Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer: Wikis

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  • Dr. Benjamin Bates gave up his practice to accompany Sir Francis Dashwood around Europe, but Dashwood died and Bates never received the huge payment he had been promised?

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Right Honourable
 Francis Dashwood
 15th Baron le Despencer


In office
1765 – 1781
Prime Minister Various
Preceded by The Earl of Bessborough
Succeeded by The Viscount Barrington

In office
1763 – 1765
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Earl Gower
Succeeded by The Earl of Ashburnham

In office
1762 – 1763
Prime Minister The Earl of Bute
Preceded by The Viscount Barrington
Succeeded by George Grenville

In office
1761 – 1762
Preceded by Charles Townshend
Succeeded by Sir Gilbert Elliot

Member of Parliament
for New Romney
In office
1741 – 1761
Preceded by Sir Robert Austen
Succeeded by Thomas Knight

Born December 1708
London, England
Died 11 December 1781
Nationality British
Political party Tory
Alma mater Eton College

Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer (December 1708 – 11 December 1781) was an English rake and politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (1762–1763) and founder of the Hellfire Club.

Contents

Biography

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Early life

He was born in London, and educated at Eton College where he became associated with William Pitt the Elder. He was orphaned in 1724 at the age of 16. In 1726 he went on a Grand Tour of Europe becoming one of the first Britons to include Russia on his itinerary.

He was too young to have been a member of the very first Hellfire Club founded by the Duke of Wharton in 1719 and disbanded in 1721 but he and the Earl of Sandwich are alleged to have been members of a Hellfire Club that met at the George and Vulture Inn throughout the 1730s.[1]

In 1732 he formed a dining club called the Society of Dilettanti with around 40 charter members (some of whom may have been members of Wharton’s original club) who had returned from the Grand Tour with a greater appreciation of classical art. William Hogarth drew Sir Francis Dashwood at his Devotions for dilettante Viscount Boyne.[2]

Marriage

On 19 December 1745, he married Lady Sarah Ellys (née Gould) (d. 19 January 1769), the widow of Sir Richard Ellys, 2nd Baronet.

Early political career

In 1741 he was elected Member of Parliament for New Romney and subsequently abandoning his earlier Jacobite sympathies he joined the court of Frederick, Prince of Wales and sponsored alleged spy-master Lord Melcombe’s membership of the Dilettanti.[3]

In 1744 he and fellow Dilettante the Earl of Sandwich founded the short-lived Divan Club for those who had visited the Ottoman Empire to share their experiences, but this club was disbanded two years later.[4]

In 1747 he introduced a poor-relief bill that recommended commissioning public works, such as the caves he later had excavated at West Wycombe Park, to combat unemployment, but it failed to pass.[5]

The Hellfire Club

He leased Medmenham Abbey on the Thames from his friend, Francis Duffield in 1751 and had it rebuilt by the architect Nicholas Revett in the style of the 18th century Gothic revival, at this time, the motto Fait ce que voudras was placed above a doorway in stained glass, and it is thought that Hogarth may have executed murals for this building; none, however, survive.[6]

The first meeting of the group known vatiously as Brotherhood of St. Francis of Wycombe,[7] Order of Knights of West Wycombe was held at Sir Francis' family home in West Wycombe on Walpurgis Night in 1752.

According to the 1779 book Nocturnal Revels, on the Grand Tour he had visited various religious seminaries, "founded, as it were, in direct contradiction to Nature and Reason; on his return to England, [he] thought that a burlesque Institution in the name of St Francis, would mark the absurdity of such Societies; and in lieu of the austerities and abstemiousness there practised, substitute convivial gaiety, unrestrained hilarity, and social felicity."

The initial meeting was something of a failure and the club subsequently moved their meetings to Medmenham Abbey (about 6 miles from West Wycombe) where they called themselves the Monks of Medmenham.[8]

For his activities in the Hellfire Club, he was in his day widely regarded as being involved in devil worship.

Later political career

He was appointed Treasurer of the Chamber in 1761 and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1762 but was forced to resign the following year after announcing an unpopular budget and subsequently served as Master of the Great Wardrobe[9]. After leaving that post, the Barony of le Despencer was called out of abeyance for him (in right of his mother).

From 1765 until his death he served as joint Postmaster General. During this time he met and befriended Benjamin Franklin, his opposite number in the North American colonies, and agreeing that church services were too long, the two produced an anonymous Abridgement of the Book of Common Prayer in 1773.

He also served as an honorary vice president of London's charitable Foundling Hospital from 1777 until his death.

Portrayal in popular culture

Portrait by William Hogarth from the late 1750s, parodying Renaissance images of Francis of Assisi. The bible has been replaced by a copy of the erotic novel Elegantiae Latini sermonis, and the profile of his friend Lord Sandwich peers from the halo.

Literature

Francis Dashwood has appeared in literary works by the following authors:

Music

Film and TV

See also

References

  1. ^ Ashe, Geoffrey (2000). The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. pp. 65. ISBN 0-7509-2402.  
  2. ^ Ashe, Geoffrey (2000). The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. pp. 100. ISBN 0-7509-2402.  
  3. ^ Ashe, Geoffrey (2000). The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. pp. 104. ISBN 0-7509-2402.  
  4. ^ Ashe, Geoffrey (2000). The Hell-Fire Clubs: A History of Anti-Morality. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. pp. 102. ISBN 0-7509-2402.  
  5. ^ "Sir Francis's Folly". BBC. pp. 1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/heritage/england/beds_herts_bucks/article_1.shtml. Retrieved January 19, 2009.  
  6. ^ Ashe p.118
  7. ^ Ashe p.111
  8. ^ Ashe p. 112
  9. ^ "Sir Francis's Folly". BBC. pp. 3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/heritage/england/beds_herts_bucks/article_1.shtml. Retrieved January 19, 2009.  

External links

Biography

The Hellfire Club

Other

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Stephen Bisse
Sir Robert Austen
Member of Parliament for New Romney
1741 – 1761
With: Henry Furnese 1741 – 1756
Rose Fuller 1756 – 1761
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Dering
Thomas Knight
Preceded by
Welbore Ellis
Lord John Cavendish
George Bubb Dodington
John Tucker
Member of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis
1761 – 1763
With: John Tucker
Richard Glover
John Olmius 1761–1762
Richard Jackson 1762–1763
Succeeded by
John Tucker
Richard Glover
Richard Jackson
Charles Walcott
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Barrington
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1762 – 1763
Succeeded by
George Grenville
Preceded by
The Earl of Bessborough
2nd Postmaster-General
1765 – 1781
Succeeded by
The Viscount Barrington
Court offices
Preceded by
Charles Townshend
Treasurer of the Chamber
1761 – 1762
Succeeded by
Sir Gilbert Elliot
Preceded by
The Earl Gower
Master of the Great Wardrobe
1763 – 1765
Succeeded by
The Earl of Ashburnham
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl Temple
Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire
1763 – 1781
Succeeded by
The Earl of Chesterfield
Peerage of England
In abeyance
Title last held by
John Fane
Baron le Despencer
1763 – 1781
In abeyance
Title next held by
Thomas Stapleton
Baronetage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Francis Dashwood
Baronet
(of West Wycombe)
1724 – 1781
Succeeded by
John Dashwood-King

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer]] Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer (December, 1708December 11, 1781) was an English rake and politician. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer (17621763) and founder of The Hellfire Club.

Dashwood was born in London. He was educated at Eton College where he became associated with William Pitt the Elder. Orphaned at age 16, he went on a Grand Tour of Europe in 1726.


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