mathematically inclined: 1 & 2 Dimensional Fourier Transforms and Frequency Filtering .
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.The Fourier transform is also used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mass spectrometry.^ This creates a frequency symmetry that, through the use of "toggling," allows a further reduction in the number of computations required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Analysis of echoes from subterranean structures, such as are produced in the seismic technology, has in recent years, been furthered through the use of Fourier transforms on such data.

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
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Domain and range of the Fourier transform

.It is often desirable to have the most general domain for the Fourier transform as possible.^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
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^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included within means 24 is a function generator which provides digital signals for sine and cosine values utilized in the computation of the Fourier transform.

.The definition of Fourier transform as an integral naturally restricts the domain to the space of integrable functions.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs because the Fourier Transform of a circle, as we saw earlier, is a jinc function, which has decreasing oscillations as it progresses outward from the center.
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.Unfortunately, there is no simple characterizations of which functions are Fourier transforms of integrable functions (Stein & Weiss 1971).^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall that, given a differentiable, real-valued, periodic function of period , there are with and with such that has (real) Fourier series .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to extend the domain of the Fourier transform in various ways, as discussed in generalizations above.^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following list details some of the more common domains and ranges on which the Fourier transform is defined.^ In particular, it follows that the Fourier transform defines a linear mapping .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
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.
  • The space of Schwartz functions is closed under the Fourier transform.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
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    ^ This occurs because the Fourier Transform of a circle, as we saw earlier, is a jinc function, which has decreasing oscillations as it progresses outward from the center.
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    ^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

    .Schwartz functions are rapidly decaying functions and do not include all functions which are relevant for the Fourier transform.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
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    ^ Fourier transform (the definition below includes a factor for convenience).
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
    • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .More details may be found in (Stein & Weiss 1971).
  • In particular, the space L2 is closed under the Fourier transform, but here the Fourier transform is no longer defined by integration.
  • The space L1 of Lebesgue integrable functions maps into C0, the space of continuous functions that tend to zero at infinity – not just into the space L^\infty of bounded functions (the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma).
  • The set of tempered distributions is closed under the Fourier transform.^ In particular, it follows that the Fourier transform defines a linear mapping .
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since any monotone function is Riemann integrable, so is any function of bounded variation.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tempered distributions are also a form of generalization of functions. It is in this generality that one can define the Fourier transform of objects like the Dirac comb.

Other notations

Other common notations for  \hat{f}(\xi) are: 	ilde{f}(\xi)F(\xi)\,\mathcal{F}\left(f\right)(\xi)\left(\mathcal{F}f\right)(\xi), \mathcal{F}(f), \mathcal F(\omega), \mathcal F(j\omega), \mathcal{F}\{f\} and \mathcal{F} \left(f(t)\right). Though less commonly other notations are used. .Denote the Fourier transform by a capital letter corresponding to the letter of function being transformed (such as f(x) and F(ξ)) is especially common in the sciences and engineering.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another common comment was that the C64 was far too slow to do the necessary calculations, especially the discrete cosine transforms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs because the Fourier Transform of a circle, as we saw earlier, is a jinc function, which has decreasing oscillations as it progresses outward from the center.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In electronics, the omega (ω) is often used instead of ξ due to its interpretation as angular frequency, sometimes it is written as F(jω), where j is the imaginary unit, to indicate its relationship with the Laplace transform, and sometimes it is written informally as F(2πf) in order to use ordinary frequency.^ We do not transform the filter image as it is already the equivalent filter for use in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is implicit in the use of the limited time function (-T/ 2 to +T/ 2) that the time function is periodic and hence the transform output is defined only for discrete values of frequency.

^ The present method of letting f 0 =1/2T provides half-frequency information useful for some application of the Fourier transform.

The interpretation of the complex function \hat{f}(\xi) may be aided by expressing it in polar coordinate form:   \hat{f}(\xi)=A(\xi)e^{i\varphi(\xi)} in terms of the two real functions A(ξ) and φ(ξ) where:
A(\xi) = |\hat{f}(\xi)|, \,
is the amplitude and
\varphi (\xi) = \arg \big( \hat{f}(\xi) \big),  
is the phase (see arg function).
Then the inverse transform can be written:
f(x) = \int _{-\infty}^{\infty} A(\xi)\ e^{ i(2\pi \xi x +\varphi (\xi))}\,d\xi,
which is a recombination of all the frequency components of ƒ(x). .Each component is a complex sinusoid of the form e2πixξ  whose amplitude is A(ξ) and whose initial phase angle (at x = 0) is φ(ξ).^ Therefore, the complex transform is separated into two component images in one of two forms.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This says that the 1D Discrete Fourier Transform is a 1D array of N values, G(n), each of which is composed of an addition (superposition) of N complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the 1D image intensity values, g(x).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This says that each of the N image values at g(x) are just an addition (superposition) of all N possible frequencies (or harmonics), given by f=n/N, of complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the G(n) values.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourier transform may be thought of as a mapping on function spaces.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Included within means 24 is a function generator which provides digital signals for sine and cosine values utilized in the computation of the Fourier transform.

.This mapping is here denoted \mathcal{F} and \mathcal{F}(f) is used to denote the Fourier transform of the function f.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This creates a frequency symmetry that, through the use of "toggling," allows a further reduction in the number of computations required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Here is a function (sometimes simply denoted ) which is normalized so that .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This mapping is linear, which means that \mathcal{F} can also be seen as a linear transformation on the function space and implies that the standard notation in linear algebra of applying a linear transformation to a vector (here the function f) can be used to write \mathcal{F} f instead of \mathcal{F}(f).^ Then we apply a log transformation using the log argument to the -evaluate option to enhance the darker values in comparison to the brighter values.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is done to allow external buffer amplifiers to be used on input channels A and B. The input and output pulse transformers and buffers for the A-D converter are contained in means 69.

^ It is implicit in the use of the limited time function (-T/ 2 to +T/ 2) that the time function is periodic and hence the transform output is defined only for discrete values of frequency.

.Since the result of applying the Fourier transform is again a function, we can be interested in the value of this function evaluated at the value ξ for its variable, and this is denoted either as \mathcal{F}(f)(\xi) or as (\mathcal{F} f)(\xi).^ The absolute value of the sinc function is what corresponds to the magnitude of the transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notice that in the former case, it is implicitly understood that \mathcal{F} is applied first to f and then the resulting function is evaluated at ξ, not the other way around.^ It does implement some of the UNIX specific functions, but not in a compatible way, and programs that use these functions are likely to be system applications that aren't useful for any other system anyway.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As was the case in cycle 3, the first time cycle 4 is performed on the results of cycle 2, the Δ(Y p q (t)) quantity is that shown in equation 25 of section 2b.

^ If we do the same on any other value of gray, then the value at the center of the magnitude will be less, in this case .5 or gray(50%), and we must apply the log to the magnitude to make the spectrum so that the center dot is visible.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In mathematics and various applied sciences it is often necessary to distinguish between a function f and the value of f when its variable equals x, denoted f(x).^ It is expressed mathematically as follows: and the inverse as: where g(t) is a time varying function, or input signal, to the computer and G(jw) is the Fourier transform (a frequency domain representation of g(t)).

^ Let denote the vector space of functions on of bounded variation.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that a notation like \mathcal{F}(f(x)) formally can be interpreted as the Fourier transform of the values of f at x.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ This says that the 1D Discrete Fourier Transform is a 1D array of N values, G(n), each of which is composed of an addition (superposition) of N complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the 1D image intensity values, g(x).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite this flaw, the previous notation appears frequently, often when a particular function or a function of a particular variable is to be transformed.^ It is expressed mathematically as follows: and the inverse as: where g(t) is a time varying function, or input signal, to the computer and G(jw) is the Fourier transform (a frequency domain representation of g(t)).

^ It is implicit in the use of the limited time function (-T/ 2 to +T/ 2) that the time function is periodic and hence the transform output is defined only for discrete values of frequency.

^ The computer performs numerically the operation implied mathematically by the complex Fourier transform: where g(t) is the time-domain input function and G(jf) is the complex frequency-domain output.

.For example, \mathcal{F}( \mathrm{rect}(x) ) = \mathrm{sinc}(\xi) is sometimes used to express that the Fourier transform of a rectangular function is a sinc function, or \mathcal{F}(f(x+x_{0})) = \mathcal{F}(f(x)) e^{2\pi i \xi x_{0}} is used to express the shift property of the Fourier transform.^ Since the Fourier transform of the convolution is the product of the Fourier transforms, for each , we have .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notice, that the last example is only correct under the assumption that the transformed function is a function of x, not of x0.^ It is implicit in the use of the limited time function (-T/ 2 to +T/ 2) that the time function is periodic and hence the transform output is defined only for discrete values of frequency.

^ It doesn't appear that the Kernal calls this function to determine the screen size, instead relying on hard-coded values under the assumption that the screen is 22x23.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, notice that the cosine series approximation is an even function but is not (it's only defined from ).
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other conventions

.There are three common conventions for defining the Fourier transform.^ Recall, for , the discrete Fourier transform of was defined by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If , define the 2-dimensional Fourier transforms by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourier transform is often written in terms of angular frequency:   ω = 2πξ whose units are radians per second.^ One of the Fourier Transform principles that was listed earlier is that in the frequency domain, the equivalent of convolution is multiplication.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, for completeness, note that there is a difference between a discrete Fourier transform and a continuous Fourier transform, namely that one gives the transform in terms of discrete frequencies (w, 2w, 3w, etc.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This says that the 1D Discrete Fourier Transform is a 1D array of N values, G(n), each of which is composed of an addition (superposition) of N complex sinusoidal waves whose amplitudes are the 1D image intensity values, g(x).
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The substitution ξ = ω/(2π) into the formulas above produces this convention:
\hat{f}(\omega) = \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) e^{- i\omega\cdot x}\,dx.
Under this convention, the inverse transform becomes:
f(x) = \frac{1}{(2\pi)^n} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \hat{f}(\omega)e^{ i\omega \cdot x}\,d\omega.
.Unlike the convention followed in this article, when the Fourier transform is defined this way, it is no longer a unitary transformation on L2(Rn).^ The first part of this article covers general jpeg issues: encoding/decoding, Huffman tree storage, Fourier transforms, JFIF files, and so on.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transforms represent a fundamentally different way of thinking, and the timescale for enlightenment in the subject is years, not minutes.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also less symmetry between the formulas for the Fourier transform and its inverse.^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two important properties of Fourier transforms which come into play here.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another popular convention is to split the factor of (2π)n evenly between the Fourier transform and its inverse, which leads to definitions:
 \hat{f}(\omega) = \frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) e^{- i\omega\cdot x}\,dx
f(x) = \frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \hat{f}(\omega) e^{ i\omega \cdot x}\,d\omega.
.Under this convention, the Fourier transform is again a unitary transformation on L2(Rn).^ The purpose of this invention is to provide a computer for determining the Fourier transform of an input signal in a minimum of processing time utilizing conventional hardware.

.It also restores the symmetry between the Fourier transform and its inverse.^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This creates a frequency symmetry that, through the use of "toggling," allows a further reduction in the number of computations required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Therefore, the delay you pay for doing the forward and inverse Fourier transforms, can often be made up by the shorter time it takes to create and apply the filter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Variations of all three conventions can be created by conjugating the complex-exponential kernel of both the forward and the reverse transform.^ However, we can multiply both the numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the filter, denoted as F * .
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the delay you pay for doing the forward and inverse Fourier transforms, can often be made up by the shorter time it takes to create and apply the filter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, the forward transform is divided by N. This is just one convention of several.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The signs must be opposites.^ The signs must be opposites.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other than that, the choice is (again) a matter of convention.^ But for our purposes and many other OSes, it's usually a whole lot simpler than that, it's just a simple matter of which ever process/thread has the highest priority can run.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Summary of popular forms of the Fourier transform
ordinary frequency ξ (hertz) unitary  \hat{f}_1(\xi)\ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) e^{-2 \pi i x\cdot\xi}\, dx = \hat{f}_2(2 \pi \xi)=(2 \pi)^{n/2}\hat{f}_3(2 \pi \xi)
 f(x) = \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \hat{f}_1(\xi) e^{2 \pi i x\cdot \xi}\, d\xi \
angular frequency ω (rad/s) non-unitary  \hat{f}_2(\omega) \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) e^{-i\omega\cdot x} \, dx \ = \hat{f}_1 \left ( \frac{\omega}{2 \pi} \right ) = (2 \pi)^{n/2}\ \hat{f}_3(\omega)
 f(x) = \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^n} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \hat{f}_2(\omega) e^{i \omega\cdot x} \, d \omega \
unitary  \hat{f}_3(\omega) \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^{n/2}} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) \ e^{-i \omega\cdot x}\, dx = \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^{n/2}} \hat{f}_1\left(\frac{\omega}{2 \pi} \right) = \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^{n/2}} \hat{f}_2(\omega)
 f(x) = \frac{1}{(2 \pi)^{n/2}} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} \hat{f}_3(\omega)e^{i \omega\cdot x}\, d \omega \
.The ordinary-frequency convention (which is used in this article) is the one most often found in the mathematics literature.^ One of the most important properties of Fourier Transforms is that convolution in the spatial domain is equivalent to simple multiplication in the frequency domain.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The values of the base or fundamental sine and cosine frequency (f 0 ) used in the transform are produced by a stepping the function generator through increments one at a time.

^ Most color jpegs use one-to-one pixel mapping for the luminance, and one-to-four (each data byte = 2x2 pixel block) mapping for the two chrominance components.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In the physics literature, the two angular-frequency conventions are more commonly used.^ The main reason I share this sad tale is that, the way I see it, C=Hacking could use a little help, if it is to come out more frequently.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It turns out to be more useful for computations to split this matrix up into two parts: .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Floyd-Steinberg Dithering ------------------------- Dithering is the process of using patterns of two or more colors to trick the eye into seing a different color.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.As discussed above, the characteristic function of a random variable is the same as the Fourier–Stieltjes transform of its distribution measure, but in this context it is typical to take a different convention for the constants.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another characterization states that the functions of bounded variation on a closed interval are exactly those functions which can be written as a difference , where both and are monotone.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the delay you pay for doing the forward and inverse Fourier transforms, can often be made up by the shorter time it takes to create and apply the filter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typically characteristic function is defined E(e^{it\cdot X})=\int e^{it\cdot x}d\mu_X(x). .As in the case of the "non-unitary angular frequency" convention above, there is no factor of 2π appearing in either of the integral, or in the exponential.^ The downside to this approach is that there is no current ImageMagick option to create either the sinc or jinc function.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Unlike any of the conventions appearing above, this convention takes the opposite sign in the exponential.

Tables of important Fourier transforms

.The following tables record some closed form Fourier transforms.^ The following is a list of some of the important properties of the Fourier Transform.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A linear transformation of the form , for some , is called a Fourier multiplier operator .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For functions ƒ(x) , g(x) and h(x) denote their Fourier transforms by \hat{f}, \hat{g}, and \hat{h} respectively.^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Included within means 24 is a function generator which provides digital signals for sine and cosine values utilized in the computation of the Fourier transform.

^ Cycle 3 During cycle 3 the coefficients of the Fourier transform are computed for those coefficients utilizing odd cosine functions in their computation.

Only the three most common conventions are included. .It is sometimes useful to notice that entry 105 gives a relationship between the Fourier transform of a function and the original function, which can be seen as relating the Fourier transform and its inverse.^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking inverse Fourier transforms of both sides gives .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Functional relationships

.The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Erdélyi 1954) or the appendix of (Kammler 2000).^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Another technique for computing the Fourier transform can be found in an article by G. C. Danielson and Cornelius Lanczos, Franklin Institute Journal, Vol.

Function Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary, angular frequency
Remarks
 f(x)\,  \hat{f}(\xi)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x) e^{-2\pi i x\xi}\, dx
 \hat{f}(\omega)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-i \omega x}\, dx  \hat{f}(
u)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x) e^{-i 
u x}\, dx
Definition
101 a\cdot f(x) + b\cdot g(x)\, a\cdot \hat{f}(\xi) + b\cdot \hat{g}(\xi)\, a\cdot \hat{f}(\omega) + b\cdot \hat{g}(\omega)\, a\cdot \hat{f}(
u) + b\cdot \hat{g}(
u)\, Linearity
102 f(x - a)\, e^{-2\pi i a \xi} \hat{f}(\xi)\, e^{- i a \omega} \hat{f}(\omega)\, e^{- i a 
u} \hat{f}(
u)\, Shift in time domain
103 e^{ 2\pi iax} f(x)\, \hat{f} \left(\xi - a\right)\, \hat{f}(\omega - 2\pi a)\, \hat{f}(
u - 2\pi a)\, Shift in frequency domain, dual of 102
104 f(a x)\, \frac{1}{|a|} \hat{f}\left( \frac{\xi}{a} \right)\, \frac{1}{|a|} \hat{f}\left( \frac{\omega}{a} \right)\, \frac{1}{|a|} \hat{f}\left( \frac{
u}{a} \right)\, If |a|\, is large, then f(a x)\, is concentrated around 0 and \frac{1}{|a|}\hat{f} \left( \frac{\omega}{a} \right)\, spreads out and flattens.
105 \hat{f}(x)\, f(-\xi)\, f(-\omega)\, 2\pi f(-
u)\, Here \hat{f} needs to be calculated using the same method as Fourier transform column. Results from swapping "dummy" variables of x \, and \xi \, or \omega \, or 
u \,.
106 \frac{d^n f(x)}{dx^n}\,  (2\pi i\xi)^n \hat{f}(\xi)\,  (i\omega)^n \hat{f}(\omega)\,  (i
u)^n \hat{f}(
u)\,
107 x^n f(x)\, \left (\frac{i}{2\pi}\right)^n \frac{d^n \hat{f}(\xi)}{d\xi^n}\, i^n \frac{d^n \hat{f}(\omega)}{d\omega^n} i^n \frac{d^n \hat{f}(
u)}{d
u^n} This is the dual of 106
108 (f * g)(x)\, \hat{f}(\xi) \hat{g}(\xi)\, \sqrt{2\pi} \hat{f}(\omega) \hat{g}(\omega)\, \hat{f}(
u) \hat{g}(
u)\, The notation f * g denotes the convolution of f and g — this rule is the convolution theorem
109 f(x) g(x)\, (\hat{f} * \hat{g})(\xi)\, (\hat{f} * \hat{g})(\omega) \over \sqrt{2\pi}\, \frac{1}{2\pi}(\hat{f} * \hat{g})(
u)\, This is the dual of 108
110 For f(x) a purely real even function \hat{f}(\omega), \hat{f}(\xi) and \hat{f}(
u)\, are purely real even functions.
111 For f(x) a purely real odd function \hat{f}(\omega), \hat{f}(\xi) and \hat{f}(
u) are purely imaginary odd functions.

Square-integrable functions

.The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Campbell & Foster 1948), (Erdélyi 1954), or the appendix of (Kammler 2000).^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fourier Transform is founded upon the concept of complex number sinusoidal waves.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Function Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary, angular frequency
Remarks
f(x)  \hat{f}(\xi)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x) e^{-2\pi ix\xi}\,dx
 \hat{f}(\omega)=
\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-i \omega x}\, dx
 \hat{f}(
u)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-i
u x}\, dx
201 \operatorname{rect}(a x) \, \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}\left(\frac{\xi}{a}\right) \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}\left(\frac{\omega}{2\pi a}\right) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}\left(\frac{
u}{2\pi a}\right) The rectangular pulse and the normalized sinc function, here defined as sinc(x) = sin(πx)/(πx)
202  \operatorname{sinc}(a x)\, \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{rect}\left(\frac{\xi}{a} \right)\, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{rect}\left(\frac{\omega}{2 \pi a}\right) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{rect}\left(\frac{
u}{2 \pi a}\right) Dual of rule 201. The rectangular function is an ideal .low-pass filter, and the sinc function is the non-causal impulse response of such a filter.^ This is called a low pass filter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the frequency domain, one type of low pass blurring filter is just a constant intensity white circle surrounded by black.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spatial domain, high pass filters that extract edges from an image are often implemented as convolutions with positive and negative weights such that they sum to zero.
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203  \operatorname{sinc}^2 (a x)  \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{tri} \left( \frac{\xi}{a} \right)  \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{tri} \left( \frac{\omega}{2\pi a} \right)  \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{tri} \left( \frac{
u}{2\pi a} \right) The function tri(x) is the triangular function
204  \operatorname{tri} (a x) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}^2 \left( \frac{\xi}{a} \right) \, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}} \cdot \operatorname{sinc}^2 \left( \frac{\omega}{2\pi a} \right) \frac{1}{|a|} \cdot \operatorname{sinc}^2 \left( \frac{
u}{2\pi a} \right) Dual of rule 203.
205  e^{- a x} u(x) \, \frac{1}{a + 2 \pi i \xi} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi} (a + i \omega)} \frac{1}{a + i 
u} The function u(x) is the Heaviside unit step function and a>0.
206 e^{-\alpha x^2}\, \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{\alpha}}\cdot e^{-\frac{(\pi \xi)^2}{\alpha}} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \alpha}}\cdot e^{-\frac{\omega^2}{4 \alpha}} \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{\alpha}}\cdot e^{-\frac{
u^2}{4 \alpha}} This shows that, for the unitary Fourier transforms, the .Gaussian function exp(−αx2) is its own Fourier transform for some choice of α.^ On the left is the Fourier Transform spectrum of the circle image and on the right is the absolute value of the log of the ideal jinc function for the same diameter.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs because the Fourier Transform of a circle, as we saw earlier, is a jinc function, which has decreasing oscillations as it progresses outward from the center.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer I Computer I utilizes the half-wave and quarter-wave symmetry of sinusoidal functions (both sine and cosine functions) to reduce the computations normally required to obtain the Fourier transform.

For this to be integrable we must have Re(α)>0.
207 \operatorname{e}^{-a|x|} \,  \frac{2 a}{a^2 + 4 \pi^2 \xi^2}  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \cdot \frac{a}{a^2 + \omega^2}  \frac{2a}{a^2 + 
u^2} For a>0.
208  \frac{J_n (x)}{x} \,  \frac{2 i}{n} (-i)^n \cdot U_{n-1} (2 \pi \xi)\,
  \cdot \ \sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 \xi^2} \operatorname{rect}( \pi \xi )
 \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \frac{i}{n} (-i)^n \cdot U_{n-1} (\omega)\,
  \cdot \ \sqrt{1 - \omega^2} \operatorname{rect} \left( \frac{\omega}{2} \right)
 \frac{2 i}{n} (-i)^n \cdot U_{n-1} (
u)\,
  \cdot \ \sqrt{1 - 
u^2} \operatorname{rect} \left( \frac{
u}{2} \right)
The functions .Jn (x) are the n-th order Bessel functions of the first kind.^ The transform of a constant circle of diameter d in an image of size NxN is a jinc function : jinc(r*d/N), where jinc(r)=J1(πr)/(πr) and J1(r) is the Bessel function of the first kind of order one .
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The factor of 1.22 is identified in Theory Of Remote Image Formation and is the first zero in the Bessel function.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The functions Un (x) are the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind. See 315 and 316 below.
209 \operatorname{sech}(a x) \, \frac{\pi}{a} \operatorname{sech} \left( \frac{\pi^2}{ a} \xi \right) \frac{1}{a}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\operatorname{sech}\left( \frac{\pi}{2 a} \omega \right) \frac{\pi}{a}\operatorname{sech}\left( \frac{\pi}{2 a} 
u \right) Hyperbolic secant is its own Fourier transform

Distributions

.The Fourier transforms in this table may be found in (Erdélyi 1954) or the appendix of (Kammler 2000).^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, simultaneous memory access, multiplication and addition may be performed in Computer I. This "pipelining" of the computational means in Computer I provides a further reduction in the process time to obtain the Fourier transform.

^ Another technique for computing the Fourier transform can be found in an article by G. C. Danielson and Cornelius Lanczos, Franklin Institute Journal, Vol.

Function Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary, angular frequency
Remarks
f(x)  \hat{f}(\xi)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x) e^{-2\pi ix\xi}\,dx
 \hat{f}(\omega)=
\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-i \omega x}\, dx
 \hat{f}(
u)=
\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(x) e^{-i
u x}\, dx
301 1 δ(ξ) \sqrt{2\pi}\cdot \delta(\omega) 2πδ(ν) The distribution δ(ξ) denotes the Dirac delta function.
302 \delta(x)\, 1 \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\, 1 Dual of rule 301.
303 eiax \delta\left(\xi - \frac{a}{2\pi}\right) \sqrt{2 \pi}\cdot \delta(\omega - a) 2πδ(ν − a) This follows from 103 and 301.
304 cos(ax) \frac{\displaystyle \delta\left(\xi - \frac{a}{2\pi}\right)+\delta\left(\xi+\frac{a}{2\pi}\right)}{2} \sqrt{2 \pi}\cdot\frac{\delta(\omega-a)+\delta(\omega+a)}{2}\, \pi\left(\delta(
u-a)+\delta(
u+a)\right) This follows from rules 101 and 303 using Euler's formula: \displaystyle\cos(a x) = (e^{i a x} + e^{-i a x})/2.
305 sin(ax) i\cdot\frac{\displaystyle\delta\left(\xi+\frac{a}{2\pi}\right)-\delta\left(\xi-\frac{a}{2\pi}\right)}{2} i\sqrt{2 \pi}\cdot\frac{\delta(\omega+a)-\delta(\omega-a)}{2} i\pi\left(\delta(
u+a)-\delta(
u-a)\right) This follows from 101 and 303 using \displaystyle\sin(a x) = (e^{i a x} - e^{-i a x})/(2i).
306 cos(ax2)  \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \cos \left( \frac{\pi^2 \xi^2}{a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)  \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 a}} \cos \left( \frac{\omega^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)  \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \cos \left( \frac{
u^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)
307 \sin ( a x^2 ) \,  - \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \sin \left( \frac{\pi^2 \xi^2}{a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)  \frac{-1}{\sqrt{2 a}} \sin \left( \frac{\omega^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right) -\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}}\sin \left( \frac{
u^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)
308 x^n\, \left(\frac{i}{2\pi}\right)^n \delta^{(n)} (\xi)\, i^n \sqrt{2\pi} \delta^{(n)} (\omega)\, 2\pi i^n\delta^{(n)} (
u)\, Here, n is a .natural number and \displaystyle\delta^{(n)}(\xi) is the n-th distribution derivative of the Dirac delta function.^ Let be the Dirac delta function.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can see that the graphs get `spikier and spikier'' (approaching the Dirac delta function, ) as gets larger and larger.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see how these functions seem to be, as , approaching the spiky-looking Dirac delta function.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This rule follows from rules 107 and 301. Combining this rule with 101, we can transform all polynomials.^ Comparing coefficients, it follows that the linear transformation is translation invariant if and only if its matrix satisfies: , for all , .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

309 \frac{1}{x} iπsgn(ξ) -i\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\sgn(\omega) iπsgn(ν) Here sgn(ξ) is the sign function. Note that 1/x is not a distribution. .It is necessary to use the Cauchy principal value when testing against Schwartz functions.^ We note however, that we must calculate and use the actual sinc and jinc functions rather than just their absolute values.
  • Fourier Transform Processing With ImageMagick 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.fmwconcepts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can enter this function and plot it's values, for , in SAGE using the commands sage: f0 = (x+1)^2; f1 = x^2; f2 = (x-1)^2 sage: f = Piecewise([[(-1,0),f0],[(0,1),f1],[(1,2),f2]]) sage: show(f.plot()) We compute, for , .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This rule is useful in studying the Hilbert transform.
310 \frac{1}{x^n} := \frac{(-1)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}\frac{d^n}{dx^n}\log |x| -i\pi \frac{(-2\pi i\xi)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!} \sgn(\xi) -i\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\cdot \frac{(-i\omega)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}\sgn(\omega) -i\pi \frac{(-i
u)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}\sgn(
u) 1/xn is the homogeneous distribution defined by regularizing the singularity via \frac{1}{x^n}[\phi] = \int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{\phi(x) - \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}x^k\phi^{(k)}(0)/k!}{x^n}.
311  |x|^\alpha\,  -2 \frac{\sin(\pi\alpha/2)\Gamma(\alpha+1)}{|2\pi\xi|^{\alpha+1}}  \frac{-2}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\frac{\sin(\pi\alpha/2)\Gamma(\alpha+1)}{|\omega|^{\alpha+1}}  -2\frac{\sin(\pi\alpha/2)\Gamma(\alpha+1)}{|\omega|^{\alpha+1}} If Re α > −1, then | x | α is a locally integrable function, and so a tempered distribution. The function \alpha\mapsto |x|^\alpha is a holomorphic function from the right half-plane to the space of tempered distributions. It admits a unique meromorphic extension to a tempered distribution, also denoted | x | α for α ≠ −2, −4, ... (See homogeneous distribution.)
312 sgn(x) \frac{1}{i\pi \xi} \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}}\cdot \frac{1}{i\omega }\, \frac{2}{i
u } The dual of rule 309. This time the Fourier transforms need to be considered as Cauchy principal value.
313 u(x) \frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{1}{i \pi \xi} + \delta(\xi)\right) \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}} \left( \frac{1}{i \pi \omega} + \delta(\omega)\right) \pi\left( \frac{1}{i \pi 
u} + \delta(
u)\right) The function u(x) is the Heaviside unit step function; this follows from rules 101, 301, and 312.
314 \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta (x - n T) \frac{1}{T} \sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta \left( \xi -\frac{k }{T}\right) \frac{\sqrt{2\pi }}{T}\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta \left( \omega -\frac{2\pi k}{T}\right) \frac{2\pi}{T}\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta \left( 
u -\frac{2\pi k}{T}\right) This function is known as the Dirac comb function. This result can be derived from 302 and 102, together with the fact that \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} e^{inx}=\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta(x+2\pi k) as distributions.
315 J0(x)  \frac{2\, \operatorname{rect}(\pi\xi)}{\sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 \xi^2}}  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \cdot \frac{\operatorname{rect}\left( \displaystyle \frac{\omega}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - \omega^2}}  \frac{2\,\operatorname{rect}\left(\displaystyle\frac{
u}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - 
u^2}} The function J0(x) is the zeroth order Bessel function of first kind.
316 Jn(x)  \frac{2 (-i)^n T_n (2 \pi \xi) \operatorname{rect}(\pi \xi)}{\sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 \xi^2}}  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \frac{ (-i)^n T_n (\omega) \operatorname{rect} \left( \displaystyle\frac{\omega}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - \omega^2}}  \frac{2(-i)^n T_n (
u) \operatorname{rect} \left(\displaystyle \frac{
u}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - 
u^2}} This is a generalization of 315. The function Jn(x) is the n-th order Bessel function of first kind. The function Tn(x) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind.

Two-dimensional functions

Function Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary, angular frequency
Remarks
f(x,y)  \hat{f}(\xi_x, \xi_y)=
\iint f(x,y) e^{-2\pi i(\xi_x x+\xi_y y)}\,dxdy
 \hat{f}(\omega_x,\omega_y)=
\frac{1}{2 \pi} \iint f(x,y) e^{-i (\omega_x x +\omega_y y)}\, dxdy
 \hat{f}(
u_x,
u_y)=
\iint f(x,y) e^{-i(
u_x x+
u_y y)}\, dxdy
The variables ξx, ξy, ωx, ωy, νx and νy are real numbers. The integrals are taken over the entire plane.
401 e^{-\pi\left(a^2x^2+b^2y^2\right)} \frac{1}{|ab|} e^{-\pi\left(\xi_x^2/a^2 + \xi_y^2/b^2\right)} \frac{1}{2\pi\cdot|ab|} e^{\frac{-\left(\omega_x^2/a^2 + \omega_y^2/b^2\right)}{4\pi}} \frac{1}{|ab|} e^{\frac{-\left(
u_x^2/a^2 + 
u_y^2/b^2\right)}{4\pi}} Both functions are Gaussians, which may not have unit volume.
402 \mathrm{circ}(\sqrt{x^2+y^2})  \frac{J_1\left(2 \pi \sqrt{\xi_x^2+\xi_y^2}\right)}{\sqrt{\xi_x^2+\xi_y^2}}  \frac{J_1\left(\sqrt{\omega_x^2+\omega_y^2}\right)}{\sqrt{\omega_x^2+\omega_y^2}}  \frac{2\pi J_1\left(\sqrt{
u_x^2+
u_y^2}\right)}{\sqrt{
u_x^2+
u_y^2}} The function is defined by circ(r)=1 0≤r≤1, and is 0 otherwise. This is the Airy distribution and is expressed using J1 (the order 1 Bessel function of the first kind). (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. IV.3.3)

Formulas for general n-dimensional functions

Function Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
non-unitary, angular frequency
Remarks
 f(x)\,  \hat{f}(\xi)=
\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x) e^{-2\pi i x\cdot\xi }\, d^n x
 \hat{f}(\omega)=\frac{1}{{(2 \pi)}^{(n/2)}} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} f(x) e^{-i \omega\cdot x}\, d^nx  \hat{f}(
u)=
\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x) e^{-i x\cdot
u }\, d^nx
501 χ[0,1]( | x | )(1 − | x | 2)δ π − δΓ(δ + 1) | ξ | − (n / 2) − δ
\cdot J_{n/2+\delta}(2\pi|\xi|)
 2^{-\delta}\Gamma(\delta+1)\left|\omega\right|^{-(n/2)-\delta}
\cdot J_{n/2+\delta}(|\omega|)
 \pi^{-\delta}\Gamma(\delta+1)\left|\frac{
u}{2\pi}\right|^{-(n/2)-\delta}
\cdot J_{n/2+\delta}(|
u|)
The function χ[0,1] is the indicator function of the interval [0,1]. The function Γ(x) is the gamma function. The function Jn/2 + δ a Bessel function of the first kind with order n/2+δ. Taking n = 2 and δ = 0 produces 402. (Stein & Weiss 1971, Thm. 4.13)
502 |x|^{-\alpha},\quad 0<\operatorname{Re} \alpha<n. cα | ξ | − (n − α) See Riesz potential. The formula also holds for all α ≠ −n, −n−1, ... by analytic continuation, but then the function and its Fourier transform need to be understood as suitably regularized tempered distributions. See homogeneous distribution.

See also

References

.
  • Bochner S.,Chandrasekharan K. (1949), Fourier Transforms, Princeton University Press 
  • Bracewell, R. N. (2000), The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (3rd ed.^ You may have heard of the Fast Fourier Transform, which is used in almost all spectral computing applications; well, there are also fast DCT algorithms.
    • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ W2 ---, Fourier Analysis Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ W1 James Walker, Fast Fourier transform , 2nd ed, CRC Press, 1996.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), .Boston: McGraw-Hill .
  • Campbell, George; Foster, Ronald (1948), Fourier Integrals for Practical Applications, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. .
  • Duoandikoetxea, Javier (2001), Fourier Analysis, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 0-8218-2172-5 .
  • Dym, H; McKean, H (1985), Fourier Series and Integrals, Academic Press, ISBN 978-0122264511 .
  • Erdélyi, Arthur, ed.^ Suppose that we modify this problem into a more practical one: Suppose we know the Fourier series coefficients of but we don't know itself.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ R A. Robert, ``Fourier series of polygons,'' The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ W2 ---, Fourier Analysis Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(1954), Tables of Integral Transforms, 1, New Your: McGraw-Hill 
  • Fourier, J. B. Joseph (1822), Théorie Analytique de la Chaleur, Paris, http://books.google.de/books?id=1TUVAAAAQAAJ 
  • Grafakos, Loukas (2004), Classical and Modern Fourier Analysis, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-035399-X .
  • Hewitt, Edwin; Ross, Kenneth A. (1970), Abstract harmonic analysis.^ The text for the course is the book Fast Fourier transform by James Walker [ W1 ].
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Go J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics , McGraw-Hill, 1968.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol. II: Structure and analysis for compact groups. .Analysis on locally compact Abelian groups
    , Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 152, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, MR0262773 .
  • Hörmander, L. (1976), Linear Partial Differential Operators, Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3540006626 .
  • James, J.F. (2002), A Student's Guide to Fourier Transforms (2nd ed.^ A linear transformation of the form , for some , is called a Fourier multiplier operator .
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, a Fourier multiplier operator (represented in the standard basis) is a linear transformation of the form , where is an diagonal matrix.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As usual, the term ``operator'' is reserved for a linear transformation from a vector space to itself.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), .New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00428-4 .
  • Kaiser, Gerald (1994), A Friendly Guide to Wavelets, Birkhäuser, ISBN 0-8176-3711-7 
  • Kammler, David (2000), A First Course in Fourier Analysis, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-578782-3 
  • Katznelson, Yitzhak (1976), An introduction to Harmonic Analysis, Dover, ISBN 0-486-63331-4 
  • Knapp, Anthony W. (2001), Representation Theory of Semisimple Groups: An Overview Based on Examples, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09089-4, http://books.google.com/books?id=QCcW1h835pwC 
  • Pinsky, Mark (2002), Introduction to Fourier Analysis and Wavelets, Brooks/Cole, ISBN 0-534-37660-6 
  • Polyanin, A. D.; Manzhirov, A. V. (1998), Handbook of Integral Equations, Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-2876-4 .
  • Rudin, Walter (1987), Real and Complex Analysis (Third ed.^ W1 James Walker, Fast Fourier transform , 2nd ed, CRC Press, 1996.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The text for the course is the book Fast Fourier transform by James Walker [ W1 ].
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ K T. W. Körner, Fourier analysis , Cambridge Univ.
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), Singapore: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100276-6 .
  • Stein, Elias; Shakarchi, Rami (2003), Fourier Analysis: An introduction, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11384-X .
  • Stein, Elias; Weiss, Guido (1971), Introduction to Fourier Analysis on Euclidean Spaces, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-08078-9 .
  • Wilson, R. G. (1995), Fourier Series and Optical Transform Techniques in Contemporary Optics, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0471303577 .
  • Yosida, K. (1968), Functional Analysis, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-58654-7 .

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.In mathematics, the Fourier transform is a certain linear operator that maps functions to other functions.^ According to Wikipedia.org: In mathematics, the Fourier transform is a certain linear operator that maps functions to other functions.
  • A fundamental frequency detector of speech signals based on shorttime Fourier transform - Fourier transform - Zimbio 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ Fourier transform--delta function .
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fourier transform--inverse function .
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

.Loosely speaking, the Fourier transform decomposes a function into a continuous spectrum of its frequency components, and the inverse transform synthesizes a function from its spectrum of frequency components.^ The Fourier transform is used to transform a continuous time signal into the frequency domain.
  • Discrete Fourier Transform and the FFT 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cage.curtin.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ An inverse Fourier transform ( IFT ) converts from the frequency domain to the time domain.
  • CHAPTER-5 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cis.rit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The inverse Fourier transform is .
  • Eigenvalues and Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.math.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A useful analogy is the relationship between a series of pure notes (the frequency components) and a musical chord (the function itself).^ A useful analogy is the relationship between a series of pure notes and a musical chord.
  • A fundamental frequency detector of speech signals based on shorttime Fourier transform - Fourier transform - Zimbio 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ What is the space between adjacent frequency components when using these VI's?
  • Fourier Transforms and Frequency Analysis - National Instruments 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.ni.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A useful analogy is the relationship between a series of pure notes (the frequency components) and a musical chord (the function itself).
  • What is the Fourier transform & Laplace transform used for? - Yahoo!7 Answers 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.In mathematical physics, the Fourier transform of a signal x(t) can be thought of as that signal in the "frequency domain."^ The Fourier transform is used to transform a continuous time signal into the frequency domain.
  • Discrete Fourier Transform and the FFT 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cage.curtin.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In the frequency domain, a signal is expressed with respect to frequency.
  • Fourier Transforms and Frequency Analysis - National Instruments 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.ni.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An inverse Fourier transform ( IFT ) converts from the frequency domain to the time domain.
  • CHAPTER-5 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cis.rit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is similar to the basic idea of the various other Fourier transforms including the Fourier series of a periodic function.^ The Fourier Transform is closely linked to the Fourier Series .
  • Fourier transform@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fourier transform@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourier transform--inverse function .
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fourier transform of a real function is a complex function .
  • 55:148 Dig. Image Proc. Chapter 11 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.icaen.uiowa.edu [Source type: Reference]

(See also fractional Fourier transform and linear canonical transform for generalizations.)

Contents

Definitions

There are several common conventions for defining the Fourier transform of a complex-valued Lebesgue integrable function, x.\,  In communications and signal processing, for instance, it is often the function:
X(f) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty x(t)\ e^{-i 2\pi f t}\,dt,   for every real number f.\,
.When the independent variable t\, represents time (with SI unit of seconds), the transform variable f\, represents ordinary frequency (in hertz).^ A signal can be represented as a function of time t or as a function of frequency f .
  • Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.riskglossary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Let x ( n T) represent the discrete time signal, and let X( m F) represent the discrete frequency transform function.
  • Discrete Fourier Transform and the FFT 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cage.curtin.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Representing time and frequency .
  • Fun with Java, Understanding the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithm — Developer.com 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.developer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

 The complex-valued function, .X,\, is said to represent x\, in the frequency domain.^ X(f) represents a complex function in the frequency domain.
  • 2. The Discrete Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.arachnoid.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The complex-valued function, is said to represent in the frequency domain .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If a function is represented in that way, i.e., by describing the frequencies and amplitudes, it is called to be depicted in frequency domain, whereas if a function is defined by values at certain positions (which is a representation most people are used to) it is said to be represented in spatial domain.
  • The Fourier transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cg.tuwien.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  I.e., if x\, is a continuous function, then it can be reconstructed from X\, by the inverse transform:
x(t) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X(f)\ e^{ i 2 \pi f t}\,df,   for every real number t.\,

Other notations for X(f)\, are:  \hat{x}(f)\,  and  \mathcal{F}\{x\}(f).\,
The interpretation of X\, is aided by expressing it in polar coordinate form:  X(f) = A(f)\ e^{i \phi (f)},\,  where:
A(f) = |X(f)|, \,   the amplitude
\phi (f) = \angle X(f), \,   the phase.
Then the inverse transform can be written:
x(t) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} A(f)\ e^{ i(2\pi f t +\phi (f))}\,df,
which is a recombination of all the .frequency components of x(t).\,   Each component is a complex sinusoid of the form eift whose amplitude is A(f) and whose initial phase angle (at t = 0) is φ(f).^ Each component is a complex sinusoid of the form whose amplitude is and whose initial phase angle (at ) is .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 4: The amplitude and phase angle of a sine wave at a particular frequency.

^ So, the complex value of this phase thread is just f(D) changed in phase by 2π p/λ.
  • The Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rodenburg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
In mathematics, the Fourier transform is commonly written in terms of angular frequency:  \omega = 2\pi f,\,  whose units are radians per second.
^ The first term is the Fourier transform of the signal g(t), and the second term is the inverse Hilbert Transform.
  • Easy Fourier Analysis 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.complextoreal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mathematics, the Fourier transform is commonly written in terms of angular frequency: whose units are radians per second.
  • PhysForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion Forums -> Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.physforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mathematical physics, the Fourier transform of a signal x ( t ) can be thought of as that signal in the " frequency domain ."
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

The substitution f = \frac{\omega}{2\pi}\, into the formulas above produces this convention:
X(\omega) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty x(t)\ e^{- i\omega t}\,dt [1]
x(t) = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X(\omega)\ e^{ i\omega t}\,d\omega,
which is also a .bilateral Laplace transform evaluated at s = iω.^ Laplace transform evaluated at .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The frequency response is the Laplace transform evaluated at (0, ω).
  • Berkeley Science Books - Good Vibrations - Fourier Analysis and the Laplace Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.berkeleyscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The substitution into the formulas above produces this convention: which is also a bilateral Laplace transform evaluated at s = iw.
  • PhysForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion Forums -> Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.physforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


The factor can be split evenly between the Fourier transform and the inverse, which leads to another popular convention:
 X(\omega) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} \int_{-\infty}^\infty x(t)\ e^{- i\omega t}\,dt
x(t) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X(\omega)\ e^{ i\omega t}\,d\omega.
This convention and the X(f) convention are unitary transforms.
.Variations of all three conventions can be created by conjugating the complex-exponential kernel of both the forward and the reverse transform.^ Figure 8 - Fourier transform of a complex exponential .
  • Easy Fourier Analysis 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.complextoreal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Variations of all three conventions can be created by conjugating the complex-exponential kernel of both the forward and the reverse transform.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The complex exponential is the heart of the transform.
  • Fourier Transforms 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cv.nrao.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The signs must be opposites.^ The signs must be opposites.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other than that, the choice is (again) a matter of convention.^ But for our purposes and many other OSes, it's usually a whole lot simpler than that, it's just a simple matter of which ever process/thread has the highest priority can run.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This observation provides the first strong and direct indication of the presence of the convection phenomenon, transport of heat by moving matter, in a star other than the Sun .
  • Unprecedented Images Show Betelgeuse Has Sunspots | Universe Today 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: General]

Summary of popular forms of the Fourier transform
angular
frequency
 \omega \,
(rad/s)
unitary  X_1(\omega) \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t) \ e^{-i \omega t}\, dt \ = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} X_2(\omega) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} X_3 \left ( \frac{\omega}{2 \pi} \right )\,
 x(t) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X_1(\omega) \ e^{i \omega t}\, d \omega \
non-unitary  X_2(\omega) \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t) \ e^{-i \omega t} \ dt \ = \sqrt{2 \pi}\ X_1(\omega) = X_3 \left ( \frac{\omega}{2 \pi} \right ) \,
 x(t) = \frac{1}{2 \pi} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X_2(\omega) \ e^{i \omega t} \ d \omega \
ordinary
frequency
 f \,
(hertz)
unitary  X_3(f) \ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t) \ e^{-i 2 \pi f t} \ dt \ = \sqrt{2 \pi}\ X_1(2 \pi f) = X_2(2 \pi f)\,
 x(t) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} X_3(f) \ e^{i 2 \pi f t}\, df \

Generalization

.There are several ways to define the Fourier transform pair.^ Similarly, the -dimensional Fourier transform can be defined for , by .
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Continue development of Fourier transform pairs.
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, we defined the inverse discrete Fourier transform of by .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "forward" and "inverse" transforms are always defined so that the operation of both transforms in either order on a function will return the original function.^ Fourier transform--inverse function .
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The inverse of a transform is an operation that when performed on a transformed image produces the original image.
  • Fourier Transform :: Transforms (Image Processing Toolbox™) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.mathworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The "forward" and "inverse" transforms are always defined so that the operation of both transforms in either order on a function will return the original function.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.In other words, the composition of the transform pair is defined to be the identity transformation.^ Saleh and Teich ( references ), Lawrence ( references ), and Goodman's Fourier optics book ( references ) define the Fourier Transform pair as .
  • Fourier Transform How To - Qwiki 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC qwiki.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Waveforms that correspond to each other in this manner are called Fourier transform pairs.
  • TechOnline | Fourier Transform Pairs 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.techonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, the real part of the Fourier transform of a grating function is zero whenever the corkscrew function (the kernel of the integral) is out of synchrony with the grating function itself.
  • The Fourier transform of a diffraction grating 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.rodenburg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Using two arbitrary real constants a and b, the most general definition of the forward 1-dimensional Fourier transform is given by
X(\omega) = \sqrt{\frac{|b|}{(2 \pi)^{1-a}}} \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} x(t) e^{-i b \omega t} \, dt
and the inverse is given by
x(t) = \sqrt{\frac{|b|}{(2 \pi)^{1+a}}} \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} X(\omega) e^{i b \omega t} \, d\omega.
.Note that the transform definitions are symmetric; they can be reversed by simply changing the signs of a and b.^ Note that the transform definitions are symmetric; they can be reversed by simply changing the signs of a and b .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The only difference between the forward and reverse transforms is the sign of the exponent in the complex exponential.

^ This gives some appreciation for why the kernels of the two transforms are complex conjugates of each other: the change in sign in the reverse transform flips the function about the y-axis a second time so that the result matches the original function.
  • Chapter 12: Properties of The Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC research.opt.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The convention adopted in this article is (a,b) = (0,1).^ The convention adopted in this article is ( a , b ) = (0,1).
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.The choice of a and b is usually chosen so that it is geared towards the context in which the transform pairs are being used.^ The choice of a and b is usually chosen so that it is geared towards the context in which the transform pairs are being used.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The continuous Fourier transform pair used above is .
  • Fourier Transform How To - Qwiki 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC qwiki.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fourier transform of the m-th line can be computed using standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) procedures (usually assuming N=2 k ).
  • 55:148 Dig. Image Proc. Chapter 11 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.icaen.uiowa.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The non-unitary convention above is (a,b)=(1,1).^ The non-unitary convention above is ( a , b ) = (1,1).
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another very common definition is (a,b)=(0,2π) which is often used in signal processing applications.^ Another very common definition is ( a , b ) = (0,2π) which is often used in signal processing applications.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, is used in modern physics, is used in pure mathematics and systems engineering, is used in probability theory for the computation of the characteristic function , is used in classical physics, and is used in signal processing.
  • Fourier Transform -- from Wolfram MathWorld 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC mathworld.wolfram.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore very important to know whether a signal is stationary or not, prior to processing it with the FT. .
  • THE WAVELET TUTORIAL PART II by ROBI POLIKAR 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC engineering.rowan.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case, the angular frequency ω becomes ordinary frequency f.^ In this case, the angular frequency ω becomes ordinary frequency f .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this case, the Fourier Transform becomes a frequency domain representation of the function.
  • Low energy consumption, high performance fast fourier transform - Patent 5831883 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.If f (or ω) and t carry units, then their product must be dimensionless.^ If f (or ω) and t carry units, then their product must be dimensionless.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, t may be in units of time, specifically seconds, and f (or ω) would be in hertz (or radian/s).^ In mathematics, the Fourier transform is commonly written in terms of angular frequency: whose units are radians per second.
  • PhysForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion Forums -> Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.physforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the independent variable represents time (with SI unit of seconds ), the transform variable represents ordinary frequency (in hertz ).
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that the screen is redrawn 60 times per second on NTSC units and 50 times per second on PAL units.
  • C= Hacking Issue #19 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.csbruce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Properties

In this section, all the results are derived for the following definition (normalization) of the Fourier transform:
 F(\omega) = \mathcal{F}\{f(t)\} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int_{-\infty}^\infty f(t) e^{- i\omega t}\,dt
.See also the "Table of important Fourier transforms" section below for other properties of the continuous Fourier transform.^ Fourier series , the Fourier transform of continuous and discrete signals and its properties.
  • The Fourier Transform and its Applications | Stanford Video Course 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC academicearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Table of Contents: Fourier transform Main .
  • Fourier transform (mathematics) :: Related Articles -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Remember the scale property of the Fourier Transform?

Table of important Fourier transforms

.The following table records some important Fourier transforms.^ The following table records some important Fourier transforms.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fast Fourier Transform (Table of contents) .
  • Fast Fourier Transform (Table of contents) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Table of important Fourier transforms .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.G and H denote Fourier transforms of g(t) and h(t), respectively.^ The inverse Fourier transform is denoted .

^ In particular, the convolution operator acting on a function f(x) is: Now consider the convolution operator applied to the complex exponential:   where and H denotes the Fourier Transform of h.

^ Third, if a completely artifact-free reconstruction of the object would be available, then respective frequency samples could be calculated with a discrete Fourier transformation of the given image.
  • Suppression of MRI Truncation Artifacts Using Total Variation Constrained Data Extrapolation 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.hindawi.com [Source type: Academic]

.g and h may be integrable functions or tempered distributions.^ Furthermore, the useful Dirac delta is a tempered distribution but not a function; its Fourier transform is a constant function (whose specific value depends upon the form of the Fourier transform used).
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most general and useful context for studying the continuous Fourier transform is given by the tempered distributions ; these include all the integrable functions mentioned above and have the added advantage that the Fourier transform of any tempered distribution is again a tempered distribution and the rule for the inverse of the Fourier transform is universally valid.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.Note that the two most common unitary conventions are included.^ Note that the two most common unitary conventions are included.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that the two points lie on a horizontal line through the image center, because the image intensity in the spatial domain changes the most if we go along it horizontally.
  • Image Transforms - Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ {(SF5)}}$$ Once again, sign and normalization conventions may vary, but our definition is the most common.
  • Fourier Transforms 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.cv.nrao.edu [Source type: Reference]

Functional relationships

Signal Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Remarks
 g(t)\,  G(\omega)\!\ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \!

\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i \omega t}\, dt
 G(f)\!\ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\

\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i 2\pi f t}\, dt
1 a\cdot g(t) + b\cdot h(t)\, a\cdot G(\omega) + b\cdot H(\omega)\, a\cdot G(f) + b\cdot H(f)\, Linearity
2 g(t - a)\, e^{- i a \omega} G(\omega)\, e^{- i 2\pi a f} G(f)\, Shift in time domain
3 e^{ iat} g(t)\, G(\omega - a)\, G \left(f - \frac{a}{2\pi}\right)\, Shift in frequency domain, dual of 2
4 g(a t)\, \frac{1}{|a|} G \left( \frac{\omega}{a} \right)\, \frac{1}{|a|} G \left( \frac{f}{a} \right)\, If |a|\, is large, then .g(a t)\, is concentrated around 0 and \frac{1}{|a|}G \left( \frac{\omega}{a} \right)\, spreads out and flattens.^ In particular, if we "squeeze" a function in t , it spreads out in ω and vice-versa; and we cannot arbitrarily concentrate both the function and its Fourier transform.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore a function which equals its Fourier transform strikes a precise balance between being concentrated and being spread out.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a rule of thumb: the more concentrated f ( t ) is, the more spread out F (ω) is.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

It is interesting to consider the limit of this as | a | tends to infinity - the delta function
5 G(t)\,  g(-\omega)\,  g(-f)\, Duality property of the Fourier transform. Results from swapping "dummy" variables of  t \, and  \omega \,.
6 \frac{d^n g(t)}{dt^n}\,  (i\omega)^n G(\omega)\,  (i 2\pi f)^n G(f)\, Generalized derivative property of the Fourier transform
7 t^n g(t)\, i^n \frac{d^n G(\omega)}{d\omega^n}\, \left (\frac{i}{2\pi}\right)^n \frac{d^n G(f)}{df^n}\, This is the dual of 6
8 (g * h)(t)\, \sqrt{2\pi} G(\omega) H(\omega)\, G(f) H(f)\, g * h\, denotes the convolution of g\, and h\, — this rule is the convolution theorem
9 g(t) h(t)\, (G * H)(\omega) \over \sqrt{2\pi}\, (G * H)(f)\, This is the dual of 8

Square-integrable functions

Signal Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Remarks
 g(t) \,  G(\omega)\!\ \stackrel{\operatorname{def}}{=}\ \!

\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i \omega t} \operatorname{d}t \,
 G(f)\!\ \stackrel{\operatorname{def}}{=}\

\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i 2\pi f t} \operatorname{d}t \,
10 \operatorname{rect}(a t) \, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}\left(\frac{\omega}{2\pi a}\right) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}\left(\frac{f}{a}\right) The rectangular pulse and the normalized sinc function
11  \operatorname{sinc}(a t)\, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{rect}\left(\frac{\omega}{2 \pi a}\right) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{rect}\left(\frac{f}{a} \right)\, Dual of rule 10. The rectangular function is an idealized low-pass filter, and the sinc function is the non-causal impulse response of such a filter.
12  \operatorname{sinc}^2 (a t) \,  \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}}\cdot \operatorname{tri} \left( \frac{\omega}{2\pi a} \right)  \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{tri} \left( \frac{f}{a} \right) tri is the triangular function
13  \operatorname{tri} (a t) \, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi a^2}} \cdot \operatorname{sinc}^2 \left( \frac{\omega}{2\pi a} \right) \frac{1}{|a|}\cdot \operatorname{sinc}^2 \left( \frac{f}{a} \right) \, Dual of rule 12.
14 e^{-\alpha t^2}\, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \alpha}}\cdot e^{-\frac{\omega^2}{4 \alpha}} \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{\alpha}}\cdot e^{-\frac{(\pi f)^2}{\alpha}} Shows that the Gaussian function exp( − αt2) is its own Fourier transform. For this to be integrable we must have \operatorname{Re}(\alpha)>0.
15  e^{iat^2} = \left. e^{-\alpha t^2}\right|_{\alpha = -i a} \,  \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 a}} \cdot e^{-i \left(\frac{\omega^2}{4 a} -\frac{\pi}{4}\right)}  \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \cdot e^{-i \left(\frac{\pi^2 f^2}{a} -\frac{\pi}{4}\right)} common in optics
16 \cos ( a t^2 ) \,  \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 a}} \cos \left( \frac{\omega^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)  \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \cos \left( \frac{\pi^2 f^2}{a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)
17 \sin ( a t^2 ) \,  \frac{-1}{\sqrt{2 a}} \sin \left( \frac{\omega^2}{4 a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)  - \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}} \sin \left( \frac{\pi^2 f^2}{a} - \frac{\pi}{4} \right)
18 \operatorname{e}^{-a|t|} \,  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \cdot \frac{a}{a^2 + \omega^2}  \frac{2 a}{a^2 + 4 \pi^2 f^2} a>0
19  \frac{1}{\sqrt{|t|}} \,  \frac{1}{\sqrt{|\omega|}}  \frac{1}{\sqrt{|f|}} the transform is the function itself
20  J_0 (t)\,  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \cdot \frac{\operatorname{rect} \left( \frac{\omega}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - \omega^2}}  \frac{2\cdot \operatorname{rect} (\pi f)}{\sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 f^2}} J0(t) is the Bessel function of first kind of order 0
21  J_n (t) \,  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \frac{ (-i)^n T_n (\omega) \operatorname{rect} \left( \frac{\omega}{2} \right)}{\sqrt{1 - \omega^2}}  \frac{2 (-i)^n T_n (2 \pi f) \operatorname{rect} (\pi f)}{\sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 f^2}} it's the generalization of the previous transform; .Tn (t) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind.^ U n (t) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ T n (t) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind .
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

22  \frac{J_n (t)}{t} \,  \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \frac{i}{n} (-i)^n \cdot U_{n-1} (\omega)\,
  \cdot \ \sqrt{1 - \omega^2} \operatorname{rect} \left( \frac{\omega}{2} \right)
 \frac{2 \operatorname{i}}{n} (-i)^n \cdot U_{n-1} (2 \pi f)\,
  \cdot \ \sqrt{1 - 4 \pi^2 f^2} \operatorname{rect} ( \pi f )
Un (t) is the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind
23 \operatorname{sech}(a t) \, \frac{1}{a}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\operatorname{sech} \left( \frac{\pi}{2 a} \omega \right) \frac{\pi}{a} \operatorname{sech} \left( \frac{\pi^2}{ a} f \right) Hyperbolic secant is its own Fourier transform

Distributions

Signal Fourier transform
unitary, angular frequency
Fourier transform
unitary, ordinary frequency
Remarks
 g(t) \,  G(\omega)\!\ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\ \!

\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i \omega t}\, dt
 G(f)\!\ \stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\

\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!g(t) e^{-i 2\pi f t}\, dt
23 1\, \sqrt{2\pi}\cdot \delta(\omega)\, \delta(f)\, δ(ω) denotes the .Dirac delta distribution.^ Dirac delta distribution.
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the useful Dirac delta is a tempered distribution but not a function; its Fourier transform is a constant function (whose specific value depends upon the form of the Fourier transform used).
  • Fourier transform - MathEclipse 15 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.matheclipse.org [Source type: Academic]

.This rule shows why the Dirac delta is important: it shows up as the Fourier transform of a constant function.^ This is equivalent to the Fourier transform if f(x) is an even function.
  • An application of Discrete Fast Fourier Transform algorithm 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www1bpt.bridgeport.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let be the Dirac delta function.
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why bother with the Fourier transform?
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

24 \delta(t)\, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\, 1\, Dual of rule 23.
25 e^{i a t}\, \sqrt{2 \pi}\cdot \delta(\omega - a)\, \delta(f - \frac{a}{2\pi})\, This follows from and 3 and 24.
26 \cos (a t)\, \sqrt{2 \pi} \frac{\delta(\omega\!-\!a)\!+\!\delta(\omega\!+\!a)}{2}\, \frac{\delta(f\!-\!\begin{matrix}\frac{a}{2\pi}\end{matrix})\!+\!\delta(f\!+\!\begin{matrix}\frac{a}{2\pi}\end{matrix})}{2}\, Follows from rules 1 and 25 using Euler's formula: cos(at) = (eiat + e iat) / 2.
27 \sin( at)\, i \sqrt{2 \pi}\frac{\delta(\omega\!+\!a)\!-\!\delta(\omega\!-\!a)}{2}\, i \frac{\delta(f\!+\!\begin{matrix}\frac{a}{2\pi}\end{matrix})\!-\!\delta(f\!-\!\begin{matrix}\frac{a}{2\pi}\end{matrix})}{2}\, Also from 1 and 25.
28 t^n\, i^n \sqrt{2\pi} \delta^{(n)} (\omega)\, \left(\frac{i}{2\pi}\right)^n \delta^{(n)} (f)\, Here, n is a natural number. δn(ω) is the n-th distribution derivative of the Dirac delta. .This rule follows from rules 7 and 24. Combining this rule with 1, we can transform all polynomials.^ Comparing coefficients, it follows that the linear transformation is translation invariant if and only if its matrix satisfies: , for all , .
  • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are all you need for inverting any rational polynomial Laplace transform.
  • Berkeley Science Books - Good Vibrations - Fourier Analysis and the Laplace Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.berkeleyscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We will begin with the following signal: z ( t ) = α f 1 ( t ) + α f 2 ( t ) (1) Now, after we take the Fourier transform, shown in the equation below, notice that the linear combination of the terms is unaffected by the transform.
  • Properties of the Continuous-Time Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

29 \frac{1}{t}\, -i\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\sgn(\omega)\, -i\pi\cdot \sgn(f)\, Here sgn(ω) is the sign function; note that this is consistent with rules 7 and 24.
30 \frac{1}{t^n}\, -i \begin{matrix} \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}\cdot \frac{(-i\omega)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}\end{matrix} \sgn(\omega)\, ;-i\pi \begin{matrix} \frac{(-i 2\pi f)^{n-1}}{(n-1)!}\end{matrix} \sgn(f)\, Generalization of rule 29.
31 \sgn(t)\, \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}}\cdot \frac{1}{i\ \omega }\, \frac{1}{i\pi f}\, The dual of rule 29.
32  u(t) \, \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}} \left( \frac{1}{i \pi \omega} + \delta(\omega)\right)\, \frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{1}{i \pi f} + \delta(f)\right)\, Here u(t) is the Heaviside unit step function; this follows from rules 1 and 31.
33  e^{- a t} u(t) \, \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi} (a + i \omega)} \frac{1}{a + i 2 \pi f} .u(t) is the Heaviside unit step function and a > 0.^ The unit step is neither an odd nor an even function of t.
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

^ Signum and unit step function — another approach We illustrate a method for finding Fourier transforms using the Fourier transform properties and the Fourier transforms of simple time functions.
  • Lecture 6:Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC vocw.edu.vn [Source type: Academic]

34 \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta (t - n T) \, \begin{matrix} \frac{\sqrt{2\pi }}{T}\end{matrix} \sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta \left( \omega -k \begin{matrix} \frac{2\pi }{T}\end{matrix} \right)\, \frac{1}{T} \sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty} \delta \left( f -\frac{k }{T}\right) \, The Dirac comb — helpful for explaining or understanding the transition from continuous to discrete time.

See also

  • Fourier series
  • Fast Fourier transform
  • Laplace transform
  • Discrete Fourier transform
  • Fractional Fourier transform
  • Linear canonical transform
  • Fourier sine transform

Notes

  1. X(f) and X(ω) represent different, but related, functions, as shown in the table labeled Summary of popular forms of the Fourier transform.

References

.
  • Fourier Transforms from eFunda - includes tables
  • Dym & McKean, Fourier Series and Integrals.^ Since a ( r ) is periodic, its continuous Fourier transform contains only discrete Fourier modes e 2 p i m r / R with integral wavenumbers m .

    ^ FFTLog includes driver routines for the specific cases of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms.

    ^ In particular, the sinusoidal functions which were the very basis of Fourier series are excluded by the preceding development of the Fourier transform operation.
    • Chapter 12: Properties of The Fourier Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC research.opt.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (For readers with a background in mathematical analysis.)
  • .
  • K. Yosida, Functional Analysis, Springer-Verlag, 1968. ISBN 3-540-58654-7
  • L. Hörmander, Linear Partial Differential Operators, Springer-Verlag, 1976. (Somewhat terse.^ Roughly speaking, the more (everywhere) differentiable the function is, the faster the Fourier series converges and, therefore, the better the partial sums of the Fourier series will approximate .
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (A distribution is a linear functional on the vector space of all compactly supported infinitely differentiable functions .
    • Computational Fourier Transform lecture notes, spring 2006-2007 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC wdjoyner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We evaluate a small set of Laplace transforms of functions that are critical in analysis and engineering, and we use this transform library in the rest of the book to solve differential equations and to analyze linear systems.
    • Berkeley Science Books - Good Vibrations - Fourier Analysis and the Laplace Transform 14 January 2010 23:45 UTC www.berkeleyscience.com [Source type: Academic]

    )
  • A. D. Polyanin and A. V. Manzhirov, Handbook of Integral Equations, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1998. ISBN 0-8493-2876-4
  • R. G. Wilson, "Fourier Series and Optical Transform Techniques in Contemporary Optics", Wiley, 1995. ISBN-10: 0471303577

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

from Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, its inventor

Noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Fourier transform
Fourier transform (plural Fourier transforms)
  1. (analysis) a process that expresses a function as a sum or integral of sinusoidal functions multiplied by coefficients; it has many scientific and industrial applications, especially in signal processing

See also

Translations


Simple English

A Fourier transform is a math function that makes a sometimes less useful function into another more useful function. It is connected to the Laplace transform. Fourier transforms are often used to calculate the frequency spectrum of a signal that changes over time. Such signals are found in many applications, like recognising speech or handwriting, but also in cryptography or oceanography.

A Fourier transform really just shows you what frequencies are in a signal. For instance, if the signal was a sound wave, and it had the musical notes A and B and C in it, the Fourier transform of that signal will show the frequency on the x-axis, with peaks in the graph corresponding to the frequencies of notes A, B, and C.

You can create many signals by adding together many cosines and sines of different amplitudes and frequencies. The Fourier transform is just the amplitude and phases of these cosines and sines plotted against their respective frequency.

Fourier transforms are important because many signals make more sense when you look at what frequencies are in them, rather than when you look at the signal with time on the x-axis. An example is the audio example above. It would not be obvious that the notes A, B, and C were in the signal just by looking at the signal with respect to time. Also, many systems operate on frequencies independently, so the system can be characterized by what it does to each frequency. An example of this would be a filter that blocks the high frequencies. It can also be used to solve a class of equations in mathematics called differential equations.

Calculating a Fourier transform requires understanding integration and imaginary numbers. For anything but the simplest signals, computers are usually used.

More

Irregular Webcomic's Explanation - Be sure to scroll past the comic. It is a gentle link between this page and then en.wikipedia.org page.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fourier transform, which are similar to those in the above article.








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