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Commune Indépendante de Franceville
Independent Commune of Franceville
Unrecognized state

1889–1890

Flag

Efate island in the New Hebrides
Capital Not specified
Language(s) French, Bislama
Government Republic
President
 - 1889 Ferdinand Chevillard
 - 1890? R.D. Polk
Deputy (legislator) Comte Maurice de Nolhac
Historical era New Imperialism
 - Established August 9, 1889
 - Disestablished 1890
Population
 - 1889 est. 540 

The municipality of Franceville (present-day Port Vila) on Efate or Sandwich island was established during the period when the New Hebrides were a neutral territory under the loose jurisdiction of a joint Anglo-French naval commission. In order to gain basic legal status, it declared itself independent for a few months in 1889.

In 1878 the United Kingdom and France declared all of the New Hebrides to be neutral territory. The Convention of 16 October 1887, established a joint naval commission for the sole purpose of protecting French and British citizens, but claimed no jurisdiction over internal native affairs.

The lack of a functional government led to rising discontent among the colonists. The French were especially inconvenienced because French law recognized marriages only when contracted under a civil authority (the nearest being in New Caledonia), whereas British law recognized marriages conducted by local clergy.[1][2] On August 9, 1889, Franceville declared itself an independent commune under the leadership of elected mayor/president Ferdinand Chevillard[3][4][5] and with its own red, white and blue flag with five stars.[6][7]

This community became the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or race. Although the district's population at the time consisted of about 500 natives and fewer than 50 whites, only white males were permitted to hold office. One of its elected presidents was one R.D. Polk, a native of Tennessee and relative of James K. Polk.[8][9]

The new government was soon suppressed, and by June 1890 Franceville as a commune was reported to have been "practically broken up."[10] In 1906, the naval commission was replaced by a more structured British-French Condominium.

See also

References

  1. ^ Le Gouz de Saint-Seine, Jean (1897). "Notice sur les Nouvelles-Hébrides". Mémoires de la Société bourguignonne de geographie et d'histoire 13: 413–414. http://books.google.com/books?id=KLIKAAAAIAAJ.  
  2. ^ Bourdiol, Julien (1908). Condition internationale des Nouvelles-Hebrides. p. 107. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZN81AAAAIAAJ.  
  3. ^ Pelatan, Louis (1889). Lettres calédoniennes. p. 73. http://books.google.com/books?id=2_AVAAAAIAAJ.  
  4. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, Aug 26, 1889
  5. ^ "The 'Commune' of Franceville," North Otago Times (New Zealand), Sep 5, 1889
  6. ^ Imhaus, E.N. (1890). Les Nouvelles-Hébrides: avec une carte et sept gravures. pp. 154–160. http://books.google.com/books?id=t-gVAAAAIAAJ.  
  7. ^ Simpson, Colin (1955), Islands of Men: A Six-part Book about Life in Melanesia, p 133
  8. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1
  9. ^ "Some Little Republics," New York Evangelist, Feb 20, 1896
  10. ^ "Latest Cable News: Australian News," The West Coast Times (New Zealand), June 28, 1890, p 2
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