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History of Vietnam Map of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC
Thục Dynasty 257–207 BC
First Chinese domination 207 BC – 39 AD
Triệu Dynasty 207–111 BC
Trưng Sisters 40–43
Second Chinese domination 43–544
Lady Triệu's Rebellion 248
Early Lý Dynasty 544–602
Triệu Việt Vương
Third Chinese domination 602–905
• Mai Hắc Đế 722
Phùng Hưng 791–798
Autonomy 905–938
Khúc Family 906–930
Dương Đình Nghệ 931–937
• Kiều Công Tiễn 937–938
Ngô Dynasty 939–967
The 12 Lords Rebellion 966–968
Đinh Dynasty 968–980
Early Lê Dynasty 980–1009
Lý Dynasty 1009–1225
Trần Dynasty 1225–1400
Hồ Dynasty 1400–1407
Fourth Chinese domination 1407–1427
Later Trần Dynasty 1407–1413
• Lam Sơn Rebellion 1418–1427
Later Lê Dynasty 1428–1788
• Early Lê 1428–1788
• Restored Lê 1533–1788
Mạc Dynasty 1527–1592
Southern and
Northern Dynasties
1533–1592
Trịnh-Nguyễn War 1627–1673
Tây Sơn Dynasty 1778–1802
Nguyễn Dynasty 1802–1945
Western imperialism 1887–1945
Empire of Vietnam 1945
Indochina Wars 1945–1975
Partition of Vietnam 1954
Democratic Republic
 of Vietnam
1945–1976
State of Vietnam 1949–1955
Republic of Vietnam 1955–1975
Provisional Revolutionary
 Government
1975–1976
Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1976
Related topics
Champa Dynasties 192–1471
List of Vietnamese monarchs
Economic history of Vietnam
Prehistoric cultures of Vietnam

The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427, upon which, the country was ruled by the Ming Dynasty administration.

Contents

Administration and government

Upon completing total control of Hồ Dynasty , the Chinese Ming Dynasty established a government inside the country. First, the Ming government had stated that it was "Hưng Trần and Diệt Hồ" regime (meaning to re-establish the Trần and to remove the Hồ) but soon Việtnam's people realized it was a cover-up and farce. Under the Ming Dynasty view at that time, Vietnam was considered to be a separate country from China, called Nanyue.

Sinicizing the country

Culturally, the Chinese imported many Chinese books and literature (such as the I Ching). Meanwhile, all classical Vietnamese books and materials relating to Vietnam were suppressed. Various ancient sites such as pagoda Bao Minh were looted and destroyed. The Ming Dynasty wanted to spread more of its Chinese culture in the area. Customarily, all Việt people were made to wear Chinese-style clothing.

Taxation and economy

The Chinese had greatly encouraged the development and the use of gold and silver mines. But right after the silver and gold were extracted they impounded them and sent a fraction of these minerals to Beijing. They also imposed salt taxes, but a slightly heavier tax against those who produced salt in Annam.

Military services, and control

To keep the people under control in Vietnam, the Ming government issued, and utilized the "So Ho" system, (literally meaning Family Book) at the lowest village community level. Whenever there was a change in a family, a change in the book was recorded and approved. Based on this information, they created a systematic military service enrollment process for all young men deemed fit enough to serve in the future for the Chinese Imperial Army. This process was no different than what other governments did to subjugated areas, nonetheless, this had created a negative feeling against the Chinese government. In addition, many talented Vietnamese individuals with varying trades and backgrounds who could make significant contributions were allowed to become government officials in China where they served in the chinese imperial government.

The revolt of the later Trần (1407-1413)

With Ming dynasty growing weak with internal rebellions and mismanagement during late Ming dynasty, control of Annam also grew weakened, there was several revolt among the Việt people against the Chinese authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming Dynasty army. Among the people who led the rebellion were, Trần Ngỗi, a young son of the emperor Trần Nghệ Tông (1370-1372) and Trần Quý Khoáng, a nephew. These revolts were short-lived and poorly planned but they helped lay some of the groundwork for Lê Lợi's war for independence.

References

  • Viet Nam Su Luoc by Tran Trong Kim
  • Viet Su Toan Thu of Pham Van Son

See also

Preceded by
Hồ Dynasty
Ruler of Vietnam
1407–1427
Succeeded by
Later Lê Dynasty







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