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France-Americas relations span a period of about 500 years.

France-Americas relations started in the 16th century, soon after the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus, and have developed over a period of several centuries.

Contents

Early encounters (16th century)

Early expeditions of French Normand sailors to the New World are known. Jean Cousin has been said to have discovered the New World in 1488, four years before Christopher Columbus, when he landed in Brazil around the mouth of the Amazon, but this remains unproven.[1] His travels were succeeded by that of Binot Paulmier de Gonneville in 1504 onboard L'Espoir, which was properly recorded and brought back an Indian named Essomericq.[1] Gonneville affirmed that when he visited Brazil, French traders from Saint-Malo and Dieppe had already been trading there for several years.[2]

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Expeditions under Francis I

Francis I organized the first French expeditions to the New World.

In order to counter-balance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles Quint, and especially its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia.

Giovanni da Verrazzano's voyage in 1524.

In 1524, Francis I assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America. Verrazzano was an Italian in the service of the French crown. The objective was to explore the lands north of Florida and find a passage to Cathay.[3] Verrazzano was the first European since the Norse colonization of the Americas around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South and North Carolina and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay in 1524: in between, John Cabot had already explored Labrador to the North, and the Spanish had already settled parts of Florida. On this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown.

In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil.[4]

In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find "certain islands and lands where it is said there must be great quantities of gold and other riches".[3] In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith."

Early Huguenot colonists

Attack of French Villegagnon Island in Rio de Janeiro by the Portuguese, on 15 March 1560.

Soon, the Huguenots, whose Reformist religions was in conflict with the French crown, attempted to colonize the New World to find a new ground for their religion and to contest the Catholic presence there.

Huguenot Jacques de Sores looting and burning La Havana in 1555.

Huguenot pirates such as François le Clerc attacked Catholic shipping repeatedly, raiding New World harbours. The Huguenots raided Hispaniola in 1553, fighting against the Spanish Catholic presence there, followed by raid on Cuba.[5] La Havana was seized by Jacques de Sores in 1555.[5]

The first attempts at colonization were made under Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived establishment of France Antarctique in Brazil from 1555 to 1567, they had to abandon, and finally resolved to make a stand back in France, centering on the city of La Rochelle for the organization of resistance.[6]

The first French expedition to Florida occurred in 1562, composed of Protestants, and was led by Jean Ribault and permitted the short-lived establishment of Fort Caroline, named after the French king Charles IX.[7]

Expansion (17th century)

North America

Map of New France (Champlain, 1612).

Towards the end of his reign Henry IV of France started to look at the possibility of ventures abroad, with both America and the Levant being among the possibilities. In 1604, the French explorer Samuel Champlain initiated the first important French involvement in Northern America, founding Port Royal as the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida in 1605, and founding the first permanent French establishment at Québec in 1608.

Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on July 24, 1684, with the objective of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, eventually establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas.[8]

The French colonial drive increased in the 17th century, the "conquest of the souls" being an integral part of the constitution of Nouvelle-France, leading to the development of the Jesuit missions in North America. The efforts of the Jesuits in North America were paralleled by the Jesuit China missions on the other side of the world.

In France, the Huguenots were finally defeated by Royal forces in the Siege of La Rochelle (1627-1628): Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges. The growing persecution of the Huguenots culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689.

South America

Tupinambá Indian "Louis Henri" at the court of Louis XIII, in Claude d'Abbeville, Histoire de la mission.

A colonizing party of 500 and a mission of four Franciscans were sent under a 1611 patent letter from the Regent Marie de Médicis.[9][10]

The colonial enterprise to found "France Équinoxiale" was led by Daniel de la Tousche, Sieur de la Ravardière, and François de Razilly.[10] The outpost would later become the city of São Luís do Maranhão.[10] The French arrived in the island in August 1612.[11] One of the objectives of the mission was to establish trade in brazilwood and tobacco.[11] When France and Spain (including Portugal in the Iberian Union) became allied through the marriage of Louis XIII with Anne of Austria in 1615, support for the colony was discontinued and the colonists abandoned.[11] The Portuguese soon managed to expel the French from the colony.[10]

In 1624, settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began.

West Indies

The French also started to establish smaller but more profitable colonies in the West Indies. A colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625, in sharing with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was occupied in its entirety.

The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by 1650. The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660.

The most important Caribbean colonial possession did not come until 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola.

Consolidation and conflict (18th century)

Triangular trade

La Rochelle slave ship Le Saphir ex-voto, 1741.

Triangular trade developed and became extremely prosperous one, marked by intense exchanges with the New World (Nouvelle France in Canada, and the Antilles). French cities of the Atlantic Coast, mainly Nantes, La Rochelle and Bordeaux, became very active in triangular trade with the New World, dealing in the slave trade with Africa, sugar trade with plantations of the Antilles, and fur trade with Canada. This was a period of high artistic, cultural and architectural achievements for these cities. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean.

Capture of Rio de Janeiro by Duguay-Trouin in 1711.

On 21 September 1711, in an 11-day battle, the Corsaire René Duguay-Trouin captured Rio de Janeiro in the Battle of Rio de Janeiro with twelve ships and 6 000 men, in spite of the defence consisting of seven ships of the line, five forts and 12 000 men; he held the governor for ransom.[12] Investors in this venture doubled their money, and Duguay-Trouin earned a promotion to Lieutenant général de la Marine.

Territorial conflicts in the North

Map showing the 1750 possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange) in contemporary Canada and the United States.

Northern America became an important theater of the conflict between France and Great Britain in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), known as the French and Indian War. The royal French forces allied with the various Native American forces in a Franco-Indian alliance. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the nations of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of Canada. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict.

To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida to the British, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in North America.

The eastern half of Hispaniola (modern Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795.

American war of independence

Surrender of Cornwallis to French troops (left) and American troops (right), at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781.

France soon became again involved in North America, this time by supporting the American revolutionary war of independence. A Franco-American alliance was formed in 1778 between Louis XVI's France and the United States, during the American Revolutionary War. France successfully contributed in expelling the British from the nascent United States. The Treaty of Paris was signed on 3 September 1783, recognizing American independence and the end of hostilities.

After these events, relations became more complicated, leading to the Quasi-War (1798-1800) between France and the United States, with actual naval encounters taking place between the two powers, with the encounter between USS Constellation and French ship L'Insurgente on 9 February 1799 off Nevis Island, and USS Constellation and La Vengeance in February 1800 off Guadeloupe.[13] An agreement followed, in which the United States agreed to pay 20 million dollars in compensation, and France agreed to give up its claims to the 1778 Treaty.[13]

19th century

Loss of Saint-Domingue

On August 22, 1791, a widespread slave rebellion began the Haitian Revolution, which culminated with the establishment of the independent Empire of Haiti in 1804.

Sales of Louisiana to the United States (1803)

Map of current US states that were completely or mostly located inside the borders of old colonial French Louisiana at the time of Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon Bonaparte decided not to keep the immense territory of Louisiana that France still possessed. The army he sent to take possession of the colony was first required to put down a revolution in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti); its failure to do so, coupled with the rupture of the Treaty of Amiens with the United Kingdom, prompted him to decide to sell Louisiana to the young United States. This was done on April 30, 1803 for the sum of 80 million francs (15 million dollars). American sovereignty was established on December 20, 1803.

Mexico intervention

Under Napoleon III, the French led a major expedition to Mexico, in the French intervention in Mexico (January 1862–March 1867). Napoleon, using as a pretext the Mexican Republic's refusal to pay its foreign debts, planned to establish a French sphere of influence in North America by creating a French-backed monarchy in Mexico, a project that was supported by Mexican conservatives who resented the Mexican Republic's laicism. But his imperial dreams in Mexico would end in failure. The United States was unable to prevent this contravention of the Monroe Doctrine because of the American Civil War; Napoleon hoped that the Confederates would be victorious in that conflict, believing they would accept the new regime in Mexico.

French role in the American Civil War

The Confederacy's last ironclad, Stonewall, was provided by France.

During the American Civil War, Napoleon III positioned France to lead the pro-Confederate European powers. For a time, Napoleon III inched steadily toward officially recognizing the Confederacy, especially after the crash of the cotton industry and his exercise in regime-changing in Mexico. Some historians have also suggested that he was driven by a desire to keep the American states divided. Through 1862, Napoleon III entertained Confederate diplomats, raising hopes that he would unilaterally recognize the Confederacy. The Emperor, however, could do little without the support of the United Kingdom, and never officially recognized the Confederacy.

French weapons in the American Civil War had a key role in the conflict and encompassed most of the sectors of weaponry of the American Civil War (1861-1865), from artillery to firearms, submarines and ironclad warships. The effect of French weapons was especially significant in field artillery and infantry. These weapons were either American productions based on French designs, or sometimes directly imported from France.

21st century

France now has 3 overseas departments in the Americas: Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b A savage mirror: power, identity, and knowledge in early modern France Michael Wintroub p.21 [1]
  2. ^ Orientalism in early Modern France 2008 Ina Baghdiantz McAbe, p.72, ISBN 9781845203740
  3. ^ a b North America: the historical geography of a changing continent Thomas F. McIlwraith, Edward K. Muller p.39ff [2]
  4. ^ Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I by R. J. Knecht p.375 [3]
  5. ^ a b Orientalism in early Modern France 2008 Ina Baghdiantz McAbe, p.71ff, ISBN 9781845203740
  6. ^ Fortress of the soul: violence, metaphysics, and material life by Neil Kamil p.133 [4]
  7. ^ Ceremonies of possession in Europe's conquest of the New World, 1492-1640 by Patricia Seed p.48 [5]
  8. ^ From a watery grave by James E. Bruseth
  9. ^ The Cambridge history of the native peoples of the Americas p.110 [6]
  10. ^ a b c d Decentring the Renaissance by Germaine Warkentin p.103ff [7]
  11. ^ a b c A new world of animals Miguel de Asúa, Roger French p.148 [8]
  12. ^ The influence of sea power upon history, 1660-1783 Alfred Thayer Mahan p.230 [9]
  13. ^ a b Randier, p.217

References

  • Randier, Jean. La Royale. Editions MDV (2006). ISBN 2352610222.

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