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Page 1 of Amendment XIV in the National Archives
Page 2 of the amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution, as well as the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, was adopted after the Civil War as one of the Reconstruction Amendments on July 9, 1868.
The Fourteenth Amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. .Sandford (1857), which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights.^ Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights.
  • What is the fourteenth amendment? - Yahoo! Answers 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Fourteenth Amendment Debate Birthright citizenship is based on the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which was originally enacted to ensure civil rights for the newly freed slaves after the Civil War.
  • Riders United for a Sovereign America, Corp. - Birthright Citizenship 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ridersusa.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sandford (1857), which had excluded slaves , and their descendants, from possessing Constitutional rights; this was used in the mid-20th century to dismantle racial segregation in the United States , as in Brown v.
  • Alabama Courts and the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.alfra.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its Due Process Clause has been used to apply most of the Bill of Rights to the states.^ This is also a requirement for due process, which as such is applied to the states.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ King that the Second Amendment applies to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • United States Congressman Mark Souder :: News Center 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC souder.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase "due process of law" has been ruled to forbid the states to violate most rights protected by the Bill of Rights.
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.This clause has also been used to recognize substantive due process rights, such as parental and marriage rights, and procedural due process rights.^ Monk explains: "Due process has two categories: substantive and procedural.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its Due Process Clause has been used to apply most of the Bill of Rights to the states.
  • The 14th Amendment and the Defense of Marriage Act | The Bilerico Project 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Alabama Courts and the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.alfra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This clause has also been used to recognize: (1) substantive due process rights, such as parental and marriage rights; and (2) procedural due process rights requiring that certain steps, such as a hearing, be followed before a person's "life, liberty, or property" can be taken away.
  • The 14th Amendment and the Defense of Marriage Act | The Bilerico Project 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Alabama Courts and the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.alfra.org [Source type: Original source]

.Certain steps are required before depriving a person of their life, liberty, or property.^ State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;" .
  • THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.saf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law .
  • CRF-USA - BRIA 7 4 b The 14th Amendment and the "Second Bill of Rights" 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.crf-usa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To deprive a person of "liberty" refers to incarceration.
  • The Federal Abortion Amendment of 1868 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.covenantnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.The amendment's Equal Protection Clause requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all people within their jurisdictions.^ The Fourteenth Amendment was intended to protect people from discrimination by the states.
  • Deal W. Hudson : Abortion and the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC dealwhudson.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All persons are equal before the law and are equally entitled to its protection.
  • United States Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.4lawschool.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Government - The Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Equal Protection Clause applies to the actions of State governments.
  • The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution: The Federal Government’s Authority is Imposed Upon the States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC law.suite101.com [Source type: Original source]

This clause later became the basis for Brown v. .Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in the United States.^ Board of Education decision as part of a "states' rights" platform.

^ Brown vs. Board of education [1954] .

^ As stated in the Supreme Court case of Chisholm v.
  • Chap. 6 - The TRUTH About the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC usa-the-republic.com [Source type: Original source]

.The amendment also includes a number of clauses dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.^ Improve ] The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and it includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the fifth amendment includes a due process clause, it does not include—as the fourteenth amendment does—an equal protection clause.
  • County authority apparently razes Canonsburg house sold at tax sale - Washington Greene PA Most Read News - www.observer-reporter.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.observer-reporter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1983, an amendment of the Dutch Constitution included a general nondiscrimination clause, which has been interpreted to include discrimination based on sexual orientation.
  • Article: LEGAL PROTECTION FOR ALL THE CHILDREN: DUTCH-AMERICANCOMPARISON OF LESBIAN AND GAY PARENT ADOPTIONS, vol. 3.1 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Text

.Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.^ For a citizen of the United States that is easy.
  • JoshCast: Interview with Tim Sandefur about McDonald v. Chicago, the 2nd Amendment, and Privileges or Immunities « Josh Blackman's Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC joshblackman.com [Source type: General]

^ A citizen of the United States, residing in any state of the Union, is a citizen of that state.
  • Citizenship And The Fourteenth 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.losthorizons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All agreed that every free person born within the limits and the allegiance of a State of the United States was a natural born citizen of the State and of the United States.
  • “NATURAL BORN CITIZEN”: DEFINED BY 14TH AMENDMENT FRAMERS AND IN TREATISE RELIED ON BY SCALIA « Natural Born Citizen 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.^ Big Med: Corporate Personhood - Corporate Predator Review A Critical Review of Mokhiber and Weissman's CORPORATE PREDATORS by Charles Reid from The American Reporter The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution stipulates that "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
  • Big Med: Corporate Personhood - Corporate Predator Review 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No state shall .
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate."
  • The unconstitutional 14th Amendment � Part 4 of 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.gulftel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed.^ The Fourteenth Amendment states in Section Two, that Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of citizens of the United States...
  • Amendment XIV@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.
  • Q: Do illegal-aliens count as "persons" under the 14th amendment's apportionment of representatives? - The Federalist Blog 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC federalistblog.us [Source type: Original source]
  • 14th Amendment  - H7161 - 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution - 5th and 14th Amendments | find US law 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC finduslaw.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amending the U.S. Constitution - North Carolina Digital History 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And he is counted in every apportionment of representation in the legislature; for the requirement of her constitution is that 'the legislature shall apportion the senators and representatives according to the number of inhabitants, excluding Indians not taxed, and soldiers and officers of the United States army.'
  • Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94, 5 S.Ct. 41, 28 L.Ed. 643 (1884) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.^ United States except as he was a citizen of one of the States composing the Union.
  • Separation of Dual Sovereign Powers 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.civil-liberties.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
  • Constitution Day Materials, US Constitution, Pocket Constitution Book, Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard.
  • Testimony of Eugene Volokh on the Second Amendment, SenateSubcommittee on the Constitution, Sept. 23, 1998. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.law.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.^ Clause 3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC forcesct.multiservers.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dante's Purgatorio -- Constitution of the United States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.purgatorio.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No state shall .
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ No president has ever had to adjourn a session of Congress.
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.^ But congress may by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  • The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States - MSN Encarta 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC caselaw.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JusticeLearning : Amendments 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.justicelearning.org [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: Bill of Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC odur.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • United States Constitution Amendment 14 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.weyrich.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Fourteenth Amendment - Legal Dictionary 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.theattorneysforum.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments to the United States constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.immihelp.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States / Enmiendas a la Constituci�n de los Estados Unidos 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Avalon Project - U.S. Constitution : Amendments XI - XXVII 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • US Constitution - 5th and 14th Amendments | find US law 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC finduslaw.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AMENDMENTS to the U. S. CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC biblescripture.net [Source type: Original source]
  • ALERT 2nd and 14th Amendments to be voted on - Political Mercenaries 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC politicalmercenaries.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Liberty Papers » The U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.thelibertypapers.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Legal Dictionary 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC users.idworld.net [Source type: Original source]
  • 14th Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: Original source]
  • African American Cities > Phoenix, AZ > U.S. Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment Message Boards, Chats and Profiles - AOL Black Voices 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.blackvoices.com [Source type: General]
  • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
  • How Many Amendments Are There to the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC okiron.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Bill of Rights and Later Amendments 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Amending the U.S. Constitution - North Carolina Digital History 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.endtimesreport.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The CONSTITUTION OF THE USA and AMENDMENTS -- Read & Know | The Hive 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC forcesct.multiservers.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Dante's Purgatorio -- Constitution of the United States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.purgatorio.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Congress may be [ sic ] a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  • Supreme Law Library : Reference : White House Constitution : whuscons 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.^ Section 4 The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.
  • Common Sense Americanism - Amendments to the U. S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.csamerican.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Section Four) [Counter] The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by law, including debts incurred from payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection shall not be denied .
  • Northwest Religious Liberty Association : The Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nrla.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Equality before the law -- United States .

.But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.^ United States claimed authority ...
  • Article: Fourteenth Amendment personhood: Fact or fiction? - St. John's Law Review | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ United States as such, and as distinguished from all other persons ....
  • THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.saf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss of emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

.Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.^ The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article."
  • Legal Dictionary 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress shall have power to implement and enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • Proposed Constitutional Amendments to U.S. Constitution-Reclaim Democracy.org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reclaimdemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 5 The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
  • Daily Kos: The Fourteenth Amendment and The Next Justice 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Citizenship and civil rights

Background

.Section 1, arguably the most far-reaching section of the Fourteenth Amendment, formally defines citizenship and protects a person's civil and political rights from being abridged or denied by any state.^ Civil rights -- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • We the people : the Fourteenth Amendment and the Supreme Court (Book, 1999) [WorldCat.org] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.worldcat.org [Source type: General]

^ This Amendment has been applied to the states by incorporation in the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • ThisNation.com--Constitution of the United States of America 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.thisnation.com [Source type: Original source]

This represented the Congress's reversal of that portion of the Dred Scott decision, which ruled that black people were not and could not become citizens of the United States or enjoy any of the privileges and immunities of citizenship.[1] .The Civil Rights Act of 1866 had already granted U.S. citizenship to all persons born in the United States; the framers of the Fourteenth Amendment added this principle into the Constitution to prevent the Supreme Court from ruling the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to be unconstitutional for lack of congressional authority to enact such a law or a future Congress from altering it by a mere majority vote.^ United States claimed authority ...
  • Article: Fourteenth Amendment personhood: Fact or fiction? - St. John's Law Review | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Fourteenth amendment to the constitution ratified by Georgia."

^ The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was approved in eighteen sixty-eight.
  • Susan B. Anthony, 1820-1906:  She Led the Fight to Gain Equal Rights for Women, Including the Right to Vote 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

.This section was also in response to the Black Codes which southern states had passed in the wake of the Thirteenth Amendment, which ended slavery in the United States.^ Thirteenth Amendment (1865) Abolishes slavery.
  • United States Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.4lawschool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in 1865, irrevocably abolished slavery throughout the United States.
  • History Now. The Historians Perspective 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.historynow.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional amendments -- united States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Those laws attempted to return freed slaves to something like their former condition by, among other things, restricting their movement, forcing them to enter into year-long labor contracts, and by preventing them from suing or testifying in court.^ When the Civil War ended, slaves were freed and the black codes and other measures violated the rights of the equal protection of the laws.
  • Constitutional Problems: Privileges and Immunities | from Reason to Freedom 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.reasontofreedom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing due process and the equal protection of the laws to former slaves, was declared in effect.
  • On This Day 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The Supreme Court ruled that the 13th Amendment operated to free former slaves and prohibit slavery, but it in no way conferred citizenship to the former slaves, or to those of races other than white, because the founders of the Constitution were all of the white race.
  • Restore The Constitution » Blog Archive » State vs. Federal Citizenship What’s it Mean PT 4 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC restoretheconstitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Section 1 also includes a formal definition of citizenship.^ [T]o establish a clear and comprehensive definition of citizenship which should declare what should constitute citizenship of the United States and also citizenship of a state, the 1st clause of the 1st section was framed.
  • American Chronicle | Two citizens under the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.americanchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Chronicle | Two citizens under the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.americanchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, this section was in response to violence against African Americans within the southern states.^ Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.
  • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
  • ThisNation.com--Constitution of the United States of America 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.thisnation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Sections 3 and 4 of the Fourteenth Amendment affected persons who waged war against the Union during the Civil War and the obligations of those states who had been part of the Confederacy.

^ Glenda Gilmore, a professor at Yale who specializes in Southern and African-American history, said Mr. Williams had been neglected for decades, in part because his approach underscored the violence of white resistance to black equality.
  • Outspoken and Feared but Largely Forgotten 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: News]

.A Joint Committee on Reconstruction found that only a Constitutional amendment could protect the rights and welfare of African Americans within those states.^ Constitutional amendments -- united States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States regarding the right to vote.
  • Proposed Constitutional Amendments to U.S. Constitution-Reclaim Democracy.org 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reclaimdemocracy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's within his rights unless otherwise prohibited by a state constitution.
  • Does the 14th Amendment Protect Economic Liberty? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]

Citizenship Clause

.There are varying interpretations of the original intent of Congress, based on statements made during the congressional debate over the amendment.^ What was the original intent of the Second Amendment?
  • RealClearPolitics - Articles - Yes, the Second Amendment Guarantees an Individual Right to Bear Arms 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.realclearpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congressional action warranted: The 14th Amendment stipulates that Congress has the power to enforce its provisions by enactment of legislation and the power to enforce a law is necessarily accompanied by the authority to interpret that law.
  • Signatures No to Amnesty ! No to a Guest Worker Program for Illegals! Petition : [ powered by iPetitions.com ] 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.ipetitions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ XIII an XV because there was some question in the minds of some as to whether Congress actually had authority to pass laws to enforce these amendments without an explicit statement.
  • The 14th amendment (Clayton E. Cramer) 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: Original source]

[5] .During the original debate over the amendment Senator Jacob M. Howard of Michigan—the author of the Citizenship Clause—described the clause as excluding American Indians who maintain their tribal ties, and “persons born in the United States who are foreigners, aliens, who belong to the families of ambassadors or foreign ministers.” He was supported by other senators, including Edgar Cowan, Reverdy Johnson, and Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lyman Trumbull.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This child was born and was obviously a "person" under the original meaning of that amendment.
  • A Rad idea about 14th Amendment Jurisprudence (What's Wrong with the World) 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.whatswrongwiththeworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional amendments -- united States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Howard further stated the term jurisdiction meant "the same jurisdiction in extent and quality as applies to every citizen of the United States now"[6] and that the United States possessed a “full and complete jurisdiction” over the person described in the amendment.^ For a citizen of the United States that is easy.
  • Does the 14th Amendment Protect Economic Liberty? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JoshCast: Interview with Tim Sandefur about McDonald v. Chicago, the 2nd Amendment, and Privileges or Immunities « Josh Blackman's Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC joshblackman.com [Source type: General]
  • Doherty on Slaughterhouse, Libertarian Centralism, and the Fourteenth Amendment - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A citizen of the United States, residing in any state of the Union, is a citizen of that state.
  • Citizenship And The Fourteenth 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.losthorizons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This Amendment has been applied to the states by incorporation in the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

[7][8][6] .Other senators, including Senator John Conness,[9] supported the amendment, believing citizenship should cover all children born in the United States.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator Samuel Pomeroy of Kansas, a supporter of the proposed amendment, stated: .
  • Intent of the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Senate, on the other hand, represented the states.
  • Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

In Elk v. .Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94 (1884), the clause's meaning was tested regarding whether it meant that anyone born in the United States would be a citizen regardless of the parents' nationality.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States and of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard.
  • Testimony of Eugene Volokh on the Second Amendment, SenateSubcommittee on the Constitution, Sept. 23, 1998. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.law.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For a citizen of the United States that is easy.
  • Does the 14th Amendment Protect Economic Liberty? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JoshCast: Interview with Tim Sandefur about McDonald v. Chicago, the 2nd Amendment, and Privileges or Immunities « Josh Blackman's Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC joshblackman.com [Source type: General]

.In that case, the Supreme Court held that the children of Native Americans were not citizens, despite the fact that they were born in the United States.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a citizen of the United States that is easy.
  • Doherty on Slaughterhouse, Libertarian Centralism, and the Fourteenth Amendment - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As stated in the Supreme Court case of Chisholm v.
  • Chap. 6 - The TRUTH About the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC usa-the-republic.com [Source type: Original source]

The meaning was tested again in the case of United States v. .Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) regarding children of non-citizen Chinese immigrants born in United States.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a citizen of the United States that is easy.
  • Doherty on Slaughterhouse, Libertarian Centralism, and the Fourteenth Amendment - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The person is currently a Citizen of the United States.
  • “NATURAL BORN CITIZEN”: DEFINED BY 14TH AMENDMENT FRAMERS AND IN TREATISE RELIED ON BY SCALIA « Natural Born Citizen 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The court ruled that the children were U.S. citizens.^ But the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1857 Dred Scott case that no slaves or descendants of slaves could be U.S. citizens.
  • 14th Amendment « Voice For Voters 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.voiceforvoters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The court ruled against the slaughterhouses, narrowly interpreting "the privileges and immunities" of citizens and stating that the amendment did not extend to the property rights of businessmen.
  • Today in History: July 28 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Today in History: July 28 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Supreme Court ruled that the Pentagon Papers were a violation of the Constitution and that citizens have a right to know what their tax dollars are being used to support.
  • Amendment XIV@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.The difference between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants was not clear at the time of the decision of Wong Kim Ark.^ Wong Kim Ark 1898 3.

^ Wong Kim Ark in 1898.
  • “NATURAL BORN CITIZEN”: DEFINED BY 14TH AMENDMENT FRAMERS AND IN TREATISE RELIED ON BY SCALIA « Natural Born Citizen 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wong Kim Ark, 169 US 649, 692 "Citizenship of the United States is defined by the Fourteenth Amendment and federal statutes, ..."
  • Poli-Sci 101 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC hotlynxnow.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .According to The Heritage Foundation, which maintains that Congress possesses the power to exclude children born in the United States to illegal immigrant parents from U.S. citizenship by legislation, neither in that decision nor any subsequent case has the Supreme Court explicitly ruled on whether such children are entitled to birthright citizenship via the amendment,[12] although that has generally been assumed to be the case.^ American citizenship to children born in the United States of non-citizen parents.
  • SPLCenter.org: Legal Brief 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the first case in which the Supreme Court had the opportunity to interpret the Second Amendment.

^ This rule has been applied to state courts since the 1961 decision in Mapp v.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .In some cases, the Court has implicitly assumed, or suggested in dicta, that such children are entitled to birthright citizenship: these include INS v.^ In some cases the Court has implicitly assumed, or suggested in dicta, that such children are entitled to birthright citizenship: these include INS v.
  • Big Dogs House » Blog Archive » Obama Shows His Ignorance of the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.onebigdog.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The division of the Court in these cases and in the Mullaney v.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Liberty has been construed to include many accepted liberty interests and civil liberties, such as the fundamental liberty interest of a parent in the care and custody of one's children.

Rios-Pineda
, 471 U.S. 444 (1985)[14] and Plyler v. .Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982).^ Doe , 457 U.S. 202, 211 n.10 (1982) (relying on Wong Kim Ark 's predominantly geographic interpretation of the "jurisdiction" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment); Rogers v.
  • LEGISLATION DENYING CITIZENSHIP AT BIRTH TO CERTAIN CHILDRENBORN IN THE UNITED STATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Doe, 457 U.S. 202, 211, fn.
  • Obama: Arellano's plight shows 'broken immigration system': The Swamp 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Doe , 457 US 202 (1982).
  • “NATURAL BORN CITIZEN”: DEFINED BY 14TH AMENDMENT FRAMERS AND IN TREATISE RELIED ON BY SCALIA « Natural Born Citizen 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
Loss of U.S. citizenship is possible only under the following circumstances:
  • Fraud in the naturalization process. .Technically, this is not loss of citizenship but rather a voiding of the purported naturalization and a declaration that the immigrant never was a U.S. citizen.
  • Voluntary relinquishment of citizenship.^ The architects of the Fourteenth Amendment had two to choose from in granting citizenship under this amendment, they choose just a citizen, and rejected “a natural born citizen.” .
    • The Fourteenth Amendment and a “natural born citizen” 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC birthers.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The best they can do for us is this — if your Citizenship Status is regulated by a uniform rule of naturalization created by an Act of Congress, then you are NOT a ‘natural born Citizen.’ .
    • “NATURAL BORN CITIZEN”: DEFINED BY 14TH AMENDMENT FRAMERS AND IN TREATISE RELIED ON BY SCALIA « Natural Born Citizen 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC naturalborncitizen.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clearly, the Fourteenth Amendment is not conferring “natural born” status on anyone, it only confers simple citizenship and the universal rights given to all citizens, “native born” and naturalized.
    • The Fourteenth Amendment and a “natural born citizen” 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC birthers.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This may be accomplished either through renunciation procedures specially established by the State Department or through other actions that demonstrate desire to give up U.S. citizenship.^ June 13, 1866 - Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution , giving negroes rights of citizenship, is forwarded to the states for ratification.
    • Timeline of Events Relevant to the Northern Plains Tribes 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.hanksville.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ June 2, 1924 The Snyder Act, or Indian Citizenship Act, grants Native Americans the full rights of citizenship of the United States without having to give up their tribal affiliations.
    • Milestones in Voting History / Voting Rights and Citizenship 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www1.cuny.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Second, Congress may condition the grant of federal funds on the States' taking governmental action desired by Congress.
    • Legal Definition of Tenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

    [16]
.For a long time, voluntary acquisition or exercise of a foreign citizenship was considered sufficient cause for revocation of U.S. citizenship.^ "The 14th amendment was meant to ensure that former slaves who were born in the U.S., were not denied citizenship, based on their status as children of slaves who were not considered citizens at the time.
  • FOXNews.com - Redefining the 14th Amendment - FOX Fan 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor has the acquisition of citizenship been affected by the circumstance that the child's alien parents were in the United States temporarily or even illegally at the time the child was born."
  • LEGISLATION DENYING CITIZENSHIP AT BIRTH TO CERTAIN CHILDRENBORN IN THE UNITED STATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Original source]

[17] .This concept was enshrined in a series of treaties between the United States and other countries (the Bancroft Treaties).^ Obama is using the oft-disproved contention that "90% of the guns recovered in Mexico come from the United States" as the stated basis of his support for the international treaty he is promoting.
  • Patricia Stoneking's Current Events 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.usrnsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists kept their word and on September 25, 1789, the First Federal Congress of the United States proposed to the state legislatures a series of amendments to the Constitution.
  • AMENDMENTS to the U. S. CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC biblescripture.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal has its principal place of business in the State of California, but conducts business in each and every state within the United States, including the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and many foreign countries.
  • Hurricane Carter: The Other Side of the Story 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC graphicwitness.com [Source type: Original source]

However, the Supreme Court repudiated this concept in Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967), as well as Vance v. .Terrazas, 444 U.S. 252 (1980), holding that the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment barred the Congress from revoking citizenship.^ This formulation is similar to what would become the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Intent of the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment are: .
  • Intent of the Fourteenth Amendment was to Protect All Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This clause of the Fourteenth Amendment ended that practice.
  • Amending the U.S. Constitution - North Carolina Digital History 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Original source]

Due Process Clause

Beginning with Allgeyer v. Louisiana (1897), the Court interpreted the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as providing substantive protection to private contracts and thus prohibiting a variety of social and economic regulation, under what was referred to as "freedom of contract".[18] Thus, the Court struck down a law decreeing maximum hours for workers in a bakery in Lochner v. New York (1905) and struck down a minimum wage law in Adkins v. .Children's Hospital (1923).^ Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923); Stettler v.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923), a Fifth Amendment case); Morehead v.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Court did uphold some economic regulation such as state prohibition laws (Mugler v.^ State prohibition law is repealed.
  • A West Virginia Chronology 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC recollectionbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [U]ntil some state law has been passed .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 10: Equal Protection of the Laws - Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court unanimously declared that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" and, as such, violate the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees all citizens "equal protection of the laws."
  • TEMPLE-GOLD Archives -- May 2004 (#166) 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC listserv.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kansas
), laws declaring maximum hours for mine workers (Holden v. Hardy (1898)), laws declaring maximum hours for female workers (Muller v. Oregon (1908)), President Wilson's intervention in a railroad strike (Wilson v. .New (1917)), as well as federal laws regulating narcotics (United States v.^ Educational law and legislation-- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sex and law -- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The United States is federal in nature.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - United States Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

Doremus
(1919)).
The Court repudiated the "freedom of contract" line of cases in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish (1937). .In the past forty years it has recognized a number of "fundamental rights" of individuals, such as privacy, which the states can regulate only under narrowly defined circumstances.^ By the way, a state's constitution can only recognize and secure an individual's actual individual rights.
  • Does the 14th Amendment Protect Economic Liberty? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rights may be guaranteed as fundamental by individual states.
  • Alabama Courts and the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.alfra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What right do states have to regulate various professions?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[18] .The Court has also significantly expanded the reach of procedural due process, requiring some sort of hearing before the government may terminate civil service employees, expel a student from public school, or cut off a welfare recipient's benefits.^ Procedural due process requires that government follow fair procedures in both criminal and civil cases.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Separated as our issue is from that of the future interests of the children, we have before us the elemental question whether a court of a state, where a mother is neither domiciled, resident nor present, may cut off her immediate right to the care, custody, management and companionship of her minor children without having jurisdiction over her in personam.

^ The court dismissed the case, holding that, because there was no "absolute constitutional right of an individual to possess a firearm," there was "no liberty or property interest sufficient to give rise to a procedural due process claim."

[19][20]
.The Court has ruled that in certain circumstances, the Due Process Clause requires a judge to recuse himself on account of concern of there being a conflict of interest.^ Specifically, the Supreme Court has ruled that in certain circumstances, the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires a judge to recuse himself on account of a potential or actual conflict of interest .
  • Alabama Courts and the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.alfra.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But according to the Supreme Court the word 'abortion' is in the Due Process Clause.
  • The Federal Abortion Amendment of 1868 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.covenantnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, the Due Process Clause is largely concerned with criminal matters.
  • The Federal Abortion Amendment of 1868 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.covenantnews.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, on June 8, 2009, in Caperton v. .A.T. Massey Coal Co., the Court ruled that a justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia had to recuse himself from a case involving a major contributor to his election to that court.^ As stated in the Supreme Court case of Chisholm v.
  • Chap. 6 - The TRUTH About the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC usa-the-republic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court ruled back in 1884, in the case of Hurtado v.
  • The Kelo Decision and the Fourteenth Amendment by Laurence M. Vance 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last court of appeal is the Supreme Court.
  • The Constitution for Kids (8th-12th Grade) - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Equal Protection Clause

In the decades following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court overturned laws barring blacks from juries (Strauder v. West Virginia (1880)) or discriminating against Chinese-Americans in the regulation of laundry businesses (Yick Wo v. .Hopkins (1886)), as violations of the Equal Protection Clause.^ This was a violation of equal protection of the Fourteenth Amendment.

^ As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution .
  • To Kill A Mockingbird (1962 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, the right of every child with a disability to be educated was established.
  • Students for Disability Awareness 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC wwusda.org [Source type: Original source]

However, in Plessy v. .Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court held that the states could impose segregation so long as they provided similar facilities—the formation of the “separate but equal” doctrine.^ As stated in the Supreme Court case of Chisholm v.
  • Chap. 6 - The TRUTH About the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC usa-the-republic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As it was stated by the supreme court in Williamson v.
  • CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ‑- EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION ‑- 'ONE MAN ONE VOTE PRINCIPLE' ‑- FORTY PERCENT VOTER REQUIREMENT OF 17TH AMENDMENT TO STATE CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He could appeal an adverse decision to the state court of appeals and then to the state supreme court.
  • Freedom and the Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.fff.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] The Court went even further in restricting the Equal Protection Clause in Berea College v. .Kentucky (1908), holding that the states could force private actors to discriminate by prohibiting colleges from having both black and white students.^ The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, prohibited the federal or state governments from discriminating against potential voters because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • United States Government - The Role of the Citizen 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Ferguson in 1896, declaring the establishment by state law of separate public schools for black and white students inherently unequal.
  • Reclaim Civil Rights: Civil Rights FAQs 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reclaimcivilrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.midnightbeach.com [Source type: Original source]

By the early twentieth century, the Equal Protection Clause had been eclipsed to the point that Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. dismissed it as "the usual last resort of constitutional arguments."[23]
The Court held to the "separate but equal" doctrine for more than fifty years, despite numerous cases in which the Court itself had found that the segregated facilities provided by the states were almost never equal, until Brown v. .Board of Education (1954) reached the Court.^ Brown vs. Board of education [1954] .

^ Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954 3.

^ Board of Education, 1954 3.

.Brown met with a campaign of resistance from white Southerners, and for decades the federal courts attempted to enforce Brown's mandate against repeated attempts at circumvention.^ Courts have refused to grant us that status, and the lack of federal civil rights legislation concerning us will also make it easier for the Court to rule against us.
  • The 14th Amendment and the Defense of Marriage Act | The Bilerico Project 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Justice Black argued that the Bill of Rights should be incorporated "jot for jot," so that any right against the federal government would be enforceable to an equal degree against the states.
  • Does the Second Amendment Bind the States? 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the decade after the Pennhurst decision, this Court on several occasions held that federal statutes can create private remedies if the obligations are unambiguous.
  • Amicus brief in Gonzaga University v. Doe 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.rcfp.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] This resulted in the controversial desegregation busing decrees handed down by federal courts in various parts of the nation (see Milliken v. Bradley (1974)).[25] In Hernandez v. .Texas,[26] the Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment protects those beyond the racial classes of white or "Negro" and extends to other racial and ethnic groups, such as Mexican Americans in this case.^ The court held that the new corporation was not bound by the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The corporation was held to be subject to the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The corporation was held to be bound by the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

In the half century since Brown, the Court has extended the reach of the Equal Protection Clause to other historically disadvantaged groups, such as women and illegitimate children, although it has applied a somewhat less stringent standard than it has applied to governmental discrimination on the basis of race (United States v. Virginia (1996); Levy v. Louisiana (1968)).[27]
.The framers of the Fourteenth Amendment hoped to extend voting rights to blacks.^ Voting is not an automatic right of citizenship under the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourteenth Amendment extends to a particular case.
  • MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ‑- REAL PROPERTY ‑- LEASE TO PRIVATE CLUB ‑- DISCRIMINATION BY LESSEE ON BASIS OF RACE ‑- POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally in April of 1866, the Civil Rights Bill was passed over president Andrew Johnsons veto, and the Fourteenth amendment was passed in 1868.
  • 00.03.04: Democracy, Race, and Privacy: The Hypocritical Failures of the United States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This can be seen in Section 2 of the amendment, which allows the Congress to proportionally reduce a state's congressional and electoral representation for unconstitutionally disenfranchising voters.^ Amendment was not proposed to the States by a Congress thus .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 1 of that Amendment states: .
  • The Santa Clara Blues: Corporate Personhood versus Democracy by William Meyers 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.iiipublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, Congress would re-seat the state's congressional representation (Bond 5).
  • Amendment XIV@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, according to The Heritage Foundation, the amendment's framers did not expect the Equal Protection Clause to expand voting rights, which led to the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment.^ The Fifteenth Amendment protected the right of African American men to vote.
  • The Federal Abortion Amendment of 1868 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.covenantnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Framers [did think] of the Amendment as securing an individual right.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The Second Amendment and the Living Constitution: 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See Fifteenth Amendment; Grandfather clause; Voting.
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

[28] Despite this, the Supreme Court, since Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)[29] and Reynolds v. .Sims (1964),[30] has interpreted the Equal Protection Clause as requiring the states to apportion their congressional districts and state legislative seats on a "one man, one vote" basis.^ Sims (1964), the Court ruled that malapportioned state legislative districts also violated the Equal Protection Clause (See Reapportionment Cases ).
  • Fourteenth Amendment - Definition of Fourteenth Amendment | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Voting rights also receive some protection under the Equal Protection Clause.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Equal Protection Clause requires that the seats in both houses of a bicameral legislature must be apportioned on a population basis.
  • CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ‑- EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION ‑- 'ONE MAN ONE VOTE PRINCIPLE' ‑- FORTY PERCENT VOTER REQUIREMENT OF 17TH AMENDMENT TO STATE CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

[31] .The Court has also struck down redistricting plans in which race was a key consideration.^ Other cases struck down facially neutral laws which had a disproportionate effect on one race, as long as the court could find intentional discrimination, see Yick Wo v.
  • Why is the 14th amendment so important? | Answerbag.com 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.answerbag.com [Source type: General]

^ Indy1826 - December 11th, 2009 at 4:30 am What is funny is that everything you posted WAS brought up as contingency plan if the Supreme Court shot this down.
  • » The Right to Bear Arms: Does the Second Amendment Apply in Chicago? - Big Government 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC biggovernment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883, the Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875, because it was directed against private discrimination and not state action.
  • National Park Service: The U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: Original source]

In Shaw v. .Reno (1993), the Court prohibited a North Carolina plan aimed at creating majority-black districts to balance historic underrepresentation in the state's congressional delegations.^ Court had watered down North Carolina v.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the majority opinion, although North Carolina's redistricting plan was racially neutral on its face, the shape of the 12 th congressional district was so “bizarre” as to suggest that it constituted an effort to separate voters into different districts based on race.
  • Reclaim Civil Rights: Civil Rights FAQs 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reclaimcivilrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reno (1993), the Supreme Court holds that North Carolina’s 12th congressional district, which had recently elected the first African American from North Carolina to Congress since Reconstruction, is an unconstitutional racial gerrymander in violation of the 14th amendment.
  • Reclaim Civil Rights: Civil Rights FAQs 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC reclaimcivilrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[32] In League of United Latin American Citizens v. .Perry (2006), the Court ruled that Tom DeLay's Texas redistricting plan intentionally diluted the votes of Latinos and thus violated the Equal Protection Clause.^ Amendment 2 violates the Equal Protection Clause, and the judgment of the Supreme Court of Colorado is affirmed."
  • New York State Senate Defeats Same-Sex Marriage Bill | Politics | Christianity Today 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Voting rights also receive some protection under the Equal Protection Clause.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It ruled that poll taxes violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

Incorporation

In Barron v. .Baltimore (1833), the Supreme Court ruled that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states.^ This rule has been applied to state courts since the 1961 decision in Mapp v.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ II then it did the federal bill of rights.
  • Historical Analysis of the Meaning of the 14th Amendment's First Section 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC federalistblog.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Baltimore (1833) to require states and local governments to respect the guarantees of the Bill of Rights.
  • Fourteenth Amendment - Definition of Fourteenth Amendment | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.While many state constitutions are modeled after the United States Constitution and federal laws, those state constitutions did not necessarily include provisions comparable to the Bill of Rights.^ There are not that many federal laws on guns."
  • Patricia Stoneking's Current Events 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.usrnsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Educational law and legislation-- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ II then it did the federal bill of rights.
  • Historical Analysis of the Meaning of the 14th Amendment's First Section 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC federalistblog.us [Source type: Original source]

.According to some commentators, the framers and early supporters of the Fourteenth Amendment believed that it would ensure that the states would be required to recognize the individual rights the federal government was already required to respect in the Bill of Rights and in other constitutional provisions; all of these rights were likely understood as falling within the "privileges or immunities" safeguarded by the amendment.^ Does the Fourteenth Amendment incorporate the Bill of Rights?
  • The Kelo Decision and the Fourteenth Amendment by Laurence M. Vance 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal Government and of federal employees by the state governments.
  • Back to the Constitution | Robert H. Jackson Center 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.roberthjackson.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever would be a violation of the original bill of rights (Amendments I to VIII) if done by the federal government is now equally unlawful by force of the Fourteenth Amendment if done by a state.
  • United States Supreme Court Reports - PALKO v. CONNECTICUT, 302 U.S. 319 (1937) 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.loislaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .However, in the Slaughter-House Cases (1873), the Supreme Court ruled that the amendment's Privileges or Immunities Clause was limited to "privileges or immunities" granted to citizens by the federal government by virtue of national citizenship.^ Ratified in 1795, it reverses a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that limited sovereign immunity to the federal government.
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was held by the Supreme Court to mean, as the language imports, the privileges and immunities of National citizenship and not to include those belonging to the citizen of the State.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles XI - XXVII 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Slaughter- House Cases, 16 Wall.
  • US V.Cruikshank,92 US542(1875)92 Us542 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Court further held in the Civil Rights Cases (1883) that the amendment was limited to "state action" and, therefore, did not authorize the Congress to outlaw racial discrimination on the part of private individuals or organizations.^ Framers [did think] of the Amendment as securing an individual right.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The Second Amendment and the Living Constitution: 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Civil rights -- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other cases presuppose an individual right.
  • The Right to Keep and Bear Arms under the Second and Fourteenth Amendments: The Framers' Intent and Supreme Court Jurisprudence 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Neither of these decisions has been overturned and have been specifically reaffirmed several times.^ At the time of these decisions the legislative framework was such that it made a decision as to refugee status appear to be a clear administrative decision.
  • Natural Justice and Non-Citizens: A Matter of Integrity? - [2002] MULR 19; (2002) 26 Melbourne University Law Review 355 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC austlii.law.uts.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither the Bill of Rights nor the specific practices of States at the time of the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment marks the outer limits of the substantive sphere of liberty which the Fourteenth Amendment protects.
  • Testimony of Eugene Volokh on the Second Amendment, SenateSubcommittee on the Constitution, Sept. 23, 1998. 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.law.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.However, by the latter half of the twentieth century, nearly all of the rights in the Bill of Rights had been applied to the states, under what is known as the incorporation doctrine.^ Main article: Incorporation (Bill of Rights) .

^ "If the 14th incorporates fundamental rights in the Bill of Rights..."
  • Doherty on Slaughterhouse, Libertarian Centralism, and the Fourteenth Amendment - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This doctrine makes some, but not all of the Bill of Rights applicable to state and local governments.
  • Islam and The Left Make Common Cause…Look Back To 1922 « Centurean2’s Weblog 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The Supreme Court has held that the amendment's Due Process Clause incorporates all of the substantive protections of the First, Fourth and Sixth Amendments, the Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause of the Eighth Amendment and the Fifth Amendment (except for its Grand Jury Clause).^ This was the first case in which the Supreme Court had the opportunity to interpret the Second Amendment.

^ Amendment 2 violates the Equal Protection Clause, and the judgment of the Supreme Court of Colorado is affirmed."
  • New York State Senate Defeats Same-Sex Marriage Bill | Politics | Christianity Today 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Eighth Amendment is mentioned when he refers to the "cruel and unusual punishments" clause; and the Fifth concerning the "due process of law" clause.
  • Northwest Religious Liberty Association : The Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nrla.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .The Seventh Amendment has not been held to be applicable to the states.^ Stewart held that the Fifth Amendment was applicable to the states.
  • Northwest Religious Liberty Association : The Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nrla.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Additionally, in the 20th century the Supreme Court has held that the Due Process clause of the 1868 Fourteenth Amendment "incorporates" the limitations of the First Amendment to restrict also the states.

^ Since 1925 the Court has systematically and selectively incorporated the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment and made them applicable to the States.
  • Northwest Religious Liberty Association : The Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nrla.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] In McDonald v. .Chicago, the Supreme Court will decide whether the Second Amendment is to be incorporated.^ This was the first case in which the Supreme Court had the opportunity to interpret the Second Amendment.

^ As she and her cohorts claimed, the Supreme Court has not yet incorporated the states under the Second Amendment.
  • Patricia Stoneking's Current Events 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.usrnsf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has been the standard position on Second Amendment incorporation in the federal courts.
  • Patricia Stoneking's Current Events 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.usrnsf.com [Source type: Original source]

[37][38] While the Third Amendment has not been applied to the states by the Supreme Court, the Second Circuit ruled that it did apply to the states within that circuit's jurisdiction in Engblom v. Carey.[39]

Apportionment of Representatives

.Section 2 establishes rules for the apportioning of Representatives in the Congress to states, essentially counting all residents for apportionment and reducing apportionment if a state wrongfully denies a person's right to vote.^ Section 1 [Right of certain citizens to vote established.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0749825.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The amendment also forbids the states to deny equal rights to any person.
  • Constitution of the United States | Article | World Book Student 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: Original source]

^ The amendment stated that the right to vote shall not be denied because of a person's sex.
  • Susan B. Anthony, 1820-1906:  She Led the Fight to Gain Equal Rights for Women, Including the Right to Vote 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

.This section overrides the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which counted only three-fifths of each state's slave population for purposes of allotting seats in the House of Representatives and the Electoral College.^ Each state is given a number of representatives based on its population - in that population, slaves, called "other persons," are counted as three-fifths of a whole person.
  • Constitutional Topic: Slavery - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Article I, Section 7 of the United States Constitution provides that not only every bill have been passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate of the United States Congress, but that: .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The commenters stated that clause (ii) conflicts with provisions in the Texas Constitution.

.However, the provision calling for proportional decreases in representation in the House of Representatives for states that denied men 21 and older the right to vote was never enforced, despite the fact that Southern states prevented many blacks from voting before the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965.[40] Some have argued that Section 2 was implicitly repealed by the Fifteenth Amendment,[41] but it should be noted that the Supreme Court has acknowledged the provisions of Section 2 in recent times.^ The Fifteenth Amendment protected the right of African American men to vote.
  • The Federal Abortion Amendment of 1868 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.covenantnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Voting Rights Act of 1965 .

^ As stated in the Supreme Court case of Chisholm v.
  • Chap. 6 - The TRUTH About the 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC usa-the-republic.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, in Richardson v. .Ramirez, 418 U.S. 24 (1974) the Court cited Section 2 as justification for the states disenfranchising felons.^ Moreover, the Supreme Court recently cited Miller in support of its conclusion that Congress may restrict firearm possession by felons because such a law does not impair a state's right to preserve its militia.
  • LIMITS ON THE POWER OF STATESTO REGULATE FIREARMS 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC w3.uchastings.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In granting the joint petition, the court first cites the section of the adoption statute that allows a single adult to adopt.
  • Article: LEGAL PROTECTION FOR ALL THE CHILDREN: DUTCH-AMERICANCOMPARISON OF LESBIAN AND GAY PARENT ADOPTIONS, vol. 3.1 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.ejcl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, the Court suggested that the limits imposed on states by Article I, Section 10 were "generally" to protect citizens of other states, 32 U.S. (7 Pet.
  • THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC www.saf.org [Source type: Original source]

In his dissent, Justice Marshall explained the history of the Section 2 in relation to the Post-Civil War Reconstruction era:
.
The historical purpose for section 2 itself is, however, relatively clear and, in my view, dispositive of this case.^ In my view, this case raises no other issue.
  • AMERICAN MOTORISTS INS. CO. V. STARNES, 425 U. S. 637 (1976) -- US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the distinction between the law and the facts in a case is not always clear."
  • AMENDMENTS To The U.S. Constitution FOR DUMMIES: Presidential Succession, Women's Suffrage, Equal Protection, Due Process, Just Compensation, Income Tax, Abolition Of Slavery. E-Z-READ! - RI10 [tabacco.blog-city.com] 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC tabacco.blog-city.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm far from certain of my own argument, but I make it nonetheless, because it seems to me that the teaching regarding taking innocent life is not so clear in this case.
  • A Rad idea about 14th Amendment Jurisprudence (What's Wrong with the World) 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.whatswrongwiththeworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Radical Republicans who controlled the 39th Congress were concerned that the additional congressional representation of the Southern States which would result from the abolition of slavery might weaken their own political dominance.^ Then, Congress would re-seat the state's congressional representation (Bond 5).
  • Amendment XIV@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stanton "It is true, the bill, in setting forth the political rights of the State, and of its people to be protected, among other matters, avers, that Georgia owns certain real estate and buildings therein, and that putting the acts of Congress ( Reconstruction Acts ) into execution, and destroying the State, would deprive it of the possession and enjoyment of its property.

^ If the former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union , ex-slaves would swell those states' congressional power, but without congressional protection, the freedmen would never be allowed to vote, and the Southern white elite would have disproportionate influence in the federal government.
  • 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.There were two alternatives available—either to limit southern representation, which was unacceptable on a long-term basis, or to insure that southern Negroes, sympathetic to the Republican cause, would be enfranchised; but an explicit grant of suffrage to Negroes was thought politically unpalatable at the time.^ There are two schools of thought on this topic.
  • Constitutional Topic: Slavery - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there any circumstance where a two-term president could be president again?
  • The U.S. Constitution FAQ - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While Republicans deplored the armed condition of white Southerners and the unarmed state of black Southerners, Democrats argued that the South's whites were disarmed and endangered by armed carpetbaggers and negro militia.
  • The Fourteenth Amendment and the Right To Keep and Bear Arms: The Intent of the Framers 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.guncite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment was the resultant compromise.^ (Note: Changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Constitution Day Materials, US Constitution, Pocket Constitution Book, Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitutionfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your query fourteenth and amendment returned 136 results.
  • Search the Opinions of the US Supreme Court 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC supct.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Search the Opinions of the US Supreme Court 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC cfr.law.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And while the Fourteenth Amendment did not achieve immediate results, section one put into words the central questions of 1) whether slaves were persons, and 2) who were citizens of the United States.
  • Northwest Religious Liberty Association : The Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nrla.com [Source type: Original source]

.It put Southern States to a choice—enfranchise Negro voters or lose congressional representation.^ With respect to the allocation of legislative representation, all voters, as citizens of a State, stand in the same relation regardless of where they live .
  • CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ‑- EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE OF FEDERAL CONSTITUTION ‑- 'ONE MAN ONE VOTE PRINCIPLE' ‑- FORTY PERCENT VOTER REQUIREMENT OF 17TH AMENDMENT TO STATE CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.atg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Even with the fictional consent of the Southern states, the republicans needed New Jersey and Ohio to put the amendment over the top.
  • The Squalid 14th Amendment 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because a State law requiring voters to read excludes a greater number of Negroes than others, it does not therefore deny equal protection.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Amendment Articles XI - XXVII 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

[...] Section 2 provides a special remedy—reduced representation—to cure a particular form of electoral abuse—the disenfranchisement of Negroes.[42]

Participants in rebellion

.Section 3 prevents the election or appointment to any federal or State office of any person who had held any of certain offices and then engaged in insurrection, rebellion or treason.^ State in which the election is held."
  • Lisa Rein's Report On Election 2004's Ohio Recount and Voting Fraud Situation 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC video.lisarein.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.
  • 14th Amendment  - H7161 - 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.midnightbeach.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Fourteenth Amendment 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But neither the United States nor any States shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
  • CGSA - Constitution of the United States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.theroadtoemmaus.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, a two-thirds vote by each House of the Congress can override this limitation.^ But congress may by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution authorized two thirds of both houses of Congress to propose .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two thirds of the whole Congress .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1975, Robert E. Lee's citizenship was restored by a joint congressional resolution, retroactive to June 13, 1865.[43] In 1978, two-thirds of both Houses of Congress voted to posthumously remove the service ban from Jefferson Davis.^ Hence this amendment has not been proposed by "two thirds of both Houses" of a .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But congress may by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution authorized two thirds of both houses of Congress to propose .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]

Validity of public debt

.Section 4 confirmed the legitimacy of all United States public debt legislated by the Congress.^ Educational law and legislation-- United States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Constitution of the United States, or with any act of Congress.
  • MUGLER V. KANSAS, 123 U. S. 623 (1887) -- US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC supreme.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 1 – Each State to Honor all others .
  • The Liberty Papers » The U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.thelibertypapers.org [Source type: Original source]

.It also confirmed that neither the United States nor any state would pay for the loss of slaves or debts that had been incurred by the Confederacy.^ But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States , or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void .
  • Amendment XIV@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or re¬bellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves, and their descendants, from possessing Constitutional rights and was used in the mid-20th century to dismantle racial segregation in the United States, as in Brown v.
  • The 14th Amendment and the Defense of Marriage Act | The Bilerico Project 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.bilerico.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, several English and French banks had lent money to the South during the war.^ By the time of the French and Indian War (1754-1763), several thousand settlers live in the eastern portion of western Virginia.
  • A West Virginia Chronology 25 September 2009 13:56 UTC recollectionbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the income tax several times before and during the Civil War.
  • Amendment #28 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] In Perry v. United States (1935), the Supreme Court ruled that voiding a United States government bond "went beyond the congressional power" on account of Section 4.[46]

Power of enforcement

Section 5, the last section, was construed broadly by the Supreme Court in Katzenbach v. Morgan (1966).[47] However, the Court, in City of Boerne v. Flores (1997), said:
.
Any suggestion that Congress has a substantive, non-remedial power under the Fourteenth Amendment is not supported by our case law.^ Fourteenth Amendment as giving Congress the power to define the substantive scope of the Amendment.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourth Amendment and remediable under 1983).
  • Amicus brief in Gonzaga University v. Doe 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.rcfp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We emphasize that Congress' power under Sec.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.gpoaccess.gov [Source type: Original source]

[48]

Proposal and ratification

The United States Congress proposed the Fourteenth Amendment on June 13, 1866, and on July 9, 1868, three-fourths of the states (28 of 37) had ratified the amendment:[49]
  1. Connecticut (June 25, 1866)
  2. New Hampshire (July 6, 1866)
  3. Tennessee (July 19, 1866)
  4. New Jersey (September 11, 1866)*
  5. Oregon (September 19, 1866)
  6. Vermont (October 30, 1866)
  7. Ohio (January 4, 1867)*
  8. New York (January 10, 1867)
  9. Kansas (January 11, 1867)
  10. Illinois (January 15, 1867)
  11. West Virginia (January 16, 1867)
  12. Michigan (January 16, 1867)
  13. Minnesota (January 16, 1867)
  14. Maine (January 19, 1867)
  15. Nevada (January 22, 1867)
  16. Indiana (January 23, 1867)
  17. Missouri (January 25, 1867)
  18. Rhode Island (February 7, 1867)
  19. Wisconsin (February 7, 1867)
  20. Pennsylvania (February 12, 1867)
  21. Massachusetts (March 20, 1867)
  22. Nebraska (June 15, 1867)
  23. Iowa (March 16, 1868)
  24. Arkansas (April 6, 1868)
  25. Florida (June 9, 1868)
  26. North Carolina (July 4, 1868, after having rejected it on December 14, 1866)
  27. Louisiana (July 9, 1868, after having rejected it on February 6, 1867)
  28. South Carolina (July 9, 1868, after having rejected it on December 20, 1866)
.*Ohio passed a resolution that purported to withdraw its ratification on January 15, 1868. The New Jersey legislature also tried to rescind its ratification on February 20, 1868. The New Jersey governor had vetoed his state's withdrawal on March 5, and the legislature overrode the veto on March 24. Accordingly, on July 20, 1868, Secretary of State William H. Seward certified that the amendment had become part of the Constitution if the rescissions were ineffective.^ The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified July 9, 1868.
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This interpretation of these Amendments remained until 1868, when the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that: .
  • United States Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.4lawschool.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - United States Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutional amendments -- united States.
  • ASA Library Resources on the U.S. Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.asa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Congress responded on the following day, declaring that the amendment was part of the Constitution and ordering Seward to promulgate the amendment.^ Congress, to be a part of the Constitution of the .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Had these amendments been submitted to a constitutional Congress, .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 28, 1868, the 14th amendment was declared, in a certificate of the Secretary of State, ratified by the necessary 28 of the 37 States, and became part of the supreme law of the land.
  • Big Dogs House » Blog Archive » Obama Shows His Ignorance of the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.onebigdog.net [Source type: Original source]

Meanwhile, two additional states had ratified the amendment:
  1. Alabama (July 13, 1868, the date the ratification was "approved" by the governor)
  2. Georgia (July 21, 1868, after having rejected it on November 9, 1866)
.Thus, on July 28, Seward was able to certify unconditionally that the amendment was part of the Constitution without having to endorse the Congress's assertion that the withdrawals were ineffective.^ Congress, to be a part of the Constitution of the .
  • http://www.ncrepublic.org/judgeperez.html 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.ncrepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Topic: Constitutional Issues Amendment #28 .
  • Amendment #28 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An amendment having that purpose could be submitted by Congress as provided by the Constitution.
  • The Santa Clara Blues: Corporate Personhood versus Democracy by William Meyers 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.iiipublishing.com [Source type: Original source]

There were additional ratifications and rescissions; by 2003, the amendment had been ratified by all of the 37 states that were in the Union in 1868:[50]
  1. Virginia (October 8, 1869, after having rejected it on January 9, 1867)
  2. Mississippi (January 17, 1870)
  3. Texas (February 18, 1870, after having rejected it on October 27, 1866)
  4. Delaware (February 12, 1901, after having rejected it on February 7, 1867)
  5. Maryland (1959)
  6. California (1959)
  7. Oregon (1973, after withdrawing it on October 15, 1868)
  8. Kentucky (1976, after having rejected it on January 8, 1867)
  9. New Jersey (2003, after having rescinded on February 20, 1868)
  10. Ohio (2003, after having rescinded on January 15, 1868)

Supreme Court cases

Citizenship

Corporate personhood

Privileges or immunities

Procedural due process/Incorporation

Substantive due process

Equal protection

Apportionment of Representatives

Power of Enforcement

Notes

  1. ^ Tsesis, Alexander, The Inalienable Core of Citizenship: From Dred Scott to the Rehnquist Court. Arizona State Law Journal, Vol. 39, 2008
  2. ^ Duhaime, Lloyd. "Legal Definition of Black Code". duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/LegalDictionary/B/BlackCode.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  3. ^ Foner, Eric. Reconstruction. pp. 199–200. 
  4. ^ Finkelman, Paul, John Bingham and the Background to the Fourteenth Amendment. Akron Law Review, Vol. 36, No. 671, 2003
  5. ^ Messner, Emily. “Born in the U.S.A. (Part I)”, The Debate, washingtonpost.com (2006-03-30).
  6. ^ a b c Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 39th Congress, pt. 4, p. 2890.
  7. ^ Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 39th Congress, pt. 4, p. 2895.
  8. ^ Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 39th Congress, pt. 4, p. 2893. Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lyman Trumbull, participating in the debate, stated the following: "What do we [the committee reporting the clause] mean by 'subject to the jurisdiction of the United States'? Not owing allegiance to anybody else. That is what it means."
    Reverdy Johnson said in the same debate: "If there are to be citizens of the United States entitled everywhere to the character of citizens of the United States, there should be some certain definition of what citizenship is, what has created the character of citizen as between himself and the United States, and the amendment says citizenship may depend upon birth, and I know of no better way to give rise to citizenship than the fact of birth within the territory of the United States, born of parents who at the time were subject to the authority of the United States."
  9. ^ "[...] During that debate, Senator Edgar Cowan of Pennsylvania objected to the citizenship clause of the 14th Amendment. 'Is the child of the Chinese immigrant in California a citizen?' he asked on the Senate floor. Senator John Conness of California said the answer should be 'yes.' 'The children of all parentage whatever, born in California, should be regarded and treated as citizens of the United States, entitled to equal civil rights with other citizens,' Mr. Conness said.", Robert Pear (1996-08-07). "Citizenship Proposal Faces Obstacle in the Constitution". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9503E7DE143EF934A3575BC0A960958260. 
  10. ^ Klusmeyer, Douglas B.; Alexander, Thomas (2000). From Migrants to Citizens: Membership in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment. pp. 124. ISBN 0870031597. 
  11. ^ Ancheta, Angelo N. (1998). Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 103. ISBN 0813524644. 
  12. ^ The Heritage Foundation (2005). The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation. pp. 385–386. ISBN 159698001X. 
  13. ^ Erler, Edward J.; West, Thomas G.; Marini, John A. (2007). The Founders on Citizenship and Immigration: Principles and Challenges in America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67. ISBN 074255855X. 
  14. ^ In INS v. Rios-Pineda the Supreme Court referred to a child born to deportable aliens as "a citizen of this country"
  15. ^ In Plyler v. Doe the court stated in dicta that illegal immigrants are "within the jurisdiction" of the states in which they reside and added in a footnote that "no plausible distinction with respect to Fourteenth Amendment 'jurisdiction' can be drawn between resident aliens whose entry into the United States was lawful, and resident aliens whose entry was unlawful."
  16. ^ U.S. Department of State (02/01/2008). "Advice about Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality". http://travel.state.gov/law/citizenship/citizenship_778.html. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  17. ^ For example, see Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (1958), overruled by Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967)
  18. ^ a b "Due Process of Law - Substantive Due Process". West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Thomson Gale. 1998. http://law.jrank.org/pages/6312/Due-Process-Law-Substantive-Due-Process.html. 
  19. ^ White, Bradford (2008). Procedural Due Process in Plain English. National Trust for Historic Preservation. ISBN 0891335730. 
  20. ^ See also Mathews v. Eldridge (1976).
  21. ^ Jess Bravin and Kris Maher (June 8, 2009). "Justices Set New Standard for Recusals". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124447000965394255.html. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  22. ^ Abrams, Eve (2009-02-12). "Plessy/Ferguson plaque dedicated". WWNO (University New Orleans Public Radio). http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wwno/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1468970. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  23. ^ Last paragraph in Opinion of the Court in Buck v. Bell (1927)
  24. ^ Patterson, James (2002). Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy (Pivotal Moments in American History). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195156323. 
  25. ^ "Forced Busing and White Flight". Time. September 25, 1978. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,912178,00.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  26. ^ 347 U.S. 475 (1954)
  27. ^ Gerstmann, Evan (1999). The Constitutional Underclass: Gays, Lesbians, and the Failure of Class-Based Equal Protection. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226288609. 
  28. ^ Meese, III, Edwin; Heritage Foundation (2005). The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing. pp. 400. ISBN 159698001X. http://books.google.com/books?id=-_8N3UeXeesC&pg=PA400&lpg=PA400&dq=fourteenth+amendment+framers+voting+rights&source=web&ots=kYRrYD2LNK&sig=S2j-E1vlY4mA7OY8hNXh39HooCE. 
  29. ^ Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964).
  30. ^ Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964).
  31. ^ Epstein, Lee; Walker, Thomas G. (2007). Constitutional Law for a Changing America: Rights, Liberties, and Justice (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. p. 775. "Wesberry and Reynolds made it clear that the Constitution demanded population-based representational units for the U.S. House of Representatives and both houses of state legislatures...." 
  32. ^ Aleinikoff, T. Alexander; Samuel Issacharoff (1993). "Race and Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines after Shaw v. Reno". Michigan Law Review 92 (3): 588. doi:10.2307/1289796. 
  33. ^ Amar, Akhil Reed (1992). "The Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment". Yale Law Journal 101 (6): 1193–1284. doi:10.2307/796923. http://www.saf.org/LawReviews/Amar1.html. 
  34. ^ e.g., United States v. Morrison (2000)
  35. ^ "Duncan v. Louisiana (Mr. Justice Black, joined by Mr. Justice Douglas, concurring)". Cornell Law School - Legal Information Institute. May 20, 1968. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0391_0145_ZC.html. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  36. ^ a b Levy, Leonard (1970). Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights: The Incorporation Theory (American Constitutional and Legal History Series). Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306700298. 
  37. ^ Denniston, Lyle (November 16, 2009). "History lesson on 2nd Amendment's reach". SCOTUSblog. http://www.scotusblog.com/wp/history-lesson-on-2nd-amendments-reach. Retrieved November 20, 2009. 
  38. ^ Miller, Erin (March 2, 2010). "Podcasts: McDonald v. City of Chicago". SCOTUSblog. http://www.scotusblog.com/2010/03/podcasts-mcdonald-v-city-of-chicago/. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  39. ^ 677 F.2d 957 (1982)
  40. ^ For more on Section 2 go to Findlaw.com
  41. ^ Chin, Gabriel J. (2004). "Reconstruction, Felon Disenfranchisement, and the Right to Vote: Did the Fifteenth Amendment Repeal Section 2 of the Fourteenth?". Georgetown Law Journal 92: 259. doi:10.139/ssrn.10.139/ssrn.433580 (inactive 2009-04-04). 
  42. ^ Richardson v. Ramirez, 418 U.S. 24, 74 (1974)
  43. ^ "Pieces of History: General Robert E. Lee's Parole and Citizenship". Prologue Magazine (The National Archives) 37 (1). 2005. http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/spring/piece-lee.html. 
  44. ^ Goodman, Bonnie K. (2006). "History Buzz: October 16, 2006: This Week in History". History News Network. http://hnn.us/blogs/archives/52/2006/10/. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  45. ^ For more on Section 4 go to Findlaw.com
  46. ^ 294 U.S. 330 at 354
  47. ^ FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment, p. 40
  48. ^ City of Boerne v. Flores, Opinion of the Court, Part III-A-3
  49. ^ Mount, Steve (January 2007). "Ratification of Constitutional Amendments". http://www.usconstitution.net/constamrat.html. Retrieved February 24, 2007. 
  50. ^ Chin, Gabriel J.; Abraham, Anjali (2008). "Beyond the Supermajority: Post-Adoption Ratification of the Equality Amendments". Arizona Law Review 50: 25. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1076805. 

External links

.
  • "Amendments to the Constitution of the United States" (PDF).^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
    • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC caselaw.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]
    • FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]
    • National Constitution Center: Text of the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.constitutioncenter.org [Source type: Original source]
    • How Many Amendments Are There to the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]
    • CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.endtimesreport.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Dante's Purgatorio -- Constitution of the United States 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.purgatorio.com [Source type: Original source]
    • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC people.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Act further provided that each of the 10 States was required to ratify the proposed Fourteenth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment must become a part of the Constitution of the United States before the military occupancy would cease and the States be allowed to have seats in Congress."

    ^ On February 34 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
    • How Many Amendments Are There to the Constitution 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    GPO Access. .http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/pdf/con001.pdf.^ HAWAII : http://www.hawaii.gov/dags/archives The Hawaii State Archives has over 10,000 cubic feet of material within its collections.
    • H-Law | Internet Links 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.h-net.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • H-Law Archive of websites import 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Anti-Defamation League Website http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/locators/cgp/index.html Catalog of U.S. Government publications.
    • H-Law | Internet Links 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC www.h-net.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MISSOURI: http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/ The Missouri State Archives is the official repository for state records of permanent and historical value.
    • H-Law Archive of websites import 24 September 2009 15:56 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved September 11, 2005
    .  (PDF, providing text of amendment and dates of ratification)
  • CRS Annotated Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment
  • Fourteenth Amendment and related resources at the Library of Congress
  • National Archives: Fourteenth Amendment

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which are similar to those in the above article.








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