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Francis Burton Harrison was Governor-General of the Philippines.

Francis Burton Harrison (December 18, 1873 – November 21, 1957) was an American statesman who served in the United States House of Representatives and appointed Governor-General of the Philippines by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson. Harrison was a prominent advisor to a commonwealth president and the first four Presidents of the Philippines.

Contents

Early life

Harrison was born in New York City to Burton Harrison, a lawyer and private secretary to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and Constance Cary Harrison, novelist and social arbiter. Through his mother, Harrison was great-grandson of Virginia-planter, Thomas Fairfax, 9th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Through Fairfax in birth and marriage, Harrison was also relative to United States founding fathers: Gouverneur Morris (his great-great-uncle), Thomas Jefferson, Robert E. Lee, the Randolphs, the Ishams, and the Carters.

A member of the secret society Skull and Bones, Harrison graduated from Yale University in 1895 and from the New York Law School in 1897. From 1897 to 1899, Harrison was an instructor in the Evening Division at New York Law School. He later left to serve in United States Army during the Spanish-American War, first as captain and later as assistant adjutant general.

Family

Harrison's first wife was California railroad and mining heiress Mary Crocker, married on June 7, 1900. She died five years later in an automoblie accident leaving Harrison to raise two small daughters. Harrison would marry and divorce five more times to: Mabel Judson Cox, Elizabeth Wrentmore, Margaret Wrentmore and Doria Lee. Maria Teresa, a young Filipino woman, outlived Harrison.

One of Harrison's daughters by his first marriage was Barbara Harrison Wescott (1904-1977). While living in France, she worked closely with other American expatriates in the literary world. She and Monroe Wheeler established Harrison of Paris, a press publishing limited-edition literary paperbacks. From 1930 to 1934, Harrison of Paris published thirteen titles, including two new works by Glenway Wescott, Wheeler's longtime companion. In 1934, shortly before Barbara Harrison married Glenway's brother Lloyd Wescott, the press relocated to New York, where it published a final title, Katherine Anne Porter's Hacienda.[1] She continued her patronage of the arts throughout her life and was a noted collector of artwork.[2]

Congressman

A member of the Democratic Party, Harrison was elected to the 58th United States Congress, and served from March 4, 1903, to March 3, 1905. In 1904, Harrison ran unsuccessfully for Lieutenant Governor of New York. Afterwards he resumed the practice of law. He was again elected to the 60th, 61st, 62nd and 63rd United States Congresses, and served from March 4, 1907 to September 3, 1913, when he resigned to become chief executive of the Philippines. His Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was eventually passed on December 17, 1914.

During his service in the Far East, Harrison was a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 1920 presidential election. He lost the nomination to Governor of Ohio James M. Cox at the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

Governor-General

A member of the Woodrow Wilson Administration, Harrison became Governor-General of the Philippines from 1913 to 1921. Under his administration, the Governor-General's mansion called Malacañang Palace was expanded with the construction of an executive building. Departing from the position, Harrison lived in Scotland until being recalled to the Philippines in 1934. The Philippines would be transitioned from United States territory to commonwealth with an elected Filipino government.

Gravesite of F.B. Harrison at the Manila North Cemetery.

Manuel L. Quezon became the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and Harrison was asked to be Quezon's principal advisor in November 1935. He served in that capacity for ten months. Harrison would return to the position upon Quezon's request in May 1942, when Filipino and American troops surrendered the Philippines during World War II. Harrison would serve the government-in-exile.

From November 1946 to February 1947, Harrison served as Commissioner of Claims in the civil service of the United States Army in Manila. He later served as an advisor to the first four presidents of the newly proclaimed Philippine Republic after their independence was granted in 1946.

After his service to the Philippines at Malacañang Palace, Harrison retired to Spain for six years, then chose to move to Califon, New Jersey in August 1957.

Death

Harrison died in Flemington, New Jersey, and was interred in the Manila North Cemetery in La Loma, Manila.

Published works

  • The Corner-Stone of Philippine Independence (1922)
  • Indo-China, A Sportsman's Opportunity (1933, with Archibald Cary Harrison)
  • Origins of the Philippine Republic: Extracts from the Diaries and Records of Francis Burton Harrison (1974, posthumous)

References

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Oliver Belmont
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 13th congressional district

1903 – 1905
Succeeded by
Herbert Parsons
Preceded by
Jacob Ruppert
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 16th congressional district

1907 – 1913
Succeeded by
Peter J. Dooling
Preceded by
Thomas W. Bradley
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 20th congressional district

1913
Succeeded by
Jacob A. Cantor
Government offices
Preceded by
William Cameron Forbes
Governor-General of the Philippines
1913 - 1921
Succeeded by
Charles Yeater







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