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François-Xavier Garneau

François-Xavier Garneau
Born June 15, 1809(1809-06-15)
Quebec, Lower Canada
Died February 3, 1866
Quebec, Quebec
Occupation notary, civil servant, historian, poet

François-Xavier Garneau (June 15, 1809 – February 2 or February 3, 1866)[1] was a nineteenth century French Canadian notary, poet, civil servant and liberal who wrote a three-volume history of the French Canadian nation entitled Histoire du Canada between 1845 and 1848.

Born in Quebec City, Garneau argued that Conquest was a tragedy, the consequence of which was a perpetual struggle against the forces of English Canada for the French Canadian nation; this struggle would continue into the future as long as French Canadians were under the oppressive reign of the British. The book was originally written as a response to the Durham report, which claimed that French Canadian culture was stagnant and that it would be best served through Anglophone assimilation.

Garneau died on February 2 or February 3, 1866.



  • Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours, 1845-52, 1st ed. (BAnQ: vol. 1. 2, 3, 4), 1852, 2d ed., 1859, 3rd ed., 1882, 4th ed.(IA: vol. 1, 2, 3, 4)
  • Voyage en Angleterre et en France, dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, 1855. (BAnQ: online)
  • Abrégé de l'histoire du Canada, depuis sa découverte jusqu'à 1840 : à l'usage des maisons d'éducation, 1858 (IA: online)
  • History of Canada: From the Time of its Discovery Till the Union Year, 1860 (IA: vol. 1, 2, 3)
  • Additions à l'histoire du Canada, 1864 (BAnQ: online)


  1. ^ Savard, Pierre and Paul Wyczienski. "Garneau, François-Xavier", in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto and Université Laval, 2000, retrieved December 22, 2008



In English

In French

  • Brunet, Berthelot. "Dossier François-Xavier Garneau", in L'Encyclopédie de l'Agora, updated May 25, 2006
  • Gallichan, Gilles, Kenneth Landry and Denis Saint-Jacques (1998). François-Xavier Garneau, une figure nationale, Québec: Éditions Nota bene, 39 p. (ISBN 2-921053-96-9)
  • Bergeron, Gérard (1994). Lire François-Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866 : historien national, Québec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture, 244 p.
  • Garneau, François-Xavier (1968). Voyage en Angleterre et en France dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, Ottawa, Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 379 p. Collection «Présence». (critical edition Paul Wyczynski)
  • Wyczynski, Paul (1966). François-Xavier Garneau : aspects littéraires de son oeuvre, Ottawa : Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 207 p.
  • Lanctot, Gustave (1946). Garneau, historien national, Montréal: Fides, 1946, 205 p.
  • Robitaille, Georges (1966). Études sur Garneau : critique historique, Montréal: Librairie d'Action canadienne-française ltée, 1929, 253 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1926). F.-X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1924). De Gaspé et Garneau, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
  • Lanctot, Gustave (1923). François Xavier Garneau, Toronto: Ryerson, 1923, 197 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1912). F.X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 139 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). Biographie de F.X. Garneau, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs, 115 p.
  • Chauveau, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier (1883). François-Xavier Garneau : sa vie et ses oeuvres, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs (online)
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). F.X. Garneau, Québec: J.N. Duquet, éditeur, 135 p. (online)


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