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French Republic
République française  (French)
Flag National Emblem (unofficial)
MottoLiberté, Égalité, Fraternité
(Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood)
AnthemLa Marseillaise
Location of  Metropolitan France  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Territory of the French Republic in the world
(excl. Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended)

Capital
(and largest city)
Paris
48°51.4′N 2°21.05′E / 48.8567°N 2.35083°E / 48.8567; 2.35083
Official language(s) French
Recognised regional languages
Demonym French
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP)
 -  Prime Minister François Fillon (UMP)
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper House Senate
 -  Lower House National Assembly
Formation
 -  French State 10 August 843 (Treaty of Verdun
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1958 (5th Republic
EU accession 25 March 1957
Area
 -  Total[2] 674,843 km2 (43rd)
260,558 sq mi 
 -  Metropolitan France
  IGN[3] 551,695 km2 (47th)
213,010 sq mi
  Cadastre[4] 543,965 km2 (47th)
210,026  sq mi
Population
  (1 January 2010 estimate)
 -  Total[2] 65,447,374[6] (20th)
 -  Metropolitan France 62,793,432[5] (22nd)
 -  Density[7] 115/km2 (89th)
299/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $2.112 trillion[8] (7th)
 -  Per capita $33,744[8] (23rd)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $2.635 trillion[8] (5th)
 -  Per capita $42,091[8] (16th)
Gini (2002) 26.7 
HDI (2007) 0.961[9] (very high) (8th)
Currency Euro,[10] CFP Franc[11]
  (EUR,    XPF)
Time zone CET[7] (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST[7] (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .fr[12]
Calling code 331
1 The overseas regions and collectivities form part of the French telephone numbering plan, but have their own country calling codes: Guadeloupe +590; Martinique +596; French Guiana +594, Réunion and Mayotte +262; Saint Pierre et Miquelon +508. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: New Caledonia +687, French Polynesia +689; Wallis and Futuna +681
2 Spoken mainly in overseas territories
Outline of France
(links hundreds of topic articles about France)
.France (pronounced /ˈfræns/ ( listen) franss or /ˈfrɑːns/ frahns; About this sound French pronunciation : [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced: [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a member state of the European Union located in its western region, with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents.^ Other prominent committee members included former Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger, former CIA Director Robert Gates and former Defense Secretary William Perry.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as L’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. .It is bordered (clockwise from the north) by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Spain and Andorra.^ It is the official language of several countries including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Belgium.

^ This usually means going abroad to a language school in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, China or Japan.

France's overseas departments and collectivities also share land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana), and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). France is linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel.
.France is the largest state in the European Union by area and the third largest in Europe behind Russia and Ukraine.^ The United States and European drafters of the resolution - Germany, France and Britain - held out hope a vote could still be called on Friday after another round of discussions with Russia and China.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It would be second if its extra-European territories like French Guiana were included.^ The second document that we would like to obtain, (i.e.

France has been a major power for many centuries with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence. .During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonised great parts of North America; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.^ The Greek Language -- Jacob Lumbroso Koine Greek is part of the legacy left by Alexander the Great's imperial conquests which united Asia Minor, the north of África, and the vast territories of the Persian empire.

.France is one of the most developed countries[14] and possesses the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP[15] and seventh largest economy by purchasing power parity.^ The Palestinians could have founded a flourishing, prosperous country next to one of the strongest economies in the world - Israel's.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .France enjoys a high standard of living as well as a high public education level,[17] it's one of the most globalised nations,[18] has 2009's second best international reputation[19] and has also one of the world's highest life expectancy,[20] with its healthcare system rated as the best in the world.^ But one of the French capital's best attributes is that when you want to do nothing but sit back and relax, it's hard to think of a better city in the world to people watch.
  • Paris Guide | Paris Map, Photos and Top Things to do in Paris 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.boo.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the world's best museums can be found here, the list of instantly recognisable landmarks is a lengthy one, and the nightlife is electric to say the least.
  • Paris Guide | Paris Map, Photos and Top Things to do in Paris 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.boo.com [Source type: General]

^ Abedi wanted the bank to reflect the supra-national Muslim credo and "the best bridge to help the world of Islam, and the best way to fight the evil influence of the Zionists."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually.^ It is currently estimated that there are 400 million Spanish Speakers world wide which makes Spanish the third most ...

^ French Language -- Philip Nicosia The All About French- Speaking Countries Roughly around 200 million people around the world speak French.

[22] France is one of the founding members of the European Union. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO and the Latin Union. .It is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, possesses the third largest number of nuclear weapons in the world and the largest number of nuclear power plants in the European Union.^ The draft demands Tehran end all uranium enrichment work, which can produce fuel for nuclear power plants as well as for bombs, and halt research and development that could lead to atomic weapons.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The request, made on Tuesday in a letter to the Security Council, comes after Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister, appeared to admit in a TV interview that Israel had nuclear weapons.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Origin of the name France

The name "France" comes from Latin Francia, which literally means "land of the Franks," or "Frankland". There are various theories as to the origin of the name of the Franks. One is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.[23]
.Another proposed etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means free as opposed to slave.^ The Changing Role Of Language Interpretation -- Allegro Interpreting involves the orally rendering the meaning of dialogue which is spoken in one language into another language while retaining its essence.

^ English Language: Practice Phrasal Verbs -- ESL Free Lesson An idiom is a phrase that has a meaning different from the meanings of its parts.

This usage still survives in the name of the national currency prior to the adoption of the euro, the franc.
.However, it is also possible that the word is derived from the ethnic name of the Franks,[24] because as the conquering class only the Franks had the status of freemen.^ We had only asked for the names of the experts involved… Is it because no in-house technical specialists have been in fact consulted?

In German, France is still called Frankreich, which literally means "Realm of the Franks". In order to distinguish from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France is called Frankreich, while the Frankish Realm is called Frankenreich.
.The word "Frank" had been loosely used from the fall of Rome to the Middle Ages, yet from Hugh Capet's coronation as "King of the Franks" ("Rex Francorum") it became usual to strictly refer to the Kingdom of Francia, which would become France.^ Being Specific When Speaking Moroccan Darija -- Andee M In English, the words 'cousin, uncle, aunt, niece and nephew' are used when referring to a family member.

.The Capetian Kings were descended from the Robertines, who had produced two Frankish kings, and previously held the title of "Duke of the Franks" ("dux Francorum").^ Now, we are adding the statements of two witnesses who had sailed on the Gaul on her previous voyages including the last but one.

This Frankish duchy encompassed most of modern northern France but because the royal power was sapped by regional princes the term was then applied to the royal demesne as shorthand. .It was finally the name adopted for the entire Kingdom as central power was affirmed over the entire kingdom.^ It was finally the name adopted for the entire Kingdom as central power was affirmed over the entire Kingdom.
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[25]

History

Rome to revolution

The borders of modern France are approximately the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. .Gaul was conquered for Rome by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC,[26] and the Gauls eventually adopted Roman speech (Latin, from which the French language evolved) and Roman culture.^ The History of French Language -- Patrick Stump The language of French actually descended from a form of Latin called Vulgar Latin spoken by the Romans in the second and first centuries B.C. When the Romans, led by the infamous Julius Caesar, ...

^ Immerse Yourself in the Greek Language and Culture -- John Davison The Greek language is over 3,500 years old, though it has evolved through the years.

^ Teaching The Latin Language In High School -- John Davison Latin was the language of the Roman Empire.

Christianity first appeared in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, and became so firmly established by the fourth and fifth centuries that St. Jerome wrote that Gaul was the only region “free from heresy”.
France after the Hundred Years War. Red line: Boundary of the Kingdom of France; Light blue: the directly held royal domain
In the 4th century AD, Gaul’s eastern frontier along the Rhine was overrun by Germanic tribes, principally the Franks, from whom the ancient name of “Francie” was derived. The modern name “France” derives from the name of the feudal domain of the Capetian Kings of France around Paris. .The Franks were the first tribe among the Germanic conquerors of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism (their King Clovis did so in 498); thus France obtained the title “Eldest daughter of the Church” (La fille ainée de l’Église), and the French would adopt this as justification for calling themselves “the Most Christian Kingdom of France”.^ They would rather lose a car sale than lose a 50 cent Nausau.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: The Spanish of Argentina: el Castellano del Ro de la Plata -- Paolo Gudino Hi, I would like to know more about it.

^ Paris , France Cite de la Musique .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

Existence as a separate entity began with the Treaty of Verdun (843), with the division of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire into East Francia, Middle Francia and Western Francia. .Western Francia approximated the area occupied by modern France and was the precursor to modern France.^ Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe.
  • France - Art History Online Reference and Guide 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arthistoryclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name France originates from the Franks (Francs), a Germanic tribe that occupied northern Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire .
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.
  • France - Art History Online Reference and Guide 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arthistoryclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • France 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.askfactmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Hanging) depict the destruction unleashed on civilians during the Thirty Years' War.
The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. .His descendants, the Direct Capetians, the House of Valois and the House of Bourbon, progressively unified the country through a series of wars and dynastic inheritance.^ Even so, crew recounted serious flooding incidents as a direct result of water coming through the aft duff chute.

The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of Occitania (the south of modern-day France). In the end, both the Cathars and the independence of southern France were exterminated.[27]
In 1066, the Duke of Normandy became King of England, and separated Normandy from France and marked it as English territory. He then increased that territory to cover over half of what France is today, being the North, Centre and West of France. The height of this was around the reign of Henry II in the 1170s. However, after then, territories continued to change but since the Wars of the Roses held England weak, France won back that territory and the last territory England held in France was Calais, but after Henry VIII this was lost to the Spanish Netherlands.
Charles IV (The Fair) died without heir in 1328.[28] Under the rule adopted in 1316, the crown of France could not pass to a woman, nor could the line of kinfship pass through the female line.[29] This became known as the Salic Law.[30] .Accordingly, the crown passed to cousin of Charles, Philip of Valois, rather than passing though the female line to Charles' nephew, Edward, who would soon become Edward III of England.^ They would rather lose a car sale than lose a 50 cent Nausau.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hosny, who has led thousands of Israelis through the country since 1989, argues that terrorist attacks are the exception rather than the rule.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also believed that an ugly woman who reached paradise after having carried out a terrorist attack, would become beautiful.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] Under the reign of Phillip Valois who was then Philip IV, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.[32] .However, Philip's seat on the throne was contested by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death,[33] England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.^ In his first public comments on the crisis in Gaza, Olmert he hopes a cease-fire between the warring Palestinian factions would stick.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their 30 year-long search for truth, the relatives of the trawlermen who lost their lives on the Gaul had to compete against a number of adversaries whose interests would not have been best served if the reasons for the tragedy had become known.

^ However, if one of the assassination attempts, which have been rampant in recent days, ends with the killing of a leader, Abbas or Haniyeh, it would indeed become an all-out war.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]
In the most notorious incident during the French Wars of Religion (1562–98), thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572.[35]
The monarchy reached its height during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. At this time France possessed the largest population in Europe (see Demographics of France) and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became, and remained until the 20th century, the common language of diplomacy in international affairs. Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs were achieved by French scientists in the 18th century. In addition, .France obtained many overseas possessions in the Americas, Africa and Asia.^ It is especially valuable because it attempts to provide guidance to Francophone literature outside of France: Europe, North America, South America, Latin America, Near East and Africa.
  • BU Libraries | Research Guides | French Language and Literature 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonized much of North America; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/france 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For France, which had a vast colonial empire across Africa and retains tight - and at times, controversial - ties to many countries there, the debate over genocide has particular resonance.
  • News from The Associated Press 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC hosted.ap.org [Source type: News]
  • News from The Associated Press 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC hosted.ap.org [Source type: News]

Monarchy to Republic

Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789
The monarchy ruled France until the French Revolution. .It did not fall immediately after the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, but endured until the creation of the First Republic in September 1792. Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed (in 1793), along with thousands of other French citizens during the Reign of Terror.^ I also hope this lastest plan doesn’t fall through like the other one did years ago.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They said the suspension halted the airlift of air-to-ground and other munitions conducted during and immediately after the Israeli war with Hizbullah.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A guerrilla war and counterrevolution, known as the Revolt in the Vendée, cost more than 100,000 lives before it was crushed in 1796.[36] After a series of short-lived governmental schemes, Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799, making himself First Consul, and later Emperor of what is now known as the First Empire (1804–1814).^ Therefore, the Iraq report is more than a plan to rescue Iraq; it is a road map for extricating America from the mayhem of an unwinnable war.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The S-300PMU2, known as Favorit and produced by Almaz, has been priced at more than $600 million per unit.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But considering the out-of-control volatility in Iraq and that the proposed alliance is meant to focus more on Iran's growing regional influence, the call raises important questions that need to be addressed sooner than later.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the course of several wars, his armies conquered most of continental Europe, with members of the Bonaparte family being appointed as monarchs of newly established kingdoms.^ Nili had been feeding information to the British during the war, until most of its members were caught and rounded up by the Turks.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being Specific When Speaking Moroccan Darija -- Andee M In English, the words 'cousin, uncle, aunt, niece and nephew' are used when referring to a family member.

^ Spanish Lessons - Mini Spanish Course Lesson 7 of 20 -- Perriann Rodriguez In Spanish, the words for family members are separated by gender (male and female).

About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic wars.[37]
Following Napoleon's final defeat in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy was re-established, but with new constitutional limitations. In 1830, a civil uprising established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. The short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second Empire. Louis-Napoléon was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic.
France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire was the second largest in the world behind the British Empire. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 square kilometres (4,767,000 sq mi) of land. .Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 square kilometres (4,980,000 sq mi) in the 1920s and 1930s, which is 8.6% of the world's land area.^ It is enclosed and nearly 800,000 square feet on three levels, including anchor space.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
France issued the single European currency, the euro, in 2002, together with 16 other EU member states it forms the Eurozone.
^ Other prominent committee members included former Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger, former CIA Director Robert Gates and former Defense Secretary William Perry.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world was changing, power was shifting and the argument that a single European entity could be bigger and stronger than the sum of its member states was starting to make some kind of sense to more people.

Here is shown a French side of a one euro coin.
.France was an occupied nation in World War I and World War II.^ The December 11-12 conference in Tehran drew Holocaust deniers from around the world to debate whether the World War II genocide of Jews took place.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The human and material losses in the first war, which left 1.4 million French soldiers dead,[38] exceeded largely those of the second, even though only a minor part of its territory was occupied during World War I. The interbellum phase was marked by a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government.^ The Greek Language -- Jacob Lumbroso Koine Greek is part of the legacy left by Alexander the Great's imperial conquests which united Asia Minor, the north of África, and the vast territories of the Persian empire.

^ In essence, the inquiry concluded that human error on the part of the crew, shore maintenance staff and the vessel's owners was the cause of the vessel's loss.

^ And, as though things were not bad enough as they were, it now turns out that the government has decided that some of these inconvenient questions should not even arise.

.Following the German blitzkrieg campaign in World War II metropolitan France was divided in an occupation zone in the north and Vichy France, a puppet regime loyal to Germany, in the south.^ The December 11-12 conference in Tehran drew Holocaust deniers from around the world to debate whether the World War II genocide of Jews took place.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fourth Republic was established after World War II and, despite spectacular economic growth (les Trente Glorieuses), it struggled to maintain its political status as a dominant nation state.^ He established friendships with Jewish colleagues despite the anti-Semitic propaganda so prevalent in Bangladesh , which is 85 percent Muslim and ranks as the world's third-most populous Muslim nation after Indonesia and Pakistan .
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The December 11-12 conference in Tehran drew Holocaust deniers from around the world to debate whether the World War II genocide of Jews took place.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attention was recently drawn to the rights and status of Arab women in Palestinian society by the strengthening of nationalism and the call to women to take part in the struggle for liberation from the occupation.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

France attempted to hold on to its colonial empire, but soon ran into trouble. .The half-hearted 1946 attempt at regaining control of French Indochina resulted in the First Indochina War, which ended in French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Only months later, France faced a new, even harsher conflict in Algeria.^ However, if one of the assassination attempts, which have been rampant in recent days, ends with the killing of a leader, Abbas or Haniyeh, it would indeed become an all-out war.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria, then home to over one million European settlers,[39] wracked the country and nearly led to civil war.^ The December 11-12 conference in Tehran drew Holocaust deniers from around the world to debate whether the World War II genocide of Jews took place.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I keep hearing about people who debate this question, and was a witness to more than one such occasion.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which contained a strengthened Presidency. .In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle managed to keep the country together while taking steps to end the war.^ The sources said the halt reflected deteriorating relations between the two countries since the end of the war in Lebanon in August 2006.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Algerian War was concluded with peace negotiations in 1962 that led to Algerian independence.
.In recent decades, France's reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the political and economic integration of the evolving European Union, including the introduction of the euro in January 1999. France has been at the forefront of the European Union member states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to create a more unified and capable European Union political, defence, and security apparatus.^ Other prominent committee members included former Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger, former CIA Director Robert Gates and former Defense Secretary William Perry.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alliance between Syria and Iran dates back more than two decades, and was explicitly reaffirmed by the two ruling regimes as recently as January 2005.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The French electorate voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005, but the successor Treaty of Lisbon was ratified by Parliament in February 2008.

Geography

Satellite image of France
.While Metropolitan France is located in Western Europe, France also has a number of territories in North America, the Caribbean, South America, the southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica.^ Does anyone remember Ocean Club, which was located across the street from Metcalf South in the Windmill Plaza?
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .These territories have varying forms of government ranging from overseas department to overseas collectivity.^ These are the principles that we wanted to form a national unity government accordingly, the main principle and basic objective of this government is to end the siege.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our government should be able to recognize these factors and strike a fair balance between ethics and their various financial priorities.

.Metropolitan France covers 547,030 square kilometres (211,209 sq mi),[41] having the largest area among European Union members and slightly larger than Spain.^ Bangla is the 3rd largest language in the world, just larger than Spanish, and is spoken in the Bengal area of India as well.

France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the south-east, the Massif Central in the south-central and Pyrenees in the south-west. At 4,807 metres (15,771 ft) above sea-level, the highest point in Europe, Mont Blanc, is situated in the Alps on the border between France and Italy.[42] Metropolitan France also has extensive river systems such as the Loire, the Garonne, the Seine and the Rhône, which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue, the lowest point in France (2 m/6.56 ft below sea level).[42] .Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.^ Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Monaco is an independent enclave on the south coast, while the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean is treated as an integral part of the country.
  • France -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Exclusive Economic Zone of France extends over 11,000,000 km2 (4,000,000 sq mi) of ocean across the world.[43]
France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is 674,843 km2 (260,558 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. .However, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,637 sq mi), approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, just behind the United States (11,351,000 km2/4,382,646 sq mi) and ahead of Australia (8,232,000 km2/3,178,393 sq mi).^ However, it must be recalled that another voice is being heard in the United States - that of the Baker-Hamilton Iraq Study Group, which recommends opening contacts with Syria.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overland Park is one of the nicer and larger suburbs of Kansas City, and in fact the second largest city in Kansas with a population around 170,000.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oh, they didn't mean "all" 4-letter words, just a select few but those were a real no-no in my house.

[44]
Metropolitan France is situated between 41° and 51° North, on the western edge of Europe, and thus lies within the northern temperate zone. The north and northwest have a temperate climate, while a combination of maritime influences, latitude and altitude produce a varied climate in the rest of Metropolitan France.[45] In the south-east a Mediterranean climate prevails. In the west, the climate is predominantly oceanic with a high level of rainfall, mild winters and cool to warm summers. Inland the climate becomes more continental with hot, stormy summers, colder winters and less rain. The climate of the Alps and other mountainous regions is mainly alpine, with the number of days with temperatures below freezing over 150 per year and snow cover lasting for up to six months.

Cities

Metropolitan French cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
.The largest cities in France, in terms of metropolitan area population, are Paris (11,769,433), Lyon (1,748,271), Marseille (1,605,000), Lille (1,164,716), Nice (1,197,751), Toulouse (1,102,882), Bordeaux (999,149) and Nantes (804,000).^ Overland Park is one of the nicer and larger suburbs of Kansas City, and in fact the second largest city in Kansas with a population around 170,000.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Government

Logo of the French Republic
The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. .The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, currently Nicolas Sarkozy, who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years), and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister, currently François Fillon.^ Just like Jim Fitzpatrick, the other Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department for Transport, appointed in June 2007, who was once a junior minister at the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister Labels: DfT , Geoff Hoon , Gordon Brown , government , jim fitzpatrick , john prescott , New Labour , rosie winterton , ruth kelly .

^ The expected Abbas-Olmert meeting would be the first formal talks between the two leaders since Olmert took over as prime minister in January.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor does he seem eager to open a rift with Israel by dragging its government to an international conference, the way his father did with Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir in 1991.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The French parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and a Senate. .The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms.^ The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms.
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Deputies to the 577-seat National Assembly are elected for five-year terms from single-member districts.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the constitution, the president is elected directly for a 5-year (originally 7-year) term.
  • France - Art History Online Reference and Guide 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arthistoryclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • France 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.askfactmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government.^ The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government.
  • France - Art History Online Reference and Guide 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arthistoryclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • France 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.askfactmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grabbing one third of the cabinet is tantamount to hold the power to prevent the government from convening, if it wanted.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms), and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.[46]
.The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say, except for constitutional laws and lois organiques (laws that are directly provided for by the constitution) in some cases.^ The Iranian envoy said that relations between Damascus and Tehran were "excellent and strategic," although he stressed the two nations had not entered an official a pact.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the political power applies the rules discriminately and self-interestedly, the tacit pact between society and the state - which, in the end, gives the law its legitimacy - is broken.

.The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.^ The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.
  • France - Art History Online Reference and Guide 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.arthistoryclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • France 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.askfactmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred around the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred previously around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP).^ Islamic Jihad announced over mosque loudspeakers around the northern West Bank that the two men were members of the group.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Donnez une partie de votre temps avec votre mari pour la Da'wah."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right-wing groups like the ZOA argue that Jewish money should not be spent on programming that provides fodder for Israel's most virulent critics.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The executive branch is currently composed mostly of the UMP.

Conventions and notations

  • France is the home of the International System of Units (the metric system). .Some pre-metric units are still used, essentially the livre (a unit of weight equal to half a kilogram) and the quintal (a unit of weight equal to 100 kilograms).
  • In mathematics, France uses the infix notation like most countries.^ Anna Barlow I studied German for four years in high school and still remember some simple phrases and regularly use them with my friends for fun.

    For large numbers the long scale is used. .Thus, the French use the word billion for the number 1,000,000,000,000, which in countries using short scale is called a trillion.^ During Christmas time, people used to have to park on neighboring streets and across 95th Street (in what was called the French Market – now Kmart).
    • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, there exists a French word, milliard, for the number 1,000,000,000, which in countries using the short scale is called a billion.^ During Christmas time, people used to have to park on neighboring streets and across 95th Street (in what was called the French Market – now Kmart).
    • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Thus, despite the use of the long scale, one billion is called un milliard (“one milliard”) in French, and not mille millions (“one thousand million”).^ Just to let you know, 'un milione di baci' correctly translates to 'one million kisses'...

    .It should also be noted that names of numbers above the milliard are rarely used.^ The French counting system is partially vigesimal: twenty ( vingt ) is used as a base number in the names of numbers from 60-99.

    ^ He improved Nicolas Chuquet's long scale system by adding names for intermediate numbers (milliards instead of thousand million, etc...
    • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Days of the Week in Moroccan Arabic -- Andee M The names used for the days of the week, in Moroccan Arabic, and the numbers used for counting in both Standard Arabic and Moroccan Arabic are similar.

    .Thus, one trillion will most often be called mille milliards (“one thousand milliard”) in French, and rarely un billion.
  • In the French numeral notation, the comma (,) is the Decimal separator, whereas the dot (.) is used between each group of three digits especially for big numbers.^ French Numbers are Easy to Learn -- Ling Tong When you start learning French numbers, once you know the numbers from one to sixteen you only have to learn a few more to be able to count to one hundred.

    ^ In fact, the Guinness Book of World Records has listed the German language as one of the three languages that are learned the most by people.

    ^ Learning Spanish A useful and colourful language for anyone to learn -- John Gibb One of the worlds most used languages, spoken by approximately 400 thousand people worldwide, Spanish is very popular for people wanting to learn a second language.

    .A space can also be used to separate each group of three digits especially for small numbers.^ Many of us are used to speaking loudly, especially when we get into groups.

    ^ However, the Dorling Kindersley Eyewitness Paris is more useful, especially for a photographer, because the book contains a small snapshot of each site.
    • A Photographer's Guide to Paris - photo.net 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC photo.net [Source type: General]

    .Thus three thousand five hundred and ten may be written as 3 510 whereas fifteen million five hundred thousand and thirty-two may be written as 15.500.032. In finance, the currency symbol is used as a decimal separator or put after the number.^ ISRAEL HOLDS $500 MILLION Israel is holding about $500 million in Palestinian tax revenues, an Israeli Finance Ministry official said.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    For example, €25,048.05 is written either 25 048€05 or 25 048,05 € (always with an extra space between the figure and the currency symbol).
  • In computing, a bit is called a bit yet a byte is called an octet[citation needed] (from the Latin root octo, meaning “8”). .SI prefixes are used.
  • 24-hour clock time is used, with h being the separator between hours and minutes (for example 2:30 p.m.^ A previous truce between the ruling Hamas faction and once-dominant Fatah, signed Sunday, broke down within 24 hours.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    is 14h30).
  • The all-numeric form for dates is in the order day-month-year, using a slash as the separator (example: 31/12/1992 or 31/12/92).

Law

The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
.France uses a civil legal system; that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judge interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law).^ As Lenin and his associates used to dismiss the law as bourgeois sham, the New Labour regime shows a similar contempt for legality, though not so much for ideological reasons, as out of recklessness and a lack of ethical commitment.

^ No law and no order Even now the Palestinian Authority is falling apart, the government is not functioning and civil systems are on the verge of collapse.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code. .In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.^ Palestinian citizens and establishing the principle of one authority, one weapon and one law.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons:
Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.
.That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.^ And, as though things were not bad enough as they were, it now turns out that the government has decided that some of these inconvenient questions should not even arise.

^ The only solution to the Middle East conflict, they said, is to "wipe out Zionism, and accept the burden of exile [from the Land of Israel] as the will of God, Blessed be He."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Churkin told reporters he approved of a ban on enrichment, reprocessing and heavy-water nuclear reactors but that "other activities should not be in any way prohibited or restricted."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law and administrative law.
France does not recognise religious law, nor does it recognise religious beliefs or morality as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. As a consequence, France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished in 1791). .However “offences against public decency” (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution.^ More outrageous, however, is that, in order to put a lid on the leaks, the Blair government decided to use, not only the state’s repressive machine, but also foreign bodies .

.Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited) ; and to be applicable, laws must be officially published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française.^ What is really bizarre…..I am reading these posts (with only first names mentioned), and I know who these people are…people from my past!
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The women feel a need to prove themselves, to achieve some kind of recognition, and use feminism and nationalism to justify the actions ex post facto.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foreign relations

France is a founding member of the EC in 1957, and the European Union in 1993 (Signing of the Maastricht Treaty).
.France is a member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council with veto rights.^ The United Nations Security Council is set to vote Friday on a sanctions resolution against Iran, which has been revised in response to Russian objections.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush anticipated the Baker-Hamilton recommendations and instructed the Pentagon and the National Security Council to conduct their own reviews of Iraq policy and develop independent recommendations.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is also a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Indian Ocean Commission (COI). .It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries.^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 2006 Torremolinos Convention Sandra Gidley : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what plans he has to ratify the International Marine Organisation’s Torremolinos Convention.

It hosts the headquarters of the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, Alliance Base and the International Bureau for Weights and Measures. .In 1953 France received a request from the United Nations to pick a coat of arms that would represent it internationally.^ The United Nations Security Council will approve a resolution condemning Iran's bid for nuclear arms, the source said, and will create a mechanism to impose sanctions on Tehran.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus the French emblem was adopted and is currently used on passports.
.French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member.^ Yediot Aharonot, in its second editorial, analyzes the European Union's expansion policies.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 1960s, France sought to exclude the British from the organisation, seeking to build its own standing in continental Europe. Since the 1990s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU, but consequently rivaling the UK and limiting the influence of newly inducted East European nations.
.France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to avoid the supposed domination of its foreign and security policies by US political and military influence.^ The Iraqi government needs to declare a state of emergency, overcome all internal political disputes and accelerate the training and expansion of the Iraqi military and security forces.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entanglement in Iraq, Iran's extremism and intransigence, and the results of the Israeli-Hezbollah war all prove obstacles for US foreign policy towards the Middle East.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heisbourg, chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and president of the Geneva Center for Security Policy, said the IPIS is a touchstone in Iran for foreign researchers.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. .France vigorously opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with the US and the UK. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies (Françafrique) and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in the Ivory Coast and Chad.^ The linking of substantial progress in Arab-Israeli relations to the salvage of Iraq also suffers from incompatibility of political clocks.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military

The French armed forces are divided into four branches:
After the Algerian War, conscription was steadily reduced and was finally suspended in 2001 by President Jacques Chirac. .The total number of military personnel is approximately 359,000. France spends 2.6% of its GDP on defence, slightly more than the United Kingdom (2.4%) and the highest in the European Union where defence spending generally accounts to less than 1.5% of GDP. France and the U.K. account for 40% of EU defence spending.^ The S-300PMU2, known as Favorit and produced by Almaz, has been priced at more than $600 million per unit.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 233,000 candidates ran for more than 113,000 council seats in cities, towns and villages across the vast nation on Friday.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The town's Christian population has dwindled from more than 85 per cent in 1948 to 12 per cent of its 60,000 inhabitants in 2006.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 10% of France's defence budget goes towards its nuclear deterrence, or nuclear weapons force.^ Can you say that this is the same level, when they are aspiring to have nuclear weapons, as America, France, Israel, Russia?"
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hans Blix, former head of the IAEA, said last June that Israel is thought to have about 200 nuclear weapons.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush feels that only tough and uncompromising policy, including UN sanctions and the threat of force, can prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France has major military industries that have produced the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile and the Leclerc tank amongst others.^ Small, portable anti-aircraft missiles called MANPADS, including the SA-18, are also of interest to the group, as well as guided anti-tank missiles and improvised explosive devices.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second is that antitank missiles can penetrate the Merkava tank and force infantry units to abandon armored personnel carriers and trek into enemy territory by foot.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some weaponry, like the E-2 Hawkeye or the E-3 Sentry was bought from the United States.^ Like James Baker, his former boss, Djerejian is nostalgic for when the United States could cut deals with a reliable despot in Damascus.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then some developer bought him out and he moved the stable out to like 115th and metcalf.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States and Iran Some Palestinians say US-led opposition to the Hamas-led government is drawing battle lines for the entire region.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite withdrawing from the Eurofighter project, France is actively investing in European joint projects such as the Eurocopter Tiger, multipurpose frigates, the UCAV demonstrator nEUROn and the Airbus A400M.
.France is a major arms seller as most of its arsenal's designs are available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.^ Pressure and backlash The arming of competing Palestinian factions is reminiscent of the Cold War era where disputes between major powers were fought by proxy.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the French designed equipments are specifically designed for exports like the Franco-Spanish Scorpène class submarines.^ The German Language has gotten a bad rap and some people bypass it for other languages like French or ...

^ Learning Basic Spanish Words -- Roberto Bell Just like with any other language, when learning Spanish the first thing you need to do is learn some of the basics.

.Some French equipments have been largely modified to fit allied countries' requirements like the Formidable class frigates (based on the La Fayette class) or the Hashmat class submarines (based on the Agosta class submarines).^ The German Language has gotten a bad rap and some people bypass it for other languages like French or ...

  • Although it includes very competent anti-terrorist units such as the GIGN or the EPIGN, the gendarmerie is a military police force which serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force.^ Iran says its nuclear program will only be used for peaceful aims, such as electricity generation, and not to make bombs as United States and its European allies fear.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the public paid for it, the record is now owned by the Attorney General who would not even release copies of parts of the document for research and public interest purposes.

    ^ For all intents and purposes, such an alliance should be as potent a weapon as any to counter extremism's unrelenting forces.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Since its creation the GIGN has taken part in roughly one thousand operations and freed over five-hundred hostages; the Air France Flight 8969's hijacking brought them to the world's attention.
  • French intelligence constitutes of two major units: the DGSE (the external agency) and the DCRI (domestic agency).^ Irregular Verbs in the Spanish Preterite Tense -- Daniel Major The preterite is one of the two main past tenses used in Spanish.

    ^ Spanish Made Easy - Unlocking Hidden Knowledge Part 2 -- William G Craig Do you realize that you already know hundreds, if not thousands, of Spanish words?

    ^ French Language -- Philip Nicosia The All About French- Speaking Countries Roughly around 200 million people around the world speak French.

    The latter being part of the police while the former is associated to the army. .The DGSE is notorious for the Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, but it is also known for revealing the most extensive technological spy network uncovered in Europe and the United States to date through the mole Vladimir Vetrov.
  • The French deterrence, (formerly known as “Force de frappe”), relies on a complete independence.^ Israel has been under pressure from Europe and the United Nations for months to release the tax money to Abbas, who favors peace talks with the Jewish state.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may be valid for the United States and Europe to engage Syria, but not from a position of weakness - which the Iraqi Study Group recommendations would almost certainly lead to.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Like James Baker, his former boss, Djerejian is nostalgic for when the United States could cut deals with a reliable despot in Damascus.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The current French nuclear force consists of four submarines equipped with M45 ballistic missiles. The current Triomphant class is currently under deployment to replace the former Redoutable class. The M51 will replace the M45 in the future and expand the Triomphants firing range. .Aside of the submarines the French dissuasion force uses the Mirage 2000N; it is a variant of the Mirage 2000 and thus is designed to deliver nuclear strikes.^ The proponents of negotiations with Iran rule out any use of force to eliminate the Iranian nuclear infrastructure, even if all other means of diplomacy and sanctions fail.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Other nuclear devices like the Plateau d'Albion's Intermediate-range ballistic missile and the short range Hadès missiles have been disarmed. .With 350 nuclear heads stockpiled France is the world's third largest nuclear power.^ France became a nuclear power (1960).
    • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • French coins 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.lesfrancs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Simultaneously, de Gaulle consolidated the power of France by endowing it with a military industrial-complex including a nuclear deterrent and guarantying its energy provisions.
    • Operation Sarkozy : how the CIA placed one of its agents at the presidency of the French Republic [Voltaire] 22 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.voltairenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ France is also the most energy independent Western country due to heavy investment in nuclear power, which also makes France the smallest producer of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialised countries in the world.
    • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    [47]
  • .
  • The Marine Nationale is regarded as one of the world's most powerful navies.^ In fact, the Guinness Book of World Records has listed the German language as one of the three languages that are learned the most by people.

    ^ By Degrees: The Different German Dialects -- Philip Nicosia German is one of the most popular languages in the world.

    ^ It is undeniable that Spanish is probably one of the most romantic-sounding languages in the world, and the ...

    .The professional compendium flottes de combats, in its 2006 edition, ranked it world's 6th biggest navy after the American, Russian, Chinese, British and Japanese navies.^ With 79.1 million foreign tourists in 2006, France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of Spain (55.6 million in 2005) and the United States (49.4 million in 2005).
    • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Also classes in Spanish, German, Russian, Japanese, Chinese (Mandarin), Hebrew, Italian, Portuguese, Turkish.
    • French Classes Chicago,New York,Seattle,Houston,NYC Language School,Phoenix,Arizona,Lessons in San Francisco,Learn French Fast,Private Tutor for Kids,USA College Programs 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.learn4good.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Bibles also available in Chinese , French , Hebrew , Japanese , Russian , Spanish and Tagalog .
    • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

    [48] It is equipped with the only non-American nuclear powered Aircraft Carrier in the world. .Recently Mistral class ships joined the Marine Nationale, the Mistral itself having taken part to operations in Lebanon.^ The BBC has recently delighted us with a two-part documentary about John Prescott, MP and his opinions on the class system in Britain.

    For the 2004 centennial of the Entente Cordiale President Chirac announced the Future French aircraft carrier would be jointly designed with Great Britain. .The French navy is equipped with the La Fayette class frigates, early examples of stealth ships, and several ships are expected to be retired in the next few years and replaced by more modern ships, examples of future surface ships are the Forbin and the Aquitaine class frigates.^ French Numbers are Easy to Learn -- Ling Tong When you start learning French numbers, once you know the numbers from one to sixteen you only have to learn a few more to be able to count to one hundred.

    ^ Here are a few more to help you learn French and appreciate your progress.

    The attack submarines are also part of the Force Océanique Stratégique although they do not carry the nuclear dissuasion, the current class is the Rubis Class and will be replaced in the future by the expected Suffren Class.
A French army soldier
  • The Armée de Terre employs 133,500 people. It is famous for the Légion Etrangère (French Foreign Legion) though the French special forces are not the Legion but the Dragons Parachutistes and the Marines Parachutistes. The French assault rifle is the FAMAS and future infantry combat system is the Félin. France uses both tracked and wheeled vehicles to a significant points, examples of wheeled vehicles would be the Caesar or the AMX 10 RC. Although its main battle tank is the Leclerc many older AMX 30 tanks are still operational. It uses the AMX 30 AuF1 for artillery and is equipped with Eurocopter Tigers helicopters.
  • The Armée de l'Air is the oldest and first professional air force worldwide. .It still today retains a significant capacity.^ But the most significant, and certainly the most enduring, was the Cercle Molière, founded in 1925 and still vigorous today, making it the oldest French-language amateur theatre in Canada.

    .It uses mainly two aircraft fighters: the older Mirage F1 and the more recent Mirage 2000.^ The alliance between Syria and Iran dates back more than two decades, and was explicitly reaffirmed by the two ruling regimes as recently as January 2005.
    • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The later model exists in a ground attack version called the Mirage2000D. The modern Rafale is in deployment in both the French air force and navy.

Transport

The railway network of France, which stretches 31,840 kilometres (19,784 mi) is the most extensive in Western Europe. It is operated by the SNCF, and high-speed trains include the Thalys, the Eurostar and TGV, which travels at 320 km/h (199 mph) in commercial use. The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. .Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra.^ It is the language spoken in all of the Arab countries and since many of these countries are open to visitors from other parts of the ...

Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing bus services.
There are approximately 893,300 kilometres (555,071 mi) of serviceable roadway in France. .The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country.^ Now that luck part comes in (well not all lucky, most smart early raiders try to stay away from Gauls.
  • Offensive Gaul Guide (Speed) - Travian.com :: Forum 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC forum.travian.com [Source type: General]

^ It's about a 10 or 15 minute Metro ride to most of the sites in the central part of Paris from the nearby Metro stop.
  • Paris Hostels - Hostel Reviews 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.hostelz.com [Source type: General]

^ I found France to be a beautiful country, and enjoyed both Paris and the historic ares in the southern part of the country.
  • France - one of the worst holiday destinations! 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.worstholiday.com [Source type: Original source]

.French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, Switzerland, Germany and Italy.^ Metropolitan France, nicknamed l'Hexagone for its hexagonal shape, shares international borders with Monaco , Andorra , Spain , Italy , Switzerland , Germany , Luxembourg and Belgium .
  • France - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many very good toll roads lead out of and into the country, with good connections to Luxembourg, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Germany, Monaco and Switzerland.
  • France - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the official language of several countries including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Belgium.

.There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, motorway usage is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.^ There is no guarantee however.
  • Paris Museums, France Tours, City Metro Pass, Sightseeing, Louvre, Orsay 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.museumpass.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are, however, reports of thieves breaking into hotel rooms on lower floors through open windows while the occupants are sleeping.
  • France and Monaco 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will create a situation in which there will be no acceptable Palestinian leader who can represent the Palestinian Authority vis-a-vis the international community on the diplomatic front.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003), Peugeot (20.1%) and Citroën (13.5%).^ The Pitch printed an article about the case in 2003 here: http://www.pitch.com/2003-11-20/news/love-never-dies/ .
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.^ Io, Saturnalia For more than a year we’ve tried to bring repairs to the flaws of the 2004 Gaul Investigation.

^ How to Start Learning a New Language -- Frank Middleton It is easier to start to learn a new language than to become good at it, and almost certainly is more fun.

^ Learn The Korean Language -- John Davison The Korean language is spoken by more than 70 million people, primarily in North and South Korea.

[50] France possesses the world's tallest road bridge: the Millau Viaduct, and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie.
There are approximately 478 airports in France, including landing fields. .Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport located in the vicinity of Paris is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world.^ More than 233,000 candidates ran for more than 113,000 council seats in cities, towns and villages across the vast nation on Friday.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located in Overland Park , one of the largest suburbs of Kansas City, Metcalf South Shopping Center opened in 1967 to immediate fanfare.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The local councils handle community matters in cities and town across the country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille, which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 14,932 kilometres (9,278 mi) of waterways traverse France including the Canal du Midi which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the Garonne river.

Administrative divisions

The 22 regions and 96 departments of metropolitan France includes Corsica (Corse, lower right). Paris area is expanded (inset at left)
The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale.
France is divided into 26 administrative regions. 22 are in metropolitan France (21 are on the continental part of metropolitan France; one is the territorial collectivity of Corsica), and four are overseas regions. The regions are further subdivided into 100 departments which are numbered (mainly alphabetically). .This number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates amongst others.^ As the same combination of materials, mild steel and brass, had been used in a number of other structures on the Gaul (e.g.

^ The arrondissements of Paris is easily identified in postal codes, which begins with the département number 75.
  • Paris - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

The 100 departments are subdivided into 341 arrondissements which are, in turn, subdivided into 4,032 cantons. These cantons are then divided into 36,680 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. There also exist 2,588 intercommunal entities grouping 33,414 of the 36,680 communes (i.e. 91.1% of all the communes). Three communes, Paris, Lyon and Marseille are also subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements.
.The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities, meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.^ Oh, they didn't mean "all" 4-letter words, just a select few but those were a real no-no in my house.

Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until 1940, the arrondissements were also territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. Historically, the cantons were also territorial collectivities with their elected assemblies.

Metropolitan regions and departments

Region Departments
 Alsace Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin
 Aquitaine Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques
 Auvergne Allier, Cantal, Haute-Loire, Puy-de-Dôme
 Basse-Normandie Calvados, Manche, Orne
 Bourgogne Côte-d'Or, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Yonne
 Bretagne Côtes-d'Armor, Finistère, Ille-et-Vilaine, Morbihan
 Centre Cher, Eure-et-Loir, Indre, Indre-et-Loire, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher
 Champagne-Ardenne Ardennes, Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne
 Corsica (Corse) Corse-du-Sud, Haute-Corse
 Franche-Comté Doubs, Haute-Saône, Jura, Territoire de Belfort
 Haute-Normandie Eure, Seine-Maritime
 Île-de-France Essonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise, Yvelines
 Languedoc-Roussillon Aude, Gard, Hérault, Lozère, Pyrénées-Orientales
 Limousin Corrèze, Creuse, Haute-Vienne
 Lorraine Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse, Moselle, Vosges
 Midi-Pyrénées Ariège, Aveyron, Gers, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, Lot, Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne
 Nord-Pas-de-Calais Nord, Pas-de-Calais
 Pays de la Loire Loire-Atlantique, Maine-et-Loire, Mayenne, Sarthe, Vendée
 Picardie Aisne, Oise, Somme
 Poitou-Charentes Charente, Charente-Maritime, Deux-Sèvres, Vienne
 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes, Bouches-du-Rhône, Hautes-Alpes, Var, Vaucluse
 Rhône-Alpes Ain, Ardèche, Drôme, Haute-Savoie, Isère, Loire, Rhône, Savoie

Overseas regions/departments, collectivities, and territories

.Among the 100 departments of France, four (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion) are in overseas regions (ROMs) that are also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) and are an integral part of France (and the European Union) and thus enjoy a status similar to metropolitan departments.^ Some believe that Iran goes beyond this dream by betting on filling a relatively larger part of the vacuum left by the Soviet Union in the region after its collapse and disintegration.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For its part, "Echoes of France" is fiercely anti-French.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to the 26 regions and 100 departments, the French Republic also has six overseas collectivities (French Polynesia, Mayotte, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna), one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia), one overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands), and one island possession in the Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island).^ Earlier Thursday, another three rockets were fired at Israel , one of them landing on Palestinian soil and the other on Israeli territory.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fun of Learning the Hawaiian Language -- John Davison The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian (or Polynesian) language that is the ancestral tongue of the Hawaiian Islands, which lie in the Pacific Ocean.

.Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area.^ France also has a number of overseas departments, territories, and countries which, legally, are part of the French Republic.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French territories (also called collectivities) include Polynésie française, Mayotte, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, Wallis-et-Futuna, Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy.
  • French VII Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar 22 September 2009 21:56 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ The four overseas regions of France ( Guadeloupe , Martinique , French Guiana , Réunion ) are islands in the Caribbean (Guadeloupe and Martinique), part of Latin America (French Guiana), and an island in the Indian Ocean (Réunion).
  • France - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia, Wallis and Fortuna, and New Caledonia continue to use the Pacific franc whose value is linked to that of the euro.^ Continued (Permanent Link) posted by News Service at 12:50 PM .
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continued (Permanent Link) posted by News Service at 10:45 PM .
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continued (Permanent Link) posted by News Service at 5:58 PM .
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, the four overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.^ French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish) overseas departments: French, Creole patois .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- France 20 September 2009 14:27 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now become famous outside of France, as well (whereas they used to be mostly known inside of France) are Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Albert Camus.
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France joined 11 other EU members to launch the Euro on January 1, 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc in early 2002.
  • France - Metapedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC en.metapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Economy

The first completed Airbus A380 at the “A380 Reveal” event in Toulouse on 18 January 2005. Airbus is a symbol of the globalisation of the French and European economy
A member of the G8 group of leading industrialised countries, it is ranked as the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP.[51] France joined 11 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in early 2002.
France's economy combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 million companies registered)[52][53] with substantial (though declining[54]) state enterprise and government intervention (see dirigisme). The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.[54] It has been gradually relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s.[54] .The government is slowly corporatizing the state sector and selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as the insurance, banking, and defence industries.^ In turn, a State Department official told Pajamas Media, "We are strongly supporting the Iraqi efforts to work with the Egyptians to get this off the air."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus, and has its own national spaceport, the Centre Spatial Guyanais.
France relies heavily on nuclear power (Golfech reactor).
According to the WTO, in 2009 France was the world's sixth-largest exporter and the fifth-largest importer of manufactured goods.[55] .In 2008, France was the third-largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries at $117.9 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located in that country) and the United States ($316.1 billion), but above the United Kingdom ($96.9 billion), Germany ($24.9 billion), or Japan ($24.4 billion).^ It receives more than $1 billion a year in U.S. foreign aid, more than any other country on Earth except Israel.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and European drafters of the resolution - Germany, France and Britain - held out hope a vote could still be called on Friday after another round of discussions with Russia and China.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, the United States pushed for very tough sanctions, with Britain and France taking a slightly softer view.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56][57] .In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside of France, ranking France as the second most important outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($311.8 billion), and ahead of the United Kingdom ($111.4 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($156.5 billion).^ The United States and European drafters of the resolution - Germany, France and Britain - held out hope a vote could still be called on Friday after another round of discussions with Russia and China.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This usually means going abroad to a language school in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, China or Japan.

^ Clint Tustison Spanish is one of the most studied second languages in the United States.

[56][57]
.France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialized countries in the world, due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.^ What would he do before some of the oppressive powers of the world who are in fact residing in Christian countries?
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, most of the electricity produced in the country is generated by 59 nuclear power plants (78% in 2006,[59] up from only 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990).^ The draft demands Tehran end all uranium enrichment work, which can produce fuel for nuclear power plants as well as for bombs, and halt research and development that could lead to atomic weapons.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latest draft, if approved, would order all countries to ban the supply of specified materials and technology that could contribute to Iran's nuclear and missile programs.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iran says its nuclear program will only be used for peaceful aims, such as electricity generation, and not to make bombs as United States and its European allies fear.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this context, renewable energies (see the power cooperative Enercoop) are having difficulties taking off the ground.
.Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe.^ France is the largest agricultural producer in Europe.
  • France-Diplomatie - France 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.diplomatie.gouv.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Middle Ages ( in origins of agriculture: France ) farm buildings and expenditures ( in farm building (agriculture): Large stock farms ) métayage system ( in métayage (land ownership) ) Roquefort cheese production ( in Roquefort (cheese) ) truffle production ( in truffle (fungus) ) viticulture ( in wine: France ) wine production .
  • France -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ France's leading industries produce machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metals, aircraft, electronics equipment, textiles, and foods (especially cheeses).
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as an internationally recognized foodstuff and wine industry are primary French agricultural exports. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased for the last years, but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007.[61]
.Since the end of the Second World War the government made efforts to integrate more and more with Germany, both economically and politically.^ What is more, the prospect of litigation can make both governments and private employers much more careful when dealing with human lives.

^ Syria, the officer said, has since the war ended, transferred truckloads of weapons and missiles to Hizbullah.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sources said the halt reflected deteriorating relations between the two countries since the end of the war in Lebanon in August 2006.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Today the two countries form what is often referred to as the “core” countries in favour of greater integration of the European Union.

Labour market

La Défense, just outside Paris, is the largest business district in Europe.
The French GDP per capita is similar the GDP per capita of other comparable European countries such as Germany and the United Kingdom.[62] GDP per capita is determined by (i) productivity per hour worked, which in France is the highest of the G8 countries in 2005, according to the OECD,[63] (ii) the number of hours worked, which is one the lowest of developed countries,[64] and (iii) the employment rate. .France has one of the lowest 15–64 years employment rates of the OECD countries: in 2004, only 69% of the French population aged 15–64 years were in employment, compared to 80% in Japan, 79% in the UK, 77% in the US, and 71% in Germany.^ French Numbers are Easy to Learn -- Ling Tong When you start learning French numbers, once you know the numbers from one to sixteen you only have to learn a few more to be able to count to one hundred.

^ (To appreciate the depth of Carter's cynicism, one need only compare his gushing encomia to the emirates with his likening of Israel, the most modern and democratic country in the entire Middle East, with the racist 'apartheid' of South Africa.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Mr Gold’s recollection, Mr Saloman’s expert opinion was that no action for compensation could be brought after the expiration of 15 years from the date of the victims’ death, no matter if the cause of the tragedy was only ‘discovered’ in 2004.

[65]
.This gap is due to the very low employment rates at both age extremes: the employment rate of people aged 55–64 was 38,3% in 2007, compared to 46,6% in the EU15;[66] for the 15–24 years old, the employment rate was 31,5% in 2007, compared to 37,2% in EU25.^ That same year, Bush's popularity and approval rating slipped below 35% and was relatively low even among Republicans.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .These low employment rates are explained by the high minimum wages which prevent low productivity workers – such as young people – from easily entering the labour market,[68] ineffective university curricula that fail to prepare students adequately for the labour market,[69] and, concerning the older workers, restrictive legislation on work and incentives for premature retirement.^ When he started to work with young people during the early 1990s, anti-Semitism wasn't a problem, Wagenknecht explains.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maybe not have working stores but like a museum with products and styles and such that were from those times.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70][71]
The unemployment rate decreased from 9% in 2006 to 7% in 2008 but remains one of the highest in Europe.[72][73] In June 2009, the unemployment rate for France was 9.4%.[74] .Shorter working hours and the reluctance to reform the labour market are mentioned as weak spots of the French economy in the view of the right, when the left mentions the lack of government policies fostering social justice.^ A press release entitled " Perversion of justice, corruption, fraud and the lack of accountability of the British government " has been published on a couple of independent media websites.

Liberal economists have stressed repeatedly over the years that the main issue of the French economy is an issue of structural reforms, in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population, reduce the taxes' level and the administrative burden. .Keynesian economists have different answers to the unemployment issue, and their theories led to the 35-hour workweek law in the early 2000s, which turned out to be failure in reducing unemployment.^ If it turns out that the law does not meet with international norms, we will bring it up before the Israeli authorities."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Afterwards, between 2004 and 2008, the Government made some supply-oriented reforms to combat unemployment but met with fierce resistance, especially with the contrat nouvelle embauche and the contrat première embauche which both were eventually repealed.^ Could some occlusion of the communication lines between those involved in the 2004 investigation be the explanation for that?

^ We wish to emphasize that the parallel we are drawing here is between the 1987 Derbyshire FI and the 2004 Gaul RFI. The Derbyshire investigation was eventually re-opened in April 2000.

.The current Government is experiencing the Revenu de solidarité active.^ These commitments fall short of the government's annual budget, most of which comes from tax revenues currently frozen by Israel.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tourism

The Palace of Versailles is one of the most popular tourist destinations in France.
With 81.9 million foreign tourists in 2007,[22] France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of Spain (58.5 million in 2006) and the United States (51.1 million in 2006). .This 81.9 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours in France, such as Northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the summer.^ I keep hearing about people who debate this question, and was a witness to more than one such occasion.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

France features cities of high cultural interest (Paris being the foremost), beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). France also attracts many religious pilgrims to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, that hosts a few million visitors a year.
.Popular tourist sites include: (according to a 2003 ranking[75] visitors per year): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Louvre Museum (5.7 million), Palace of Versailles (2.8 million), Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Centre Pompidou (1.2 million), Mont-Saint-Michel (1 million), Château de Chambord (711,000), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), Carcassonne (362,000).^ Following are excerpts: Section 7, titled "Gratitude," includes the following: "According to the Prophet's sayings, most of the people in Hell are women, because [women] are ungrateful and deny good [deeds] that are done for them..."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Eiffel Tower/Musée D'Orsay) .
  • Luxury & Boutique Hotels in Paris | Tablet Hotels 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.tablethotels.com [Source type: News]

Demography

Population density in the French Republic at the 1999 census.
.With an estimated population of 65.4 million people (as of 1 Jan.^ Arab nationalism has, on the contrary, less appeal as the Arab population is merely an estimated 300 million the world over and of them, some five per cent follow the Christian faith.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2010),[6] France is the 20th most populous country in the world. In 2003, France's natural population growth (excluding immigration) was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union. .In 2004, population growth was 0.68% and then in 2005 birth and fertility rates continued to increase.^ Population growth rate : .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- France 20 September 2009 14:27 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the end of World War II the population increase in France was perhaps the lowest in Europe, but in postwar decades the rate has increased.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The natural increase of births over deaths rose to 299,800 in 2006. The total fertility rate rose to 2.02 in 2008,[6] from 1.88 in 2002.[76]
France's legacy: a map of the Francophone world      native language      administrative language      secondary or non-official language      francophone minorities
.In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France.^ France: People ) age distribution ( in age distribution (demography) ) Basques ( in Basque (people) ) emigration to Canada ( in Canada: Principal ethnic groups ) immigration ( in Europe: Migration ) religion .
  • France -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[77] In 2005, immigration level fell slightly to 135,890.[78]
It is illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and race, a law with its origins in the 1789 revolution and reaffirmed in the constitution of 1958.[79] Nonetheless, France is an ethnically diverse nation with about six million North Africans and an estimated 2.5 million blacks.[80][81] It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population descends at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received.[82] .According to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, it has an estimated 4.9 million foreign-born immigrants, of which 2 million have acquired French citizenship.^ Arab nationalism has, on the contrary, less appeal as the Arab population is merely an estimated 300 million the world over and of them, some five per cent follow the Christian faith.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heisbourg, chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and president of the Geneva Center for Security Policy, said the IPIS is a touchstone in Iran for foreign researchers.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] France is the leading asylum destination in Western Europe with an estimated 50,000 applications in 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004).[84] The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While Ireland did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration.
A perennial political issue concerns rural depopulation. Over the period 1960–1999 fifteen rural départements experienced a decline in population. In the most extreme case, the population of Creuse fell by 24%.
According to Article 2 of the Constitution, amended in 1992, French is the sole official language of France. Therefore, France is the only Western European nation (excluding microstates) to have only one officially recognised language. However, 77 regional languages are also spoken, in metropolitan France as well as in the overseas departments and territories. .Until recently, the French government and state school system discouraged the use of any of these languages, but they are now taught to varying degrees at some schools.^ Which nations use French as their first language?
  • WikiAnswers - French Language and Culture Questions including "What countries speak French" 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is French the second most taught language?
  • WikiAnswers - French Language and Culture Questions including "What countries speak French" 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I took French in high school, I recall the teacher telling us, No wonder it's called the language of love.
  • WikiAnswers - French Language and Culture Questions including "What countries speak French" 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] Other languages, such as Portuguese, Italian, Maghrebi Arabic and several Berber languages are spoken by immigrants.

Religion

Christianity is the largest religion in France, which is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. .According to a January 2007 poll by the Catholic World News:[86][87] 51% identified as being Catholics, 31% identified as being agnostics or atheists (another poll[88] sets the proportion of atheists equal to 27%), 10% identified as being from other religions or being without opinion, 4% identified as Muslim, 3% identified as Protestant, 1% identified as Buddhist, 1% identified as Jewish.^ Wednesday, January 10, 2007 .

^ Saturday, January 27, 2007 .

^ Hamas, which trounced Abbas's once dominant Fatah in parliamentary elections last January, has said it would boycott any new polls.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[89] 34% of French citizens responded that “they believe there is a god”, whereas 27% answered that “they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force” and 33% that “they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force”.^ Whereas in NEC recent survey of 7-10 December 2006 factional support in the West Bank was quite evenly divided with 27% most trusting Fateh, 25% most trusting Hamas, and 40% not trusting any faction, today 45% of Westbankers support Fateh, 25% support Hamas, and 23% do not trust any faction.
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^ While I'm not sure what the answers to all those questions are, I am sure that they are already out there.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for factional trust, in NEC's most recent survey (7-10 December 2006), 32% of Palestinians most trusted Fateh, 27% most trusted Hamas, while 35% did not trust any faction.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One other study shows 32% of people in France declaring themselves to be atheists, and another 32% declaring themselves “sceptical about the existence of God but not an atheist”.^ We discussed the word "apartheid," which I defined as the forced segregation of two peoples living in the same land, with one of them dominating and persecuting the other.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier Thursday, another three rockets were fired at Israel , one of them landing on Palestinian soil and the other on Israeli territory.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About two years ago they were also showing weekly Baliwood/Indian films one night a week.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. .According to the 1999 French census returns, there were 3.7 million people of “possible Muslim faith” in France (6.3% of the total population).^ Arab nationalism has, on the contrary, less appeal as the Arab population is merely an estimated 300 million the world over and of them, some five per cent follow the Christian faith.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2003, the French Ministry of the Interior estimated the total number of Muslims to be between five and six million (8-10%).^ Arab nationalism has, on the contrary, less appeal as the Arab population is merely an estimated 300 million the world over and of them, some five per cent follow the Christian faith.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91][92] .The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600,000 according to the World Jewish Congress and is the largest in Europe.^ It is a question that is now being discussed around every corner and in the halls of every gathering of the American Jewish community.
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^ Notes and thoughts on the question that's being pondered all around the American Jewish world: well, is he?
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overland Park is one of the nicer and larger suburbs of Kansas City, and in fact the second largest city in Kansas with a population around 170,000.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since 1905 the French government has followed the principle of laïcité, in which it is prohibited from recognizing any religion (except for legacy statutes like that of military chaplains and the local law in Alsace-Moselle). Instead, it merely recognizes religious organizations, according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organizations should refrain from intervening in policy-making.
Certain body of beliefs such as Scientology, Children of God, the Unification Church, or the Order of the Solar Temple are considered sects,[93] and therefore do not have the same status as religions in France. "Sect" is considered a pejorative term in France.[94]

Public health

The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997.[95] Care is generally free for people affected by chronic diseases (Affections de longues durées) such as cancer, AIDS or Cystic Fibrosis. Average life expectancy at birth is 79.73 years.
As of 2007, there are approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France who are living with HIV/AIDS.[96]
.France, as all EU countries, is under an EU directive to reduce sewage discharge to sensitive areas.^ According to the EU rules, the treaty does not come into force unless it has been endorsed by all 27 EU countries.

.As of 2006, France is only 40% in compliance with this directive, placing it as one of the lowest achieving countries within the EU with regard to this wastewater treatment standard.^ It’s funny how reading the memories of strangers about a place you’ve only been to one time can evoke such a collective consciousness, but there it is.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]
The death of Chantal Sébire revived the debate over euthanasia in France. It was reported on 21 March 2008.[98]

Culture

Claude Monet, founder of the Impressionist movement

Architecture

.There is, technically speaking, no architecture named French Architecture, although that has not always been true.^ We had only asked for the names of the experts involved… Is it because no in-house technical specialists have been in fact consulted?

^ The common practice, as far as I am aware, given that there are no marine specialists within the Department itself, is to seek technical counsel from one of the DfT’s agencies: i.e.

^ "Although some parts of Maine and Louisiana do speak some French it is not commonly understood.

Gothic Architecture's old name was French Architecture (or Opus Francigenum). The term “Gothic” appeared later as a stylistic insult and was widely adopted. .Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens.^ The first is that rockets - 4,000 struck northern Israel during the 33-days of fighting - can paralyze the home front.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of my mall activity was from ‘74-’78 with guys at Diemer and some other Brookridge clowns.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these sites are in Arabic, but some are in European languages.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. .Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces, the most important one being the Palais des Papes in Avignon.^ MANY SANCTIONS are being used to make it clear to "rabbi" Cohen that he is persona non grata here in Manchester.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
During the Middle Ages, fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers against their rivals. When King Philip II took Rouen from King John, for example, he demolished the ducal castle to build a bigger one. .Fortified cities were also common, unfortunately most French castles did not survive the passage of time.^ Once you know the essential French verbs, just add the most common phrases and you are ...

^ You can also download a list of the 681 most common verbs in French (available in PDF format.
  • French II Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar 22 September 2009 21:56 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common, and unfortunately the most successful, is the simple “bump and snatch,” where an individual bumps into the tourist while at the same time reaching into the pockets/purse/bag.
  • France and Monaco 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is why Richard the Lionheart's Château-Gaillard was demolished, as well as the Château de Lusignan. Some important French castles that survived are Chinon, Château d'Angers, the massive Château de Vincennes and the so called Cathar castles.
Before the appearance of this architecture France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula, which used Mooresque architecture). .Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey (largely destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars).^ During the recent war with Hezbollah, the Egyptian government criticized Israeli policy, but relations were "too important for both sides to let this event destroy it," Cohen said.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The end of the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture.^ Thus began the dynastic struggle known as the Hundred Years War (1337-1453), actually a series of wars and truces.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will be important particularly if eventually, in a year or two, such war is forced on us after all.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The War of the Grand Alliance (1688-97) against Louis XIV began to turn the tide; the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), although it did not end with a clear victory over France, marked the end of French expansion in Europe.
  • France News - Breaking World France News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to the French court; many residential palaces, Italian-inspired, were built, mainly in the Loire Valley. Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque Architecture replaced the gothic one. .However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in the religious one.^ France is one of the major economic powers of the world and was a founding member of the European Community ( see European Union ).
  • France -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They were founded by St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane-Frances de Chantal, and in the middle of the nineteenth century one of them had as superior Venerable Marie de Sales Chappuis.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Paris 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] In the secular domain the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart can be said to be the most influential French architect of the baroque style, with his very famous baroque dome of Les Invalides. Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy. On the military architectural side Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses of Europe and became a very influential military architect.
The Eiffel Tower is an icon of both Paris and France
After the Revolution the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent this trend the best.
Under Napoleon III a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth. .If some very extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built, the urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous.^ The controversy surrounding his malls is notable as he continues to operate some very beleagured malls without divulging many plans to renovate them or make them viable again.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example Baron Haussmann rebuilt Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in the English speaking world, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. These times also saw a strong Gothic-Revival trend across Europe, in France the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. .In the late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges (like the Garabit viaduct) and remains one of the most influential bridge designer of his time, although he is best remembered for the Eiffel Tower.^ I also would like to take this time to remember “Sherman Dreiseszun” for he gave my father the opportunity to make his dream come true.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the software available today we could recreate the mall virtually, put in whatever stores we remember or liked at the time, it would be really cool.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One time on my 3&2 baseball team, they sponsored our uniforms and I remember they had a store I think one location at Metcalf South.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the 20th century the Swiss Architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. .More recently French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles.^ Old French PQ151-221 Modern PQ226-310 Poetry PQ400-491 Drama PQ500-591 Prose and prose fiction PQ601-771 .

^ Old French PC2813-(2898) Provencal (Old) PC3201-3366 Modern patois of South France PC3371-3420.5 Langue d'oc dialects PC3420.8-3495 .

The Louvre Pyramid is a good example of modern architecture added to an older building. .Certainly the most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar.^ And it is difficult to obtain those in one of the most photographed cities of the world!!
  • Paris Photo Gallery by Yergen Diesel at pbase.com 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

France's largest financial district is La Defense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges; a good example of the way this has been done is the Millau Viaduct. Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel or Paul Andreu.
Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française

Literature

.The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages when the area that is modern France did not have a single, uniform language.^ Islamiya http://www.islamiya.info/(28 ) This French-language Islamist portal began operating in 1998, and claims to have received over 5 million hits to date.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were several languages and dialects and each writer used his own spelling and grammar. The author of many French mediaeval texts is unknown, for example Tristan and Iseult and Lancelot and the Holy Grail. Much mediaeval French poetry and literature was inspired by the legends of the Matter of France, such as the The Song of Roland and the various Chansons de geste. The “Roman de Renart”, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing. The names of some authors from this period are known, for example Chrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan.
An important 16th century writer was François Rabelais who influenced modern French vocabulary and metaphor. During the 17th century Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Molière's plays, Blaise Pascal and René Descartes's moral and philosophical books deeply influenced the aristocracy leaving an important heritage for the authors of the following decades. Jean de La Fontaine was an important poet from this century.
19th century poet, writer, and translator Charles Baudelaire.
French literature and poetry flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 18th century saw the works of writers, essayists and moralists such as Voltaire, Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of children's stories such as: “Puss in Boots”, “Cinderella”, “Sleeping Beauty” and “Bluebeard”.
At the turn of the 19th century symbolist poetry was an important movement in French literature, with poets such as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine and Stéphane Mallarmé. .The 19th century saw the writing of many French novels of world renown with Victor Hugo (Les Misérables), Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte-Cristo), and Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) among the most well-known in France and beyond.^ Hiding under the blankie Twenty-three days have passed (i.e.

Other 19th century fiction writers include Emile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Théophile Gautier and Stendhal.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in 1903. Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world.

Sport

.Popular sports include football, both codes of rugby football and in certain regions basketball and handball.^ Whether you love rugby, football or tennis, the capital of France is really an all-rounder when it comes to sports.
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

France has hosted events such as the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, and hosted the 2007 Rugby Union World Cup. .Stade de France in Paris is the largest stadium in France and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup final, and hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final in October 2007. France also hosts the annual Tour de France, the most famous road bicycle race in the world.^ Paris , France Palais des Congres Paris .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Paris , France Casino de Paris .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Paris , France Stade de France .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

France is also famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race held in the Sarthe department. .Several major tennis tournaments take place in France, including the Paris Masters and the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments.^ Paris , France Grand Rex .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century. .After Athens was awarded the first Games, in reference to the Greek origins of the ancient Olympics, Paris hosted the second Games in 1900.^ The first time he managed to prevaricate and, the second time, he referred us to his previous answer.

.Paris was also the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to Lausanne.^ The initiative represents Netanyahu's first advocacy mission before the international community.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since that 1900 Games, France has hosted the Olympics on four further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics, again in Paris and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix, 1968 in Grenoble and 1992 in Albertville).
Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed “Les Bleus” in reference to the team’s shirt color as well as the national French tricolor flag. The football team is among the most successful in the world, particularly at the turn of the 21st century, with one FIFA World Cup victory in 1998, one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006, and two European Championships in 1984 and 2000. The top national football club competition is the Ligue 1. Rugby is also very popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. .The national rugby team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship.^ Attention was recently drawn to the rights and status of Arab women in Palestinian society by the strengthening of nationalism and the call to women to take part in the struggle for liberation from the occupation.
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.Following from a strong domestic tournament the French rugby team has won sixteen Six Nations Championships, including eight grand slams; and have reached the semi-finals and final of the Rugby World Cup.^ What has happened unfortunately in those six months is that despite your best efforts you have been unable to reach agreement on that national unity government.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French League Cup Final 2010 Tickets .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ French Open: Women's Semi Finals (Philippe Chatrier) Tickets .
  • Premium Paris Concert Tickets & Paris Football Tickets Online! 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

Marianne

Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic. .She is an allegorical figure of liberty and the Republic and first appeared at the time of the French Revolution.^ It was the president who appointed a cleric for the first time since the revolution to head Tehran University - the country's most political and prestigious university.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The earliest representations of Marianne are of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap. The origins of the name Marianne are unknown, but Marie-Anne was a very common first name in the 18th century. Anti-revolutionaries of the time derisively called her La Gueuse (the Commoner). It is believed that revolutionaries from the South of France adopted the Phrygian cap as it symbolised liberty, having been worn by freed slaves in both Greece and Rome. Mediterranean seamen and convicts manning the galleys also wore a similar type of cap.
Under the Third Republic, statues, and especially busts, of Marianne began to proliferate, particularly in town halls. She was represented in several different manners, depending on whether the aim was to emphasise her revolutionary nature or her “wisdom”. Over time, the Phrygian cap was felt to be too seditious, and was replaced by a diadem or a crown. In recent times, famous French women have been used as the model for those busts. Recent ones include Sophie Marceau, and Laetitia Casta. She also features on everyday articles such as postage stamps and coins.

International rankings

See also


Notes and references

  1. ^ Ministère de la culture et de la communication - Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France. "DGLF - Langues régionales et " trans-régionales " de France". Culture.gouv.fr. http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/lang-reg/methodes-apprentissage/1langreg.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Whole territory of the French Republic, including all the overseas departments and territories, but excluding the French territory of Terre Adélie in Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959.
  3. ^ French National Geographic Institute data.
  4. ^ French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers.
  5. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Population totale par sexe et âge au 1er janvier 2010, France métropolitaine". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?reg_id=0&ref_id=bilan-demo&page=donnees-detaillees/bilan-demo/pop_age2.htm. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  (French)
  6. ^ a b c INSEE, Government of France. "Bilan démographique 2009". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/document.asp?ref_id=ip1276#inter1. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  (French)
  7. ^ a b c Metropolitan France only.
  8. ^ a b c d "France". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=132&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=70&pr.y=19. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  9. ^ Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  10. ^ Whole of the French Republic except the overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean.
  11. ^ French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only.
  12. ^ In addition to .fr, several other Internet TLDs are used in French overseas départements and territories: .re, .mq, .gp, .tf, .nc, .pf, .wf, .pm, .gf and .yt. France also uses .eu, shared with other members of the European Union. The .cat domain is used in Catalan-speaking territories.
  13. ^ For more information, see Category:Overseas departments, collectivities and territories of France.
  14. ^ UNDP.org
  15. ^ Field listing - GDP (official exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  16. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook - Country Comparisons - GDP (purchasing power parity)". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html. Retrieved 26 April 2009. 
  17. ^ Education Index
  18. ^ Kof.ethz.ch
  19. ^ Nation-branding.info
  20. ^ UN.org
  21. ^ World Health Organization (1997). "The World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health systems". Photius.com. http://www.photius.com/rankings/healthranks.html — List with link to spreadsheet offering breakdown of level and distribution (range) of individual factors such as responsiveness, financial efficiency and impact on health level. 
  22. ^ a b "Le tourisme international en France en 2007" (PDF). Direction du Tourisme (French government's tourism agency). http://www.tourisme.gouv.fr/fr/z2/stat/tis/att00018288/TIS_EVE2007_2008-5.pdf. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  (French)
  23. ^ Tarassuk, Leonid; Blair, Claude (1982). The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: the most comprehensive reference work ever published on arms and armor from prehistoric times to the present with over 1,250 illustrations. Simon & Schuster. p. 186. ISBN 067142257X. http://books.google.com/books?id=UJbyPwAACAAJ&dq=The+Complete+Encyclopedia+of+Arms+and+Weapons&cd=1. 
  24. ^ Reisman, Arnold; Saha, P.K. (21 March 2005) (PDF). French as Lingua Franca: An Asset or Liability in the Development of Nations? – page 2. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=690221. Retrieved 7 March 2010 – click on "One-Click Download" 
  25. ^ Elizabeth M. Hallam & Judith Everard – Capetian France 937-1328, chapter 1 "The origins of Western Francia" page 7: "What did the name Francia mean in the tenth and eleventh centuries? It still retained a wide general use; both Byzantine and western writers at the time of the crusades described the western forces as Franks. But it was also taking on more specific meanings. From 911 onwards the west Frankish king was known as the Rex Francorum -king of the Franks- and the name Francia could be used to describe his kingdom, as it was also used by the east Frankish, or German, kingdom... The Robertines, forerunners of the Capetians, were duces francorum, dukes of the Franks, and their 'duchy' covered in theory most of northern France. Then as royal power contracted further, leaving the early Capetians only a small bloc of lands around Paris and Orleans, the term Francia was used for this region."
  26. ^ Plutarch claimed that one million people (probably 1 in 4 of the Gauls) died, another million were enslaved, 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed during the Gallic Wars.
  27. ^ Massacre of the Pure. Time. 28 April 1961.
  28. ^ Albert Guerard, France: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, 1959) p. 100.
  29. ^ Ibid.
  30. ^ Ibid.
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Ibid. p. 101.
  33. ^ France VII. — History. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Archived 31 October 2009.
  34. ^ Don O'Reilly. "Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans". TheHistoryNet.com.
  35. ^ Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  36. ^ "Vive la Contre-Revolution!". The New York Times. 9 July 1989.
  37. ^ Napoleon and German identity. Magazine article by Tim Blanning; History Today, Vol. 48, April 1998.
  38. ^ France's oldest WWI veteran dies. BBC News. 20 January 2008.
  39. ^ In France, a War of Memories Over Memories of War. The New York Times. 4 March 2009.
  40. ^ Sovereignty claims in Antarctica are governed by the Antarctic Treaty System
  41. ^ CIA (2007). "The World Factbook". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html. Retrieved 6 December 2007. 
  42. ^ a b CIA (2006). "The World Factbook: Field Listing - Elevation extremes". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2020.html. Retrieved 14 December 2006. 
  43. ^ (French) French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "La France en bref". http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/france_829/decouvrir-france_4177/france-bref_2271/index.html. Retrieved 20 March 2008. 
  44. ^ According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km2 (3,893,532 sq mi), still behind the United States (12,174,629 km2/4,700,651 sq mi), and still ahead of Australia (8,980,568 km2/3,467,417 sq mi) and Russia (7,566,673 km2/2,921,509 sq mi).
  45. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005). "Discovering France: Geography". http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/france_159/discovering-france_2005/france-from-to-z_1978/country_2004/geography_4405/geography_1507.html. Retrieved 29 December 2006. 
  46. ^ "Rôle et fonctionnement du Sénat". French Senate. 2006. http://www.senat.fr/role/index.html. Retrieved 20 April 2006. 
  47. ^ Comparison of recognised and alleged nuclear powers.
  48. ^ "La marine chinoise accède au rang de 3ème puissance mondiale". http://www.meretmarine.com/article.cfm?id=958. 
  49. ^ L'automobile magazine, hors-série 2003/2004 page 294
  50. ^ "Guide pratique de l' ADEME, la voiture". Ademe.fr. http://www.ademe.fr/particuliers/Fiches/voiture/rub3.htm. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  51. ^ "World's 5th Largest Economy". Invest in France Agency. http://www.invest-in-france.org/uk/en/World-s-5th-Largest-Economy.html. 
  52. ^ "Entreprises selon le nombre de salariés et l'activité" (in French). INSEE. July 2008. http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=0&ref_id=NATTEF09203. 
  53. ^ "Entreprises publiques selon l'activité économique" (in French). INSEE. March 2009. http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=0&ref_id=NATTEF9303. 
  54. ^ a b c d "Economy : France - overview". The World Factbook. CIA. 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html#Econ. 
  55. ^ "International Trade Statistics 2008". WTO. 2009. p. 12. http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2008_e/its2008_e.pdf. 
  56. ^ a b "Country fact sheet: France". World Investment Report 2009. UNCTAD. http://www.unctad.org/sections/dite_dir/docs/wir09_fs_fr_en.pdf. 
  57. ^ a b "Country fact sheet: Japan". World Investment Report 2009. UNCTAD. http://www.unctad.org/sections/dite_dir/docs/wir09_fs_jp_en.pdf. 
  58. ^ "CO2 emissions per capita in 2006". Environmental Indicators. United Nations. August 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm. 
  59. ^ DGEMP / Observatoire de l'énergie (April 2007). "Électricité en France: les principaux résultats en 2006". http://www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie/statisti/se_elec.htm. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  60. ^ "Key figures of the French economy". French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/france_159/economy_6815/overview-of-the-french-economy_6831/key-figures-of-the-french-economy_1402.html#sommaire_1. "France is the world’s fifth largest exporter of goods (mainly durables). The country ranks fourth in services and third in agriculture (especially in cereals and the agri-food sector). It is the leading producer and exporter of farm products in Europe." 
  61. ^ "Financial year 2007". Distribution of direct aid to farmers. European Commission. 22 April 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fin/directaid/2007/annex1_en.pdf. 
  62. ^ "Rank Order - GDP - per capita (PPP)". The World Factbook. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html. 
  63. ^ OECD in Figures 2005, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). "Labour productivity 2003" (Microsoft Excel). http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/doifiles/012005061G006.xls. Retrieved 20 April 2006.  ; in 2004, the GDP per hour worked in France was $48, ranking France above the United States ($46.3), Germany ($42.1), the United Kingdom ($39.6), or Japan ($32.5) (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). "Differentials in GDP per capita and their decomposition, 2004" (Microsoft Excel). http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/40/29867116.xls. Retrieved 20 April 2006. )
  64. ^ Objectif croissance 2008, OCDE, February 2008, page 67 ; graphic visible in the Summary page 8; effective annual working duration in France is 1580 hours, compared to 1750 for developed countries
  65. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). "OECD Employment Outlook 2005 - Statistical Annex" (PDF). http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/30/35024561.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2006. 
  66. ^ INSEE (2008). "Taux d'emploi des travailleurs âgés de 55 à 64 ans" (in French). http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPECF03159. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  67. ^ INSEE (2008). "Taux d'emploi des jeunes de 15 à 24 ans dans l'Union européenne" (in French). http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPTEF03135. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  68. ^ Philippe Aghion; Gilbert Cette, Élie Cohen and Jean Pisani-Ferry (2007). "Les leviers de la croissance française" (in French) (PDF). Conseil d'analyse économique. p. 55. http://www.cae.gouv.fr/rapports/dl/072.pdf. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  69. ^ "Enhancing Incentives to Improve Performances in the Education System in France" (PDF). OECD. 1 August 2007. http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2007doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00002ECA/$FILE/JT03230693.PDF. "Initial education, especially secondary education and the universities, along with labour market policies themselves, do not always succeed in improving labour market entry for a significant proportion of young people." 
  70. ^ "Employment Outlook 2008 – How does FRANCE compare?" (PDF). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/35/40904315.pdf. "Only 38% of people aged 55 to 64 are working, 15.5 percentage points less than the OECD average." 
  71. ^ "France: Jobs and older workers". OECD Observer. http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/1672/. 
  72. ^ INSEE (2008). "Taux de chômage ; France métropolitaine" (in French). http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=99&ref_id=CMRSOS03311. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  73. ^ INSEE (2008). "Chômage dans l'Union européenne" (in French). http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=98&ref_id=CMPTEF03309. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  74. ^ Harmonised unemployment rate by gender - total - % (SA). Eurostat.
  75. ^ "Musées et Monuments historiques". http://www2.culture.gouv.fr/deps/mini_chiff_03/fr/musee.htm. 
  76. ^ INSEE, Government of France. "Tableau 44 - Taux de fécondité générale par âge de la mère". http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/bases-de-donnees/irweb/sd2006/dd/excel/sd2006_t44_fe.xls. Retrieved 13 January 2009.  (French)
  77. ^ "Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality". 2004. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/countrydata/data.cfm. 
  78. ^ "Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections" (PDF). http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/France_Elections050307.pdf. 
  79. ^ Oppenheimer, David B. (2008). "Why France needs to collect data on racial identity...in a French way". Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 31 (2): 735–752. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1236362. 
  80. ^ Europe's Minority Politicians in Short Supply. The Washington Post. 24 April 2005.
  81. ^ In officially colorblind France, blacks have a dream - and now a lobby. Csmonitor.com. 12 January 2007.
  82. ^ Paris Riots in Perspective. ABC News. 4 November 2005.
  83. ^ INSEE (25 January 2005). "Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005". http://www.insee.fr/fr/ffc/ipweb/ip1098/ip1098.html#encadre1. Retrieved 14 December 2006.  (French)
  84. ^ UNHCR (2006). "UNHCR Global Report 2005: Western Europe" (PDF). http://www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/4492677f0.pdf. Retrieved 14 December 2006. 
  85. ^ "Jeanjean, Henri. “Language Diversity in Europe: Can the EU Prevent the Genocide of French Linguistic Minorities?”" (PDF). http://www.anu.edu.au/NEC/Archive/Jeanjean_paper.pdf. 
  86. ^ Catholic World News (2003). "France is no longer Catholic, survey shows". http://www.catholicculture.org/news/features/index.cfm?recnum=48547. Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  87. ^ (Romanian) Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică, Cotidianul 11 January 2007
  88. ^ La Vie, issue 3209, 1 March 2007 (French)
  89. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 5 May 2007. 
  90. ^ Religious Views and Beliefs Vary Greatly by Country, Financial Times/Harris Poll, December 2006
  91. ^ France to train imams in 'French Islam', The Guardian
  92. ^ "France - International Religious Freedom Report 2005". http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51552.htm. 
  93. ^ "Commission d’enquête sur les sectes". http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rap-enq/r2468.asp. 
  94. ^ "Society2 ; religion in France ; beliefs ; secularism (laicité)". Understandfrance.org. http://www.understandfrance.org/France/Society2.html. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  95. ^ "The ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis". http://www.photius.com/rankings/healthranks.html. , photius.com
  96. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – France". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html. 
  97. ^ "EEA.Europa.eu". Epaedia.eea.europa.eu. http://epaedia.eea.europa.eu/page.php?pid=502. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  98. ^ "France searches its soul after euthanasia plea woman dies". CNN.com. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/21/euthanasia.debate.ap/index.html. 
  99. ^ Claude Lébedel – Les Splendeurs du Baroque en France: Histoire et splendeurs du baroque en France page 9: “Si en allant plus loin, on prononce les mots ‘art baroque en France’, on provoque alors le plus souvent une moue interrogative, parfois seulement étonnée, parfois franchement réprobatrice: Mais voyons, l'art baroque n'existe pas en France!”

External links

Government
Culture
General

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

France radar.jpg
France is a country in Western Europe.

Contents

Source

  • The creation of Modern France through expansion goes back to the establishment of a small kingdom in the area around Paris in the late tenth century and was not completed until the incorporation of Nice and Savoy in 1860. The existing “hexagon” was the result of a long series of wars and conquests involving the triumph of French language and culture over what once were autonomous and culturally distinctive communities. The assimilation of Gascons, Savoyards, Occitans, Basques, and others helped to sustain the myth that French overseas expansionism in the nineteenth century, especially to North and West Africa, was a continuation of the same assmilationist project.
  • And threat'ning France, plac'd like a painted Jove,
    Kept idle thunder in his lifted hand.
  • "They order," said I, "this matter better in France."
  • Toute ma vie, je me suis fait une certaine idée de la France.
    • Translated: "All my life I have had a certain idea of France".
    • Charles de Gaulle, opening sentence of his Mémoires de guerre.
  • La France a perdu une bataille, mais la France n'a pas perdu la guerre.
    • Translated: "France has lost a battle, but France has not lost the war".
    • Charles de Gaulle, Proclamation, June 18 1940.

Attributed

  • France is the only country where the money falls apart and you can't tear the toilet paper.

Anonymous

  • "Everyone has two countries, his or her own-- and France."

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up France in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : France
The Louvre, Paris
Location
France in Europe
Flag
Image:fr-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Paris
Government Republic
Currency euro or € (EUR)
Area 547,030 km2
Population 61,538,322 (April 2007) in non-overseas France
Language French, some regional languages and dialects
Religion (numbers of unclear basis) Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Muslim 5%-10%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, unaffiliated 4%
Calling Code 33
Internet TLD .fr
Time Zone UTC +1
France is a country located in Western Europe. .Clockwise from the north, France borders Belgium and Luxembourg to the northeast, Germany and Switzerland to the east, Italy to the south-east and Spain to the south-west, across the Pyrenees mountain range (the small country of Andorra lies in between the two countries).^ The sources said the halt reflected deteriorating relations between the two countries since the end of the war in Lebanon in August 2006.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dynamical stability – If the area under the curve of statical stability is calculated up to any particular angle or between two inclined angles then this is known as the dynamical stability for the vessel (for the range of inclinations considered).

The Mediterranean Sea lies to the south of France, with the Principality of Monaco forming a small enclave. To the west, France has a long Atlantic Ocean coastline, while to the north lies the English Channel, across which lies the last of France's neighbours, England (part of the United Kingdom).
France is the world's most popular tourist destination (78 million in 2006) boasting dozens of major tourist attractions, like Paris, Côte d'Azur (the French Riviera), the Atlantic beaches, the winter sport resorts of the Alps, the Castles of Loire Valley, Brittany, Normandy: Mont Saint Michel. The country is renowned for its gastronomy (particularly wines and cheeses), history, culture and fashion.

Understand

Climate

A lot of variety, but temperate winters and mild summers on most of the territory, and especially in Paris. .Mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean and in the south west (the latter has lots of rain in winter).^ ONe summer, Metcalf South had a Hot Wheels tournament where it was a single-elimination race tournament (not unlike a Pinewood Derby).
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I live on Horton and we go walking at this mall during the winter (and the hot summer days) and frequently go to the Glenwood.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mild winters (with lots of rain) and cool summers in the north west (Brittany). .Cool to cold winters and hot summer along the German border (Alsace).^ I live on Horton and we go walking at this mall during the winter (and the hot summer days) and frequently go to the Glenwood.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Along the Rhône Valley, occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral. Cold winters with lots of the snow in the Mountainous regions: Alps, Pyrenees, Auvergne

Terrain

Mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south west, Vosges , Jura and Alps in east, Massif Central in the mid south.

History

France has been populated since the Neolithic period. .The Dordogne region is especially rich in prehistoric caves, some used as habitation, others are temples with remarkable paintings of animals and hunters, like those found at Lascaux.^ I’d like to see what some of his other developments look like (the ones being threatened with eminent domain, etc.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today we can advise that some of those who were involved in the RFI, on the side of the government, have now moved to other positions, way away from their original milieu.

^ We have had a very detailed discussion today and some of those discussions obviously involve issues that I want to take further with other parties, as indeed you do as well.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rise and fall of the Roman empire
Written History began in France with the invasion of the territory by the Romans, between 118 and 50 BC. Starting then, the territory which is today called France was part of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls (name given to local Celts by the Romans), who lived there before Roman invasions, became accultured "Gallo-romans".
With the fall of the Roman empire, what was left were areas inhabited by descendants of intermarriages between gallo-romans and "barbaric" easterners (Mainly the Franks, but also other tribes like the "burgondes").
The legacy of the Roman presence is still visible, particularly in the southern part of the country where Roman circuses are still used for bullfights and rock and roll shows. .Some of the main roads still follow the routes originally traced 2,000 years ago, and the urban organisation of many old town centers still transcript the cardo and the decumanus of the former Roman camp (especially Paris).^ He also wants to know how many of those incidents can be attributed to "the right-wing extremist camp" and how many can be traced to adolescents "of non-German origin."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stein is the Emory University Professor who resigned from the Carter Center after being a member for many years, following the publication of the book.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life for Palestinian Christians such as 50-year-old Joseph has become increasingly difficult in Bethlehem - and many of them are leaving.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The other main legacy was the Catholic Church which can be, arguably, considered as the only remnant of the civilization of that time
Middle-Ages
.Clovis, who died in 511, is considered as the first French king although his realm was not much more than the area of the present Ile de France, around Paris.^ Paris, Ile de France, France .
  • Luxury & Boutique Hotels in Paris | Tablet Hotels 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.tablethotels.com [Source type: News]

^ Israel's ambassador to Egypt, Shalom Cohen, describes the relationship as much friendlier and more far-reaching than do many Egyptian academics and community leaders.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This view is much more widespread among Hamas supporters (88%) and those who do not trust any faction (64%) than among Fateh supporters (26%).
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800, was the first strong ruler. He united under his rule territories which extend today in Belgium, Germany and Italy. His capital was Aix-la-Chapelle (now in Germany, known as Aachen).
.The country was under attack by the Vikings who came from the north and navigated upstream the rivers to plunder the cities and abbeys, it was also under attack from the south by the Muslim Saracens who were established in Spain.^ Hosny, who has led thousands of Israelis through the country since 1989, argues that terrorist attacks are the exception rather than the rule.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next week the city's Tantur Ecumenical Institute will host a meeting of Jewish, Muslim and Christian clergy who will continue to discuss the idea.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Vikings were given a part of the territory (today's Normandy) in 911 and melted fast in the Feudal system. The Saracens were stopped in 732 in Poitiers by Charles Martel, grand father of Charlemagne, a rather rough warrior who was later painted as a national hero.
Starting with Charlemange, a new society starts to settle, based on the personal links of feudalism. This era is named middle age. .Although generally seen as an era of stagnation, it can more be described as a very complex mix of periods of economic and cultural developments (Music and poems of the Troubadours and Trouveres, building of the Romanantic, then Gothic cathedrals), and recessions due to pandemic disease and wars.^ More than 90% of the public describe current Palestinian conditions as bad or very bad and only 2% describe it as good.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 987, Hughes Capet was crowned as king of France ; he is the root of the royal families who later governed France.^ Next, he introduced Mr. Lance to Saudi billionaire Gaith Pharaon, who fronted for BCCI and the Saudi royal family.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1154 much of the western part of France went under English rule with the wedding of Alienor d'Aquitaine to Henry II (Count of Anjou, born in the town of Le Mans). Some kings of the Plantagenet dynasty are still buried in France, the most famous being Richard I, of Walter Scott's fame, and his father Henry II, who lies in the Abbaye de Fontevraud. .The struggle between the English and French kings between 1337 and 1435 is known as the Hundred Years War and the most famous figure, considered as a national heroine, is Joan of Arc.^ Dynamical stability – If the area under the curve of statical stability is calculated up to any particular angle or between two inclined angles then this is known as the dynamical stability for the vessel (for the range of inclinations considered).

The making of a modern state nation
.The beginning of the XVIth century saw the end of the feudal system and the emergence of France as a "modern" state with its border relatively close to the present ones (Alsace, Corsica, Savoy, the Nice region weren't yet French).^ A source close to the P.A. said that such a plan could be acceptable only if America provides assurances that the temporary state does not become a final one and that the border issue remains on the table.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dec 22, 2006 The Bush administration is considering a plan to declare an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders by the end of 2007.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Gaul Investigation, the report of the Assessors, the retained experts and the court was presented at the end of the RFI as one final document, ‘set in stone’.

.Louis XIV who was king from 1643 to 1715 (72 years) was probably the most powerful monarch of his time.^ His anti-Israel rhetoric and unbending stand on the nuclear programme are believed to have divided Iranians who voted him into power last year.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the president who appointed a cleric for the first time since the revolution to head Tehran University - the country's most political and prestigious university.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

French influence extended deep in western Europe, its language was used in the European courts and its culture was exported all over Europe.
That era and the following century also saw the expansion of France on the other continents. This started a whole series of wars with the other colonial empires, mainly England (later Britain) and Spain over the control of North America.
The French Revolution started in 1789, leading to the creation of the Republic. Although this period was also fertile in bloody excesses it was, and still is, a reference for many other liberation struggles.
.Napoléon reunited the country but his militaristic ambition which, at first, made him the ruler of most of western Europe were finally his downfall.^ It was the president who appointed a cleric for the first time since the revolution to head Tehran University - the country's most political and prestigious university.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1815 he was defeated in Waterloo (Belgium) by an alliance of British and Prussian forces. .He is still revered in some Eastern European countries as its armies and its government brought with them the thinkings of the French philosophers.^ It would take some planning but I think Metcalf South could be brought back to life the following ways: .
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France went back to monarchy and another revolution in 1848 which allowed a nephew of Napoleon to be elected president and then become emperor under the name of Napoléon III. The end of the XIX century was the start of the industrialization of the country, the development of the railways but also the start of the bitter wars with Prussia and later Germany.^ When we were old enough, we walked through the drainage tunnel under the field what later was devoloped to become the Venture Store, across the wild field, to Metcalf South.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

20th and 21st centuries
1905 saw the separation of the Church from the State. This was a traumatic process, especially in rural areas. The French state carefully avoids any religious recognition. .Under a 'don't ask, don't tell' policy the law forbids French students and civil servants from displaying any sign explicitly showing their religion.^ French who have not yet converted to Islam, in order to show the bastards which [of us] is the more civilized."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it not more likely that, as it nowadays happens, the Minister outlined his politics-driven decision and then asked the DfT civil servants to draft his response along those lines?

This policy applies to wearing Christian crosses, and has recently been applied to the Muslim hijab (and has been copied in countries like Tunisia and Turkey). In the early 21st century, statistics for Church going and belief in God are among the lowest in Europe.
World War I (1914 -18) was a disaster for France, even though the country was ultimately a victor. A significant part of the male workforce had been killed and disabled and a large part of the country and industry destroyed. .World War II (1939 - 45) also destroyed a number of areas.^ The December 11-12 conference in Tehran drew Holocaust deniers from around the world to debate whether the World War II genocide of Jews took place.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Israel will not receive greater international support with respect to the Iranian threat to destroy it, and will not be able to rely on the world's support if war breaks out with Syria.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the end of WWII France went through a period of reconstruction and prosperity came back with the development of industry.^ Blair said the package of assistance, to go through Abbas's office, would include reconstruction and development aid.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

France and Germany were at the start of the Treaties which eventually became the European Union. .One of the most visible consequence being the introduction in 2002 of the Euro (€), the common currency of sixteen European countries.^ The Anti Defamation League was the most visible organization to argue publicly that Carter was getting to a point in which one could call him an anti-Semite.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2004, France is a republic with a President elected for a 5-year term.^ Justice Steel, the Wreck Commissioner in the 2004 Gaul RFI, his term having recently expired, has stepped down from the Presidency of the Commercial Court.

^ Typically, the last two years of an American presidents' second term are assumed to be dull and uneventful.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some current main issues are the further integration of the country into the EU and the adoption of common standards for the economy, defense, and so on.^ According to the EU rules, the treaty does not come into force unless it has been endorsed by all 27 EU countries.

^ We have had a very detailed discussion today and some of those discussions obviously involve issues that I want to take further with other parties, as indeed you do as well.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regions

.France is divided into 22 administrative regions, which themselves can be grouped into 7 main "cultural regions", which share common points.^ At one point, the Westfield people who turned the Franklin Park Mall into a regional mall here was seriously looking to do something similar to Southwyck.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cities and regions in France
Cities and regions in France
Ile de France
The region surrounding the French capital, Paris.
Northern France (Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardie, and Haute-Normandie)
A region where the world wars have left many scars.
Northeast France (Alsace, Lorraine, Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté)
A region where wider European culture (and especially Germanic culture) has merged with the French, giving to interesting results.
Great West (Brittany, Basse-Normandie, and Pays de la Loire)
An ocean region with a culture greatly influenced by the ancient Celtic peoples.
Central France (Centre-Val de Loire, Poitou-Charentes, Burgundy, Limousin, and Auvergne)
A largely agricultural and vinicultural region, featuring river valleys, chateaux and historic towns.
Southwestern France (Aquitaine and Midi-Pyrenees)
A region of sea and wine, with nice beaches over the Atlantic Ocean and young high mountains close to Spain.
Southeastern France (Rhône-Alpes, Languedoc-Roussillon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur and the Mediterranean island of Corsica)
The primary tourist region of the country outside of Paris, with a warm climate and azure sea, contrasting with the mountainous French Alps.
The world-famous Loire Valley - best known for its wines and chateaux - extends across two regions in west and central France.
.Corsica is a large French island located to the south-east of mainland France in the west Mediterranean Sea (close to Nice on one side and Livorno, Italy).^ Located in Overland Park , one of the largest suburbs of Kansas City, Metcalf South Shopping Center opened in 1967 to immediate fanfare.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One time on my 3&2 baseball team, they sponsored our uniforms and I remember they had a store I think one location at Metcalf South.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kelso’s pizza was located on the east side in the lower level, soon to be Dennings Pizza, then Nearly Famous Pizza.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each region is divided into a number of Departments. Each Department is allocated a 2 digit number. This number forms the first 2 digits of the 5 digit French postcode.
The following overseas territories are remote possessions kept as natural reservations:
A very limited form of tourism is available in the TAAF islands.

Cities

France has numerous cities and towns of interest to travelers. Below is a list of thirteen of the most notable:
  • Paris -- the "City of Light", the capital of France
  • Toulouse -- the "Pink City" (for its distinctive brick architecture), capital of Occitania. The city is the home base of the European aerospace industry
  • Aix-en-Provence - city of water, city of art
  • Bordeaux - city of wine, nice architecture
  • Bourges -- a middle aged city, capital of central France.
  • Cannes -- host of the annual Cannes Film Festival
  • Lille - France's fourth city, capital of the north of France. Dynamic flemish city with nice architecture.
  • Lyon - France's second city, with a history from Roman times to the Resistance, restaurants (Beaujolais and delicatessen)
  • Marseille - big harbor, heart of Provence
  • Nantes -- the "Greenest City", the "Best Place to Live" in Europe
  • Nice - a major resort on the French Riviera and the gateway to Monaco.
  • Strasbourg -- a historic city on the Ill Rhine and home to, among other institutions, the Council of Europe, the European Court of Human Rights, the European Ombudsman, the European Parliament
  • Tours -- Tours (pronounced "Tuurh") is located on the river Loire in the Centre-Val de Loire region.

Other destinations

Centre - Val de Loire

The Centre (pronounced "son-truh") is a large inland region of central France located to the south-west of the French capital Paris. The official name for the region is frequently combined in tourist literature with the French 'Val de Loire' to produce the combination Centre-Val de Loire, reflecting the fact that much of UNESCO World Heritage listed valley of the river Loire is embraced by this region. The region is known for its fine historical towns (medieval town of Chinon for example), for its vineyards (Bourgueil, Chinon, Touraine, St Nicolas), its gastronomy (Goat Cheese : St Maure de Touraine, Poire Tappee, Rillons...) and for its many beautiful castles or "chateaux" (Chambord - Amboise - Blois - Chinon - Villandry - Rivau - Azay le Rideau - Rigny Usse - Montsoreau) and Gardens (Villandry - Rivau - Valmer - Chaumont - Chatonniere).

The Canal du Midi

.One of the most remarkable inland waterways in the world, The Canal du Midi was built in the 17th century to link the Atlantic with the Mediterranean, and is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.^ "That is history now," as one Islamist put it in remarks to The Peninsula yesterday not wanting his name in print.
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^ It is one of the most sacred sites in Christendom, but there are no tourists queuing to see it.
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The Canal itself, which starts in Toulouse and finishes in the Thau Lagoon near Sète, has 240 km of navigable waterway, making it ideal for boat holidays. The Canal is extremely picturesque, often serene, and shaded for much of its length by trees. There are some impressive engineering feats along its course, including the series of locks at Fonseranes, near Béziers, which was the birthplace of the Canal's founder, Pierre-Paul Riquet.

Franche Comté

.In 19th-century European high society, people would often talk of a magical land where winter never came - that land of unending sunshine and azur waters.^ Abedi then declared: "we would never talk about exploiting his relationship with the president."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few miles back from the shore is a less publicized side of the Riviera --- a world of romantic hill towns and perched villages balanced on craggy peaks.^ He was on crutches, having been clubbed by supporters of the president and had his foot run over by a motorcycle during a less publicized student demonstration a few days earlier.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Worn-down stone stairs and cobbled byways lead through modest hamlets crowding around ancient châteaux.

Rhone-Alps

A region flagged by the peaks of it mountains where hiking and winter sports are king. Springing from a glacier, the Rhône River flows south through France toward the sunshine of the Mediterranean. Its broad valley embraces thriving cities, Roman ruins, medieval castles, fabled vineyards and the snowy peaks of the French Alps.

Ile-de-France

.The Louvre Museum, Versailles Château, Orsay Museum, Saint-Denis Basilica and the Fontainebleau Château are all just a small part of what makes Paris Ile-de-France the most beautiful museum in the world.^ Following are excerpts: Section 7, titled "Gratitude," includes the following: "According to the Prophet's sayings, most of the people in Hell are women, because [women] are ungrateful and deny good [deeds] that are done for them..."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between cultural visits and entertainment possibilities, there are ample opportunities to take advantage of your stay and discover the very best in festive entertainment and leisure activity : shows, Parisian reviews, operas, not to mention shopping, sports and more.^ I just wanted to make sure that the readers of this blog knew that there’s one employee who is very unnecessarily hostile towards picture taking.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take advantage of places where you can set up your shots to be the least intrusive.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If anyone is interested, there is a story in the WSJ today about dead shopping malls and Metcalf South gets a brief mention.
  • Metcalf South Shopping Center; Overland Park, Kansas | Labelscar: The Retail History Blog 24 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.labelscar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reading up
.Before you leave you may want to read a book like French or Foe by Polly Platt or Almost French by Sarah Turnbull — interesting, well written records from English speaking persons who live in France.^ The president is considered a "lame duck," a politician without political clout, who is interested only in preserving his record in history books.
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^ And these visits reflect personal interest and concern, as well as the interest of the government of the United Kingdom for the need to achieve a comprehensive peace in the Middle East region.
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^ British and French diplomats, who had been hoping for a vote Friday, said a delay was likely.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For the adult reader interested in the the famous reputation enjoyed by Paris for romance and sensuality, try "SENSUAL PARIS: Sex, Seduction and Romance in the Sublime City of Light" by Jonathan LeBlanc Roberts

Burgundy

.Norman abbeys, châteaux with glazed rooves, ducal towns and charming villages make Burgundy a historic region with a glorious heritage.Bienvenue to Burgundy, where every day is a celebration of world-famous wines and fond memories often recorded on bottles labeled Gevrey-Chambertin, Pommard, Romanee-Conti or Montrachet.^ "Israel is condemned every day in newspapers around the world, by Arab groups around the world, by left-wing groups around the world," Klein said.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Western Loire

The Western Loire stretches along the Atlantic Ocean, just below Brittany. It is a very scenic region, with some 30 miles of the Jade Coast, plenty of green countryside, and 250 miles of waterways.Starting roughly where the huge châteaux of the Loire Valley end and winding west with the river to fine beaches and islands on the Atlantic coast, lies the Western Loire. .Its attractions make up the best of two worlds: inland and aquatic.^ Blessed are those who try to make the best of two worlds!

Normandy

During the American assault of Omaha Beach on June 6, 1944, the Second Ranger Battalion scaled the 100-foot cliff of the Pointe-du-Hoc and seized the German artillery pieces. Normandy echoes the history of past struggles: the Norman Conquest woven into the tapestry at Bayeux; the perils of Jeanne d'Arc recorded in Rouen; and the drama of the D-Day landings recorded along the Normandy beaches.

Picardy

France itself was born in this northern province located between the Marne and the Somme, for it was here that the Franks - ancestors of the French - settled down. Picardy is the first region and the historical beginning of France; it is a veritable treasure-trove of art and natural beauty.

Champagne Ardenne

The home of champagne could only be welcoming. Accept its invitation and feast your eyes and taste buds! Champagne country, birthplace of le champagne, the world's most festive wine. La Champagne, the region where this fine bubbly is made, holds so many treasures: a rolling countryside, dotted medieval churches, timeless castles and villages along winding waterways, historic fortifications in the forested Ardennes, and vineyards as far as the eye can see between Reims and Epernay.

Auvergne

Shaped by the volcanic activity that took place 30 million years ago, the Auvergne landscape is all green mountains and wild gorges. Nature in the raw. .Intriguing Auvergne, in the very center of France between Vichy and Le Puy, has a broad history from the 13th century's King Philippe Augustus to the Marquis de la Fayette.^ "Terrorisme français en Algérie: La France pourra-t-elle exploiter le pétrole algéro-saharien comme elle l'entend?"
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Celebrated Frenchmen from this region include Vercingétorix, the first Gaulois king, one of the great thinkers of modern times, Blaise Pascal, and former president Georges Pompidou.^ We’ve heard it often said that history repeats itself because no one was listening the first time and that a wrong, if not rectified, only increases.

^ Should one even ponder the idea of a former President as an anti-Semite?
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Poitou Charente

The Poitou-Charentes region has a magnificent coastline - and is one of the finest destinations for countryside holidays. The region's reputation is closely linked to cognac – the superb, refined, locally-produced spirit. .Poitou-Charentes is a land of tradition, where skills are passed on from generation to generation: its inhabitants know how to wait for a good product to mature – and they also know how to take the time to enjoy life and to welcome guests.^ Sadly, the odds are that, this time, Ireland will take the route which leads to super-state, undemocratic, Europe, and into the welcoming arms of President Blair.

^ The legal enquiry is complete on the Gaul and information passed to the MCA. It will be Lloyd's Register's intention to work with them should they decide to take this further.

Aquitaine

An immense line of golden sandy beaches, bastides and châteaux, an abundance of vineyards, mountains and countryside - that's Aquitaine. Bountiful Aquitaine - what landscapes, culture and heritage! A generosity that is also hinted at in the diversity of its countryside: the sloping Bordeaux vineyards, the sandy heathland along the coasts of the Basque country, the plateaux of the Périgord.

Alsace

.A region situated at the crossroads of Europe, Alsace is a frontier land both open to the world and attached to its own traditions.^ They also have to compete in a world market in which unregulated vessels, having lower overheads, are also able to land fish and this both reduces fish stocks and undermines market prices.

Alsace is renowned for its geranium-filled villages, its medieval capital of Strasbourg, its tasty "choucroute garni" dishes and its crispy dry white wines. Nestled between the mighty Rhine and the Vosges mountains, picturesque Alsace is fiercely French in its social and political attitudes, but ever so slightly German in its tastes and appetites.

Brittany

A region that values its idiosyncrasies, Brittany is a world of its own at the edge of the country. At the westernmost tip of France, Brittany extends out to the sea where the Atlantic Ocean and English Channel meet. Rooted in its Celtic past, Brittany presents visitors with a special personality: an ancient countryside with quiet beaches, rugged capes, melancholic moors, small fishing villages, walled cities and prehistoric megaliths

Corsica

Corsica is the "the island of beauty", with its contrasting colors: blue like the vast sea, dark green like its laricio pines, ochre like its Genoese towers and red like its creeks. Once described as "That mountain in the sea," the isle of Corsica, with over 600 miles of sandy beaches, and crested by 9,000 foot peaks, lies in the heart of the Western Mediterranean. Easily accessible by air and sea, Corsica is just 110 miles off the Southeastern coast of France and 50 miles from the shores of Italy.

Languedoc Roussillon

Miles of fine sandy beaches, a hinterland rising up the foothills of the Massif Central and the Pyrénées - Languedoc-Roussillon is a land of sun-filled charm.The Languedoc-Roussillon region, where the Pyrénées Mountains plunge into the Mediterranean, has come into its own with a sparkling group of new yacht-port resorts.

Limousin

.Make a getaway to Limousin and plunge into the most lush vacation destination you could imagine - a land of trees, water and pure, clean air.^ We need …” The EU hub, I am informed, is not the safest place to be when you are sticking your nose into TOPICS that could embarrass the present government.

The Limousin region, on the western slopes of the Massif Central, attracts visitors in search of unspoiled countryside. Almost entirely covered by a thick carpet of vegetation, lit up by a large number of rivers and lakes, Limousin is a haven of profoundly harmonious landscapes.

Lorraine

Lorraine is proud of its strategic position at the border of Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. .A strategic position at the crossroads of Europe explains Lorraine's long, colorful and often turbulent history, which has endowed two major cities with diverse artistic wealth: Metz, once a Gallo-Roman stronghold; and Nancy, whose elegant 18th-century buildings make artwork out of urban architecture.^ Despite the two-day-old truce, a series of heavy gunbattles between Hamas and Fatah militants broke out in Gaza City early Friday.
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^ The two terror-hopefuls then planned the murder, equipping themselves with two long knives purchased in the city of Sachnin in northern Israeli.
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Midi Pyrénées

.The Midi-Pyrénées is made up of eight departments set in the heart of southwestern France.^ Senior PLO negotiator Saeb Erekat confirmed Tuesday that efforts were being made to set up a meeting between the two leaders.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has an incredibly wide range of natural sites: from the Pyrenees to the valley of the Dordogne and from Gascony to the Gorges du Tarn; the diversity of its landscapes is equalled only by the wealth of its heritage. One of France's most enticing and enchanting regions, the Midi-Pyrénées boasts a rich cultural, historical and natural heritage.

Pas de Calais

A region of festivities and human warmth where joie de vivre is a communal affair. Just over the border from Belgium and a tunnel ride across the Channel from England lies the Nord/Pas-de-Calais region. Its major city is Lille, the captivating crossroads of TGV Paris - Brussels and London.

Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur

With its feet in the Mediterranean and its head in the Alps, the region has an extensive palette of colorful landscapes. Provence, the Midi, these are magical names in a luminous landscape that inspired Van Gogh and Cézanne, and changed the course of modern painting. They have also created a new current in contemporary travel.

Franche Comté

Between the Vosges and the Jura, Franche-Comté is one of those regions where the natural surroundings are second to none. Verdant and friendly, Franche-Comté occupies France's mid-east, located between the old Duchy of Burgundy and Switzerland, and embraces the western part of the dramatic Jura Mountains.
Most of the cities in France would have an "Office du tourisme". These can help at making itineraries, getting a map, get information about accommodation, visit chateaux, organise wine testing and so on.

Get in

Passport and Visa

France is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ If Iran withdraws its support for the Syrian Shiites, it could constitute a sign for the Sunni majority and Kurds in Syria to raise their heads and demand control of the country.
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^ "Until the United States helps lead a renewed Israeli-Palestinian peace process, there will be no prospect for broader Middle East peace and stability."
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.^ It asks the 191 other U.N. member states to notify a Security Council committee that will be created to monitor sanctions when those Iranians show up in their country.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. .If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ Another rocket, fired shortly afterward, also hit an area in the center of town, sending pieces of shrapnel flying into a bus.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ Talk of new ideas for breaking the deadlock in the Middle East come as pressure mounts on the United States and Israel to take action toward resolving the conflict.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, policy change reveals an admission of guilt and a commitment to a misguided strategy for more than three years.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it must be recalled that another voice is being heard in the United States - that of the Baker-Hamilton Iraq Study Group, which recommends opening contacts with Syria.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ The burden of proof is on the players and others involved in soccer, who must excommunicate all those who have any connection with match-fixing.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

The main international airport, Roissy - Charles de Gaulle (CDG) [1], is likely to be your port of entry if you fly into France from outside Europe. CDG is the home of Air France (AF), the national company, for most intercontinental flights. .AF and the companies forming the SkyTeam Alliance (Dutch KLM, AeroMexico, Alitalia, US Continental, NorthWest and Delta Airlines, Korean Air) use Terminal 2 while most other foreign airlines use Terminal 1. A third terminal is used for charter flights.^ A third source of leverage that could be used to alter Syrian behavior is Arab antagonism toward Syria's alliance with Iran.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If transferring through CDG (especially between the various terminals) it is important to leave substantial time between flights. .Ensure you have no less than one hour between transfers.^ Aides to Netanyahu emphasized Saturday that Syria needs a peace agreement with Israel no less, and possibly more, than Israel needs a peace agreement with Syria.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Add more if you have to change terminals as you will need to clear through security.
Transfers to another flight in France: AF operates domestic flights from CDG too, but a lot of domestic flights, and also some internal European flights, use Orly, the second Paris airport. For transfers within CDG you can use the free bus shuttle linking all terminals, train station, parking lots and hotels on the platform. .For transfers to Orly there is a (free for AF passengers) bus link operated by AF. The two airports are also linked by a local train (RER) which is slightly less expensive, runs faster but is much more cumbersome to use with heavy luggage.^ This chronic crisis runs deep; it is much more complex and entrenched.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he has opened Syria's border to jihadists and has allowed Saddam's supporters to operate freely there, that choice may not be entirely his.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.AF has agreements with the SNCF, the national rail company, which operates TGVs (see below) out of CDG airports (some trains carry flight numbers).^ "The two were involved in attempts to carry out a number of suicide attacks inside Israel," an IDF spokesman said.
  • Israel News 22 September 2009 20:14 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The TGV station is in Terminal 2 and is on the route of the free shuttle. For transfer to Paris see Paris.
.Other airports have international destinations: Paris - Orly, Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Nice, Toulouse have flights to cities in western Europe and North-Africa; those airports are hubs to smaller airports in France and may be useful to avoid the transfer between the two Paris airports.^ Among 40 of Europe's most popular destinations - including Brussels, Zurich and Amsterdam, to name just a few - Israel's gateway won top marks in a passenger satisfaction survey conducted by Airports Council International."
  • Israel N